Obesity Woodbury Iowa

Obesity Woodbury Iowa

Obesity Woodbury Iowa

Obesity Woodbury Iowa

Obesity Woodbury Iowa

Obesity is significant public health concern in Woodbury County, Iowa. The prevalence of obesity in in Woodbury County Iowa is 38.3 % among the females. In Iowa State, the prevalence of obesity among the females is 35.9% while the prevalence of obesity among the females at the federal level is 36.1%. Therefore, the prevalence of obesity among the females in Woodbury County exceeds the Iowa state and the national statistics. 37.5 % of the men in Woodbury County, Iowa, are obese. At the state and the national levels, 36.3% and 33.8% of men are obese respectively (Centre for Disease Pprevention and Control, 2015). Similarly, the prevalence of obesity among the men in Woodbury County, Iowa, supersedes both the state and the national prevalence rates.

Obesity Woodbury Iowa

Contributing Factors

Obesity is affected by both the race and age. In Iowa, the prevalence of obesity is highest among the Hispanics and Non-Hispanic blacks and lowest among the Non-Hispanic whites. Obesity increases with age and is mostly affects adults aged 60 years and above and is lowest among the adults aged 20 to 39 years of age. The level of education impacts on obesity as well (Office Of Disease Prevention and Promotion , 2018 ). Obesity reduces with the increase in the level of education. Education increases the level of awareness on the factors associated with obesity as the preventive measures. Obese patients who have a diploma or a degree have shown increased life expectancy.  The positive impact of education on obesity is uniform across all age groups. 

The level of income impacts obesity as well. Higher levels of income are associated with reduction in the prevalence, the severity and the effects of obesity. Higher levels income impact on the access to healthcare services. Families that can afford insurance policies or out of pocket payments access healthcare services for managing obesity. Therefore, the prevalence of obesity among such individuals is reduced, as compared to individuals in lower socio-economic class. Individuals with low income cannot afford the foods that are nutrient intensive. Generally, the foods that are sugar and fat intensive are cheap in the United States markets. Sugar and fats are predisposing factors to obesity.   Culture affects obesity. Culture dictates the type of foods that the members of the particular culture dependent on as food. Culture also affects health seeking behavior (ODPP, 2018). Culture impacts on the perception of the specific cultural group on the engagement in physical activities that significantly affect obesity. Healthcare policies determine the impact of obesity to any community.  Healthcare policies determine the access by the respective members of the community to healthcare services regarding the management of obesity. Healthcare politicizes on financing healthcare determine the access to care for obese to the individuals who cannot afford the care. Healthcare policies also affect the availability of resources and facilities for managing obesity. The county’s and the national policies in managing healthcare community services such facilities for physical exercises and educational resources and personnel are key to implement obesity management strategies (Galloway-Gilliam, 2013).  

Obesity Woodbury Iowa

Interventions  

One of the programs that have been undertaken in my state to prevent obesity is early childhood care. Statistics indicate that on average, children spend most of their time per week under non-parental care.

The State of Iowa in partnerships with the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)  have drawn up programs on adequate diet, performance of  physical activities and reduction in care time. The state government supports the programs in schools and children care centers through funding, provisions of evidence based recommendation for early child care to prevent obesity (Benson at al., 2013). The programs support the breastfeeding mothers and the availability of nutrient rich diet to the children that prevents obesity.  The hospitals within my community have initiated hospital strategies aimed at reducing obesity. The initiative targets the hospital employees and the patient under the care. The initiatives encourage healthy food and beverage choices, physical activities within the hospitals environment and support for lactating mothers.  The hospitals also partner with the community to increase healthy living behaviors for the community members. The hospitals provide education on obesity prevention and management using the locally available resources.

Obesity Woodbury Iowa

Scope and Role of Nursing and Public Health Nursing

Nurses have a role in encouraging patients to maintain healthy diet. Nurses possess the knowledge on the foods that contribute towards obesity and that prevent the occurrence of obesity. Nurses spend a significant amount of time with admitted patients. Additionally, nurses interact with patient at the community level in offering primary healthcare services.  Nurses educate patients on physical activities as part of the measures to prevent obesity as a public health issue. Physical exercises reduce the amount of fats that accumulate in the body. Nurses educate on the type, the duration and the intensity of the physical exercises that are appropriate for each of the patients presenting with or at risk of obesity. Nurses conduct assessments of patients who present with obesity. Nurses provide care to a patient in clinical setting. Assessment is the initial step of the nursing process (Schofield et al., 2011). Assessment, as part of the nursing process, involves collection of data about the patient thorough history taking, physical examination, and clinical tests. Nurses take history of patients on their diet, performance of physical activities, and the impact of obesity on every individual patient during the clinical visits. The nurse also conduct laboratory tests including lipid profile tests in order to assess the risks of development of cardiovascular disease as a complication of obesity.  Part of the nurses’ assessment focuses on vital signs such as blood pressure measurements.

Expansion of the Scope

One of the ways to increase the scope of community health nursing interventions in addressing obesity is through partnerships.  Community partnerships involve creation of community based networks. The collaboration with the population level partners allows the nurses and public health professionals to gauge the factors that contribute to obesity the community level. The aim of the partnerships should be to do community specific assessments on the prevalence, causes, and impacts of obesity on the local community (Betancourt, Green, Carrillo, & Firempong, 2016). Further, the aims of the local community partnerships should be to recommend, initiate and implement strategies that are suitable for the local community , based on the population specific needs identified during the assessment.

Policy development is another way of increasing the scope of the nurses’ and public health professionals’ roles in combating obesity.  Nurses and public health professionals are key stakeholders in managing obesity, as a public health issue. The professional input is critical in developing policies that are specific to the local community population. The professionals collaborate with the department of health, which is responsible for drafting policies for public healthcare such as obesity ((Betancourt et al., 2016). The public health issues should be alignments with the national statistics on obesity, ways of preventing obesity and the federal government’s regulation in combating public health problems.

Obesity Woodbury Iowa

References

Benson, G. A., Sidebottom, A., VanWormer, J. J., Boucher, J. L., Stephens, C., & Krikava, J. (2013). HeartBeat connections: A rural community of solution for cardiovascular health. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 26(3), 299–310.

Betancourt, J. R., Green, A. R., Carrillo, J. E., & Owusu Ananeh-Firempong, I. I. (2016). Defining cultural competence: a practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. Public health reports.

CDC. www.cdc.gov. (19 August 2015). 13 December 2018https://www.cdc.gov/ dnpao/division-information/policy/obesity.htm>.

Galloway-Gilliam, L. (2013). Racial and ethnic approaches to community health. National Civic Review, 102(4), 46–48.Course Library Guide.

Office of Disease Prevention and Health. (12 December 2018 ). 12 Decembe 2018 <https://www.healthypeople.gov/>.

Schofield, R., Ganann, R., Brooks, S., McGugan, J., Bona, K. D., Betker, C., Dilworth, K., … Watson, C. (2011). Community health nursing vision for 2020: Shaping the future. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 33(8),1047–1068.

Nurse to Patient Ratios

Nurse to Patient Ratios

Nurse to Patient Ratios

Nurse to Patient Ratios

Nurse to Patient Ratios

One of the major difficulties in the healthcare sector is the unbalanced nurse-to-patient staffing ratios. (Cornwall, 2018)recently performed a study to better understand the changing environment and growing problems of the nursing profession. Respondents from around the country offered their thoughts on topics such as workload, the national nurse shortage, the nursing profession in general, and workplace respect. The results showed that the growing national nursing shortage exacerbates all of the challenges confronting today’s nurses. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, there will be 1.2 million registered nursing openings between 2014 and 2022, with the consequences of this growing gap becoming severe. Respondents to a poll supported this perspective, with 91 percent believing their hospital was understaffed (Cornwall, 2018).

Burnout Syndrome has been a serious concern in the workplace, with its prevalence increasing by 60% – 70% over the last few decades (Gutsan, Patton, Willis, & Coustasse, 2018). One of the most frequent definitions of Nurse Burnout is a persistent response to work-related stress that includes three components or dimensions: emotional fatigue, depersonalization, and personal achievement. Burnout Syndrome has been more commonly observed in nurses due to the emotional aspect of their occupation, particularly in hospitals and psychiatric wards where common exposure to stress, inflexible policies, improper work assignments, poor training, inadequate remuneration, employee conflict, and complex or unknown patient needs occur (Gutsan, Patton, Willis, & Coustasse, 2018). The minimum nurse-to-patient ratio in hospitals and ambulatory units has been recommended as 1:6 in medical-surgical units and behavioral units, 1:4 in step-down, telemetry, or intermediate care units and non-critical emergency rooms, 1:2 for Intensive Care Unit or trauma patients and post-anesthesia units, and 1:1 for every patient under anesthesia (Gutsan, Patton, Willis, & Coustasse, 2018).A high nurse-patient ratio has dangerous effects, including increased stress levels and mental weariness among nurses, as well as an increase in errors and accidents, which has resulted in a rise in malpractice cases.

Most nurses don’t have a lot of spare time. According to the research, 40% of nurses said they had less free time (Cornwall, 2018). Eighty percent of respondents feel there is a nurse shortage at their facility, and 76 percent say the shortfall has directly harmed them. Because there are fewer nurses in the business, 88% of nurses’ workloads have increased (Cornwall, 2018). Nurses believe they don’t have enough time to give enough comfort and emotional support to their patients and their family members, and 86% say they can’t devote as much time to patient education as they would want (Heath, 2018). Mandatory nurse staffing ratios would have a detrimental financial impact on hospitals while restricting patient access to treatment. Poor resource allocation leads to more disparity in care delivery, less local access to healthcare, and fewer patient options. Furthermore, hospitals may be obliged to recruit less experienced and trained RNs, which would certainly cancel out any quality or safety improvements (Heath, 2018).

According to study (Michaud, 2020), people in long-term care institutions with lower nurse staffing levels, worse quality scores, and larger percentages of disadvantaged individuals have higher rates of confirmed COVID-19 infections and fatalities. Data analysis revealed that long-term care facilities with a larger number of disadvantaged people, such as Medicaid recipients and racial and ethnic minorities, and lower nurse staffing levels had higher rates of confirmed COVID-19 cases and fatalities. Higher nurse staffing ratios, in particular, were substantially linked to fewer cases and fatalities (Michaud, 2020). Greater staffing numbers are consistently associated with higher levels of care quality, (Harrington & Edelman, 2018). Increased registered nurse and certified nursing assistant employment has been linked to better quality indicators such as physical restraints, catheter usage, pain management, and pressure sores. Larger employment numbers and professional staff mix, as well as reduced turnover and usage of agency employees, were found to be linked with improved quality. Higher staffing levels have been found to have the strongest association with fewer defects (violations of rules) issued by state surveyors (Harrington & Edelman, 2018).

Regardless of such a situation, all nurses are expected to maintain professionalism when interacting with their patients. (Curtin, 2016) used the Gricean Maxims to elaborate on the ethics that all nurses should have with the first Gricean Conversation Supermaxim which is to attempt to make your contribution truthful, which naturally means that you do not say anything you think to be untrue or anything for which you lack proof. According to the following Gricean Supermaxim, everything you say must be well articulated and readily comprehended. This necessitates that all parties avoid ambiguity, confusion, and excessive verbosity, and deliver their contributions in an impassionate and organized manner (Curtin, 2016). The first rule in healthcare ethics is to do no damage. People usually take precedence over objects in ethics. Making money, saving money, or even losing money is not an ethical justification for harming others. By virtue of who they are and what they do, health professionals and those who earn a living by employing, organizing, and facilitating their practice bear extra responsibilities (Curtin, 2016). Nurses are responsible for examining patients and choosing how to effectively share the priceless resource that is themselves or themselves.

In terms of relationship quality, it appears to be a component that affects the professional to support patient-centered care. This relationship quality has a direct impact on the quality of care delivered and is critical for the efficacy of nursing practice (Molina & Estrada, 2020). The health-care system has devised initiatives aimed at humanizing care and enhancing care quality. A positive nurse-patient connection shortens hospital stays and enhances the quality and happiness of both parties. In contrast, while the patient’s involvement in choices is higher, the positive relationship is conditioned by the patient’s subservient role (Molina & Estrada, 2020). A poor or negative nurse-patient relationship reduces the quality of treatment and the patient’s autonomy. A poor patient is one who demands a lot of information, who wants to make his or her own decisions, often against those suggested by specialists, and who does not maintain a good connection with professionals (Molina & Estrada, 2020).

Nursing leadership has an influence on the whole health system as well as on the nurses’ direct life (Little, Wagner, & Boal, 2018). A nurse manager is in charge of the day-to-day operations of the workplace. This involves, among other things, personnel recruitment, employment, orientation, staff development and assessment, resource allocation and management, risk management, patient safety, and financial responsibility (Little, Wagner, & Boal, 2018). Nurse managers are also required to offer nurses and other health care professionals with inspiration, advice, and direction and especially in a situation where the nurse-to-patient ratio is imbalanced. As a result, nurse supervisors have the best chance to establish professional nursing standards in the nursing staff. The connection between nurses and their leaders is important because it contributes to Magnet status, which results in better nurse satisfaction and high-performing work environments with excellent patient outcomes (Little, Wagner, & Boal, 2018). Nurse managers are skilled knowledge brokers as well. They transform organizational policy instructions into action at the frontline of health care while also providing information to top management about health care delivery and practice requirements to shape organizational policy. Nurse managers have an important intermediate function in this position (Little, Wagner, & Boal, 2018). The knowledge translation of organizational directions would not be possible without nurse managers.

In a situation where the nurse-to-patient ratio is imbalanced, nursing leaders should employ autocratic leadership.Concentrating decision-making power at the top of the chain of command can be an effective method for completing simple tasks; rather than becoming bogged down by competing viewpoints, autocratic leaders can ensure that quality care is delivered safely and efficiently, with little time wasted on deliberation (Norwich University, 2017). Autocratic leaders are effective at making important choices in time-sensitive situations when soliciting employee opinion may only help to confuse issues and hence represent a risk to the patient. As a result, autocratic clinical nurse leaders must be precise, succinct, and direct while organizing staff and ensuring that they follow the established protocols of their particular hospitals (Norwich University, 2017). In health-care environments with tight procedures, authoritarian leadership is quite successful. It can also be useful in typical medical institutions with high patient numbers. Because an unbalanced ratio of patients to health care professionals restricts how many resources may be committed, such institutions thrive when an authoritarian leader supplies them with commands broken down into fundamental stages (Norwich University, 2017).Autocratic leadership in nursing does not foster trust or communication among team members, but rather promotes a culture in which team members’ important thoughts and knowledge go untapped. This type of leader discourages collaborative decision-making and transparency, both of which impede an organization’s journey to high reliability (Cornell, 2020).

References

Cornwall, L. (2018, December 12). RNnetwork 2018 Portrait of a Modern Nurse Survey. From RNnetwork : https://rnnetwork.com/blog/rnnetwork-2018-portrait-of-a-modern-nurse-survey/

Heath, S. (2018, August 14). How Nurse Staffing Ratios Impact Patient Safety, Access to Care. From Xtelligent Healthcare Media: https://patientengagementhit.com/news/how-nurse-staffing-ratios-impact-patient-safety-access-to-care

Michaud, M. (2020, June 18). COVID-19 Toll in Nursing Homes Linked to Staffing Levels and Quality. From University of Rochester Medical Center : https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/news/story/covid-19-toll-in-nursing-homes-linked-to-staffing-levels-and-quality

Harrington, C., & Edelman, T. S. (2018, July 20). Failure to Meet Nurse Staffing Standards: A Litigation Case Study of a Large US Nursing Home Chain. From NCBI: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6055099/#bibr19-0046958018788686

Gutsan, E., Patton, J., Willis, W. K., & Coustasse, A. (2018). Burnout syndrome and nurse-to-patient ratio in the workplace. Chicago: Marshall University.

Curtin, L. (2016, April 7). A conversation about the ethics of staffing. From AMERICAN NURSE: https://www.myamericannurse.com/conversation-ethics-staffing/

Molina, M. J., & Estrada, J. G. (2020). Impact of Nurse-Patient Relationship on Quality of Care and Patient Autonomy in Decision-Making. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2-3.

Little, L., Wagner, J., & Boal, A. S. (2018). Responsibility and Authority of Nurse Leaders. From Pressbooks: https://leadershipandinfluencingchangeinnursing.pressbooks.com/chapter/chapter-12-responsibility-and-authority-of-nurse-leaders/

Norwich University. (2017, December 4). 5 Leadership Styles for Clinical Nurse Leaders. From Norwich University: https://online.norwich.edu/academic-programs/resources/5-leadership-styles-for-clinical-nurse-leaders

Cornell, A. (2020, April 13). 5 LEADERSHIP STYLES IN NURSING. From Relias LLC: https://www.relias.com/blog/5-leadership-styles-in-nursing

Criminal Justice Workforce

Criminal Justice Workforce

Criminal Justice Workforce

Define Management, organization, and leadership

Management explains all activities involve in establishing an organizational strategy alongside the coordination of worker efforts to achieve its goals by using the available technological, human, natural, and financial resources.  An organization describes a group of individuals having a specific objective. According to Basran et al. (2019), leadership is the act of motivating people towards accomplishing a common purpose. In the business environment, leadership is giving directions to employees and colleagues with the required strategy to meet company goals.

Criminal Justice Workforce

Roles of Manager and Leader in Criminal Justice

A manager executes duties including organizing, planning, directing, controlling, and staffing. These functions are necessary for the effective operation of criminal justice and achieving their goals. Planning is an essential step for establishing goals and strategies for the coordination of tasks. The organizing function determines the tasks to be completed, the method of execution, grouping the tasks, and areas where decisions are made. Directing functioning is about giving directives and motivation of subordinates to achieve their objectives. In the criminal justice system, the leader sets the vision. When the team members understand the goals and vision of the criminal justice system, they are focused and understand the way their duties help to accomplish success. A leader also delegates tasks and ensures that everyone is on the same page. A leader is responsible for ensuring that all workers work towards ensuring that people receive justice and fairness.

Criminal Justice Workforce

Need for Learning Organizations in Criminal Justice Agencies

A learning organization has a learning culture that is vital for all criminal justice agencies. A learning culture explains where the organizational systems, practices, and values encourage and support both the organization and individual to increase competence, performance levels, and knowledge. In turn, it ensures the criminal organizations have continuous improvement and support the accomplishment of the agencies’ objectives, innovativeness, and ability to address changes. A learning organization in the criminal justice system challenges workers to change their status quo, think critically, and ensure that the steam is not always stuck in its thinking approaches (Basran et al. 2019). Instead, it advocates for the creation of capacity and adaptability that is necessary for change. The criminal justice system is evolving, and new cases come up every day. Technology has changed the landscape, and the way decisions are made. This explains why a learning organization must be in place. More specifically, a learning organization increases efficiency, productivity, and profit while also reducing employee turnover rates because it increases their satisfaction levels.

Criminal Justice Workforce

Different Generations in today’s changing criminal justice organization

A generation explains people who are born in a particular era and are defined by their age limitations. In the United States, there are four main generations in the workforce. These are the baby boomers, veterans, millennials, and the Generation X. in the modern-day criminal justice organizations, and each generation has its distinct trait, behavioral patterns, values, personalities, attitudes, and beliefs towards work. The veterans are very loyal to their vocation, are highly dedicated, conformist, and security-conscious (Skibba, 2018). They have a strong dedication to teamwork and collaboration. Baby boomers work effectively and are optimistic, loyal to their employers, results-oriented, and self-reliant. They exert much effort into their personal life and work. When it comes to their leadership styles, they must be directed by their managers and follow a given chain of command.

However, they hate changes in their companies and are not technologically updated. Independent needs often drive Generation X, and they dissent leaders. They are loyal to their employers and have strong technical prowess. They are also tech-savvy and very interested in their technologies and knowledge at work. Generation Y is ready to work hard but are also collaborative and non-conformist (Vargas, 2016). They are always happy to be involved with a team, resilient to changes and can multi-task. Besides, they are also tech-savvy and still keep up with the modern trend, which is suitable for the criminal justice system.

What aspects of leadership and management would be successful with the different generations?

Millennials are the workforce’s largest demographic, and their needs are driven by the desire to have fulfillment and purpose. Leaders must define all the roles that are assigned to the millennials based on their mission. The leaders must look at an individual holistically. Their concerns and needs outside work influence their work performances. Millennials also require employers to handle issues that impact their families, such as maternity and paternity leave and medical insurance (Hunt & Fitzgerald, 2018). Baby boomers need servant leaders. This is because they are goal-oriented, loyal, and resistant to change. A servant leader will recognize all these aspects and understand the best way to cultivate and turn them into people who embrace change. Generation X and veterans require transformative leaders. These groups need leaders who can influence them about the need to adapt to the changing market trends, which they will follow without complaining. A transformative leader is not imposing. The age of the veterans needs a leader who understands the workers and not imposing himself on them.

Criminal Justice Workforce

References

Basran, J., Pires, C., Matos, M., McEwan, K., & Gilbert, P. (2019). Styles of leadership, fears of compassion, and competing to avoid inferiority. Frontiers in psychology9, 2460.

Hunt, J., & Fitzgerald, M. (2018). Styles of Leadership. Leadership: Regional and Global Perspectives, 62.

Skibba, M. E. (2018). Recommendations for law enforcement retention practices and the impact of generational differences.

Vargas, M. A. (2016). Generational supervisory gaps in law enforcement.

LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY

LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY

 

 

 

LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY

Leader–member exchange (LMX) theory is a relationship-based theory of leadership. LMX theory rests firmly on the assumption that leaders influence employees in their group through the quality of the relationships they develop with them (Juneja, 2015). One of the early findings of the LMX theory is that, leaders develop relationships of varying quality with their subordinates and such differentiation characterizes a wide majority of the work groups studied. A high quality relationship is characterized by trust, liking, professional respect, and loyalty. They are characterized by the exchange of valued resources. In these relationships, leaders provide support, developmental opportunities, men- toring, and other benefits to the employee. The provision of such resources results in a motivation to reciprocate to the leader on the part of members, by demonstrating behaviors such as loyalty and higher levels of voluntary behaviors. In other words, the relationship between high LMX quality and promanagerial and occasionally proorganiza- tional behaviors is frequently believed to be a sense of responsibility and high levels of devotion to the supervisor. Furthermore, there is a relationship between LMX quality and outcomes and the degree to which employees believe their leader’s promises will be kept (Hao, et al., 2019).

LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY

LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY

The theory states that all relationships between managers and subordinates go through three stages. These are Role-Taking, Role-Making and Routinization (Mindtools, n.d.). When team members initially join the group, they take on roles. Managers utilize this period to examine the talents and competencies of new employees. When new team members begin working on projects and responsibilities as part of the team, role-making happens. As new team members adjust to their new roles, supervisors often want them to work hard, be loyal, and demonstrate trustworthiness (Mindtools, n.d.). According to the idea, managers classify new team members into one of two categories, in-group or out-group, during this period. If team members demonstrate loyalty, trustworthiness, and skill, they are placed in the In-Group (Mindtools, n.d.). This group consists of the team members in whom the management has the most faith. In addition, this group receives additional one-on-one time with the manager. People in this category frequently share their manager’s attitude and work ethic. If team members break the manager’s trust or demonstrate that they are uninspired or inept, they are placed in the Out-Group (Gregersen, et al., 2016). The work of this group is frequently limited and unchallenging. Out-group members have less access to the management and are less likely to be given opportunities for promotion. Routines between team members and their supervisors are created during the Routinization phase (Mindtools, n.d.). In-Group team members strive hard to keep their bosses’ goodwill by demonstrating trust, respect, empathy, patience, and perseverance. Members of the out-group may begin to resent or distrust their bosses (Mindtools, n.d.).

LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY

One of two metrics is used in most empirical studies on LMX theory. The LMX-7 is a single-dimensional scale with seven components (Martin, et al., 2017). The LMX-Multidimensional is made up of 12 components namely affect, loyalty, contribution, and professional respect, each of which captures three dimensions. Many researchers prefer to collapse the dimensions since the multidimensional measure is made up of highly linked dimensions that lie under a second-order component. Another prevalent trend in LMX research is to assess LMX quality via the eyes of the employee. Correlations are usually minimal when LMX is measured from the perspective of members and leaders. Furthermore, during the early phases of a relationship’s growth, the correlation is less, and the overlap grows as time passes the lack of agreement could be explained by a number of different mechanisms (Gooty & Yammarino, 2016). When employees and managers are asked how much they like, respect, and feel loyal to one other, it’s only natural that their responses differ. Second, in their relationship, each individual may have varying degrees of success in satisfying the expectations of the other. Third, due to social desirability concerns, leaders may be less inclined to disclose a poor-quality conversation with a team member. Finally, some of the poor correlations reported might be due to the measuring method (Gooty & Yammarino, 2016).

Member performance and competence appear to be important predictors in the LMX development process as these are helpful behaviors in establishing trustworthiness (Erdogan & Bauer, 2015). When the relationship begins, trust develops as a result of a mutual testing process. Employee’s satisfactory responses to the testing efforts of leaders result in the development of trust on the part of the leader. In addition to member performance and similarity to leaders, member personality has been frequently examined as a predictor in cross-sectional work (Erdogan & Bauer, 2015). Meta-analytic results revealed that following member competence and perceived similarity, member positive affec- tivity and the locus of control are the characteristics with the strongest correlations to LMX quality (Martin, et al., 2015). Furthermore, goal orientation has been explored as an antecedent. Mastery orientation, which refers to the degree to which a person is interested in acquiring new skills, improving and learning, has been shown to be positively related to LMX quality, whereas performance orientation, which refers to the degree to which the person is preoccupied with looking like a high performer and being evaluated well, has been negatively related (Martin, et al., 2015).

LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY

The way that leaders develop different quality relationships with members of their team has been referred to as the LMX differentiation process (Anand, et al., 2015). LMX differentiation is defined as a process by which a leader, through engaging in differing types of exchange patterns with subordinates, forms different quality exchange relationships with them. LMX differentiation does not refer to the mean LMX quality in the team, but to the extent that there are differences in LMX quality within the team (Anand, et al., 2015). Although LMX differentiation refers to the process by which leaders develop different quality relationships with each team member, the results of that process will be differentiation patterns of LMX quality between team members. Three main properties of the differentiation process pattern that can be identified and assessed include central tendency, variation, and relative position (Cobb & Lau, 2015). The first property of the differentiation process concerns the within‐team central tendency, which is normally assessed as the team mean or median score. Although most research has examined the mean, some argue that the median is a better indicator of aggregation because it represents the middle person in the team while the mean might not correspond to any team member (Cobb & Lau, 2015). There are two dimensions to LMX variation: dispersion which is the amount of spread of LMX between team members and distribution shape, the pattern of LMX within the team. The third property of the LMX differentiation process refers to the within‐team relative position or location of each team member’s LMX quality with respect to other members of the team who are managed by the same leader. It the relative standing of a team member’s LMX compared to other team members (Cobb & Lau, 2015).

It is important to note that the presence of LMX differentiation increases the salience of fairness concerns. Studies on LMX differentiation highlight the importance of employee awareness of how LMXs are distributed within the group. Employees react not only to their own relationship quality, but also to their coworkers’ relationship quality, and distribution of LMXs matter. Taking this idea a step further, scholars also started investigating social comparison processes directly, by introducing the concept of relative LMX. Relative LMX is a statistical computation of the degree to which a person’s LMX quality is higher or lower than the team’s LMX average. Utilizing a social comparison approach, scholars argued that having a higher-quality exchange compared to one’s team members is a source of satisfaction. Controlling for one’s LMX quality, relative LMX is positively related to self- efficacy, performance, citizenship behaviors, and psychological contract fulfillment. In addition to examining relative LMX operationalized as the difference between focal person’s LMX score from the group mean, researchers developed a perceptual measure of relative LMX, directly asking individuals to compare their own rela- tionship quality to the other relations the leader develops with team members.

LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY

Investigations of the nomological network of LMX quality are numerous and this is a mature field of investigation. Yet, there are still research avenues that are important to investigate. One issue is the evolving nature of organizations. LMX theory originated in the 1970s, at a time organizations were charac- terized by tall hierarchies, unity of command, and authority concentrated more at the top (Chen, et al., 2018). Today, while such organizations continue to exist, there are more novel and contemporary structures under which managers and employees develop relationships. For example, in many contemporary organiza- tions, employees may report to more than one manager, whereas LMX theory is based on the assumption that each member has one, clearly identifiable manager who controls resources valued by the member (Chen, et al., 2018). 

Recent research (Vidyarthi, et al., 2018) has examined LMX relationships in such a context and showed that in a sample of information technology consultants reporting to two managers, convergence of the quality of these relationships was associated with more positive outcomes. The authors con- tended that each LMX relationship would serve as a compar- ison point for the other relationship, evoking social comparison processes. In other words, similar to the comparisons employees engage in with their coworkers’ LMXs, it seems that they also compare the multiple exchanges they have with different leaders in their work lives (Vidyarthi, et al., 2018). Such findings indicate that LMX theory would benefit from an extension and testing of the theory in settings that are different from the traditional orga- nizational forms. As organizations introduce matrix structures where members report to multiple leaders for finite periods of time, or when they eliminate managers by introducing lattice organizations where there are no assigned leaders, the utility of the theory remains unclear. Extension of LMX theory to contemporary organizational structures is an important future direction. 

A second research direction relates to an examination of LMX quality in relation to coworker relationships (Wang, et al., 2018). We know that LMX quality is associated with positive job attitudes and behaviors. However, we know significantly less about when and why coworkers experience envy or jealousy, or feel nega- tively toward high LMX members. (Tse, et al., 2018) showed that the degree to which LMX quality is positively associated with one aspect of coworker relations is contingent on the degree to which high LMX members also demonstrate help- fulness and discretion. Systematic investigation of the effects of LMX quality on coworker emotions, behaviors, and reactions to the focal person is a noteworthy area of research. The importance of this topic is also evidenced by the fact that the most recent meta-analysis in LMX theory (Martin, et al., 2016) includes relationships of LMX to a large number of outcomes, but any indicators of coworker relationships is curiously missing, which likely indicates the small number of studies examining LMX quality in relation to coworker relations. 

LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY

In conclusion, while research on LMX has entered a mature phase where much is known about its measurement, anteced- ents, boundary conditions, and consequences, much also remains left to uncover. These include future understanding of how LMX relationships develop and the boundary conditions for relationship devel- opment, how LMX is measured, how relative LMX affects what we know, as well as the key future research themes of the changing nature of work in terms of content and organizational structures, the influence of the social network of relationships, as well as the dark side of LMX. Given these and other potential research questions, we are excited about the future of LMX as a vibrant research area. 

LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY

References

Anand, S., Vidyarthi, P. R. & Park, H. P., 2015. LMX Differentiation: Understanding relational leadership at individual and group levels.. new york: Oxford University Press.

Cobb, A. T. & Lau, R. S., 2015. In: Trouble at the next level: Effects of differential leader–member exchange on group-level processes and justice climate. s.l.:s.n., p. 1437

Chen, X. P., He, W. & Weng, L. C., 2018. What is wrong with treating followers differently? The basis of leader–member exchange differentiation matters. Journal of Management, Issue 44, pp. 946-971..1459.

Erdogan, B. & Bauer, a. N., 2015. The Oxford Handbook of Leader-Member Exchange. New york: Oxford University press.

Hao, Q., Shi, Y. & Yang, W., 2019. How leader-member exchange affects knowledge sharing behavior: understanding the effects of commitment and employee characteristics. 

Gregersen, S., Vincent-Höper, S. & Nienhaus, A., 2016. Job-related resources, leader–member exchange and well-being: a longitudinal study.. Work Stress, Issue 30, p. 356–373. 

Gooty, J. & Yammarino, F. J., 2016. The leader–member exchange relationship: a multisource, cross-level investigation. J. Manage, Issue 42, p. 915–935.

 Juneja, P., 2015. Management Study Guide. [Online] 
Available at: https://managementstudyguide.com/transformational-leadership.htm
[Accessed 3 July 2021].

Martin, R., thomas, G., Legood, A. & Russo , S. D., 2017. Wiley Online Library. [Online] 
Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/job.2202
[Accessed 3 July 2021].

Martin, R. et al., 2016. Leader-member exchange (LMX) and performance: a meta-analytic review. p. 67–121. Mindtools, n.d. MindTools. [Online] 
Available at: https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/leader-member-exchange.htm
[Accessed 3 july 2021].

Tse, H. H. M., Troth, A. C., Ashkanasy, N. M. & Collins, A. L., 2018. Affect and leader-member exchange in the new millennium: a state-of-art review and guiding framework.. p. 135–149. 

Vidyarthi, P., Rolnicki, S. & Anand, S., 2018. Leader-member exchange and organizational citizenship behaviors: contextual effects of leader power distance and group task interdependence.. p. 489–500.

Wang, D., Gan, C. & Wu, C., 2018. LMX and employee voice: a moderated mediation model of psychological empowerment and role clarity.. p. 605–615.

BUSINESS LAW SIGNATURE

BUSINESS LAW SIGNATURE 

BUSINESS LAW SIGNATURE 

A promissory note is a formal obligation to pay a sum of money within a certain amount of time. This form of contract binds a borrower’s pledge to repay a loan within a certain time frame, and all parties must sign it. It mostly consists of the date on which someone must be paid, the method by which an individual or organization must be paid, and the amount by which a person or organization must be paid (Chron, 2019). The promissory note made between Jones and Layla will be considered valid since the amount to be paid as well as the time frame for payment has also been stated.

BUSINESS LAW SIGNATURE

In this case, Jones was represented by an agent, Tom, who also signed the document stating “Tom, as agent for Jones”. An agent is an individual or organization that has been given lawful authority to control on behalf of another person (Barone, 2020). This simply means that Jones is still liable for payments for the amount owed to Layla. According to (Chron, 2019), A representative of the company or individual signs the document on behalf of the company accepting the loan, committing the company or individual to pay it back.

When considering who signed the note, an appointed agent may bind his or her signature on a contract by explicitly indicating that he or she is signed on behalf of the creditor by signing the instrument. The creditor, not the agent, would be responsible on the instrument in this situation (Klett, no date). Jones is the sole party responsible because Tom expressly claimed that he is Jones’ agent without ever claiming that he signed on his own behalf.

In the case of Mary, Paul and Harry, Mary will not be required to pay for the amount stated in the negotiable promissory note regardless of her signing the document. This is simply because Paul acquired the document through a fraudulent method. All arrangements, including those involving negotiable devices, must have been made with the free consent of the parties involved. Any contract under which consent was gained by deception is voidable at the discretion of the individual who gave the consent (Kundu, p.32).

BUSINESS LAW SIGNATURE

However, Paul will not be liable for the forgery since he negotiated the document to Harry making him the holder in due course. A holder in due course is any person who, for valuable consideration, becomes the possessor of a negotiable instrument payable to bearer or the indorsee or payee thereof, before the amount mentioned in the document becomes payable, and without having sufficient cause to believe that any defect existed in the title of the person from whom he derives his title (Kundu, p.36).

According to Kundu (p. 32) however, if such an instrument is sent to a holder in a responsible way, the holder would not be entitled to use the fraud protection. This means that neither Paul nor Harry will be liable for the fraud, all this assuming that harry was unaware of how the negotiable promissory note was acquired.

BUSINESS LAW SIGNATURE

References

Chron,2019. What can void a promissory note. [online](updated March 8, 2019) Available at: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/can-void-promissory-note-61223.html

Barone A. 2020. Promissory note. [online](updated March 15, 2020) Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/promissorynote.asp

Klett T. Negotiable instruments: Liability, Defenses and Discharge. [online] Available at: https://www.shsu.edu/~klett/CHAPTER%2026%20gBA%20362.htm

Kundu S. S. Principles of insurance and banking. [online] Available at: http://www.ddegjust.ac.in/studymaterial/mcom/mc-207-f.pdf

Positive Health Behaviors

Positive Health Behaviors

Positive Health Behaviors

One of the most basic instruments of modern public health and preventive medicine is disease screening. Screening programs have a long and illustrious history in efforts to prevent infectious disease outbreaks and focus chronic illness therapy. Pregnant women are frequently tested for a complete blood count, blood type, diabetes, syphilis, and other diseases. The approach of disease screening has been demonstrated to save lives, save health-care expenditures, and alleviate suffering. Breast and cervical cancer screening has been particularly effective in decreasing the disease burden in women (Backer, Gesk, McIlvain, Dodendorf, & Minier, 2005). Health screenings should be a top priority for everyone to promote good health. some of the most important advantages of health screening Early diagnosis of illnesses can lead to improved treatment and management, lowering the risk of complications and improving the odds of a positive health outcome. Health screening determines if a patient is at risk for, or already has, a disease or condition (Farrington & Mikkelsen, 2020). Furthermore, health screening can aid in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and diabetes in those who have a family history of these conditions, as well as offer prompt treatment (Farrington & Mikkelsen, 2020). Age is a key risk factor for a wide range of life-altering illnesses. Early identification and treatment, on the other hand, might provide the body with the strongest resistance against these disorders (Farrington & Mikkelsen, 2020).

Screening, however, can be harmful. When three characteristics of screening programs work in concert, the impact is greater than often recognized. As an example due to the fact that the majority of people who are checked do not have the illness, screening can potentially damage more people than it can help (Farrington & Mikkelsen, 2020). There will always be false positives and negatives since screening tests are not 100 percent sensitive or specific. Early identification of diseases can lead to overdiagnosis, which is when a person is diagnosed with a condition that will never damage them in their lifetime (Farrington & Mikkelsen, 2020). Also, the ability to reach the desired audience, load on the government, and how everyone involved approaches the problem. Every Woman Counts initiative, which aimed to provide women with preventative health care, proved ineffectual. In looking at the enrollees in the Nebraska Every Woman Matters program who were getting checked for breast and cervical cancer, it was discovered that there was a link between socio-demographic factors and obtaining cancer screening. As a result, getting cancer screening services is hampered by people’s social position, income, and knowledge.

Because the advantages and risks of screening are diverse in nature and are assessed and valued differently, it’s impossible to compare them. Valuing benefits and harm is affected by such things as the economic capability of individuals. That is why organizations such as Every Woman Matters (EWM) which is a state-run federally funded program were formed to reduce financial and public awareness barriers to preventative breast and cervical cancer screening by improving public knowledge of the danger and making screening more affordable for low-income women (Backer, Gesk, McIlvain, Dodendorf, & Minier, 2005). A clinical breast examination, mammography, and Papanicolaou smear test are provided at a reduced or free cost to eligible women. Practices can use the EWM program’s services to help them implement the program. With the aim to reduce the number and impact of risks as well as improving their service delivery in hospitals and clinics, the EWM program conducted an analysis using the GAPS method (Backer, Gesk, McIlvain, Dodendorf, & Minier, 2005). They included office employees at each phase of the GAPS model to improve preventive care and alter office operations: goal-setting, analyzing existing routines, planning routine modification, and giving support for these improvements (Backer, Gesk, McIlvain, Dodendorf, & Minier, 2005). The findings of the analysis showed that the main reasons why program was not effective in meeting its preset goals include lack of enthusiasm from some physicians and staff, lack of leadership skills of individuals who are in charge of the facilities and also organizational problems hence some internal instability (Backer, Gesk, McIlvain, Dodendorf, & Minier, 2005). Despite the obstacles that prevented large improvements in screening in some of the practices, we feel the GAPS model’s ideas are valid and propose it as a realistic structure for bringing desired change to a complex organizational system like a clinical practice (Backer, Gesk, McIlvain, Dodendorf, & Minier, 2005). In addition, additional process factors like as leadership, cohesion, resources, and shared vision were emphasized in our research (Backer, Gesk, McIlvain, Dodendorf, & Minier, 2005).

There are a good number of successful advocacy programs for early cancer screening and evaluate the characteristics that are deemed effective and are given credit for the work they do. A good example is the American Cancer Society who promote a healthy lifestyle to help prevent cancer for all people. By supporting cancer advocacy in nations with growing cancer societies, the ACS has taken a leadership position in global cancer advocacy (ACS, n.d.). The centerpiece of the ACS global effort is training international cancer control leaders through the American Cancer Society University (ACSU) in all aspects of running a community-based cancer control organization or program (ACS, n.d.). The ACSU program begins with a week-long course, which is held a few times each year in different parts of the world, followed by support of participants in home countries (ACS, n.d.). This society donates millions of dollars annually to cancer clinics and hospitals, all of which is utilized in cancer research, cancer prevention, cancer screening and many other services (ACS, n.d.). Another such organization is The International Union Against Cancer, also known as UICC, which is the most prominent and inclusive international body dedicated to cancer control. It is a membership organization with a small administrative head office, with controlling committees made up of volunteers (Mortara, 2011). The World Cancer Congress, conducted every two years in a large city, most recently in Washington, DC in 2006, is the most conspicuous UICC activity (Mortara, 2011). Thousands of people from all walks of life attend these conferences, the vast majority of whom are from high-income nations, but with a growing focus on establishing efficient cancer management in those countries (Mortara, 2011).

Those involved in the health care system, nurses, physicians, patients, and others play increasingly interdependent roles. Problems arise every day that do not have easy or singular solutions. Leaders who merely give directions and expect them to be followed will not succeed in this environment. What is needed is a style of leadership that involves working with others as full partners in a context of mutual respect and collaboration. To accomplish the objective of a reformed health-care system, strong leadership will be necessary. Strong leadership is critical if the vision of a transformed health care system is to be realized.

References

Backer, E. L., Gesk, J. A., McIlvain, H. E., Dodendorf, D. M., & Minier, W. C. (2005). Improving Female Preventive Health Care Delivery Through Practice Change: An Every Woman Matters Study. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine.

Farrington, J., & Mikkelsen, B. (2020). Screening programmes: a short guide. Copenhagen: World Health Organization.

Mortara, I. (2011, July 18). The International Union Against Cancer. From touch oncology: https://touchoncology.com/immunotherapy/journal-articles/the-international-union-against-cancer/

ACS. (n.d.). Facts About the American Cancer Society. From American Cancer Society: https://www.cancer.org/about-us/who-we-are/fact-sheet.html

Disaster Response Plan

Disaster Response Plan

Disaster Response Plan

Disaster Response Plan

While no plan can guarantee that death and damage will not occur, excellent plans implemented by experienced and well-trained individuals may and will reduce losses. The purpose of the Chemtool chemical plant Emergency Operation Plan (EOP) is to identify and respond to incidents by outlining the responsibilities and duties of Chemtool chemical plant, its employees and the locals as well. The goal of this plan is to offer adequate life safety measures, limit property loss, and safeguard the environment, as well as to reassure and care for the public and ensure the quick restoration of impacted companies and community services. Accidents resulting in the discharge of chemicals or hazardous waste will occur despite staff’s best efforts to operate cautiously in the laboratory. 

Disaster Response Plan 

Spills in Hazardous Waste Accumulation Areas administered by the Facilities Department are also a possibility. 

There are two main types of chemical spills namely the minor and major chemical spills (Manitoba, 2013). The minor spill is one whereby the chemical is known and does not pose a major threat to safety and health. As a result, it has little chance of becoming an emergency. Workers in the local vicinity or Facilities personnel can absorb, neutralize, or otherwise control and clean up the substance (Manitoba, 2013). Major spills, on the other hand, the chemical is unknown and hence poses a threat as highly toxic or reactive. It poses an immediate and serious threat to one’s health. Outside a fume hood, there is a probability of a fire hazard or an explosion risk, resulting in harm to persons nearby (Manitoba, 2013). The tools and materials needed to effectively contain and clean up the spill are not available, and the response and cleanup are beyond the knowledge and capabilities of workers in the local area or Facilities personnel (Manitoba, 2013).

Disaster Response Plan

The Chemtool Inc. chemical plant in Rockton manufactures finish greases for the manufacture of automobiles and industrial machines (Chemtool Incorporated, 2020). The firm also creates ecologically friendly and cost-effective functional fluid products. Agriculture, automotive, construction, energy, food, and heavy mobile sectors all benefit from manufactured items (Chemtool Incorporated, 2020). The plant, however, experienced a major spill that, if not managed soon, would lead to the infection of the Rock river close to it as well as serious health and security problems to both the employees and residents within its vicinity. Considering the fact that it was a major spill, all sorts of threats have to be considered. Toxic or toxic gases can cause serious disease, and in rare circumstances, death. When corrosive chemicals are handled, they can inflict serious burns, impair vision, and affect the respiratory tract. Some chemical spills cause cancer years after the first exposure, such as asbestos inhalation, which causes lung cancer years later. Chemical spills can have serious consequences for the environment as well. With run-off pollution in the ocean, spilled oil and other pollutants can cause physical harm to marine life. In this case, a major impact is anticipated for the Rock river. 

Disaster Response Plan 

Spilled chemicals can also flow down into the soil, causing significant ecological harm and rendering certain regions uninhabitable for flora and wildlife.

To guarantee a quick and safe chemical spill response that minimizes the effect of any chemical spills, adopt the following procedures. An important factor in swift chemical clean-up is the ability of employees to understand the severity of a spill and assess the safety of the spill site. If an immediate threat is posed, the area in which the spill occurred should be evacuated immediately. Large spills that are too difficult to clear with normal chemical cleanup kits should also be reported as soon as possible to fire and medical officials. In the event of an accidental leak, begin conventional chemical cleanup measures right once. The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSH Act) was passed to prevent workers from being killed or otherwise harmed at work (OSHA, 2017). The law requires employers to provide their employees with working conditions that are free of known dangers. The OSH Act created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which sets and enforces protective workplace safety and health standards (OSHA, 2017). OSHA also provides information, training and assistance to employers and workers (OSHA, 2017). Hence, based on the OSHA, anyone working with chemicals should put on Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) that is appropriate for the chemical and the hazard it poses right away. 

Disaster Response Plan

In order to minimize the after-effect of the spill, funding is needed from the federal government as well as other organizations. The cost includes spill response actions, on-site sampling and analysis, full environmental site investigation and remediation of contaminated sites (Green Ocean, 2017). Where spills of oils or liquids are contained within a barrier or drainage system rather than being absorbed in the surface. Natural resource damage assessment and restoration is also to be considered (Green Ocean, 2017). The Chemtool chemical plant will restore natural resources injured as a result of hazardous substance releases into the environment and pay for it too. The action of reducing the severity and seriousness of possible consequences for the environment and communities may involve specialists from diverse areas and industries (Green Ocean, 2017). The federal government is requested to provide funds for the mitigation as well as litigation.

Lastly, in order to prevent the occurrence of another chemical spill, certain steps will be taken. First, a realistic assessment of the risk at the outset will be made (Scientific American, 2010). Second, government oversight needs an overhaul. This will play a big role in prevention of the occurrence of another spill (Scientific American, 2010). Also, the employees of the company will taken through some classes to educate them on spill prevention and also how to handle such a situation if it is to occur again in the future (Scientific American, 2010).

References

Manitoba, U. o. (2013, April). From https://umanitoba.ca/admin/vp_admin/risk_management/ehso/media/ChemicalSpillProcedures.pdf

Chemtool Incorporated. (2020). From https://www.chemtool.com

Green Ocean. (2017). From http://greenocean.nl/cost-of-oil-and-hazardous-liquid-spills-and-who-pays-for-it/

OSHA. (2017). Workers’ Rights. 3.

Scientific American. (2010, August 1). From https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/catastrophic-thinking/

Psychological Foundation of Leadership

Psychological Foundation of Leadership

Psychological Foundation of Leadership

Identify ways that a leader could use symbolic acts to strengthen a cultural value of teamwork and collaboration.

and

Identify the qualities of a change leader. Also, explain how leaders can serve as role models for change. Question 1 –

Symbolic acts to strengthen a cultural value of teamwork and collaboration.
Teamwork and collaboration are vital components of successful businesses and alternative ventures. Insightful leaders understand the need for developing a culture and strengthening the value of teamwork in their followers. The use of symbolism is instrumental to the strengthening of the cultural value of teamwork and collaboration. Symbolism involves the use of actions, objects, and events to convey a targeted meaning or impart a given sense or emotion in an individual or group of people (Hambrick & Lovelace, 2017; Sergiovanni & Corbally, 1986, pp. 112 – 113; Winkler, 2009). This section identifies and expounds on several acts by leaders that serve to strengthen a cultural value of teamwork and collaboration.
Open communications
Many employees consider the leadership in a corporate environment as being unreachable. Such a notion may serve to erode a sense of teamwork in the employees since they may not feel like part of a team. To address such concerns, the leadership in an office and corporate setting should find ways to foster a sense of openness in the work environment. This could include the use of open floor plans of office space, and the abolition of the bureaucratic chain of communication between employees and management (Ford & Sturman, 2011). Such actions represent an example of a symbolic act by the organization’s leadership to show an effort toward the improvement of communication as a tool to create a culture of teamwork and collaboration.
Unifying tasks
A critical factor in the creation of a culture that fosters teamwork and collaboration in a harmonious environment is the ability to unify different people. However, the leadership in any organization can achieve this through the creation of tasks within the workplace that create a need to collaborate with other members of the team. A case example is a development of unifying tasks that require input from various members with different skills. In such a scenario, the leaders would not create a team but instead allow the individuals assigned to the task to seek for and collaborate with other people to complete the task. In this way, therefore, the use of unifying tasks is a symbolic gesture by leaders to strengthen the cultural value of teamwork and collaboration.
Appraising the role of each
The importance and success of any leader lie with the achievement of goals by the individual followers. In this light, therefore, it is essential that the leader provide sufficient motivation for the employees. Ford and Sturman (2011) maintain that instilling beliefs, values, and norms through laws, stories, and legends are imperative to teaching culture within an organizational setting. Besides, the creation of various rituals at the workplace ensures that the followers are informed on the culture and expect the leaders to operate in a given manner (pp. 115 – 119, 123 – 124). Such rituals may include the appraising of the best performing individuals and groups. This creates a recurring act that fosters better work morale to ensure the followers, especially when operating in a group setting strive to outperform each other. Such appraisals, therefore, not only serve to create an ongoing culture in the organization, but also help to strengthen teamwork and collaboration.

Question 2 – Qualities of a change leader
Emotional intelligence
To spearhead change, a leader needs to have a high level of emotional intelligence. This involves the ability to judge and control their emotions as well as discern and use the emotions of other people. In this case, active change leaders can determine the emotion and moods of their followers and act suitably. Besides, a high emotional quotient can direct the moods of their followers to allow for the right attitudes and mood for the completion of a given task. A key factor is the ability to motivate people that they can succeed at the tasks assigned to them as well as their personal lives.
Active listening, communication, and persuasion
An effective change leader is one who understands the importance of efficiency in communication. A fundamental principle of communication in such a scenario is the ability to listen to the front line people. While most leaders shut out the opinions of frontline staff, change leaders use them as critical assets to learn about the various business metrics (Dallas, 2015). Change leaders should also be able to communicate their ideas effectively to other personnel, which is vital to the implementation of the needed change. The ability to persuade people and bring them on board to accomplish the laid out ideas is essential to change leaders since not every individual is convinced of the need to change (Gleeson, 2016).
Knowledge
Fostering change requires adequate knowledge in the current situation, as well as the intended outcomes from the change process. Therefore, it is crucial that a change leader is knowledgeable in addition to being a seeker of information. This level of knowledgeability should not be limited to the areas of concern or operation but should be as diverse as possible. The diversity of knowledge for a change leader allows for the adoption of new skills and strategies that are applicable in their areas, which leads to growth and the achievement of the required changes.
Accountability
Change agents are responsible for not only the achievement of the required change but also for the various personnel and resources tasked under their administration. As such, a change leader requires a high level of accountability. They should be accountable for the timelines to achieve the set goals, maintaining communications and partnerships, and motivation levels among the followers among other such factors. In the same way, the change leaders demand a high level of accountability from their peers and subordinates (Rylatt, 2013)
How leaders can serve as role models for change
An effective change leader can serve as an example to their team as well as to other leaders. Among the ways one can serve as a role model for change is to align their words with their actions. Another is practicing self-reflection to exercise similar standards for themselves, as they demand of other people in their teams. Establishing clear communication of requirements and goals is essential to a successful leader and is an admirable trait. Finally, the leader should show a sense of selfless empathy by being considerate of the needs and well-being of others beyond the task. With such approaches, the leader should have a presentable image that others can emulate.

References
Dallas, H. J. (2015, October 22). 4 must-have skills for leaders to manage change. Retrieved from Fortune Magazine: http://fortune.com/2015/10/22/change-leaders-managers/
Ford, R., & Sturman, M. C. (2011). Harnessing the Power of Your Culture for Outstanding Service. In J. B. M. C. Sturman (Ed.), The Cornell School of Hotel (pp. 111 – 126 ). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing.
Gleeson, B. (2016, August 16). 3 Leadership Skills Critical For Driving Change. Retrieved from Forbes: https://www.forbes.com/sites/brentgleeson/2016/08/16/3-leadership-skills-critical-for-driving-change/#675f5cc34fde
Hambrick, D., & Lovelace, J. (2017). The Role of Executive Symbolism In Advancing New Strategic Themes in Organizations: A Social Influence Perspective. Academy of Management ReviewAcademy of Management Review, 1 – 53. Retrieved January 10, 2018, from http://amr.aom.org/content/early/2017/02/09/amr.2015.0190.full.pdf
Rylatt, A. (2013, July). Three Qualities of Highly Successful Change Agents. Retrieved from Association for Talent Development: https://www.td.org/magazines/td-magazine/three-qualities-of-highly-successful-change-agents
Sergiovanni, T. J., & Corbally, J. E. (1986). Leadership and Organizational Culture: New Perspectives on Administrative Theory and Practice. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Winkler, I. (2009). Symbolic Leadership. Contemporary Leadership Theories, 59 – 63.

EMR system

EMR system

EMR system

EMR system

Managing Health Care Business Strategy                                                                                                              

What elements (at least two) are missing from the action plan in Table

9.1 for the EMR system? Justify your choice

Piloting is a very important element which has been omitted from the action plan. Piloting helps to ensure that the vendor will supply a truly tested and proven system which is relevant to the organization. The risk of not piloting is too high given that a lot of money goes into acquiring such a system. Failure to pilot a system can lead to multiple challenges such as loss of funds in that, after procuring the system, most likely it will be a custom – made one and therefore in the event it malfunctions, the vendor might not accept it back since the specifications, coding and even the program used is tailor made for the organization which ordered for the EMR system and therefore the vendor cannot resell it. 

Another problem associated with failure to pilot the system is the possible loss of data in that a malfunction if system is fully implemented without piloting will lead to difficulties if the system fails. Loss of man power hours is also a likely outcome of an EMR system which was not properly tested before implementation. Also employees are known to oppose changes especially those which touch on their work. EMR systems digitalize the records of an organization and therefore an EMR should be effective in providing the relevant information in as far as medical records are concerned (Moseley III & George, 2008). The EMR should function so well that all users in a medical set up should be able to access information with ease. This is only possible if employees get a chance to try the system way before it is implemented. This in turn creates an opportunity for the management and the vendors to receive feedback from the employees and deliver a final product which is not only user friendly but also one which will make the employees feel like they own it. Finally piloting serves to improve a system in that system bugs will be identified and fixed therefore the hospital will end up with a cost effective system.

EMR system

Funding is very important in any system implementation process and this requires the involved stakeholders to budget for the project. It also calls for approval from the top management such as the organization’s board of directors. Indeed, many good plans in organizations end up unimplemented due to lack of funding or sometimes underfunding which can cause a project to stall even at its very final phase. Therefore the managers should ‘count cost’ before initiating an EMR project. The stalling of a project can cause conflicts in an organization, stemming from disillusioned employees. Sometimes this can lead to big losses in the future.

Project auditing which is also known as a preliminary needs analysis is a very crucial step which serves to give project credence. This also ensures that processes are done in a transparent manner. Since the auditing will answer questions such as; is the project important? Is it timely? Is it cost effective? And if it will add value to the organization, this is very important because it’s the auditing report can even cause the project to be dropped altogether.

Describe the activities that should be implemented to address the

missing elements.

For piloting activity, the system will have to be implemented in one department first before approval and subsequent application in the whole organization. Testing and piloting therefore need to happen so as to give a preview of what to expect upon project implementation. It will not be prudent to skip this stage/phase only to end up with a system installed but hat which cannot fulfill its intended purposes.

EMR system

Describe where these activities would be added to the list (relative

to the other activities already listed).

The three activities can each be arranged with the help of a Gantt chart which serves to show what activities must be completed first before which others. In this case auditing or needs assessment should be the first step towards a successful implementation of an EMR. This is because the verdict given at this stage influences whether the EMR is necessary and profitable for the organization.  Project piloting or testing will follow thereafter if the needs assessment of auditing gives a nod for the organization to implement fully the project. The second last step should be the piloting step which should happen just before full implementation.

Funding on the other hand ensures that enough finances and other resources are set aside to carry on the projection to completion. Without the EMR system being factored in the budget, it only means the project will not take off let alone starting.

Project auditing calls for a team of experts in a given area. The experts in EMR implementation offer a neutral stand point which is regarded with honor by many and therefore by allowing the auditing process, needs are identified and solutions suggested. This leads to a process that is smooth and devoid of avoidable errors.

Specify exactly which people from the hospitals and practice will

participate in these new activities and justify your choice.

The three additional activities suggested will need to be handled by experts in their respective fields. It is however worthy noting that in all steps of the project process, stakeholder identification and involvement is very crucial. Employees at various levels in the hospital are very important stakeholders and must be involved in the system design and implementation so that they may own it. Those who audit the EMR should be experts in the area as well as the managers in the relevant departments.

EMR system

As for the funding the organization, the chief executive officer or the board must be involved because they are the one to authorize money to carry on the other phases. Finally piloting and testing needs to be done by two technical teams, one from the supplier and the order one representing the interest of the hospital. In conclusion, it is clear that despite the enormous advantages of an EMR system, its purchase and installation needs more than just consulting with the physicians; it as well requires careful considerations so that the resulting product is the best value for money.

References

Moseley III, George B. (2008) Managing Health Care Business Strategy. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.