outdoor environment

outdoor environment

what is benefit of outdoor environment?
why we need to have environment?
problem and significant of outdoor environment

 

Environment, Resources, and Competition Report

Environment, Resources, and Competition Report

Resources: University of Phoenix Materials: Temperature and Precipitation, Intraspecific Competition, and Interspecific Competition

Imagine you are an ecologist studying ecosystems. In this assignment, you are given a set of data to study.

Review the Temperature and Precipitation data, Intraspecific Competition data, and Interspecific Competition data located on your student website.

Analyze the data provided in three graphs.
Environment, Resources, and Competition Report
What are the major characteristics of the environment of the chosen ecosystem?

How do these characteristics affect the animals, plants, and their resources living in the environment?

Review the temperature and precipitation data. From the data, what can you determine about the role of precipitation and temperature in biomes?

Review the Intraspecific Competition data. How is the predator community affected by low numbers of prey? How do high numbers of predators affect the prey community? What are some possible effects on other species?

Review the Interspecific Competition data, what behavioral data might be inferred from this graph? What factors might be responsible for the success of the older mothers’ offspring? Propose a scenario that might explain the data recorded. How might interspecific competition affect the reproductive success?

What implications can you infer from the three graphs about the relationship between plants and animals?

Environment, Resources, and Competition Report

Resources: University of Phoenix Materials: Temperature and Precipitation, Intraspecific Competition, and Interspecific Competition

Imagine you are an ecologist studying ecosystems. In this assignment, you are given a set of data to study.

Review the Temperature and Precipitation data, Intraspecific Competition data, and Interspecific Competition data located on your student website.

Analyze the data provided in three graphs.
Environment, Resources, and Competition Report

Write a 700- to 1,400-word report that answers the questions below.

What are the major characteristics of the environment of the chosen ecosystem?

How do these characteristics affect the animals, plants, and their resources living in the environment?

Review the temperature and precipitation data. From the data, what can you determine about the role of precipitation and temperature in biomes?

Review the Intraspecific Competition data. How is the predator community affected by low numbers of prey? How do high numbers of predators affect the prey community? What are some possible effects on other species?

Review the Interspecific Competition data, what behavioral data might be inferred from this graph? What factors might be responsible for the success of the older mothers’ offspring? Propose a scenario that might explain the data recorded. How might interspecific competition affect the reproductive success?

What implications can you infer from the three graphs about the relationship between plants and animals?

Metrics Plan

You are the newly appointed, and first, Environmental Manager of a environmental training branch. Using the information found in the Microsoft Access program which information from the training needs assessment. Develop a Metric Plan for the CETEP Training Needs Assessment. The output is a comprehensive Metrics Plan with validated performance metrics and includes an update to the appropriate section(s) of the installation CETEP Plan. A summary report shall include performance management and process improvement findings, recommendations and performance metrics by practice owner and practice location.

The Plan shall include an analysis of regional environmental Training Needs Assessment data to determine quantified training requirements by EMS practice owner and EMS practice location, based on a specified number of EMS Practices (not to exceed 50 practices). Microsoft Access program attachment will be included.

Environmental Sustainability

Find a recent (2007 or after) scholarly (peer-reviewed) article that discusses Environmental Sustainability (from an organizational perspective).

Summarize the article in a one paragraph review.
Then compare the economic and national perspective of the United State’s trade relative to the protectionism precepts and concepts in the article. In summary, please also present your considered personal insight on the subject.

Climate and Disease

To what extent were climate and disease the key factors in producing economic, social and political change in fourteenth century Europe?(footnotes)

Investigate population growth

Topic: Investigate population growth

1. The demographic transition theory identifies a three stage-model for population growth. Provide an example of at least one country (excluding the U.S.) going through each of these phases. Provide supporting evidence, which includes discussion on the trends in fertility, mortality, and migration for these countries.
2. Describe the trends in fertility, mortality, migration, and urbanization in the U.S. during the past century. Does the demographic transition theory support these trends? Why or why not?
3. Based on your review of the demographic trends and population theories, what is your projection of demographic trends for the U.S. population in 2040? What implications does this have for public health? Provide support for your perspective..
in your selected countries (Russia and China) and address the following:
1. Seek census data that will give you a historical, midway to the current period, and the present picture. What theory(ies) explain the population growth?
2. Describe the growth rate. Has there been significant in-migration or out-migration?
3. Is there any concern about depopulation? Or population exceeding available resources?
4. Using your most current data and the “rule of 69”, compute when each country’s population is likely to double

Population Theories

Topic: Population Theories

1. The demographic transition theory identifies a three stage-model for population growth. Provide an example of at least one country (excluding the U.S.) going through each of these phases. Provide supporting evidence, which includes discussion on the trends in fertility, mortality, and migration for these countries.
2. Describe the trends in fertility, mortality, migration, and urbanization in the U.S. during the past century. Does the demographic transition theory support these trends? Why or why not?
3. Based on your review of the demographic trends and population theories, what is your projection of demographic trends for the U.S. population in 2040? What implications does this have for public health? Provide support for your perspective..

United Kingdom Energy Supplies

Discuss about The United Kingdom Energy supplies…………………

1. Introduction. 3

1.1 The political Implications. 4

1.2 The Technical Implications. 6

2.0 Sources of power free from carbon dioxide emissions. 8

2.1 Fossil fuels whose carbon dioxide is captured and withdrawn from seclusion. 8

2.2 Wind energy. 9

2.3 Hydro Power 10

2.4 Wave power 10

2.5 Solar Photovoltaic. 11

2.6 Tidal power 11

2.7 Biomass power 12

2.8 Nuclear power 12

3. Conclusions. 13


1. Introduction

The industrialized world is so reliant on oil. That would not be a major problem if oil was found in abundance. The fact that most of the world’s oil reserves are mainly found in thePersian Gulf, (60%) makes the growing competition between states intense for accessing it (Brand 2005). Apart from depending on the imports of oil, theUnited Kingdomis becoming more dependent on the importation of natural gas for electricity generation, and so is the rest of the European Union. TheUnited Kingdomhas been self sufficient with regards to the energy sources for the generation of electricity for the last 100 years. The global demand for energy is projected to rise especially as South andEast Asiaare undergoing industrialization and development. There has not been any major prospect of breakthroughs in sourcing alternative supplies. As much as one might think that nuclear and renewable energy will be of major importance in the sourcing as an alternative, fossil fuels, oil and gas will remain the most dominant sources of energy for decades. However, revolutionary innovations are possible and necessary with regards to alternative sources of energy (MacKay 2008).

If we are to avoid the increased scarcity of energy resources as Tax’s statement implies, then there is a need to make a technologically strategic shift towards renewable sources of energy for use in businesses, homes and transport, and it should equally be made a security priority nationally in the United Kingdom, European Union and the world as a whole. The urge to shift these renewable sources of energy as an alternative source of energy, compliments the need to address the issue of global warming. Not only is it essential for the sake of national security that the United Kingdom and the world at large makes that change from dependency on oil and gas within the next twenty years,  but also it is practical in financial and technical terms. As much as it might seem overly ambitious to think that renewable energy sources will be the main sources of energy of the future, it is equally important to remember that twenty years ago coal was the main source of energy and now it has been phased out. Similarly, many would have laughed at the thought that some day, sports cars would be powered by diesel engines. Thus the main focus should be on what is achievable over the next twenty years, and this should serve to concentrate our attention.

 

 

1.1 The political Implications

Growth of the economy mainly depends on the availability of a constant and affordable supply of energy. The presentUnited Kingdomgovernment is playing its role in ensuring that it is the most indebted nation as compared to all the other developed countries, despite the fact that it is the one with the highest population density among those same developed countries. The only way that debt repayment is possible is if there is a drop in the standards of living within the population, or if there is a substantial growth in the economy. The past 100 years has seen theUnited Kingdomfail in its obligatory duties of investing in energy infrastructure, leading to the danger of its power stations retiring, leading to a disruption in the economy which could be costly and difficult to replace, due to the power outages. It is acceptable to say that the production of oil has peaked if not yet it is about to do so, while at the same time the returns on energy invested is gradually dropping while worldwide demand is rising, in particular within the developing nations (Tierney 2007).

TheUnited Kingdomis a major importer of energy, and the security of that energy is at a major threat. Experts and scientists agree that the planet is undergoing major global warming, which is caused by the carbon dioxide emissions that are produced from the combustion of fossil fuels, and if nothing is done about this, it could lead to catastrophic events that could be unstoppable within this current century. It is thus necessary that theUnited Kingdomreplaces the power stations that are bound to be retired, and increase its production of electrical power supply to aid in the phasing out of the use of fossil fuels as the main source of energy, and also to deal with the issue of a growing population. It is also important to note that of all the global carbon dioxide emissions, theUnited Kingdomis only responsible for two percent of it, thus it is important that an approach that is planetary is taken to solve the problem. With the constant growth in human population and subsequent development in economies, there is an increase in carbon dioxide emission, and alternatives that are affordable need to be found. The available alternative sources of energy are too high priced and unaffordable to the developing nations and they will fail to offer a timely solution, if at all. Thus the need to find an alternative source of energy that is competitive and free of emission to serve as a replacement for coal.

TheUnited Kingdommay be considered to be of the status of a developing nation at the moment owing to the manner in which it is largely dependent on imports mainly food despite its high population and energy imports, a major loss in its manufacturing base and the financial aspect of the economy is in disarray. The under classes within the nation are also poorly educated or under educated; there is a large culture of dependency that is growing within the nation and a high level of immigration. Most of the citizens of theUnited Kingdomare not aware of the extent of the situation that they are confronted with and neither are they of the efforts that are needed to find a solution. The lack of awareness witnessed here can be blamed on the politicians of the country, regardless of their political party affiliation. This is due to the fact that most of these politicians tend to tell their potential voters what they want to hear, rather than the situation on the ground. A solution to these problems can only be achieved by a nation wide consensus by all the parties. As much as the problems is not only restricted to theUnited Kingdom, it is important that they avoid damaging their relations with the European Union (MacKay 2008).

The trading in emission has not yet achieved the objectives it was projected to achieve. The permits that are being issued allowing the pollution of air have been issued in excess and the prices at which they are being issued are too low. This system has been of great benefit to some of the traders leaving the taxpayers to bear the grunt of this increased bureaucracy. It is thus important to considered diverting resources from education, welfare and health budgets, and concentrate more in addressing the energy crisis issues. There is also a need to ration the use of fuel used in private transportation within the near future. The citizens of the United Kingdom should be given the chance to experience and share in the benefits of a future that is secure in terms of energy supply, and sources of finance that are innovative enough also sought. The mentality that should be encouraged is that pain that is short term should be tolerated for the sake of gain that is long term. Government should find the appropriate policies that will make investing in energy infrastructure attractive, or alternatively instead of imposing hefty taxes on the wealthy or corporations, it could make investment in energy compulsory through something say, energy bonds.

 

 

1.2 The Technical Implications

Not only is it important for theUnited Kingdomto finds a means of replacing the electric generating capability that is retiring, by the use of clean renewable energy sources, but also it is equally important that it increases the generating capacity to ensure that fossil fuels are fully replaced. This will definitely mean that the national grid gets a major upgrade, which will be costly depending on the energy source choices that are used in the generation of that electricity. Thus it is equally important that this energy should be used more efficiently through the use of energy conservation methods such as insulation, heat pumps, and transportation methods that are more energy efficient. At the moment coal and gas being combusted account for eighty percent of the electricity being generated. Not mentioning the pollution that the combustion of these fuels is producing in terms of carbon dioxide emissions, but there is also pollution from heavy metal emissions such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. Suppose the pollution costs were to be internalized then the cost of the electricity generated by the use of these fossil fuel energy sources would increase by a substantial amount. Sadly, this does not play a role in the carbon dioxide emissions, which is the main cause of global warming. The use of coal as a source of energy is only justifiable if the carbon dioxide emissions that it produces are captured and drawn into seclusion. It is also important to note that, though theoretically the use of gas as an alternative source of energy to coal is less harmful, it is only so if it is not transported over long distances considering the leaks that occurs. This is due to the fact that if gas for instance is transported fromRussia, only fifty five percent of the product will reach theUnited Kingdomwith the rest having combusted to generate the required energy for it to be pushed along the pipeline (Brand 2005). Methane gas leaks are minor and live in the atmosphere for shorter periods of time as compared to carbon dioxide, but it is also more potent and it acts as a major contributor to greenhouse gas. Thus the notion that the use of gas, as an alternative source of energy is much safer than coal is an illusion, when the capture and drawing into seclusion of carbon dioxide is not considered.

Oil is mainly used in almost tall forms of transportation, and this is leading to its decline and its price is most likely to continue rising (Mobbs 2005). It is thus important that electricity be used as an alternative in powering cars directly such as the case with electric cars, or in synthesizing alternative fuels used in vehicles such as methanol or even ammonia. The use of biofuels is also needed, but theUnited Kingdomis not in a position to produce the amounts that are required for efficient use thus they will have to import. It is also important to note that cars powered by electricity can only be considered as “green” if they are free from carbon dioxide emission from their power production sources.

 

 

2.0 Sources of power free from carbon dioxide emissions

2.1 Fossil fuels whose carbon dioxide is captured and withdrawn from seclusion

The reserves that are available for fossil fuels are not sustainable, but if used effectively it can buy the much needed time only if global warming is put into consideration, meaning that if its effects are mitigated (Mobbs 2005). The capturing and sequestering of carbon dioxide has yet to prove to be viable on a long term basis. But if in the future its deployment into the commercial world could prove to be feasible in technical terms, then rate of energy returned on the energy invested of coal would be cut by half in the future due to the fact that most of its energy would be used in the transportation, sequestration and capture of carbon dioxide, and so would be its sustainability.

The price of coal is currently represented by 70% of the cost of the electricity it generates and thus, electricity from carbon dioxide captured and sequestered coal will be even more expensive as compared to the normal coal (Brand 2005). A large nation that is not indebted and is not over burdened by a large population density would be able to cope with the high price of such an alternative source of energy. Sadly, theUnited Kingdomand other developing nations may not.

 

2.2 Wind energy

As a source of energy, wind is not as concentrated. Moreover, it is sporadic and its irregular nature is unpredictable. While theUnited Kingdomis endowed with more wind sources as compared to the rest ofEurope, the capacity factor is not more than twenty five percent. This means that the energy that it produces is at a quarter of the capacity it is rated to be able to produce, meaning that for every one gigawatt of a power station powered by coal, four gigawatts worth of power wind turbines have to be installed. To be able to predict where the wind will be blowing will require the connecting up of all the wind resources all over the country such that even if it is not blowing in one particular area, chances are that it will definitely be blowing in another area. But such a connection could require huge investments within the national grid which requires more finances which exceeds the investments needed to build the farms themselves used to generate the wind power (McCarthy 2008).

It is thus important that wind relies on a backup source of power such as gas, until an alternative method of storing electricity which is much cheaper becomes available. A society that dwells in a modern and industrialized country such as theUnited Kingdomcannot function if the presence of a predictable and more reliable source of energy is not present.

When wind energy is enhanced as a percentage of the overall energy that is available in the national grid, it becomes less manageable and carbon dioxide savings accruement will also be low. Around 1600 turbines generating 2.5 gigawatts of energy are required to replace one gigawatt coal power station. Considering that wind has a low power per unit area, they will have to be placed in a large spaced area of land, or sea. The cost of the turbines placed in land is nearly two thirds the amount used in the installation of the turbines placed offshore.

Nonetheless, wind power cannot compete with coal energy, if the tax payer does not pay heavily by aiding in its subsidizing, and by the externalizing of the costs that they incur as a result of their burden on the national grid. It is thus safe to say that theUnited Kingdomis incapable of relying on wind as a means of meeting its power requirements even to a small percentage. A rich nation would probably be able to do so by providing subsidies to finance this project, but sadly theUnited Kingdomis no longer a rich nation, and this would just be a luxury (McCarthy 2008).

 

2.3 Hydro Power

TheUnited Kingdom’s capacity for hydro power generation is limited and so is its potential. What theUnited Kingdomhas is useful and valuable to it, such that it can be set up when it is most required and instantly transmitted (Mobbs 2005).

 

2.4 Wave power

At the moment, it is not possible that this source of energy is capable of producing even a small portion of the United Kingdom’s energy needs, and further more the essay/impact-technological-competency/">technology is still immature and very expensive (Knott 2003).

 

 

2.5 Solar Photovoltaic

The cost of electricity that solar power stations produce, even in the nations found in the Sun Belt, is far much more expensive than that produced by coal power stations. If that is the case in such countries, then in theUnited Kingdomthe cost would be doubled if not tripled. There have been suggestions that such energy be imported form these Sun Belt nations but there is the risk of transmission costs and energy security loss. This could also mean that the little capital available would be diverted out of the country and potentially minimize employment benefits. On the other hand, solar panels can be used in theUnited Kingdomas a source of energy for heating water domestically. If this essay/impact-technological-competency/">technology is utilized, it only serves to provide theUnited Kingdomwith a small percentage of its energy requirements at an economic cost, in spite of the fact that the sun is the main source of this energy during the summer, and hot water is not needed as such at that time (Brand 2005).

 

2.6 Tidal power

TheUnited Kingdom’s coastline is suitable for production of tidal power, and so are its tidal ranges. In addition, this type of power is more dependable and predictable. Conversely, tidal power is incapable of meeting even five percent of the energy needs of theUnited Kingdom, and the essay/impact-technological-competency/">technology is not one of the cheapest ways of producing electricity. Nevertheless, by the use of tidal lagoons power of high value can be produced and pumped storage used in the conversion of low energy into higher energy.

 

2.7 Biomass power

The production of useful energy from waste may have some advantages. Nonetheless, the definition of waste in this context may pose as a problem. For instance, animal manure and straw are spread on land meant for agriculture or retained. The growing of biomass plants for use as energy is normally neutral to carbon and is even encouraged by the government, through subsidies to aid in its substituting fossil fuels as a source of energy. Such crops include willow coppice or miscanthus (EIA 2008).

 

2.8 Nuclear power

The cheapest electricity production in Europe is undoubtedly produced byFrance, with twenty percent being produced by hydro and the remaining eighty percent being produced by nuclear. TheUnited Kingdomwhich was the pioneer in nuclear power pawned off its nuclear industry, allowing its expertise to lapse. Currently, the fission reactors available are Generation 2 and most of them are becoming obsolete, and they generate about sixteen percent of the country’s electricity. TheUnited Kingdomhas ordered Generation 3 which is newer, safer and more efficient. Generation 4 reactors are expected to be available by the year 2020 and this will depend on the type. They are projected to be capable of extracting about 160 times the energy that the current generators are capable of producing by using equal amounts of fuel reducing the problem of nuclear waste (Andrew 2003). Actually, they are expected to be able to consume this nuclear waste as a source of energy. Thus, the only essay/impact-technological-competency/">technology capable of providing theUnited Kingdomwith all its energy needs in the most protracting manner is nuclear fission.

Carbon dioxide captured and sequestered coal is not ready in terms of essay/impact-technological-competency/">technology, expensive and not sustainable. Renewable sources of energy are also not capable of satisfying the energy needs of theUnited Kingdomand are also expensive and difficult to deploy. Despite the numerous advantages that nuclear fission has, it has not fallen short of critics. It has for one a safety record that is far much better than other technologies used in the generation of electricity (Mobbs 2005). There is a global worry about the radioactive nuclear waste that it produces, but it is of less threat as compared to the waste that coal produces. Besides, when the generation 4 designs are installed, the problem of radioactive waste will be a thing of the past. There is also the worry of terror attacks or the effect that earthquakes may have on these reactors, but this has already been taken care of in depth in the designs of these reactors. This is however not addressed in chemical plants or even oil refineries. If any of them were to be attacked, they would have more effects on the population surrounding them than an attack on a nuclear reactor. There are also claims that nuclear energy is too slow to install and too costly (Tierney 2007). This statement is true to some degree, since in the past the reactors had a design that was costly and took long to build.

 

3. Conclusions

TheUnited Kingdomis not in a position to have a number of energy solutions to pick from, due to its population density, high level of indebtedness and collapse in its infrastructure. The best option that is available has to be nuclear fission. Meanwhile, it might be essential that theUnited Kingdomrelies on gas for maxing out on power requirements. The use of gas as a base load and for domestic energy needs is insensible considering that it is a limited commodity. Research on carbon dioxide capturing and sequestering needs to be accelerated and the essay/impact-technological-competency/">technology applied in the elimination of carbon dioxide from the gas energy (EIA 2008).

It is thus encouraging tha hus encouraging tha thge minitrinitraion of carbon diosxide elimination from teh .  adly,its energy requirements at an ecomnomit the United Kingdom’s government is indicating its support for nuclear power and the opposition parties are in agreement. The government also should be applauded for restructuring the planning process which is important in adding to the time and value of installing new energy infrastructure. The European Union’s commitment and by extension the United Kingdom’s to renewable energy sources as a plank to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is very unfortunate. This has seen distortions being experienced within the energy markets, due to the subsidizing of renewable sources of energy instead of focusing more on cleaner solutions. Nuclear energy has been categorized as being the only source of energy whose costs are internalized (CM  2003). Most private investors, given equal chances to invest on cleaner energy sources would go for nuclear energy as opposed to wind. Thus the government could place tax on carbon, and declare renewable sources such as carbon dioxide captured and sequestered coal and nuclear as acceptable and honorable renewable sources of energy. The government could further refrain from wasting the limited funds in financing the subsidizing of alternative sources of energy, and instead produce nuclear power that is fully nationalized.

If the idea of the production of power from nuclear sources is implemented by the government, then it should take measures to ensure that the necessary workforce is produced to deal with it. The government should also be keener on investing on the generation 4 reactors’ research and their development, and form alliances that are based on strategy with nations that are already advancing in this area such asIndiaandFrance. If the United Kingdom has the intention of being a super house once more in the civil nuclear power field, then it will have to envision future expansion in to the generation 4 reactors sooner than later.

The government might just relax, especially considering that it has announced that it plans to construct ten new nuclear power plants on the existing sites. Considering that the existing plants are due to be decommissioned, they would hardly serve as a great boost to this energy. If theUnited Kingdomis really serious about being self sufficient in regards to sustainable and clean energy by the year 2025, then it needs between 150 and 200 gigawatts of power (Andrew 2003). However, the main advantage about the solution is that, it is currently the most affordable and sustainable choice for addressing the energy crisis.

 

Bibliography

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Bickerstaff, K., Lorenzoni,I., Pidgeon, N., Poortinga, W. & Simmons, P. (2008) Re-framing Nuclear Energy in the Power Debate: Nuclear Power, Climate Change & Radioactive Waste

Brand, S. (2005) Environmental Heresies, essay/impact-technological-competency/">Technology Review, MIT, http://www.technologyreview.com/article/16398/, Last accessed on 19 March 2010

Cabinet Office ( 2002) The Energy Review. The Performance & Innovation Unit Report. February 2002.

CM  5761. ( Feb 2003) Our Energy Future – creating a low carbon economy. DTI

CM 6887. ( July 2006) The Energy Challenge. Energy Review Report. DTI

EIA. (2008). International Energy Annual 2006. Retrieved 03 2009, from Official Energy Statistics from the US Government: http://www.eia.doe.gov/iea/overview.html

Jha, Alok (2008-10-21). UK overtakes Denmark as world’s biggest offshore wind generator. guardian.co.uk. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/oct/21/windpower-renewableenergy1. Retrieved 2008-11-12.

Knott M. ( 2003 ) Power from the waves. New Scientist 20th September 2003. p. 33-35.

MacKay, D. (2008) Sustainable Energy – Without Hot Air, UIT,London

McCarthy, Michael (2008-01-24). Britain will need 12,500 wind farms to satisfy EU targets. The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/britain-will-need-12500-wind-farms-to-satisfy-eu-targets-773145.html. Retrieved 2010-03-19.

Mobbs P. (2005) ‘Energy Beyond Oil ‘ published by Matadoor

Pearce D.W. &  Rose J.  ( 1975)  The Economics of Natural Resource Depletion.

Poortinga W., Pidgeon, N.F. and Lorenzoni, I. (2006) Public Perceptions of Nuclear Power, Climate Change and Energy Options in Britain: Summary Findings of a Survey Conducted during October and November 2005. Technical Report (Understanding Risk Working Paper 06-02).Norwich: Centre for Environmental Risk. http://www.data-archive.ac.uk/doc/5357%5Cmrdoc%5Cpdf%5C5357userguide.pdf], Last accessed on 19 March 2010

Tierney, J. (2007) An Eary Environmentalist, Embracing New ‘Heresies’, The New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/27/science/earth/27tier.htm?_r=1, Last accessed on March 1 2010.

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