VOLUNTEERS IN NFP AND NGOS

VOLUNTEERS IN NFP AND NGOS

VOLUNTEERS IN NFP AND NGOS

The Victorian equal employment opportunity law stipulates volunteers’ rights. The law states that, volunteers in not for profit and non-governmental organizations should have equal protection against harassment and damages as the other paid employees. Volunteers are important recourses for NGOs and NFP organizations. Most of these charitable organizations are run and managed by volunteers (Taylor, 2011). They offer their services free of charge to the organizations that deliver charitable programs to disadvantaged countries and communities. They have no interest in financial compensation. Most of them derive personal satisfaction from offering their services free of charge to charitable organizations. The importance of volunteers is attached to their contribution towards achieving an organization’s mission and objectives. According to Ralph (2006), qualified volunteers should be retained through motivation. They can be encouraged by training incentives and rewards.

CHARACTERISTICS OF VOLUNTEERS 

 Volunteers are very important resources for NFP and NGO’s. They are expected to deliver their services like the other employees.  They are not entitled to any payment by the organization. There services are considered to be of good faith and charitable (Farmer & Fredor 1999). The fact that they are not entitled to monetary compensation, does not oblige inefficiency and lack of commitment. They work voluntarily, they cannot be forced to work, they can stop their services any time and the organization can dismiss them any time. Volunteers should be willing to learn and train in order to acquire the necessary skills and qualification required in the organization. Choudhory (2010) found out that, most of them have different professional backgrounds that may not correspond to the nature of the organizations work. They should be flexible to acquire appropriate skills and experiences that are necessary through training. 

Taylor (2001) states that, volunteers do not have tenure of employment and when unproductive they are dismissed by the organization. The organizations objectives should be achieved through volunteers who should be willing and are committed to provide their services to the respective organization. They should be flexible in delivering their duties, some organizations work in risky and hardship areas, these calls for volunteer resilience and endurance. Volunteers should be productive, efficient and motivated in carrying out their duties. Transparency and accountability is an important aspect in volunteering, they should be able deliver their services in a diligent and honest manner (Boraas, 2003).

Agreements between the volunteers and the organizations are not legally binding. The organization is not obligated to act in accordance to the volunteers’ specifications and the volunteers have no legal obligations with the organization. However, some organizations provide insurance cover for the volunteers, such covers shield against work related injuries and liabilities. In an occurrence of losses or damages, such organizations are liable to cover for the respective damages. 

            According to Vitner & Yodfat (2008), organizations may award volunteers minimal payments as incentives but the organization is free from obligations. They can be entitled for allowances, rewards and should be reimbursed for their out of pocket expenses. They can also receive non monetary benefits like free air tickets and free access to services provided by the organization. Volunteers are entitled to work in good working conditions and in safe environments like the other paid employees. The equal opportunity Act protects their rights. 

These charitable organizations have their responsibilities to fulfill. Qualified volunteers with proper skills, experiences and interests should be recruited so as to reduce turnover rates. The organization should provide proper training and orientation to volunteers. Proper induction facilitation should be enhanced so as to enable volunteers to work towards achieving organizational objectives.

RECRUITMENT OF VOLUNTEERS

Non for Profit and Non governmental Organizations have significant intentions of attracting and recruiting qualified volunteers.  In order to establish long- term productivity and relationship between the volunteers and the organization, volunteers should have appropriate skills, interests and qualities that correspond with the objectives and mission of the organization.  Attracting and recruiting volunteers with these characteristics, ensures good performance, such volunteers have high chances of being retained. Once qualified volunteers have been recruited, it is important to specify and delegate duties, responsibilities, expectations and tasks between the organization and the volunteers.

Recruitment of volunteers depend on the organizations specifications regarding skills and competences. Background checks are also considered during recruitment.  Background checks vary in accordance with the nature of the work the volunteer will be entitled.  Volunteers working with children, elderly and disabled individuals should have distinct background check. The nature of the organization should correspond with the background checks.

 It was established by Bruney (1999) that during recruitment, a written agreement is not necessary. However an agreement stipulating the roles and responsibilities is initiated between the organization and the volunteers. These will help to resolve any disputes concerning obligations between the volunteer and the organization. An organization should not take anyone as a volunteer if it believes he is incompetent and cannot perform the required tasks. A volunteer may take action against the organization if he is discriminated in respect to personal characteristics. The Victorian Equal opportunity and Human rights commission stipulate laws that protect the volunteers against discrimination.

TRAINING VOLUNTEERS

Training of volunteers is very important in ensuring efficiency and effectiveness in service delivery. Most volunteers do not have a background of professionalism in their assigned line of duties.  Training is necessary towards achieving important organizational objectives. The aims of training volunteers include; maintaining long term motivation and orientation of duties and responsibilities to the volunteers. Volunteers are equipped with tools, experiences and exposure in their line of duty, further more leadership lessons and skills are facilitated through training (Courtney 2001).

Training volunteers is an aspect of supporting, attracting, rewarding and retaining volunteers. It enhances improvement in performance and quality in service delivery. Volunteers from different backgrounds with diverse needs and duties are catered for through training and proper orientation. Companies that train their volunteers attract potential volunteers; this is because motivation is provided through training and careers development. An organization that trains its volunteers is committed to supports its volunteer’s welfare and needs for career development. 

 According to Johnson (2007), volunteer training involves either formal or informal training. The training is administered through out the volunteers’ lifecycle. Informal training involves induction programs while formal training involves college training for a specific period of time. Organizations train their volunteers according to their specific needs. Important aspects to be included in training include, determining the training needs, establishing the training objectives, designing, implementing and evaluating the training program.

DESIGNING A TRAINING PROGRAM

A training program should be designed according to the organizations’ needs. Important aspects to be considered when designing training program include, determining the type of training to be administered, identifying the facilitators, determining the content of the program, sourcing for the appropriate materials and determining the setting through which the training will be facilitated. Settings for training may include, on job training, classroom or in the field training (Zullo, 2011).

Individual volunteer needs should be considered when designing training programs. Suitable training should be administered to different groups of people. Younger and older volunteers should be trained differently according to their needs and duties. Volunteer’s diverse cultural settings should also be considered (Nagbhushanam & Sridhar, 2010).

Implementation of the training is the most important stage of volunteer training. The training contents should be appropriate and to be delivered effectively. Facilitation and coordination of the training is very important because it determines the outcome of the program. The success or failure of the program will be determined by carrying out an evaluation on the effectiveness of the program. Evaluation questionnaires are usually used to collect feedback from the program participants. Criticisms, suggestions and proposals are obtained from the evaluation.  According to Thomas (2007), criticisms from the participants can be used for continuous improvement in future trainings. A strategy can be formulated from the strengths and weaknesses established from the program. 

It was observed by Allhyari (2000) that, evaluation should be carried out to determine if the volunteer target competency was achieved.  It is very important in determining the effectiveness and reliability of the program. Volunteer training should be an on-going process. Volunteer’s skills and competencies should be frequently updated to suit the rising needs of the organization. Through training volunteers will be able to achieve career development and leadership skills. 

MOTIVATION AND RETENTION OF VOLUNTEERS

Not for Profit and Non-governmental organizations should develop strategies that will enable them retain and motivate their volunteers. The success of such organizations highly depends on the workforce which majorly constitutes the volunteers. Many NFP and NGO’s have experienced a significant percentage in losing volunteers. This emerging trend has necessitated the need for motivation, so as to retain volunteers. Elshaug & Metzer (2001) established that, most volunteers serve briefly in their respective organizations. Such organizations fail to provide sufficient motivation to retain the volunteers. Recent studies show that older volunteers most likely serve longer than younger volunteers. The younger volunteers have 20% lower retention rates than adult volunteers.  The retention rate in adults is high up to 69.9%. 

Various organizations employ different motivation strategies. It has been established that proper recruitment and motivation strategies leads to successful strategies for retention. Retention is affected by barriers and factors which discourage or encourage volunteers. Major barriers that discourage volunteers include risky and costly nature of their work, lack of appropriate skills and experience, insufficient time, poor working conditions, poor reward systems and lack of personal and career development (Odenheirmer, 2011). 

Volunteer retention can be achieved through various strategies. Frequent training is a strategy that motivates volunteers. Their personal and career development needs are enhanced through training.  Another strategy to ensure volunteer retention relates to attraction and recruitment strategies, the recruitment process directly relates to retention. Recruiting interested and qualified volunteers improves the retention rates. Other important factors that contribute to volunteer retention include proper skills experience and qualifications, improved reward system, flexibility, recognition, leadership roles and career development. 

Low volunteer retention is a vital problem that such organizations face. High rates of volunteer turnover affect the capabilities of these organizations in service delivery. In order for these organizations to achieve their missions and goals volunteer retention must be achieved. Proper working relationships should be enhanced between the volunteers and the organization (Ralph, 2006).

VOLUNTEERING AND ITS BENEFITS

Vitner & Yodfat (2008) argued that, despite the current trend of low volunteer retention rates, enormous benefits can be derived from volunteering. Individuals are able to acquire more skills and career development through volunteering. One of the greatest benefits of volunteering is the impact it creates on the community. Charitable services and activities offered by NFP and NGO’s are aimed at improving the status of the community. Most of these organizations’ activities address social and development needs in the community. The disadvantaged countries and poor nations are the major targets of these organizations.

Volunteers are able to expand their social skills, make friends and create networks through wide interactions with the communities. Some individuals derive personal fulfillment and satisfaction through community service. These individuals attach themselves to the society and are determined to impact positively on the society. Such individuals desire to give back and may commit their own resources to improve the community. Recognition and appreciation in the community provides personal satisfaction (Zullo, 2011).

Career development is enhanced through volunteering. Individuals are able to acquire important work place skills such as problem solving skills, teamwork, project management and task management through voluntary exposures.  Individuals with these qualities have high employability rates and a competitive advantage in career development. Professional experience is acquired through volunteering. Such experiences are useful in acquiring long-term professional career. Furthermore, volunteering may lead to a well paying job in similar organizations.

BARRIERS TO VOLUNTEERING

Recent studies show that voluntary services have declined drastically. The perception that volunteering is charitable and has no monetary benefits has prevented individuals from volunteering their services in charitable organizations. The most significant barrier against volunteering is lack of time. Individuals who could be willing to volunteer are committed in their families or in other activities (Boraas, 2003). The notion that volunteering requires a long-term commitment is another challenge. However, most individuals dismiss voluntary work because it has no monetary benefits.

 Economic conditions and needs have severely affected voluntary work. Voluntary work has no monetary benefits yet economic conditions are worsening. There is high demand for money, which dictates the preference for individuals to work in paying institutions. The impact of economic changes has forced employees to multi-task with various employers.  Such employees hardly find time to volunteer in charitable organizations.

Voluntary work is associated with lots of risks and costs. Some organizations work in hardship and risky areas. Volunteers are exposed to risks of injury, death, financial loss or legal action.  These risks discourage potential volunteers from joining charitable organizations. Thomas (2007) observed that, technological advancement has impacted on voluntary work. Potential young volunteers spend most of their time operating gadgets. They prefer to try out new things and very entrepreneurial. The young generation lack commitment in voluntary work because it is very involving and have no substantial benefits.

Odenheirmer (2011) suggest that, charitable organizations should implement strategies to reduce the barriers to volunteering.   Organizations should reimburse volunteers out of pocket expenses and should be able to provide incentives such as transport allowances among other incentives. Allocating roles according to individual’s preferences and interests is another strategy. Adequate training and support should be provided to volunteers as well as their needs should be considered. In the case of organizations administering charity in risky areas, insurance covers should be secured for volunteers. The covers will shield against any losses and damages that may arise due to the nature of the work.

Charitable organizations should initiate programs that will facilitate successful volunteers to be absorbed in to long-term career opportunities. This strategy is very effective in attracting and retaining volunteers. They will be able to gain professional experience in their line of careers giving them competitive advantage as compared to the other potential recruits. This strategy addresses their long- term objective of professionalism and career development. Organizations that implement these strategies are advantaged in volunteer retention. When volunteers are motivated and satisfied, the retention rates will be high (Courtney, 2001).

In conclusion, volunteers are very important resources in the community. They constitute the major work force in charitable organizations. The fact that they are not entitled to any monetary benefits does not authorize any neglect, mishandling, harassment and frustrations on the volunteers. Organizations should adopt appropriate attraction and recruitment strategies in order to draw many volunteers. Proper motivation and retention strategies should be employed to reduce volunteer turnover rates.

   REFERENCES 

Allahyari, R. A. (2000). Visions of charity: Volunteer workers and moral community. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Boraas, S. (2003). Volunteerism in the United States. Monthly Labor Review, 126(8), 3-21

Brudney, J. L. (1999). The effective use of volunteers: Best practices for the public sector. Law and Contemporary Problems, 62(4), 219.

Choudhury, E. (2010). Attracting and managing volunteers in local government. The Journal of Management Development, 29(6), 592-603. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02621711011046558

Courtney, R. (2001). Strategic management for voluntary nonprofit organizations. New York: Routledge.

Elshaug, C., & Metzer, J. (2001). Personality attributes of volunteers and paid workers engaged in similar occupational tasks. The Journal of Social Psychology, 141(6), 752-63. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/199837239?accountid=45049; 

Farmer, S.M., & Fedor, D.B. (1999). Volunteer participation and withdrawal. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 9(4), 349-368.

Johnson, J. A. (2007). Getting and staying involved: What motivates volunteers in a non-profit organization? Capella University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 111-n/a. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304720694?accountid=45049; 

Nagabhushanam, M., & Sridhar, M. (2010). Voluntary Organizations – Growth, Trends and Challenges. Vilakshan: The XIMB Journal of Management7(2), 143-166.

Odenheimer, M. (2011). Integrating Volunteers In- to Long-Term Sustainable Development. Journal Of Jewish Communal Service87(1/2), 81-87. 

Ralph, C. (2006) “Recognising current competencies of volunteers in emergency service organisations”, Journal of Workplace Learning, Vol. 18 Iss: 7/8, pp.451 – 463

Taylor, A. (2011). Volunteers are a neglected resource. Third Sector, (672), 18-18. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/887547857?accountid=45049; 

Thomas, C., Newell, J. N., Baral, S. C., & Byanjankar, L. (2007). The contribution of volunteers to a successful community-orientated tuberculosis treatment centre in an urban setting in nepal. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 21(6), 554-72. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14777260710834346

Vitner, G., Shalom, V., & Yodfat, A. (2008). Training volunteers for the elderly in israel. Industrial and Commercial Training, 40(4), 216-225. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00197850810876271

Zullo, R. (2011). Labor unions and charity. Industrial & Labor Relations Review64(4), 699-711.

Chapultepec Declaration

Chapultepec Declaration 

Democracy connotes freedom. A core principle of freedom is access to information and ability to speak, write, publish mainstream and alternative views. Many of the countries to which you all trace your roots, and have subsequently visited or lived will have greater or lesser degrees of this fundamental right.

Chapultepec Declaration

Rights as we see them used in the Chapultepec Declaration are claimed as universal freedoms that are actually legally-defined and enforceable. This declaration is not what people think they deserve, nor is it what governments as some disembodied power structure ‘give’ at their discretion.

Chapultepec Declaration

The Chapultepec Declaration: How its Authors Equate Press Freedom and Democracy

The Chapultepec Declaration: How its Authors Equate Press Freedom and Democracy

In 1994, the Inter-American Press Association (IAPA) held a summit at Chapultepec Castle in Mexico City. The convention sought to promote freedom of the press. What came out of the comprehensive discussion was the Chapultepec Declaration. In it, delegates proclaimed that freedom of expression, inclusive of a free press, was a necessary ingredient in promoting liberty. From the Chapultepec Declaration, there are numerous ways in which its authors equate press freedom and democracy (BBC Monitoring International Reports, 2002).

The declaration’s preamble reads that individuals cannot exercise other forms of freedom if the freedom of press access to information is curbed. When the media operates unobstructed, as the document states, there is the surfacing of courage to ask for information, to disseminate it without restraints, to question it without fear, and to promote free exchange of ideas and views. Members of the public sphere cannot therefore exercise other rights if the freedom of press is held back (Mark & Fitzgerald, 1999).

Chapultepec Declaration

The declaration compels authorities to avail in a timely and reasonable fashion the information generated by public offices. In addition, the law permits journalists to conceal their sources of information. What this means is that citizens of any given state need to know how their governments operate if they are to fully benefit from it. The press bridges the knowledge gap between bureaucrats who make decisions on their behalf, and the subjects of that particular state. Any act of corruption and mismanagement of funds by policymakers often go unraveled if the press is barred from access to such information. Timely issue of information, or giving news which is not stale, is more trustworthy thus the need for fresh news. It raises the authenticity of such news stories, making them more credible. For security purposes, journalists should be allowed to hide the identity of sources who desire anonymity, since their lives may be in danger after whistle blowing or revealing the injustices committed by the state (Mark & Fitzgerald, 1999).

Chapultepec Declaration

In a democratic state, hindering press access to information through acts of murder, kidnappings, destruction of their facilities or even intimidating journalists, are counterproductive to the realization of liberty. This is because such harassments scare citizens of any state from accessing information and productively participating in governmental operations.  That is why the declaration recommends the detention and punishment of government officers who do that, since harassing or intimidating journalists encourages impunity (Mark & Fitzgerald, 1999).

The declaration adds that prior censorships, restrictions to the circulation of information, and managing of media by authorities are direct ways of infringing on the freedom of press access to information. Imposition of such hindrances by authorities limits liberty, which in turn infringes on the citizen’s rights to be aware of their government’s operations, the injustices committed, and corruption. Citizens at the grassroots level heavily depend on the press for information. Thus barring or restricting journalists’ movements in pursuit of information amounts to the violation of their liberty (Mark & Fitzgerald, 1999).

It is unethical and illegal of sources to favor journalists or media houses by means of assigning them radio frequencies, funding their operations or favoring them because of positive news coverage. These deeds lead to the publishing of biased news. Biased news coverage of sources limits citizens’ right to know the truth. For instance, a corrupt source of information may give journalists gifts so as to hide the truth from public notice. That is an act which hampers liberty (Mark & Fitzgerald, 1999).

Chapultepec Declaration

The credibility of the press correlates with its commitment to reporting factual information, being accurate, fair and objective. In the absence of such principles, the press is seen as biased. Journalists should therefore be able to distinguish news from advertizing. To report advertisements as news would be to encourage publicity of such organizations thus infringement of liberty (Mark & Fitzgerald, 1999). Furthermore, the act insulates journalists from being punished by the state as a result of unraveling the truth. When journalists fear for their lives, they cannot unveil injustices and acts corruption committed by the ruling class (Mark & Fitzgerald, 1999).

All said, the Chapultepec Declaration will forever be remembered in the field of development journalism. For it has provided the impetus for exercising other rights, otherwise unattainable. Thus the most basic way of distinguishing democracy from autocracy is press access to information.
                                                                   References  – Chapultepec Declaration

BBC Monitoring International Reports. (2002, May). St. Kits and Nevis signs Chapultepec 

Declaration. BBC Monitoring International Reports, 1-2. Retrieved Oct 2, 2012, from 

http://www.ebscohost.com

Mark, Fitzgerald. (1999). Declaration of Chapultepec. Journal of Communication, Journalism, 

            Printing, Advertizing and Public Relations, 132 (18) 1-2. Retrieved Oct 2, 2012, from 

http://search.proquest.com/docview/194311250?accountid=45049

Chapultepec Declaration

Domestic policy objectives

Domestic policy objectives 

Domestic policy objectives 

The Theodore Roosevelt, a Republican, and Woodrow Wilson, a Democrat, both had the same domestic policy objectives in the first two decades of the 20th century. The program was called Progressivism and the ultimate goal was to clear up corruption in all phases of the economy and the government and to give the working man a better chance to advance. Their methods and motivations, however, were different. Discuss the problems faced by the Progressives and the manner in which they attempted to rectify the problems. Compare these two presidents as far as their accomplishments. Make sure you include the following in your answer: Muckrakers, Northern Securities Case, Hepburn Act, Clayton Anti Trust Act, initiative, referendum, recall.

Domestic policy objectives 

Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilsons remain successful progressives even though they have been greatly criticized. Their commitment, struggles and efforts to ensure national reforms continue to be felt even today. The progressives believed that it was possible for man to improve his living conditions. They rejected the church as a solution to the social and economic problems of their era. Their main goal was to have the government participate in ending corruption, public involvement in the political process and active involvement of the government in solving social and economic problems. They also aimed at take control of public utilities like the railroads, trusts and to pass legislation that would protect consumers, labor groups and the minorities.

Domestic policy objectives 

In solving these problems, the ‘Muckrakers’ were of great influence in publicly exposing the social evils that had prevailed. These writers/journalists exposed the horrors of urban slums, poverty, poor working conditions, child labor, and other evils. This served as an eye-opener to the public to support the call for reforms by the progressives (Roark, Johnson, Cohen, Stage, & Lawson, 2000).

Problems in urban areas were addressed by establishment of settlement houses by social workers to protect the poor. The problem of child labor proved hard to solve as their efforts were thwarted by the courts. The labor regulation problem was solved when the progressives fought to ensure government’s role in workplace regulation. Since then, government oversight has expanded and accepted as part of American Industry. Problems in food and drug industry were solved when the progressives pushed the government to create a legislation that would see all products meant for human consumption being tested. This saw the enaction of the pure food and drug act and meat inspection act. Since then Americans have left the role of ensuring quality and safety of products, verifying labeling and marketing information to the government (Roark et al., 2000).

Domestic policy objectives 

A number of progressives called for direct democracy where citizens would be equally involved in legislation. Three citizen measures the initiative, referendum and recall were called for. The ‘initiative’ makes it possible for citizens to enact law, ‘referendum’ enables citizens to block and reject laws passed by the legislature while ‘recall’ gives citizens mandate to remove from office an official. The achievement of this helped bring reforms and control in the government and encouraged full participation of citizens in the process (Roark et al., 2000).

Meanwhile, the regulation of railroads was achieved through the passing of Elkins Act and Hepburn Act by Congress. Roosevelt accused various trusts under the Sherman Anti-trust Act and signed the Newlands Act, and sold lands in the north to fund irrigation. The Clayton Anti-Trust Act was passed by Wilson as a replacement of the frail Sherman Act of 1890. He signed many other progressive bills into law. This helped stop monopolization in business, including the monopolistic Northern Securities Company which had not been prosecuted under the Sherman Act, even after being declared an illegal due to its monopolistic nature (Roark et al., 2000).

Domestic policy objectives 

In conclusion, the progressive movement left a legacy in the American history. They believed in the role of government insight in solving social and economic problems. Although they did not solve all the problems, they changed their situation back then and because of them, the government started to play an active role in America’s economy, even today.

Domestic policy objectives 

References

Roark, J. L., Johnson, M. P., Cohen, P.C., Stage, S. & Lawson, A. (2000). The American 

Promise: A History of the United States. (3rd ed).Vol.2 From 1865. Boston: St. Martin’s 

Press.

Worth of money

Worth of money

Worth of money

Worth of money

Why is money worth more today than at a point in the future? If someone wants the use of your money, should you lend it or invest it in the company? What kinds of risk apply if you lend it? If you invest it? What moral issues are involved? 

Introduction 

Worth of money

Worth of money

Why is money worth more today than at a point in the future? If someone wants the use of your money, should you lend it or invest it in the company? What kinds of risk apply if you lend it? If you invest it? What moral issues are involved? 

Introduction 

In determining whether money is worth more today or in future the ‘time value of money’ concept must be considered which states  that money received today is worth a lot more that the same amount of money in the near future due to the ability of saving this amount and earning interest . Alignment of financial goals and the investment or lending policy is required in order to ensure the chosen option is beneficial in the long term (Advani, 2006). In determining whether to lend or invest money the risks and benefits of both options must be evaluated and the best option implemented.

When lending money the lender expects to receive their principle amount and any interest that has arisen from the loan .The major risks possessed in lending may be a default of both the interest payments and refusal to pay even the principal amount .The terms of the lending arrangement ma not also be beneficial due to the interest charges agreed (Advani, 2006). 

Worth of money

Before making an investment it is important to evaluate the type of investment that best suits the funds available and the risks involved. The investment idea must match with the individual’s financial objectives. The risk associated with investing is a rapid drop in share prices if one has invested in the stock market a decrease in interest rates if one has invested in bonds and other forms of investment. 

Conclusion 

Worth of money

Financial goals of the individual should be the key consideration before they decide whether to lend or invest .A risk analysis is also important as it helps in making a sensible decision on the option that is more suitable. The best option should help the individual increase their asset value.

Reference

 Advani, A. (2006).Investors in your backyard: how to raise business capital from people you know Business Loans from Family & Friends: How to Ask, Make It Legal & Make It Work. Nolo.Indiana 

Worth of money

In determining whether money is worth more today or in future the ‘time value of money’ concept must be considered which states  that money received today is worth a lot more that the same amount of money in the near future due to the ability of saving this amount and earning interest . Alignment of financial goals and the investment or lending policy is required in order to ensure the chosen option is beneficial in the long term (Advani, 2006). In determining whether to lend or invest money the risks and benefits of both options must be evaluated and the best option implemented.

Worth of money

Worth of money

Why is money worth more today than at a point in the future? If someone wants the use of your money, should you lend it or invest it in the company? What kinds of risk apply if you lend it? If you invest it? What moral issues are involved? 

Introduction 

In determining whether money is worth more today or in future the ‘time value of money’ concept must be considered which states  that money received today is worth a lot more that the same amount of money in the near future due to the ability of saving this amount and earning interest . Alignment of financial goals and the investment or lending policy is required in order to ensure the chosen option is beneficial in the long term (Advani, 2006). In determining whether to lend or invest money the risks and benefits of both options must be evaluated and the best option implemented.

When lending money the lender expects to receive their principle amount and any interest that has arisen from the loan .The major risks possessed in lending may be a default of both the interest payments and refusal to pay even the principal amount .The terms of the lending arrangement ma not also be beneficial due to the interest charges agreed (Advani, 2006). 

Worth of money

Before making an investment it is important to evaluate the type of investment that best suits the funds available and the risks involved. The investment idea must match with the individual’s financial objectives. The risk associated with investing is a rapid drop in share prices if one has invested in the stock market a decrease in interest rates if one has invested in bonds and other forms of investment. 

Conclusion 

Worth of money

Financial goals of the individual should be the key consideration before they decide whether to lend or invest .A risk analysis is also important as it helps in making a sensible decision on the option that is more suitable. The best option should help the individual increase their asset value.

Reference

 Advani, A. (2006).Investors in your backyard: how to raise business capital from people you know Business Loans from Family & Friends: How to Ask, Make It Legal & Make It Work. Nolo.Indiana 

Worth of money

When lending money the lender expects to receive their principle amount and any interest that has arisen from the loan .The major risks possessed in lending may be a default of both the interest payments and refusal to pay even the principal amount .The terms of the lending arrangement ma not also be beneficial due to the interest charges agreed (Advani, 2006). 

Worth of money

Before making an investment it is important to evaluate the type of investment that best suits the funds available and the risks involved. The investment idea must match with the individual’s financial objectives. The risk associated with investing is a rapid drop in share prices if one has invested in the stock market a decrease in interest rates if one has invested in bonds and other forms of investment. 

Conclusion 

Worth of money

Financial goals of the individual should be the key consideration before they decide whether to lend or invest .A risk analysis is also important as it helps in making a sensible decision on the option that is more suitable. The best option should help the individual increase their asset value.

Reference

 Advani, A. (2006).Investors in your backyard: how to raise business capital from people you know Business Loans from Family & Friends: How to Ask, Make It Legal & Make It Work. Nolo.Indiana 

Worth of money

Comedy of Euros

Comedy of Euros

Comedy of Euros

This article reflects the falling out of Britain with other members in the European Union. The depth of this crisis is explained. Various strategies of mending the solutions are proposed. Achievements of the Brussels summit are addressed and its failure to draw a plan for saving the Euro.

Why is this newsworthy? Comedy of Euros

The European Union is a key economic pillar and represents the economy of many nations .A crisis in this union is bound to affect the people as the economy will suffer. For this reason this story has a huge impact on the financial backgrounds of citizens in the member nation’s .It is therefore important to follow the preceding of the story in order for the readers to make any preparation to protect their financial assets  

Current financial information is newsworthy as it impacts business and people’s daily way of life. It is therefore important to keep abreast with business information across the globe by reading this financial news. The information is provide in a summarized nature helping to inform readers who do not have a significant background in business related topics .The European union  have a major impact on the economy of the globe and any news that describes changes taking place in the business environment are beneficial to different stakeholders across the global .Through these news major decisions are made that impact the economy of different countries .The story contains a detailed analysis of new ranging from economic, financial, business news across the globe .These news analyze the market trends across the globe and the drivers of these trends (economist , pg1). 

A visual showing the Euro

Commodities Lose Allure; As demand from the Asian giant cools, investors should seek more exotic plays

This article discusses the various prices of commodities .Investor options are also evaluated in this article .A comparison  of prices of gold and rare earth metals is made. An interview with industry players is also contained in the article.  

How might readers use this information? Comedy of Euros

Business news contained in these financial magazines is vital as affects the decisions made by leaders from the various governments and businesses .Readers can therefore use the information acquired in various ways aimed at improving their economic status. The magazines contain news of models used by businessmen and governments across the globe in reduction of operation costs methods that the readers can use in their businesses (Wsj, pg1). 

Readers are able to acquire information about the pricing of different shares and other financial instruments across the globe .They can therefore use the information acquired in making business decisions on whether to invest or divest their funds .This is usually easy as the magazines include a detailed analysis with various share price options from which the readers can make their decisions.  

Readers can use the information acquired from these business magazines to make a decision on the performance of their leaders. The magazines contain various decisions that governments have implemented to growth their economies and the impact of these decisions. From this information the readers can judge on whether their leaders are implementing policies that have a positive effect on the economy and make decisions on whether to re elect them for office again (Wsj, pg1).  

Readers can use this information in making decisions on whether it is viable to invest in other countries .The magazines provide information of different markets across the globe. Readers can therefore use this information to tap on cheap production costs and availability of natural resources in the different countries .The readers can therefore follow business happening across the globe waiting for positive changes that may affect their business and capitalize on them .

A visual comparison of rare-earth metal prices vs. gold  Comedy of Euros

A Rare Apple Compromise 

Apple has been faced by tough competition. The company is softening its advertising strategies due to the rising competition .The article describe the strategies put in place by management to survive. Conversation with employees is also included.

What management decisions are involved?

Due to challenges faced in advertising Apple Inc has been forced to make management decisions aimed at ensuring the company is able to compete effectively. The management introduced the selling of advertisements within mobile applications. This has been a major decision aimed at increasing its income through advertising .The strategy was developed to compete with Google’s Admob service .This has been however difficult due to the pricing of the products as apple has introduced the product at a very high prices as compared to its competitors (Wsj, pg 5). 

To counter changes in advertising the management has developed a strategy aimed at introducing flexibility in the prices of its products .This strategy will help increase Apple’s market share thereby driving its revenue upwards. The change in price represents the management bargain in compromising its business decisions by adjusting its prices to the match with the current market changes. Management decisions have the effect of growing or destroying an organization. It is therefore important for managers to make decisions that are timely and accurate. These decisions can only be made where information is provided timely and is accurate.

Management is involved in implementing key strategies as well developing concepts that will steer the company towards achievement of its goals and objectives.

A visual showing Apple’s positioning the market  Comedy of Euros

Best Buy’s Profit Tumbles 

Best buy is a leading electronics dealer .With immerses competition the company has been forced to make different strategies to survive. The article describes the strategies put in place and the financial results for the company .The impact of results may have different repercussions depending on their nature. 

How might this affect stock prices?

Any information that is made available to the public domain whether positive or negative has an effect on the share price of stocks of a company. Negative information like decline of its profits may result to shareholders going into a panic and selling their shares. Negative information is associated with a declining value thus when a company posts negative results the news are bound to cause fluctuations in the stock market.

Company results are announced in their annual general meting with a report from the management explaining the reasons behind a company’s performance .Readers of the magazine are going to be influenced in making decisions regarding the shares of the company. Some readers may be tempted to purchase shares for speculative purposes where the will be aiming to make a profit should the price of the shares increase in the future .Current share holders may dispose of their shares after reading this article in an attempt to minimize  further loss in their investment in the stock market. The new may resulted to increase trading of the shares in the market as the demand from speculators is satisfied by suppliers who want to minimize their risks (Wsj, pg1). 

It is therefore evident that news of a decline or rise of a company’s profits has an effect on its share prices .Readers should therefore seek regular accurate information on company’s that they have an interest or are interested in to ensure they take full benefit of any information regarding the company .

A visual showing changes in share prices 

Explaining high oil prices 

Oil is a key driver of the economy in the world. The rapid rises in prices of oil has had major impact on different industries .It is therefore important to analyze the reasons behind prices increases. This article helps in explaining the key factors that have resulted in high prices 

What are the risks and rewards involved? 

The oil is a very risky industry due to the commodity involved .An accident arising in the oil industry may have hazardous effects and therefore the industry players must put in place measures to ensure there is minimal expose to risks .This will be achieved by the method used in handling oil and its related products .The methods used must ensure easy reconciliation of inventory .Oil leakage equipment must be set up to ensure the staff involved as well as other equipment are not damaged(Wsj, pg1). 

High prices  in oil will result in an increase in prices of other commodities .This will strain economies of  countries across the globe as they depend on the oil industry to drive other industries .It is therefore important to make a detailed analysis on factors affecting the prices of oil. Political factors are the most causes of increase in the price of oil and their impact should be regulated to ensure they do not adversely affect economy of major countries across the globe. 

The rewards associated wit monitoring the price of oil is an increase in the growth and development of economies across the globe .Fair oil prices result in countries being able to develop their economy through increased investment in various industries. 

A visual showing oil prices 

Capping microfinance interest rates will hurt the poor. There are better ways to regulate the industry 

This is a microfinance article on interest rates. Various ways of regulating the industry are explained .Microfinance in different areas is explained .The reasons behind the rapid development of the micro credit industry are explained 

How does a visual improve understanding of the content? 

The visual helps the reader to relate to the content of the article. The visual in this article showing currency notes .This will help identify the content of the article. The visual clearly depicts a financial content .Microfinance is mostly related to the poor communities and capping interest rates would affect their economic empowerment 

The bank notes help the reader in analyzing the content provided in the article. These visual involve a mixture of different colors helping the reader to distinguish the difference in different data that is contained in the article. This helps them in analyzing what each color has been used to depict in the visual (Wsj, pg2).Visuals help give content to the article in the magazines by providing readers with an outlook of all the key data that has been included. These helps the readers in understanding the articles through the summary presented in the visuals and help them in making informed decisions derived from a thorough analysis of the visuals 

The visual must be placed in an appropriate area of the article where it stands out in making a detailed summary of every data that is in the article. It is therefore important for business related magazines to consider using a visual in their articles to help the readers in understanding the articles fully. The visual should therefore be as detailed as possible but should not include irrelevant information. Visuals must be clear and price in order for it to achieve its intended objects .it must also be bold and colored so as to attract a reader’s attention. (Lam, pg5). Visual is important as it helps in summarizing the key data provided in the information .This visual is provided in form of tables and graphs and contains trends that the reader can easily relate to .The visuals are presented in a manner that helps attract the reader’s attention helping them to get the clear meaning of the articles. 

A visual on the article

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References 

Lam, J .Enterprise Risk Management: From Incentives to Controls. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley. 2003, Pg 1-5

 

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Online.wsj.com A Rare Apple Compromise 13.Dec 2011

<http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204336104577094872512502942.html?mod=WSJ_hp_LEFTWhatsNewsCollection>

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Children Health Insurance

Children Health Insurance

Children Health Insurance

Children Health Insurance

Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Health Care Policy 

1-What legislation introduced Medicaid, and what are the funding sources for the program?

2-What are some of the changes, including CHIP, that have occurred to the Medicaid program since its inception?

3-What are the demographics of the majority of people covered by Medicaid, and how many people in the United States are covered by Medicaid?

4-Evaluate the changes that have occurred to Medicaid with the inception of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. What are the current changes in Medicaid based on current legislation?

5-Assess social and cultural changes and their impact on developing new health policies to make Medicaid and CHIP more effective.

Medicaid was established in 1965 in conjunction with Medicare as part of the Social Security Act. Medicare is a health-insurance program for retirees, disabled employees, and their spouses and dependents that is funded and administered by the federal government (United Health, 2021). Medicaid, on the other hand, is a combined federal-state program in which states and territories receive federal financial assistance in providing health and long-term care to federally designated low-income families and individuals (United Health, 2021). Prior to the passage of Medicaid, states received limited federal reimbursements for health care services paid on behalf of public assistance beneficiaries. In 1960, Congress approved open-ended federal matching funds to states for impoverished elderly people’s health care. Still, the breadth of the health-care services that states financed for low-income individuals and families varied significantly (United Health, 2021).

The original law provided states the option of obtaining federal funds to assist in providing health care coverage to children from low-income families, their caregiver relatives, the blind, and the handicapped (United Health, 2021). Medicaid was created to give low-income individuals and families more access to mainstream health care. States would receive funds from the federal government to cover half or more of their expenses in providing services to beneficiaries. At the same time, the program was designed to offer states a lot of flexibility in how they structure their medical aid programs. States that choose to participate in the program were obligated to provide a baseline range of health care to those receiving public assistance (United Health, 2021). They were also authorized to provide extra services at their discretion, such as serving medically needy people who did not get government aid. The federal government has consistently strengthened the rules and regulations governing state Medicaid programs.

Children Health Insurance

Many changes in federal Medicaid legislation have occurred during the last four decades, including substantial changes in eligibility, benefits, payment arrangements, and other administrative issues (Smith, Kennedy, Knipper, & O’Brien, 2005). These developments, when paired with state judgments about the scope of their programs, have resulted in Medicaid expanding well beyond its original focus on providing mostly acute care services. Furthermore, Medicaid has surpassed private insurance as the primary source of funding for long-term care for persons with disabilities (Smith, Kennedy, Knipper, & O’Brien, 2005). Despite several revisions in federal legislation, the essential basis of the federal-state partnership in the program has remained relatively same. The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program was established in 1972 (Smith, Kennedy, Knipper, & O’Brien, 2005). This nationally financed income support program for persons with disabilities replaces the previous federal-state cash assistance programs for the elderly, blind, and handicapped. SSI and Medicaid eligibility were intertwined. Many obligatory and voluntary eligibility categories were expanded in the 1980s, with a particular focus on extending Medicaid coverage to low-income pregnant women and children who did not receive public assistance payments (Smith, Kennedy, Knipper, & O’Brien, 2005). States were obligated to contribute increased Disproportionate Share Hospital payments to hospitals that cater to a significant number of Medicaid recipients and other low-income people under the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 broke the historical relationship between Medicaid eligibility and the financial assistance program for Aid to Families with Dependent Children. For low-income households, a new obligatory Medicaid eligibility group was formed; Medicaid eligibility was no longer automatically linked to receipt of public assistance cash payments (Smith, Kennedy, Knipper, & O’Brien, 2005). The Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) was enacted into law in 1997 and provides states with federal matching money to offer health care to children whose families’ earnings are too high to qualify for Medicaid but too low to buy private insurance. Through their CHIP programs, all states have greatly increased children’s coverage, with virtually every state providing coverage for children up to a minimum of 200 percent of the Federal Poverty Level (Smith, Kennedy, Knipper, & O’Brien, 2005). The federal Medicaid statute has been amended several times since it was enacted. Federal mandates have grown, particularly in the field of low-income children’s programs. The creation of 51 extremely diverse Medicaid programs has come from the mix of Medicaid mandates and alternatives. These programs function under broad national principles but are influenced by state judgments regarding who is eligible and what they are eligible to receive (Smith, Kennedy, Knipper, & O’Brien, 2005).

The sources of funding for Medicaid include Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP), through Enhanced Matching Rates, Disproportionate Share Hospital payments (DSH) and State Financing of the Non-Federal Share (Rudowitz & Snyder, 2015). The federal government guarantees states matching payments for eligible Medicaid expenditures; states are promised at least $1 in federal money for every $1 spent on the program by the state. As economic conditions change, FMAP, which is an open-ended funding system, permits federal funding to flow to states depending on real costs and requirements (Rudowitz & Snyder, 2015). Medicaid offers a greater matching rate for certain services or populations in some cases, the most famous example being the ACA Medicaid expansion enhanced match rate. The federal government will cover 100 percent of Medicaid expenditures for newly eligible people in states that expand (Rudowitz & Snyder, 2015). DSH hospital payments are another source of funding for hospitals that treat a lot of Medicaid and low-income uninsured patients. These DSH payments have been critical to the financial viability of safety net hospitals in several states (Rudowitz & Snyder, 2015). Lastly, States have a lot of flexibility when it comes to deciding how to support the non-federal portion of Medicaid spending. State general fund appropriations are the major source of money for the non-federal portion. The utilization of alternative monies by governments has risen modestly but consistently over the last decade. This is most likely due to states’ growing dependence on provider taxes and fees to fund the state portion of Medicaid (Rudowitz & Snyder, 2015).

Children Health Insurance

Pregnant women with low income, children from low-income families, children in foster care, individuals with disabilities, seniors with low income, and parents or caregivers with low income are all served by Medicaid programs(Lee & Jarosz, 2017). States can also opt to include additional categories, such as low-income adults who may or may not have children, in their eligibility. In 2015, the ACS recorded about 66.4 million participants nationwide, accounting for 91.7 percent of the 72.4 million reported by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services in mid-2015 (Lee & Jarosz, 2017). According to the Center for Medicaid and CHIP Services, there were 74 million Medicaid and CHIP members as of March 2017, with almost 36 million of them enrolled in CHIP or children enrolled in Medicaid. Children and teens account for over half of all persons covered by means-tested public health insurance (Lee & Jarosz, 2017). Nearly 11 percent of adults are 65 and older, many of whom are low-income and rely on Medicaid to supplement Medicare. Adults who are disabled or institutionalized make up another 14%, while women who have given birth in the last year make up just under 2%. More than seven out of ten people in means-tested health insurance plans belong to these vulnerable categories (Lee & Jarosz, 2017). Only 12% of those left work full-time or part-time.

References Children Health Insurance

Smith, G., Kennedy, C., Knipper, S., & O’Brien, J. (2005, January 24). ASPE. From USING MEDICAID TO SUPPORT WORKING AGE ADULTS WITH SERIOUS MENTAL ILLNESSES IN THE COMMUNITY: A HANDBOOK. A BRIEF HISTORY OF MEDICAID: https://aspe.hhs.gov/report/using-medicaid-support-working-age-adults-serious-mental-illnesses-community-handbook/brief-history-medicaid#chap1

United Health. (2021, April 05). From What is Medicaid and what does it cover: https://www.uhccommunityplan.com/dual-eligible/benefits/medicaid

Rudowitz, R., & Snyder, L. (2015, May 20). KFF. From Medicaid Financing: How Does it Work and What are the Implications?: https://www.kff.org/medicaid/issue-brief/medicaid-financing-how-does-it-work-and-what-are-the-implications/

Lee, A., & Jarosz, B. (2017, June 29). PRB. From MAJORITY OF PEOPLE COVERED BY MEDICAID ND SIMILAR PROGRAMS ARE CHILDEN,OLDER ADULTS, OR DISABLED: https://www.prb.org/resources/majority-of-people-covered-by-medicaid-and-similar-programs-are-children-older-adults-or-disabled/

Facebook: The New Face of E-Commerce

Facebook: The New Face of E-Commerce 

Facebook: The New Face of E-Commerce

Facebook is considered by investors as the new face of e-commerce, bearing in mind that it is world’s most visited social website. On top of that, Facebook has created an international audience, third in number after Google and Yahoo search engines. For that reason, investors have for a long time been attracted to not only market their commodities in their website, but also conduct business transactions with their prospective customers logged into the social website (Clemons, 2009).

            Strategic and financial analysis had an impact in investors’ decision to back Facebook. Considering Facebook’s positive performance in the past, investors have backed the company in large numbers. Investors are aware of Facebook’s high revenue growth, which is attractive to investors. Additionally, its sustainable revenue growth together with its real revenue growth has seen many profit making organizations use the company to further their money-making endeavors (Clemons, 2009).

            One of the strategies that Facebook has employed so as to receive a backing from large corporations and small investors, is its pricing policies, which make them enjoy a competitive advantage by locking in and adding new clients. The company is known for having a good control of its pricing policies by encouraging the positive pricing. Thai is why they are in a beter position to attract more investors (Clemons, 2009).

            Another strategy that Facebook has employed to attract more investors is that it has gone mobile. They have done that in order to reach out to as many clients as possible all over the world. In fact, over one billion people in the world have mobile handsets. Enabling Facebook applications in their phones increases the number of people subscribed to the social website. This has the effect of raising the probability of global growth in years to come (Clemons, 2009).

             The concept of convergence entails enabling divergent kinds of networks to perform similar tasks. Facebook, being the new face of E-Commerce should have the ability to provide a range of services over a single network. If I am to develop a good convergent network for Facebook, there are several factors which I ought to consider, attracting both clients and investors to the social website, hence enjoying a competitive advantage over other competing firms (Holmes, 1999).

            Facebook has often made use of wireless medium more than it has used the wired medium of communication. A proper model of Facebook convergence should have both the wired and wireless media. This has the effect of hoisting the traditional business models and value chains. In the long run, there is competitive substitution as well as complementary merging of products and services at the same time (Holmes, 1999). It is also important to harmonize the infrastructures, contents, storages and storage capabilities of computer systems. This brings together communication industries, software and the internet, towards a common objective.

            The most appropriate infrastructure should be selected for the emerging trend of network convergence. This is because the digital networks dictate which type of infrastructure should be used. Flexibility is thus important so as to accommodate new trends in convergence. There are three levels under which network convergence take place. These are at; transmission, terminal, and the service level. In the event that core technologies converge, the diversity of applications of services increases. Thus by coming up with such a model, the barriers posed by impropriety solutions which enable firms to integrated voice and data applications are dealt with (Holmes, 1999).

            Facebook’s economic viability is on the rise especially internationally. This if for the simple reason that its membership growth by far surpasses those of competing social websites such as Twitter and MySpace. Besides, it is the only social website enjoying an international audience in the third position to Google and Yahoo. Therefore Facebook’s economic potential cannot be overlooked. For the 800 million active users of Facebook is an attraction to large multinational companies seeking to market their products and services (Traver & Loudon, 2005).

            Facebook has shifted from the traditional e-commerce trend of companies merely advertizing their commodities over their website. It has also moved from the old norm of prospective customers being redirected to other pages upon clicking on an advertisement link. Instead Facebook now boasts of hosting the contents of these organizations. A Facebook user does not need to leave his Facebook page in order to conduct business transactions. The customers just purchase and pay their dues right within Facebook, increasing their level of commitments. Thus new companies have their pages in Facebook where they communicate with their clients and ease their transaction burden. This new wave of change makes Facebook remain economically viable in the face of economic depressions (Traver & Loudon, 2005).

            While speculations are rife over the firm’s economic viability following the decline in the number of subscribers in the United States, international subscribers continue to rise by the day. To add on that, Facebook has a potentially lucrative market, even posing a competitive threat to the traditional search engines such as Google and Yahoo. The bone of contention is that Facebook is increasingly restructuring itself to become the world’s largest search engine (Traver & Loudon, 2005). 

References

Clemons, E. (2009). Business Models for Monetizing Internet Applications. Journal of     Management   Information Systems, 26 (2), 15-41. Retrieved October 23, 2012, from      http://www.ebscohost.com

Holmes, T. (1999). The Art of Convergence. Black Enterprise, 29 (10), 48. Retrieved October     23, 2012, from http://www.proquest.com

Traver, G., Loudon, C. (2005). E-Commerce: Business. Technology. Society. Wesley: Pearson. 

Monopolization of the media

 Monopolization of the media

Monopolization of the media

When you think about the transitional – or pre-transitional (as in one-party states or nations mired in civil war) – countries around the world today, what are some incentives and disincentives you have seen or can think of that might thwart monopolization of the media in these settings?

There has always been a strong link between governments and the media in most states. The media is managed and controlled by the governments, the workers are government employees and the top officials are affiliated to the government. Although their constitutions grant right to expression and free press, the state still monopolizes the press. The media has been sucked dry due to the capitalistic nature of such states. There is therefore need for citizens of such states to come up with their own alternative and powerful media in order to put an end to this monopoly by the capitalistic class (Ghadbian, 2001).

Most journalists in such states work in highly pressurized conditions and insidious ways. The upcoming journalists have their aspirations put to waste as they cannot work in their ideal ways. ‘Objectivity’ of the media is a myth that has been contaminated by different political interests. For instance, incidences of war can only be reported with the consent of the government. This reduces the quality and quantity of news about different communities in the media. Taboo topics not to be reported, are set by government and sensitive information is censored by the Ministry of Information. Independent sources of information are also restricted.

The states have gone as far as imposing word limits on the internet. The media cannot wholly utilise the unlimited space on the internet for their reporting as they have been restricted. This curtails the integrity of journalism. Newspapers and other media channels in such states have to neutralize their news, views and opinions in fear that they might turn out to be unpleasing to the parties on which their advertising rates depend on. The pursuit of particular issues in journalism and interesting views to readers has turned out to be a threat to larger profits. This way, even the problems regarding the poor in the country stop being highlighted not unless the affluent customers are affected by them. 

Monopolization of the media

The concept of politics in the media has been marred by blandness due to standardization. Material that are socially sensitive to the affluent customers are not exposed, and the selection and writing of news become totally neutral. This is an aspect of media ‘objectivity’ that has contradicted the ideal ‘subjectivity’ in journalism. This objectivity has led to genuine relevant information being left out as per the authorities’ command. There is the reproduction of the words of the authorities in the media. The media then makes a habit of reporting only political safe news such as crime, natural disasters and accidents, even if they are not relevant to the audience. The reporters have been left powerless and their democracy and that of the people is threatened (Ghadbian, 2001).

The media in these states has centered on advertising taking most of the time on television and space in newspapers. When criticised, the media owners claim the public enjoys advertisements. To counter such criticism, they have further sophisticated the manipulation of emotions. The monopolization of the media erodes democracy and the link between the media and country’s political system has worked to starve the voters of important knowledge. This therefore calls for community-based models and alternative business in order to bring to an end the monopoly of big media corporations.

Monopoly in the media can be challenged by founding of numerous satellite TV stations. Proliferation of these can change the government’s rules of censorship and control as it will prove to be overwhelming. In the Arab world, satellite TV stations such as; Al-Jazira, played an important role in the eradication media monopolization. The internet on the other hand can be utilized essentially for dissemination of information. This way, the government is rendered less relevant; and independent and free sources of information are availed to the people. When people lose interest in state media, the state eventually loses control on the media. 

If state media could free themselves by embracing commercial support rather than government subsidy, they will no longer be under government control as they will make their own profits independently.

Monopolization of the media

Making the press law effective by the election of leaders who are passionate about the information age can make a move from monopolization. Such can bring in new measures in the media policy in response to the worldwide competition. The appointment of a reform-minded Adan Umran in Syria saw him bring numerous changes in the media (Ghadbian, 2001).

If all intellectuals and journalists demand more freedom of speech, expression and accountability, this will relieve them the burden of monopolization in the media. This need of a journalism culture in Syria, made writers demand for freedom of press and an end to the one-party rule and this bore fruits (Ghadbian, 2001).

In conclusion, all individuals should be agents of change in their countries as this is key to unlocking the freedom of media and closing the doors of media monopolization. If appropriate actions are taken, then this freedom will be achieved. On the other hand, lack of political will, fear, reluctance and unwillingness to take steps of change will not drive to media freedom.

References

Ghadbian, N. (2001). Civil Society and Citizenship: Internet Resources. Contesting the state 

media monopoly: Syria on Al-Jazira Television. Volume 5, No. 2 – June 2001. Retrieved from http://www.biu.ac.il/SOC/besa/meria/journal/2001/issue2/jv5n2a7.html

Monopolization of the media

Chapultepec Declaration

Chapultepec Declaration 

Chapultepec Declaration

Chapultepec Declaration

As you read the Chapultepec Declaration consider the description of its principles. How do its authors equate press freedom and democracy?

The Chapultepec Declaration: How its Authors Equate Press Freedom and Democracy

The Chapultepec Declaration: How its Authors Equate Press Freedom and Democracy

In 1994, the Inter-American Press Association (IAPA) held a summit at Chapultepec Castle in Mexico City. The convention sought to promote freedom of the press. What came out of the comprehensive discussion was the Chapultepec Declaration. In it, delegates proclaimed that freedom of expression, inclusive of a free press, was a necessary ingredient in promoting liberty. From the Chapultepec Declaration, there are numerous ways in which its authors equate press freedom and democracy (BBC Monitoring International Reports, 2002).

The declaration’s preamble reads that individuals cannot exercise other forms of freedom if the freedom of press access to information is curbed. When the media operates unobstructed, as the document states, there is the surfacing of courage to ask for information, to disseminate it without restraints, to question it without fear, and to promote free exchange of ideas and views. Members of the public sphere cannot therefore exercise other rights if the freedom of press is held back (Mark & Fitzgerald, 1999).

Chapultepec Declaration

The declaration compels authorities to avail in a timely and reasonable fashion the information generated by public offices. In addition, the law permits journalists to conceal their sources of information. What this means is that citizens of any given state need to know how their governments operate if they are to fully benefit from it. The press bridges the knowledge gap between bureaucrats who make decisions on their behalf, and the subjects of that particular state. Any act of corruption and mismanagement of funds by policymakers often go unraveled if the press is barred from access to such information. Timely issue of information, or giving news which is not stale, is more trustworthy thus the need for fresh news. It raises the authenticity of such news stories, making them more credible. For security purposes, journalists should be allowed to hide the identity of sources who desire anonymity, since their lives may be in danger after whistle blowing or revealing the injustices committed by the state (Mark & Fitzgerald, 1999).

In a democratic state, hindering press access to information through acts of murder, kidnappings, destruction of their facilities or even intimidating journalists, are counterproductive to the realization of liberty. This is because such harassments scare citizens of any state from accessing information and productively participating in governmental operations.  That is why the declaration recommends the detention and punishment of government officers who do that, since harassing or intimidating journalists encourages impunity (Mark & Fitzgerald, 1999).

The declaration adds that prior censorships, restrictions to the circulation of information, and managing of media by authorities are direct ways of infringing on the freedom of press access to information. Imposition of such hindrances by authorities limits liberty, which in turn infringes on the citizen’s rights to be aware of their government’s operations, the injustices committed, and corruption. Citizens at the grassroots level heavily depend on the press for information. Thus barring or restricting journalists’ movements in pursuit of information amounts to the violation of their liberty (Mark & Fitzgerald, 1999).

It is unethical and illegal of sources to favor journalists or media houses by means of assigning them radio frequencies, funding their operations or favoring them because of positive news coverage. These deeds lead to the publishing of biased news. Biased news coverage of sources limits citizens’ right to know the truth. For instance, a corrupt source of information may give journalists gifts so as to hide the truth from public notice. That is an act which hampers liberty (Mark & Fitzgerald, 1999).

The credibility of the press correlates with its commitment to reporting factual information, being accurate, fair and objective. In the absence of such principles, the press is seen as biased. Journalists should therefore be able to distinguish news from advertizing. To report advertisements as news would be to encourage publicity of such organizations thus infringement of liberty (Mark & Fitzgerald, 1999). Furthermore, the act insulates journalists from being punished by the state as a result of unraveling the truth. When journalists fear for their lives, they cannot unveil injustices and acts corruption committed by the ruling class (Mark & Fitzgerald, 1999).

Chapultepec Declaration

All said, the Chapultepec Declaration will forever be remembered in the field of development journalism. For it has provided the impetus for exercising other rights, otherwise unattainable. Thus the most basic way of distinguishing democracy from autocracy is press access to information.
                                                                   References

BBC Monitoring International Reports. (2002, May). St. Kits and Nevis signs Chapultepec 

Declaration. BBC Monitoring International Reports, 1-2. Retrieved Oct 2, 2012, from 

http://www.ebscohost.com

Mark, Fitzgerald. (1999). Declaration of Chapultepec. Journal of Communication, Journalism, 

            Printing, Advertizing and Public Relations, 132 (18) 1-2. Retrieved Oct 2, 2012, from 

http://search.proquest.com/docview/194311250?accountid=45049

Chapultepec Declaration