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The product development process in the health and pharmaceutical industries is complicated, time-consuming, and expensive. Research and development expenditures have an impact on policy choices and judgments on how to effectively stimulate innovation to satisfy health demands and make final goods affordable (Swagel, 2021). 

According to a recent research published in the Journal of Health Economics by the Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development (2016), the cost of developing a new drug that receives FDA clearance is estimated to be $2.6 billion. This is up from $802 million in 2003, which is over $1 billion in 2013 dollars, representing a 145 percent growth during the ten-year research period. 

While the average time it takes to get a medicine through drug testing has reduced, the success rate has dropped by nearly half, to only 12%. Tufts breaks down their $2.558 billion figure per approved compound into $1.4 billion in estimated out-of-pocket payments and $1.2 billion in time expenses.

Pharmaceutical businesses rely largely on patents to preserve their enormous efforts and investments. Patents grant a pharmaceutical business a 20-year monopoly period during which it has market exclusivity and can charge a monopoly price for its medicines. In order to recuperate investments and incentivize them to engage in additional innovation, substantial patent protection is required (Gurgula, 2020).

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When a patent expires, however, other businesses may produce generic versions of a branded medicine and compete with the original for market share. This is what is referred to as generic competition. Generic medications are bioequivalent copies of branded pharmaceuticals whose patent protection has expired (Gurgula, 2020).

Some pharmaceutical corporations, however, may utilize the patent system to get a slew of secondary patents that construct multi-layer protection around their profitable drugs, allowing them to evade merit-based competition. Pharmaceutical corporations can use strategic patenting to improve their monopolistic positions and charge high medicine costs as a result. 

This strategy goes against the common objective of patent and competition laws, which is to incentivize innovation, because it diminishes the incentives for innovators, hurts generic businesses’ follow-on innovation, and upsets the delicate balance between patent monopoly and competition (Gurgula, 2020). Various reasons for high drug prices and the growing focus on incremental innovation are put forward by pharmaceutical companies, including the complexity of drug discovery and development, as well as the expensive and lengthy regulatory procedures involved.

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As the COVID-19 pandemic is sweeping through the world, thousands of people urgently need access to affordable medicines. However, there is concern that patents would limit access to any future vaccinations and treatments, resulting in unaffordable high pricing. This dilemma is aggravated by the fact that, despite purported increases in pharmaceutical R&D spending, current figures show a decline in the number of new breakthrough treatments. Furthermore, rather than breaking new ground, pharmaceutical companies are increasingly focusing their research on incremental medication development (Gurgula, 2020).



DiMasi, J.A., Grabowski, H.G., Hansen, R.W., 2016. Innovation in the pharmaceutical industry: New estimates of R&D costs.Massachusetts: Tufts University.

Gurgula, O., 2020. Strategic Patenting by Pharmaceutical Companies – Should Competition Law Intervene? [online](updated October 28, 2020) Available at:[Accessed June 1, 2021]

Philip L. Swagel, 2021. Research and Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry. [online] (updated April 2021) Available at: [Accessed June 1, 2021] 

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Divorce among Christians Research Paper

Divorce among Christians
Divorce among Christians

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Divorce among Christians

Undoubtedly, religion is, and continues to be, a fundamental element in most marriages in different parts of the world. As an institution, marriage is crucial to human existence and further serves as a crucial avenue for people to partake in God’s creative activities through creation. God’s command, ‘Be fruitful and multiply’ (Genesis 1: 28), can only be fulfilled in the context of marriage.

As a result, marriage is considered a precursor to the formation of a family, and given this, all cultures recognize its importance despite relativism. Among Christians, marriage is expected to be a life contract, hence the phrase, ‘till death do us part.’ This implies that divorce or separation is no option regardless of the circumstances.

However, the divorce and separation rates reported in today’s society have become problematic to Christians as marriages are crashing over irreconcilable differences. The socio-ethical impact of divorce is apparent, and solutions are elusive, regardless of the various measures applied by the Church, marriage counselors, and other concerned individuals or groups to minimize its recurrence.
As an African country, Ghana thrives with a rich cultural and religious heritage that informs and governs its people’s lives and activities. Culture and religion are significantly intertwined in a system referred to as religio-culture, which, when translated to marriage, highlights numerous challenges that include changes of family, ethnic group (clan, village, or tribe), and residence establishment in a new house by the newly wedded couple.

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[What page is this from? I doubt if Brako said religio-culture breeds challenges for marriage] Nonetheless, different researchers concur that a correlation between restrictions, dreams, agencies, and realities serve as the pillars to family dynamics in transnational African migration to the United States or European countries.

Migration to an international destination produces profound social changes in receiving societies. As pointed out by sociodemographic studies, international migration can significantly increase divorce due to various reasons. Among the reasons identified include the fact that moving entails a stressful and life-changing event that leads to a higher divorce likelihood, especially when international borders are crossed.

Divorce among Christians

Additionally, migration policies applied in different nations have become more stringent, making it challenging for families to migrate. As a result, more couples and families end up separated geographically and challenged with the need to arrange family life transitions, which causes marital stress and eventually divorce [Source?] Therefore, this chapter’s essence entails exploring migration issues impacting Ghanaian Christian couples’ marriages in North America.

Divorce among Christians

It will determine the factors or stressors leading to distress and instability in marriages, including intimate conflict between couples, separation, or divorce among Ghanaian Christian couples who immigrate to America. Moreover, the project will analyze the role played by migration, whether the interpretation of marriage and divorce in biblical scriptures factors in the experiences of African’s traditional values and cultural norms.

These will be coupled with the determination of the steps the Church has taken to revert such occurrences and optimally address the issue. [That is not the purpose of this chapter. This chapter is to use Scripture to provide rationale for the project. This whole page is not needed]

Divorce among Christians

The Biblical Rationale
The increase in globalization and migration among Africans to other countries has contributed to socio-cultural dynamics affecting their marriages, leading to separation and divorce. Specifically, marriages have become unstable while divorce rates have skyrocketed [Really, where did you get this from, source?] among American populations in industrialized areas, particularly for unemployed women. As pointed out by König & and Regt, [Use their full names at first appearance] African couples in the diaspora are constantly grappled with numerous challenges in their marriage due to intimate partner violence as one of the significant factors driving high divorce rates. As a holy institution, the foundation of marriage traces back to the Biblical Eden, followed by several other analogies implying God’s decision and take on the union between man and woman. For instance, in Ephesians 5: 22-23, God likens marriage to the Church, while in Luke 14: 7-14, the parable of the wedding feast describes an eschatological rendition. Despite the significance of married highlighted, Arugu points out that each society faces distinct situations characterized by falling marriages, and couples can no longer tolerate each other, leading to divorce.
Common Views for the Different Interpretations [Wrong sub sectioning]
Although different opinions and ideologies exist on interpreting B biblical [Bible is B, biblical is small b] teachings on marriage and divorce, Christians generally agree on various aspects. On the one hand, Christians agree that the intended design for marriage, as put forth by God, comprised a covenant union [But in your conclusion and elsewhere, you said is a contract, stick to marriage as a covenant and why that impacts quality and stability, where in Scripture that it say a covenant, not just what “Christians” say] between a man and a woman for the rest of their lives. Specifically, Genesis 2: 24 exemplifies the one-flesh union that consists of one man and one woman who come together to establish a lifelong covenant. [This is where technical commentaries are needed. The source you mentioned does not deal with theological of covenant so why is it here? Please don’t make things up, not good] This union portrays a bond that should not be separated and that follows a design meant to promote the most fulfilling and satisfying life for humans. Thus, it is considered an elaborate depiction of God’s promise and loyalty to his people and the Church through Jesus. [How is this related to the dissertation or justify the need for the project?]
On the other hand, even though divorce is legal, [On other pages you mentioned that irrespective of the issues there is no divorce, which is which?] biblical teachings urge people to avoid it at all costs. Divorce among Christians is considered failure to adhere to God’s command and design for marriage and sin that has rendered humans unable to live as per the standard stipulated in scriptures such as Genesis 1 and 2. Specifically, most Christians are aware of the adverse eventualities associated with divorce and can identify its significance due to the Church’s cases. [How is this related to the dissertation or justify the need for the project?]

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Lexical Analysis [This whole section is completely unnecessary because it does not tie to any preposition or why this project is needed. Besides it is poorly written, and I already have already written more on this that I could have easily copied but this is a dissertation and biblical rationale chapter]
In Matthew 19:1-12, Jesus engaged in a dialogue with the Pharisees after he entered Judea, a Gentile region.6 Akin to his travel in other regions, Jesus’ opponents approached him with a question aimed at trapping him into uttering words that would anger Herod or contradict Moses’ teachings. In verse three, the Pharisees posed a question to Jesus, ‘Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife on any grounds?’7 Entrenched in cultural, legal, and biblical grounds, Jesus understood their intentions and opted to reframe it based on marriage’s biblical foundation. [Poor writing] In verse four, he responded, ‘Haven’t you read…,’ implying that his listeners would better understand what he was about to say. [Wrong syntax analysis] Paradoxically, Jesus referenced the Torah from which the Pharisees drew their understanding of divorce law. [Not true Jesus referred to Genesis 1:26-27 and 2:24-25 and there is nothing about divorce in those texts. I doubt the theological skills being applied here, wow!] In his initial response, he urged [Really, Jesus urged them to ask a question?] the Pharisees to pose a second question, which he knew would trap him into saying something blasphemous.[What does this mean?] In verse 7, the Pharisees asked Jesus, ‘Why then did Moses command us to give divorce papers and send her away?’ in this question, and the Pharisees sought to provoke Jesus into the claim that Moses’ teachings were wrong. However, Jesus responded that the real reason Moses condoned divorce entailed ‘the hardness of their hearts’ mentioned in verse 8. Genesis 1: 9, Jesus taught about divorce, alongside the exception clause, which perplexed his disciples more than the Pharisees. In disgust, the disciples asked Jesus, ‘If the relationship of a man with his wife is as such, it’s better not to marry.’
Similarly, Paul’s teaching in 1 Corinthians 7 portrays marriage from the perspective of the cross. More precisely, Paul’s interactions with the Corinthians fostered the teaching that marriage can distract spouses from the cross, and for single people, there are situations not to pursue it. Paul’s sentiment, ‘It is good for a man not to have sexual relations with a woman,’ does not allude to his opposition to sex. God created the life-long union between man and woman, implying that he endorses sexual relations. Besides, Paul held high regard for marriage and sex. However, in a letter to the Corinthians, Paul sought to teach them to abide by their wives and the holy institution of marriage. Specifically, in the phrase, διὰ δὲ τὰς πορνείας ἕκαστος τὴν ἑαυτοῦ γυναῖκα ἐχέτω καὶ ἑκάστη τὸν ἴδιον ἄνδρα ἐχέτω, [What is this doing here? When I ask for skills in Biblical Greek as a requirement, it does not mean peppering the paper with a Greek sentences to prove a point. Where are the commentaries saying and what are the specifics of the tect impacting the subject of the research. For example 1 Cor 7:15 talks about ἄπιστος or unbeliever who might dissert and in “such cases” ἐν τοῖς τοιούτοιςwhat are the interpretation of such in relation to divorce, should in such cases include abuse as theologians like Wayne Grudem are advancing] can be translated to mean that ‘due to fornication after fornication, each on (of you husbands) should continue (in the sexual relationship) with (your) one wife, and each one (of you wives) should continue (in the sexual relationship) with your husband.’10 In this statement, Paul used the plural, πορνείας, to highlight the infamous sexual sins in Corinth. Most fundamentally, Paul recognized that fornication was running rampant in Corinth, but merely uttering words would not curb the sin.
In 1 Corinthians 7:2, Paul stated that an individual should have his spouse sexually and each wife should have her husband. Based on these words, Paul attempted to help the Corinthians develop a full appreciation for the physical marriage-bond put in place by their creator. Conversely, in verses 10 and 11, Paul addressed Christian couples who may have been considering divorce or separation. In Corinth, the divorce context was not considered Rabbinic Judaism since it was in Jesus’ day. Instead, across the Greek and Roman cities, the divorce law was interpreted to be that if an individual’s partner decided to divorce their spouse, they could do so by leaving. Similarly, divorce was interpreted as, if the individual owned the house, he or she should insist that the partner leaves. During this time, Paul’s teachings indicated that divorce ought to have been handled through separation based on no-fault or contest. However, no regulations or provisions existed protecting women as the requirement Judaism. If the couple proceeded to divorce in court, it was meant to determine how the property would be distributed instead of determining if they should break off their marriage. Akin to today’s society, when the couple divorced, society the partners as free individuals who would remmary.12
Instructions for Divorce among Christians
Following verses 10 and 11, Paul attempted to teach believers on whether they should divorce. For instance, he stated that God prohibited divorce or separation after marriage, or in the event of separation, another marriage. Similar sentiments are echoed in Malachi 2: 14-16, which states that although God hated divorce and initially created marriage for men and women, a provision or exception exists in Pentateuch’s divorce, especially across issues that involve uncleanness, which has been translated to imply adultery. In Jesus’ era, this provision has been interpreted by Rabbi Hillel’s followers as condoning divorce for any reason that did not please the husband. When confronted by the Pharisees about this issue, Jesus did not condone the widespread interpretation that accommodated divorce for any reason and further limited it to sexual immorality, porneia, meaning adultery in Matthew 5: 32; 19: 6-9.
In 1 Corinthians 7: 10-11, Paul interpreted Jesus’ words to the Christian believers who were married. For instance, Paul stated that ‘10To the married, I give this command (not I, but the Lord: A wife must not separate (chōrizō) from her husband. 11But if she does, she must remain unmarried or else be reconciled to her husband. And a husband must not divorce his wife).’ Under the NIV version, divorce is translated to aphiēmi, which implies releasing or dismissing someone from a particular place or situation. In the Greco-Roman context, Paul is portrayed to be referring to couples in which both partners are Christians, similar to the way Jesus addressed couples within the Jewish context.
Subsequently, Paul affirmed that the marriage binds the couple until death, echoed in Matthew 19: 4-6. Precisely, Paul stated that ‘Haven’t you read… that at the beginning the Creator made them male and female,’ and ‘For this reason, a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife, and the two will become one flesh? So, they are no longer two, but one. Therefore, what God has joined together, let no man separate.’ [The guide says don’t insert full passages into the text] In today’s society, divorce is associated with intense pain, distress, and psychological issues, even among Christians left to ponder over several issues, [Poor sentence structure] including whether they can remarry. [You mean Gravningen et al said this, which page?] For instance, when a spouse migrates to an international destination such as the United States, why is it challenging to maintain the marriage, or why does the couple drift away from the bond that initially brought them together. As Arugu puts it, the major contributor to the increase in rates of divorce in the twentieth century entails the widespread acceptance in society. More precisely, the increase in society’s tolerance of divorce has emanated from the relaxation of negative attitudes in Church. Besides, divorce is no longer perceived as sin by most religious denominations, and most nations, including Ghana, have adopted relatively moderate divorce laws.
Additional attributions to the increase in divorce rates in today’s society include less satisfaction among couples with their marriages than biblical times or a few decades ago. Similarly, the variation in cultural norms, social constructs, and realities between the two contexts, Ghana and North America, trigger different relationship experiences and determine the standard predictors of marriage outcomes. On the one hand, Ghana’s cultural and religious systems help its people in formulating internalized social constructs and norms that serve as the primary sources behavior patterns in a relationship. At the same time, marriage ceases to be a fundamental element in the society and transitions into a social construct. Although several studies exist on marriage and religion, they have been limited to the basic aspects of religiosity, including church attendance and affiliations. However, some researchers have extended their studies to proximal aspects of religion, fostering a better understanding of how married couples connect their religious faith to family life. This objective’s attainment has included aspects such as specific belief systems, the processes applied in meaning-making, and the impacts of religion on such meaning-making, alongside religious behaviors that extend beyond church attendance.
Despite the approaches used in determining religion’s role in curbing divorce rates, especially among couples who migrated to international destinations, [Migration is not just about people who migrated already married, check the project worksheet and the proposal outline to understand the research] the biblical interpretation of marriage, remarriage, and divorce follows the commands postulated across various scriptures. For instance, in 1 Corinthians 7: 10-11, Paul passed on commands from Jesus to shape marriages and deter divorce rates. Among these commands include that Christians should not get divorced or separated from their spouses. However, if divorce or separation are inevitable, the believers should remain divorced, single, or work towards reconciling their marriage. [Orr and Walter, never said anything like this, what page?]
Stressors in Marital Distress or Instability among Ghanaian Immigrant couples in America
Despite the underlying pressure to abide by specific cultural norms and social constructions in African countries, Christian couples experience various stress factors that significantly contribute to the prevalence of divorce rates. These stressors’ experience is primarily experienced by Christian couples who immigrate to different parts of the world, including the United States, as they are constantly expected to maintain their African traditions and further assimilate into the host nation’s cultures. For women, immigrating to North America from Ghana necessitates acquiring a new language and culture, alongside social status and income levels. In the Ghanaian context, women may have been predisposed and limited to relying on the husband as the sole income earner. Still, upon immigration, they face stressors that include finding employment, discrimination, culture shock, and linguistic changes. These stress factors are coupled with cultural barriers to necessary health and social services, lack of professional accreditation, and the need to secure affordable and safe housing.

Divorce among Christians

Conversely, for some women who migrate with their husbands, the process may translate to economic independence, social mobility, and relative autonomy. These elements occur when immigration is accompanied by a significant increase in participation in the labor market. The exposure to increased responsibilities in the economy and throughout society tends to alter the power distribution processes within the family, culminating in increased participation and authority over household decision-making and control over resources. At the same time, increased participation in the labor force intensifies the burden carried by Ghanaian women until they identify different ways of handling the conventional roles and responsibilities, including those of childcare and housework. These occurrences bring about a dramatic change in the power relationship within the marriage. Despite situations in which immigrating may improve the women’s social status, it does not change their roles and position within the family. [THIS WHOLE SECTION IS NOT NEEDED, I NEED BIBLICAL RATIONALE]

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Relevance of the Stressors to the Exception Clause in Matthew 19:9 and 5:32
Following the stress factors faced by women in Christian marriages and who migrate with their husbands from Ghana to the United States, several allusions can be deduced in terms of their relevance to interpreting the exemption clause passed by Jesus. Specifically, in Matthew 5:23; 19:9, Jesus provided an exception that warranted divorce and remarriage if the reason for separation was adultery or sexual immorality. Among Christians, this exception indicates that unless the husband or wife commits adultery, the couple should abide by Paul’s command and in reference to Jesus’ teachings. It further indicates a consensus among Christians applied since its introduction by Erasmus in the sixteenth century. Nonetheless, the interpretation of this exception has, over time, changed to favor specific circumstances in which a couple seeks to separate.
As pointed out by Ferrante, the variations and challenges in interpreting the exception clause are based on the phrase ‘porneia.’ Different people hold distinct views regarding the phrase’s interpretation, with the least adoption option referring to an incestuous relationship. Nevertheless, the most likely held view is in reference to biblical chapters, such as Acts 15:20 and 29, which has interpreted the phrase porneia as forbidden marriages, as per Lev 18:6-18. Similarly, another set of interpretations of the phrase entails a forbidden or prohibited relationship between a Jew and a gentile through mixed marriage. These two interpretations are characterized by the Jewish context of Matthew’s Gospel, which may not be considered legitimate marriages that should be dissolved instead of involving the divorce process. The interpretation that best fits today’s Christian world and marriages entail the view of porneia as unchastity of betrothed men and women. Under this view, the interpretation of the phrase as sexual immorality without reference to marital unfaithfulness is based on its use in describing a situation in which the betrothed and not married yet.
As described herein, the various stressors facing Ghanaian women in Christian marriages and who have migrated to North America predisposes them to conditions that disregard and change gender roles and marital quality. Although the women or men in these marriages do not necessarily commit adultery, they engage in activities that lead to sexual immorality without reference to marital unfaithfulness. These circumstances further lead to divorce. The couple is forced to compromise by accepting the changes in gender roles and marital quality instead of adhering to the cultural norms, social constructions, and Christian values that initially bound them together. In Matthew 1:19, when Mary and Joseph were betrothed, she conceived Jesus. The verse further points out that ‘her husband Joseph, being a just man and unwilling to put her to shame, resolved to divorce her quietly.’ In this case, Mary and Joseph are considered betrothed, mnesteuo, but Joseph is still considered her husband, aner.
The lexical correlation between these interpretations and those in today’s society exemplifies the significance of betrothal in Jesus’ era compared to engagement in the contemporary world. In the latter era, being betrothed meant the same as marriage as the couple had their intentions to get married or further made the necessary arrangements. The only difference between betrothal and marriage entailed abstinence from sexual intercourse until the coupled is united. Marcus. For instance, when Joseph decided to divorce apolysai, Mary quietly portrayed the end of a betrothal based on perceived porneia, committing adultery. The incident coincides with divorce in an entire marriage, which was considered a just act as it was at par with Jewish customs and the standards put in place by Jesus. Christian couples who have migrated to North America get divorced for reasons that do not include porneia, sexual immorality. Although the circumstances slightly differ, they have significantly contributed to the increase in divorce rates today. Besides, the Church does not reinforce marriage fundamentals before and after a couple enters the holy institution. [Apart from the quality of writing, what has all this got to do with the research at hand?]
Based on these factors, divorces among Ghanaian couples who have migrated to North America follow the interpretation in Joseph’s and Mary’s case. The circumstances leading to separation fall under the category of adultery. For instance, stressors such as lack of marital satisfaction, intimate partner violence, and different forms of distress play a fundamental role in the destabilization of marriage, leading to divorce. Before migrating, the couple understood and abided by the traditional and cultural norms that defined their family roles. Extended family members had a significant influence on the activities carried out in the family, while social constructs defined gender roles and participation in societal events. However, over time, these trends have drastically changed as people have become increasingly individualistic and further taken the laws into their hands. As a result, family values have significantly eroded, resulting in an increase in divorce in contemporary society.
Traditionally, both husbands and wives understood marriage as an indissoluble, sacred, and stable institution based on biblical teachings related to ‘what God puts together, no one should separate or put asunder,’ Matthew 19:6. [This is completely unnecessary statement, what does it proof?] Akin to the biblical allusions,[allusions overused term] marriage in Ghana and other African countries meant that no couples had the privilege [divorce is not a privilege] of discontinuing or dissolving the Christian relationship. For instance, after the marital exchange of vows, couples promised each other to remain in the marriage until death separated them. Upon migration in today’s society, numerous things have changed, and marriage is no longer a stable and steady institution. [This is below master’s level writing let alone PhD, please is anyone checking?] When in a new country with different cultures, social constructs, values, and rules, privileges, and opportunities, among others, a Christian couple is often faced with various issues that might dissolve their relationship. The cross-culturalization between these distinct nations influences the attitudes of the couple concerning marriage and divorce. For instance, the woman may want freedom from the traditional roles of childcare and looking after the family. At the same time, the man may desire to explore different cultures or pursue a different path.

Divorce among Christians

After conducting an in-depth exegetical analysis of the applicable scriptures, this project has further analyzed existing literature to acquire the relevant data related to the effects of migration on Ghanaian Christian couples’ marital quality and stability in North America. By harnessing Bbiblical teachings and principles applied in different contexts, the study has generated immense insights that may strengthen marriage and minimize divorce rates. Besides, the congruency between the biblical allusions and the scientific studies has played a fundamental role in questions such as how migrations affect the quality and stability of sub-Saharan African Christian couples in North America. Although the biblical allusions do not provide facts about the appropriate steps that should be taken [About what?], they provide relevance to Jesus’ teachings, among other scriptures that conform to God’s intention for humans. [Are you separating the Bible from Jesus?] More precisely, the biblical teachings indicated that marriage is an institution crucial to human existence and further serves as a crucial avenue for people to partake in God’s creative activities through creation. As per God’s command, for humans to be fruitful, multiply, and fill the earth, marriage serves as the fulfillment and a precursor to a family’s formation. Given this, all cultures recognize its importance despite relativism.
Among Christians, marriage is expected to be a life contract bidding the parties involved commitment till death separates them.[Bad grammar] This implies that divorce or separation is not an acceptable option regardless of the circumstances.[Is that true, but you mentioned Jesus provided an exception?] However, the divorce and separation rates reported in today’s society have become a concern, even for Christians, as marriages are crashing over irreconcilable differences.[Bad writing] The social and ethical effects of divorce have thus become apparent. At the same time, solutions are undeniably elusive, and regardless of the various measures applied by the Church, marriage counselors, and other concerned individuals or groups to minimize its recurrence. Therefore, based on this section’s findings, different theoretical and analytical methods should be applied in determining the precise variables and measures that would foster answering the project questions.

Bibliography Divorce among Christians

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Adonu, Joseph K. “Psychosocial Predictors of Marital Satisfaction in British and Ghanaian Cultural Settings.” Thesis Submitted for the Award of Ph.D. Degree in Psychology- School of Social Sciences and Law Brunel University, 2005, 1-305.

Andersson, Gunnar, Ognjen Obucina, and Kirk Scott. “Marriage and divorce of immigrants and descendants of immigrants in Sweden.” Demographic Research 33 (2015), 31-64. doi:10.4054/demres.2015.33.2.

Arugu, Love O. “Social indicators and effects of marriage divorce in African societies.” The Business & Management Review 4, no. 4 (March 2014), 374-383.

Asoodeh, Mohammad H., Shiva Khalili, Manijeh Daneshpour, and Masoud G. Lavasani. “Factors of a successful marriage: Accounts from self-described happy couples.” Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 5 (2010), 2042-2046. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.410.

Bijwaard, Govert E., and Stijn Van Doeselaar. “The impact of changes in the marital status on return migration of family migrants.” Journal of Population Economics, 2013. doi:10.1007/s00148-013-0495-3.

Brako, Fred. “Examining gender role beliefs and marital satisfaction of Ghanaian immigrant couples in the U.S.A.” Drexel University- Ph.D., Couple and Family Therapy, November 2012.

Caarls, Kim, and Valentina Mazzucato. “Does International Migration Lead to Divorce? Ghanaian Couples in Ghana and Abroad.” Population 70, no. 1 (2015), 127-151. doi:10.3917/popu.1501.0135.

Clark, Shelley, and Sarah Brauner-Otto. “Divorce in sub-Saharan Africa: Are Unions Becoming Less Stable?” Population and Development Review 41, no. 4 (2015), 583-605. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2015.00086. x.

Coe, Cati. “What is Love? The Materiality of Care in Ghanaian Transnational Families.” International Migration 49, no. 6 (2011), 7-24. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2435.2011.00704. x.

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Familusi, Olumuyiwa O. “Till Circumstances do us Part: A Socio-Ethical Analysis of Divorce among Christians in Nigeria.” Global Journal of Human-Social Science: An Arts & Humanities – Psychology 19, no. 5 (2019).

Ferrante, Lorenzo. “Religion and Culture of Origin. Re-Shaping Identity in the Integration Process: A Case Study in Sicily.” Qualitative Sociology Review 15, no. 3 (2019), 126-147. doi:10.18778/1733-8077.15.3.07.

Furtado, Delia, Miriam Marcén, and Almudena Sevilla. “Does Culture Affect Divorce? Evidence from European Immigrants in the United States.” Demography 50, no. 3 (2013), 1013-1038. doi:10.1007/s13524-012-0180-2.

Goodman, Michael A., David C. Dollahite, Loren D. Marks, and Emily Layton. “Religious Faith and Transformational Processes in Marriage.” Family Relations 62, no. 5 (2013), 808-823. doi:10.1111/fare.12038.

Gravningen, Kirsten, Kirstin R. Mitchell, Kaye Wellings, Anne M. Johnson, Rebecca Geary, Kyle G. Jones, Soazig Clifton, et al. “Reported reasons for breakdown of marriage and cohabitation in Britain: Findings from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3).” PLOS ONE 12, no. 3 (2017), e0174129. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174129.

Hyman, Ilene, Sepali Guruge, and Robin Mason. “The Impact of Migration on Marital Relationships: A Study of Ethiopian Immigrants in Toronto.” Journal of Comparative Family Studies 39, no. 2 (2008), 149-163. doi:10.3138/jcfs.39.2.149.

König, Reinhilde S., and Marina De Regt. “Family dynamics in transnational African migration to Europe: an introduction.” African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal 3, no. 1 (2010), 1-15. doi:10.1080/17528630903368232.

Orr, William F., and James A. Walther. “I Corinthians: A New Translation: Introduction with a Study of the Life and Paul, Notes, and Commentary.” Journal of Biblical Literature 96, no. 4 (1976), 608. doi:10.2307/3266017.

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Divorce among Christians

Effect of Migration on Marital Quality and Stability of Ghanaian Christian Couples in America 2021

Effect of Migration on Marital Quality
Effect of Migration on Marital Quality

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Effect of Migration on Marital Quality and Stability of Ghanaian Christian Couples in America

The Biblical Rationale :

Marriage has been given profound importance in all religions specifically in Christianity. There is substantial articulation in both Hebrew and Bible about the importance, benefits both in eternal and worldly life, and the impacts of undermining marriage. The basis of marriage is possessed by the Biblical Eden in which it is considered as a holy institution.

The religious importance of marriage can be evaluated and gauged by the fact that God presided over the first-ever marriage by offering Eve to Adam. We all are a generation of Adam and Eve and God itself has given substantial importance to marriage as can be seen in the scripture of the Bible and God adores the marriage in the Church. Therefore, there is no denying the fact that marriage has an inevitable role in strengthening Christian communities and societies.

In addition to the manifestation of the Bible about marriage, many researchers and scholars conceded the fact that marriage is the bedrock of any stable or mainstream community. “And the two will become one flesh’. This is a profound mystery – but I am talking about Christ and the church” (Ephesians 5.31–32). Marriage is the gift of God and God considered marriage crucial not only for the individuals who are marrying but also for the evolving human societies.

The Church, therefore, rejects as false all efforts to understand marriage (and all other human relationships) independently of the call to discipleship. In Christianity, discipleship is the true following of the way of Jesus Christ

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Dynamic patterns concerning Christian Marital issues require ordinary, refreshed investigations, trying to dispose of ‘deadly’ obliviousness. Peter Brierley, cited Tidball’s perception; “…something is truly amiss with the congregation” and Riddell’s congregation is in a difficult situation and doesn’t know it”. Among these inconveniences are the expanding circumstances of Marital trouble that bargain certain Christian practices when all is said in done and the Ghanaian Adventist Christian transient couples specifically.

Even though instances of factual records abound and by and large vouch for passionate scars endured by numerous individuals with their comparing consequences for society, the pattern proceeds with unabated. It is accepted inside the Christian people group that scriptural Christianity proposes a potential enduring glad Marital relationship, where magnanimous love may connote Christian development.

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However, the truth of existing relationships including that of GACMs comes up short. While it very well might be viewed as ordinary somewhere else, with resolute non-debatable customs of exacting hierarchical (SDA) translation of Scripture in certain circles, combined with comparing African social impacts, GACMs find nearly everything amiss with troublesome relationships particularly when they end in separate.

In pretty much every culture, separate from influences more than the couples in question. While a few casualties suffer hopelessness peacefully being shy of different choices ladies, experience some friendly demonization for being separated. Thusly a few couples shroud troubles even from companions and the congregation. As such, whole networks generally have a stake and may languish some detachment over family members’ Marital pressures. Such Marital issues whether they end in partition or separation convey with them numerous casualties.

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In actuality, such a choice may affect the actual endurance of the tranquil conjunction of included networks. As a matter of first importance, this examination researches potential purposes for Marital troubles noted among Ghanaian transients explicitly GACMs in Britain which regularly make fears and doubt among couples and local area pioneers. Stories of genuine circumstances proliferate (among GACMs) of how couples’ conduct and mentalities out of nowhere change following settlement in Europe.

Subsequently, some Ghanaians lean toward a drawn-out partition and decide to leave companions in Ghana for genuine feelings of serenity. Ghanaian relationships will undoubtedly get troublesome with a high likelihood of finishing off separate. The gathering’s administration faces the real factors of assimilation and lawful limitations, combined with a misconstrued social view of their issues inside a 21st century’s non-absolute climate.

Other extra issues for the administration include: Dealing with expanding divorce rates, indefinite partition of couples while in Britain with accompanying doubts, Non-responsibility issues, for example, co-habiting believers.

Church Discipline:
For instance, some administrations face allegations of cumbersomeness with anomalies of progressively moral and opinionated contentions against their treatment of marital concerns. Argumentative and frequently begging to be proven wrong church disciplinary inconsistencies, follow co-residence, partition, separation, and remarriages consequently influencing resulting church cooperation trying to keep up chapel discipline.

Existing measurable documents imply that likely the pace of expansion in the overall Christian separation issue is in proportion to the Christian churches needed to address and contextualize the commonsense real factors of contemporary scenes in holy places today. Also, almost certainly, there are a few casualties of these Marital quandaries inside the Ghanaian social direction while kids and different casualties get cleared along by the breakdown of Ghanaian relationships.

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Implications regarding Immigrants:
The concept of marriage may vary from societies to societies but nearly all societies see marriage favorably. In the American context too, marriage is also considered as the firm bonding for societal stability but certain causes are undermining this aspect of marriage like migration. The African migrations and the immigrants coming to America are dissolving their marriage substantially which is prompting feelings of distress, depression, and anxieties in the communities.

The interaction of these migrants with natives, clash of cultural norms, and inappropriate guidance from the church leaders further intensify these types of issues. To offer a piece of good advice, Bible also articulates the examples of those immigrants who faced countless challenges at their time. For example, in Genesis 12:1, Bible manifests how God gave instructions to Abraham to leave the house of his father for that new land, which God would show to him. The other examples include Moses and Joseph, who left their native land and became migrants.

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These people were the influencers of that time and due to only one reason, they conceded the order of migration from God and that reason was the inherent trust in God.
Adoption of Culture:

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As the study aims to unveil the inherent prospects of the Ghanaian culture about the impact of migration of marriage, it is crucial to deliberate the cultural impact on the interpretation of the Bible. According to various scholars, it is crucial to consider the cultural framework while interpreting the verses of the Bible and also noted that many different cultures have different world views which have been shaped by their distinct cultures.
For the people who are migrating from their native land to another land, it is formidable for them to adopt the culture of the migrated area.

The evaluation of culture is also important to perceive the message of the Bible accurately. There is no denying the fact that God has created Bible for diverse cultures and these cultures cannot be ignored. Western culture is without a doubt among the powers that have formed the encounters and relationships of transients from sub-Saharan Africa.

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Leaving the outsiders feeling secluded and estranged is among the impacts of Western culture. For instance, Massey and Higgins discovered that unfamiliar societies affected foreigners’ confidence. They saw that devotees who were beforehand resolute in their Christian confidence practice were probably going to turn out to be less strict when they moved toward the West. They infer that “detailed church participation at spots of source and in the United States recommend that migration is a problematic occasion that estranges migrants from strict practice instead of “theologizing” them.”

Effect of Migration on Marital Quality and Stability of Ghanaian Christian Couples in America

Clifford MeesuaSibani offers a charming conversation on the progressions that travelers experience when presented to Western impacts. Travelers who move to Western nations receive Western qualities, and subsequently, they can’t assemble relationships that last. For instance, Sibani noticed that in African societies, relationships are a mutual undertaking where families and the local area become engaged with cooperating and issue harsh alerts against such indecencies as infidelity.

Effect of Migration on Marital Quality and Stability of Ghanaian Christian Couples in America

Then again, in the West, relationships are an individual matter, and the local area assumes a restricted part. At the point when they leave Africa, hitched adherents lose the advantage of connection and local areas that are profoundly instilled in African culture. It is little marvel that as Amato and James set up, the U.S. furthermore; Europe leads the world concerning divorce rates. At the point when they get comfortable in these districts, African Christian migrants are presented to a raised danger of separation.

The laws in objective nations fundamentally sway the relationships of African transients. Across numerous African countries, polygamous relationships are perceived and cherished in the law. Then again, in the West, polygamy is unlawful, with those discovered taking part in this work on confronting weighty authorizations. The distinction in the ways to deal with polygamy among Africa and the West somewhat clarifies the ascent in separate from cases among African migrants.

For instance, as indicated by Baloyi, the breakdown in African relationships and families is the conflict between the African partiality for polygamous relationships and the Western demand that a man must be hitched to one lady at a given time. The laws overseeing divorce are likewise forming the relationships of African settlers. Tallied accused the higher commonness of separation among these foreigners in light of the fact that, in the Western nations where they settle, the laws on separate are generally careless.

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Effect of Migration on Marital Quality and Stability of Ghanaian Christian Couples in America

Financial Reliance: Effect of Migration on Marital Quality and Stability of Ghanaian Christian Couples in America

Financial reliance is another factor that seems to impact marriage and separation among African foreigners in the West. For some settlers from Africa, the quest for better financial possibilities is among the fundamental drivers of movement. Basically, the outsiders look for a getaway from the destitution and monetary difficulties that are endemic across the African landmass. Examination by researchers like Hogendoorn et al. has affirmed a relationship between monetary weakness and separation.

Basically, moderately helpless people are more defenseless and bound to encounter issues that set up for separate. A few different analysts have likewise settled that neediness is a critical danger factor for separate and Marital issues. Since they are destitute and monetarily reliant on the West, African foreigners are almost powerless as their relationships lay on the nations’ monetary strength and liberality that have them.

Another way that African migrants’ financial reliance on the West has on marriage is that the dependence forces strains and weights on settlers’ families. For instance, each year, African workers dispatch tremendous entireties back to their nations of origin. While these settlements help to construct African economies, it is sensible to assume that they leave the workers monetarily depleted.

It is for sure conceivable that as they send cash home, the settlers are left with scarcely enough for their food. The monetary troubles that they face could trigger marital issues that finish in separate. Research demonstrates that monetary difficulties are among the indicators of separation. Accordingly, their families and networks’ financial reliance on African settlers causes pressure and can contribute to divorce cases.

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However, different analysts have inspected marriage and separation rates among African workers living in the West, some evident holes underscore the significance of the task. For instance, while some research has investigated outsiders’ encounters from Africa, Ghanaians have not gotten a lot of consideration. Existing research is fairly broad and doesn’t offer explicit bits of knowledge into the encounters of Ghanaian foreigners. Auxiliary, scientists will in general zero in on effect of movement on separate without the fundamental treatment of components of conjugal quality or avoidance of separation.

Consequently, zeroing in on marriage quality this research fits a hole on avoidance. Thirdly, there isn’t surviving writing or research that arranges the issue inside Christian experience. Generally, the current writing examines the causes and effects of migration status on African foreigners’ relationships. By creating explicit mediations that the settlers can embrace, the current undertaking will expand the research scope.

Effect of Migration on Marital Quality and Stability of Ghanaian Christian Couples in America

Anarfi, J. K. (1993). Sexuality, migration and AIDS in Ghana-A socio-behavioural study. Health Transition Review, 45-67.

Chattopadhyay, A., White, M. J., & Debpuur, C. (2006). Migrant fertility in Ghana: Selection versus adaptation and disruption as causal mechanisms. Population studies, 60(2), 189-203.

Falen, D. J. (2008). Polygyny and Christian marriage in Africa: The case of Benin. African studies review, 51-74.

Charsley, K., Storer‐Church, B., Benson, M., & Van Hear, N. (2012). Marriage‐related migration to the UK. International Migration Review, 46(4), 861-890.

Familusi, OlumuyiwaOlusesan. “Till Circumstances do us Part: A Socio-Ethical Analysis of Divorce among Christians in Nigeria.”Global Journal of Human-Social Science: A Arts & Humanities-Psychology 19.5 (2019), 23-32.

Fenske, James. “African polygamy: past and present.”Journal of Development Economics 117 (2015), 58-73.

Fielder, Klaus. “For the sake of Christian marriage, abolish church weddings.”ERT, 41.4 (2017), 355-68.

Flahaux, Marie-Laurence and de Haas, Hein. “African migration: trends, patterns, drivers.”Comparative Migration Studies 4.1(2016), 1-25.

Garland, David E. Reading Matthew: A Literary and Theological Commentary on the First Gospel. Macon, GA: Smyth &Helwys Publishing, 2001.

“Ghana.”Migration Policy Institute. 2020.

Gonzalez-Garcia, Jesus, Hitaj, Ermal, Mlachila, Montfort, Viseth, Arina and Yenice, Mustafa. Sub-Saharan African migration. Patterns and spillover”, International Monetary Fund; 2016,

Effect of Migration on Marital Quality and Stability of Ghanaian Christian Couples in America

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Effect of Migration on Marital Quality

National Appliance Inc case study 2021

National Appliance Inc
National Appliance Inc

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National Appliance Inc CASE STUDY

National Appliance Inc case study Bob Reard, Director of corporate transportation for National Appliance, Inc., has just hung up the phone after a lengthy discussion with Susan Jameson, vice president of logistics.

National Appliance Inc has just acquired an appliance distributor located in Paris, and the logistics department has two months to develop an operating process to support this European distributor with National Appliance Inc products.  The shipments to Paris will begin in approximately five months, and Mr. Reard is to prepare a transportation operating plan for these shipments.  

National Appliance Inc is a medium-size U.S. manufacturer of refrigerators and electric ranges.  During the past fifteen years, National Appliance Inc has increased its share of the refrigerator and electric range market from less than 2 percent to 20 percent.  

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Part of the reason for this tremendous growth is that National Appliance Inc offers high-quality products at low prices.  In addition, National Appliance Inc has vertically integrated both its supply and marketing channels.  National believes that quality products result from actually owning and managing key component vendors and that quality marketing and sales efforts result from directly managing distributors and retail appliance outlets.  

It surprised Mr. Reard to learn that National Appliance Inc had purchased control of a European alliance distributor.  There had been many rumors about expansion into the European market, but Mr. Reard had felt that National Appliance Inc would merely develop a contractual relationship with a distributor in Europe, not purchase a distributor. 

Purchasing the Paris distributor is the first major international business venture for National Appliance Inc in its thirty-five-year history.  During the late 1990’s the company had unsuccessfully attempted to market refrigerators in both Canada and Mexico.  Mr. Reard had personally managed the truck shipments to both countries. 

 Consequently Mr. Reard and his staff have very limited international experience.  They do, however, possess considerable expertise in domestic transportation, having successfully controlled both transportation costs and services during the company’s rapid growth in the past fifteen years.

Given the emphasis on quality products and service, top management has mandated consistent, low lead times.  National Appliance Inc delivers domestic distributor orders in less than five days from the order date; the company allows no exceptions to this service policy.  

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Truck transportation, including a private fleet, is the primary mode the company uses for both inbound and outbound shipments.  Spare parts are normally shipped by ground express, but the company uses air express when the distributor or dealer needs a special part immediately.  Ms. Jameson has established a logistics quality control program that measures carrier performance and has used Mr. Reard’s managerial skills to assure acceptable performance from National Appliance Inc carriers.

Having had little experience in international transportation, Mr. Reard feels a bit out of his element in developing an international transporation plan.  Ms. Jameson has assured him that transportation is transportation and that the only difference between international and domestic transportation is distance.  

Distance is going to be a major factor, since National Appliance Inc has plants located in Memphis, Minneapolis, and Omaha.  This long distance from the European market will contribute to two basic problems; high transport costs and long lead times.  Moving the products from the plants to the Atlantic or Gulf ports will require some form of ground transporation.  Ocean carrier shipment will be long, and Mr. Reard will have to arrange to move the product from the French entry port to Paris.  Mr. Reard is sure that he can hire an international transportation manager, but he will have to pay a high salary.

            With the logistics planning meeting set for the next morning at 8:00 a.m., Mr. Reard prepares the following transporation plan for Ms. Jameson:

  1. Finished product from all three plants will be shipped by truck to NY/New Jersey ports.
  2. Water transportation will be used from New York/NJ to LeHavre, France.
  3. Trucks will transport the products from LeHavre to the Paris distributor.
  4. From Paris, the distributor will arrange transportation to the ultimate customer.
  5. An international transportation manager will be hired.

Mr. Reard estimates that the total transit time required for this move will be approximately four weeks.

National Appliance Inc, Case study Questions:

For this case, you must do the following:

a)  Type up the answer to the question below, using supporting materials from text, class, news, research citations, etc. 

  1. Develop an alternative international plan to present to Ms.  Jameson, and provide justification sufficient to support its adoption. (include the strengths and weaknesses of your plan)

b)  You must include one visual diagram, and include one justification for your strategy (strength or weakness).  (For example, if driver issues might be a problem with your solution, you can tell why this isn’t a problem, based on the corporate strategy)

c) Include an overall conclusion of the case analysis.

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National Appliances Inc Case study

The current international plan made by Mr. Reard has some strengths and weaknesses but needs much improvement. Mr. Reard plans on transporting all finished products from three different locations to one main port through trucks. He also plans on using water transportation to deliver the products to the France harbor where they will be then transported to Paris through trucks. Due to his lack of experience in international transportation, Mr. Reard plans on hiring an international transport manager which will be quite hefty.

The main problems are a long lead time and high transportation cost from the USA to France. An alternative plan can be formulated in order to eliminate the weaknesses in Mr. Reards’ plan as well as eliminating the problems that are predicted. A new and better plan will be formulated in order to minimize on the scale of the current problems.

There will be a need for a central hub, where all products from Memphis, Minneapolis, and Omaha will be stored awaiting shipping and distribution. This will inevitably reduce transportation cost from all three locations to the harbor. A central hub will offer a service window defined by delivery frequency and response time to order (Rodrigue 2006). 

According to (Carnarius 2018), longer journeys through rail can be cost effective as compared to road. This is because it is having reliable transit times and schedules and also fast and cost-effective. Moreover, one train can carry goods equivalent to 400 trucks hence more products can be transported to the port at once (Carnarius 2018).

Considering the amount of products to be transported, other modes of transport, like air, are considered economically unviable. Transporting cargo through the ocean is cost effective but at the same time disadvantageous due to long lead times (Carnarius 2018). Even though the four weeks of the time the water transportation is longer than the usual domestic time, it will reduce the cost for the company significantly.

Mr. Reard and his staff have helped in increasing the sales of National appliances from two percent to twenty percent in the last fifteen years. They possess considerable expertise in domestic transportation, having successfully controlled both transportation costs and services during the company’s rapid growth in the past fifteen years. Considering his experience, Mr. reard is capable of overseeing the whole project and will assure an acceptable performance from National appliances. Moreover, hiring a long-term employee will be expensive for the company. An alternative would be to consult an expert initially for setting up international operations. They will help the company overcome challenges and also increase revenue (Business News Daily 2021).

Using the new formulated plan will not only be cost effective but also reduce the long lead time. The company will have a smooth entrance into the global market and will inevitably see a high profit. A visualization of the new plan is presented in figure 1. The plan that would otherwise be presented to Ms. Jameson will be as follows:

  1. A central hub will be created between the three locations where all products will be transported from for New York/ new jersey in order to reduce transportation cost.
  2. In order to minimize on transportation cost, the products will be taken to the New York/new jersey ports through rail transportation.
  3. From the USA ports, the products will be transported through water to the LeHarve harbor in France.
  4. An international transport manager will not be hired, instead Mr. Reard will be overseeing the whole project.


Business news daily (2021). What is a business consultant. Retrieved from

Carnarius J. (2018). Modes of Transportation explained: Which type of cargo and freight transportation is the best?Retrieved from

Rodrigue J. P. (2006). The geography of transport systems: logistics and freight distribution. Retrieved from

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National Appliance Inc Case Study