‘Racist or not?’: Heart of Darkness a study of Joseph Conrad

Heart of Darkness
Heart of Darkness

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

‘Racist or not?’: Heart of Darkness a study of Joseph Conrad.

Joseph Conrad occupies an important position in English literature. He is credited as being “one of the greatest novelists in the English language” which is no small feat for any writer but a particularly striking one for someone who learned English in his adult years. Conrad was born Jozef Teador Konrad Nalecz Korzeniowski in Russian-occupied Ukraine to Polish parents in the year 1857. He led an active life with roughly twenty years of naval adventures. In 1878, he arrived in England and began to learn the native language. He was twenty-one.

Conrad’s literary career was as adventurous as his life. He produced fourteen novels and eight volumes of stories. His impact on literature-in-English was nothing short of revolutionary and his influence is particularly apparent in American fiction. In the immediate post-World War I landscape, critical giants (including FR Leavis and Thomas C. Moore) took an active interest in analysing Conrad’s works. In the 1930s renewed American curiosity about the author led to many well-written biographical records being published.

Conrad’s fiction revolves around his own experiences. Fascinated by Africa as a young boy, he would grow up to work for an imperial company. This would take him on many journeys to “the dark continent” and leave him with a disillusionment of colonisation.

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

After prompting celebratory reverence for more than half a century, Conrad’s fiction is now facing sharp criticism. A lot of this revolves around race. The world looks different in the twenty-first (and twentieth) century than it did in the nineteenth. Writers from once-colonised nations have integrated themselves into the academic and artistic world of English literature, and have found Conrad’s depictions of Africans (and others) to be intellectually lazy, filled with Orientalist stereotyping and employing a rhetoric that justifies colonisation.

Forefront amongst these are: African author and critic Chinua Achebe and Palestinian-born intellectual Edward Said. The former has famously called Joseph Conrad “a thoroughgoing racist”.

So, was Joseph Conrad – story-teller extraordinaire and firm part of the English canon – nothing more than a racist, included in the company of great English writers simply because he was lucky enough to be born a white man at an age where you could recycle stereotypical descriptions of Africans to no-end and still be given credit? Or is he simply a victim of literary-theory, that oppressive force that many celebrated critics feel has taken over English classrooms and turned them into battlegrounds of political correctness?

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

To decide, many point – as this essay will – to Conrad’s famous novella Heart of Darkness.

Published in 1899, the premise of the short story is simple: On the deck of a ship docked on River Thames, a man named Marlow recounts his previous adventure as the captain of a river-boat that travelled up the River Congo. Marlow was the employee of an imperial company specialising in ivory trade in Africa. His mission was to rescue Kurtz, the evasive station captain stranded somewhere in the depths of Congo.

Conrad was different from his contemporaries in that he offers an apparently scathing critique of imperial domination right from the start of the novella. Unlike many, he does not posit colonial rule as of benefit to the natives and highlights white cruelty at (almost) every turn.

Marlow points out that his predecessor Fresleven once beat the chief of an African tribe with a stick over a dispute involving some hens. When a fire breaks out at the company’s central station a black man is punished; he is beaten bloody at the mere suspicion of playing a part in the destruction and afforded no trial.

A line of slaves joined with chains hanging from their necks is paraded around the station, and Marlow’s companion is eager to “kill somebody” as punishment for the black men (who are forced to carry him everywhere) deserting them. Even Kurtz – who is a part of the company’s newly recruited “gang of virtue” – scribbles “Exterminate all the brutes!” in a moment of carelessness as a jarring postscript on his (ironically titled) pamphlet for the ‘Suppression of Savage Customs’.

If the white people are cruel – the black people are oppressed, and Conrad makes sure to show this repeatedly. The hungry slaves deserted after they had fulfilled their usefulness are “black shadows of disease and starvation.” Black heads on stakes decorate Kurtz’s house, a reminder that even the best view natives as easily disposable.

On the river-boat, Marlow’s white crew members throw a slab of smelly hippo meat overboard, their olfactory sensibilities overriding a major concern: what will the black-crew eat? This is of little consequence to the Europeans and (strikingly) Marlow recounts this instance with a good deal of sarcasm, commenting that the useless brass wire paid in place of the meat “was paid with a regularity worth of a large and honourable trading company.”

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

This is to Conrad’s credit. He does not seem to fully subscribe to the mission civilisatrice (‘civilising mission’) that maintained that the white man had a duty to go forth and westernise all non-Europeans for their own benefit. This was a powerful rhetorical position in the nineteenth century, and this novella offers contemptuous commentary in this regard: Marlow encounters a man paid by the company for the upkeep of roads and points out that neither roads nor upkeep was to be seen unless the body of a black man lying in the middle of the path with a bullet hole through his head “could be considered a permanent improvement.”

When he first arrives in Congo, Marlow encounters the senseless digging of a hole which seems to have no purpose other than a “philanthropic desire” to give the natives work. When Marlow’s aunt elaborates on the goodness of colonisers spreading culture and Christianity to savages, he replies: “The Company is run for profit.”

These – and other – instances show that Conrad was ahead of his time, at least to a certain extent.

Shouldn’t this be enough to exonerate him?

Achebe doesn’t think so.

In 1975, he delivered a lecture titled ‘An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad’s Heart of Darkness’. In it, he outlines why he indicts Joseph Conrad.

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

For one thing, Conrad sees Africa as little more than a foil to Europe. If Europe is cultured, civilized and advanced, then Africa is (all words used to describe Congo in Heart of Darkness:)savage, barbaric and primitive. A place “where man’s vaunted intelligence and refinement are finally mocked by triumphant bestiality,” Achebe writes. This is problematic because it sees Africa only in terms of not-being-Europe, and not as a real place with its own spatiotemporal context.

This means that the author is so blinded by his prejudices that he deliberately misses out on achievements by Africans. As Achebe points out, the tribe of Fang people lived near were the novella is set. European travellers inspired by their bronze-art would introduce cubism to 20th century Britain around the time of Conrad’s writing. But you wouldn’t guess from that from reading this novella. Conrad spares no adjective in describing how hopelessly childlike, incapable of progress and primitive Africans are.

That they could create something worthwhile is unimaginable. Essentially what Achebe points out is that Conrad’s works are ‘Orientalist’ – a tricky word that basically means that European domination in Africa, Indochina and the Near East was accompanied by representations that insisted that black and brown people were incapable of progress and so justified colonial rule as being in their own best interests.

Secondly, African characters in the novel are rarely allowed to speak lucidly. Their language is brushed aside as “grunting phrase[s]”, a “clamour” and “an incomprehensible frenzy”. The narrator has a disturbing habit of comparing them to animals. There is a black river-boat boilerman who struggles to understand the work his white masters require of him, and Marlow comments that watching him was “as edifying as seeing a dog in a parody of breeches and a feather hat, walking on his hind legs” while a black helmsman is compared to a horse. These depictions further dehumanise Africans in the eyes of readers.

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

Edward Said was a post-colonial literary critic who coined the term ‘Orientalism’. In his 1993 book Culture and Imperialism, he talks about Conrad. He is much more charitable than his African colleague and credits the author with the creation of a convincing narrative and a powerful voice that pays attention to the “waste and horror” of Europe’s mission in the dark world.

However, Said admits that Conrad recycles the narrative of European domination, and does not show Africans as real people. He writes: “…neither Conrad nor Marlow gives us a full view of what is outside the world-conquering attitudes embodied by Kurtz, Marlow, the circle of listeners of the deck of The Nellie and Conrad.” The full humanity of Africans is compromised in favour of stereotypes.

So, was Joseph Conrad racist? The jury is still out. But as academia expands to include perspectives from those living in the Global South it seems likely that Achebe will have the last work. In a 2003 article in The Guardian, Chinua Achebe is in conversation with a white author Caryl Philips who admires both him and Conrad. There, Achebe offers some insightful remarks with regards to Heart of Darkness:

“You see, those who say that Conrad is on my side because he is against colonial rule do not understand that I know who is on my side. And where is the proof that he is on my side? A few statements about it not being a very nice thing to exploit people who have flat noses? This is his defence against imperial control? If so it is not enough. It is simply not enough. If you are going to be on my side what is required is a better argument. Ultimately you have to admit that Africans are people. You cannot diminish a people’s humanity and defend them.”

This article ends with this insightful exchange, in which Philips examines his own skepticism with regards to Joseph Conrad’s racism (the dialogue in quotation marks is Achebe’s):

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

“Yes, you will notice that the European traders have ‘tainted’ souls, Marlow has a ‘pure’ soul, but I am to accept that mine is ‘rudimentary’?” He shakes his head. “Towards the end of the 19th century, there was a very short-lived period of ambivalence about the certainty of this colonising mission, and Heart of Darkness falls into this period. But you cannot compromise my humanity in order that you explore your own ambiguity. I cannot accept that. My humanity is not to be debated, nor is it to be used simply to illustrate European problems.”

The realisation hits me with force. I am not an African. Were I an African I suspect I would feel the same way as my host. But I was raised in Europe, and although I have learned to reject the stereotypically reductive images of Africa and Africans, I am undeniably interested in the break-up of a European mind and the health of European civilisation. I feel momentarily ashamed that I might have become caught up with this theme and subsequently overlooked how offensive this novel might be to a man such as Chinua Achebe and to millions of other Africans.

Achebe is right; to the African reader the price of Conrad’s eloquent denunciation of colonisation is the recycling of racist notions of the “dark” continent and her people. Those of us who are not from Africa may be prepared to pay this price, but this price is far too high for Achebe. However lofty Conrad’s mission, he has, in keeping with times past and present, compromised African humanity in order to examine the European psyche. Achebe’s response is understandably personal.

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

An Enemy of the people: Book Report

An Enemy of the people
An Enemy of the people

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

An Enemy of the people: Book Report

Miller’s adaptation of Ibsen’s play is highly interesting, even the preface itself is fascinating. Arthur Miller dedicates the whole preface to describing what he tried to do with Henrik Ibsen’s celebrated play, An Enemy of the People. The motivations for Arthur Miller for choosing this play was essentially to illustrate that Henrik Ibsen is not out-of-date.

One of the main intentions of Arthur Miller’s adaptation of Ibsen’s play is certainly to convey the original message. In this report, the play An Enemy of the People is discussed in an exhaustive manner. The setting of the play, the plot, the main characters and the main theme are discussed. The author of this play is also described.

An Enemy of the People is certainly one of the most well-known and popular plays amongst producers and audiences and was initially written by Henrik Ibsen in the nineteenth century. Even so, it is also believed to be one of Arthur Miller’s famous staged works. The play was written in the year 1882 by Ibsen and a small coastal town in Norway serves as the setting.

The plot of this play was rooted in the real-life censure that Henrik Ibsen went through due to his 1881 controversial play, Ghosts. Henrik Ibsen’s plays were renowned for their pragmatist style (Miller, 2010). In the year 1950, Arthur Miller requested for the right to write an adaptation of An Enemy of the People. In translating the text from Norwegian into English, Miller retained most of the original text.

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

The play An Enemy of the People by Arthur Miller, which was adapted from Henrik Ibsen’s drama, is focused on a conflict between 2 brothers, Peter Stockmann and Dr. Stockmann. It also focuses on a conflict between the freedom and the suppression of speech. Peter Stockmann and Dr. Stockmann reside in an unidentified town which has of late finished building a medicinal bath on the town’s outer edge referred to as Kirsten Springs.

The Mayor of this town is Peter Stockmann who brags about the possible benefits which Kirsten Springs would present to the town. He envisages Kirsten Springs bringing tourists and visitors to the town – something that would increase the revenues of the town, provide enough employment opportunities for people of the town, and make businesses thrive (Ibsen, 2010). He also has the expectation that the town would in due course become a top resort in the region.

Dr. Stockmann, who is a scientist and a medical doctor, has suggested that the town should not construct Kirsten Springs in the site which has been chosen. Even so, members of the Council along with his brother Peter Stockmann disregard Dr. Stockmann’s recommendation. Dr. Stockmann believes that the water which pours into the Springs may be contaminated but he does not divulge his fears to anybody given that he does not want to alarm anybody needlessly in case he is incorrect (Miller, 2011).

In an attempt to verify what he believes to be true, Dr. Stockmann sent samples of water away to a certain university for them to be analyzed. The analysis report from the university divulges that the water which pours into the Springs is contaminated with an organic matter infection. The editor of Hovstad, a local newspaper, becomes aware of the report from the university and wants to publish this report in his newspaper.

Dr. Stockmann asks the editor, Hovstad, to hold-up printing the report until he notifies the Mayor of the town, Peter Stockmann, as regards the contents of the report. The doctor is sure that Peter would want the report published so that the people of the town could be cautioned and informed regarding the health risk.

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

After reading the report, Peter Stockmann meets with his brother Dr. Stockmann to talk about the report. The Mayor is disappointed that Dr. Stockmann decided to examine and look into the water quality without informing him first. Peter believes that the report is overstated and that his brother wants to challenge and undermine his position since he loathes authority. In the town, Dr. Stockmann is a respected and outstanding doctor who has outdone his older brother Peter constantly (Miller, 2011).

In this situation, Peter Stockmann is confronted with an ugly truth which has the potential of destroying his dreams of the town becoming a popular and rich tourist resort. Peter also has to tackle his own personal demons in dealing with Dr. Stockmann who happens to be his accomplished younger sibling.

Peter Stockmann then spreads the word throughout the town that Dr. Stockmann wants to ruin it. The people of the town, who do not want to face the horrible prospects which the water report is representing, choose to believe that the words of their Mayor and snub Dr. Stockmann, who is not permitted to speak publicly regarding the dangers existing in the water supply of the town or publish the water report in the newspaper.

In spite of what Dr. Stockmann is confronted with, be it loss of income, threats of arrest or violence, isolation, or being called an enemy of the people, he would not forsake the truth and he in fact ends up fighting the whole town to do what is right for the town and townspeople (Ibsen, 2010). Even though when play concludes, Dr. Stockmann and his family have been banished from the town and are in fact outcasts, Dr. Stockmann is sure and positive that the path which he has chosen is the right one.

Even though he is the only individual in the town who is fighting for the truth, he recognizes eventually that he is doing what is right and that it would make him a stronger person (Miller, 2011). 

              Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

On the whole, the main theme in An Enemy of the People is truth and morality; this is the theme which is clear and evident. Dr. Stockmann is determined to reveal the whole truth even if the information puts himself as well as his family in danger. That crucial information could affect the safety of his friends and his neighbours also. In this play, the audience and readers follow Dr. Stockmann, a man who discovered that the town’s water supply is contaminated. As a result of his efforts to disclose this information to the people of the town, his safety, his family, and his repute are put in jeopardy.

The key characters in this play include Peter Stockmann and Dr. Stockmann. Peter, who is the town’s mayor and the brother of Dr. Stockmann, is motivated by power and money. Peter Stockmann appears to be representing the government and the lengths which the government would go just to keep its citizens uninformed of wrongdoings. In the play, Peter acts as the antagonist. Dr. Stockmann is the play’s key character and is motivated by the truth.

In spite of the cost, Dr. Stockmann wants to provide the truth to the people of the town. He is the play’s protagonist. This character may represent science, or any profession which has as issue with places or products which the government considers safe for the citizens. Other noteworthy characters are Billing and Hovstad who are actually contributors to The People’s Daily Messenger, the local newspaper (Miller, 2011).

These two characters appear to be motivated by controversy. When Billing and Hovstad concur about publishing the findings of Dr. Stockmann, Hovstad states that this is just the start, which implies that the two want to publish a number of editorials that may bring the government down. Moreover, in the play, Aslaksen is the individual who publishes The People’s Daily Messenger. Aslaksen is motivated by money and he conducts himself in a manner that may sell the most newspapers and keep the peace with the people of the town. 

 Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here


In conclusion, An Enemy of the People play is without doubt one of the most renowned plays amongst producers and audiences and was initially written by Henrik Ibsen in the nineteenth century. In spite of that, it is also one of Arthur Miller’s eminent staged works. Truth and morality is the overriding theme in this play. Dr. Stockmann is strong-minded and wants to expose the whole truth although the information puts himself as well as his family in danger. The key characters include Dr. Stockman, Peter Stockman, Billing and Hovstad.


Ibsen, H. (2010). An enemy of the people. London, England: Penguin Plays Miller, A. (2011). An enemy of the people. Adapted by Arthur Miller. New York City, NY: Longman Literature

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

Ovid Amores Quiz Coursework

Ovid Amores
Ovid Amores

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

Ovid Amores Quiz

1. The Ovid’s metamorphoses are used in two forms within a play that include the Titian Perseus and Andromeda. The authors consequently make use of the traditions, magic and myths to make a clear depiction to the viewers on how human conditions have the capacity to transform things (Goh, 2015). The aspect of imagination and love remain the essential elements in the theme of transformation. The use of different figures of imagery are essential in the Ovid’s in order to ensure the understanding of the viewers and the meaning of the play as it relates to the current context.

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

2. The three references to warfare as presented in Ovid include the aspect of sexual desires, deep emotional declarations and external devotions to the flippant arguments on the element of promiscuity (Goh, 2015). In Amore, Ovid views himself as a beautiful and elusive mistress. Intimacy is also reviewed in this poetry that vanishes in the Art of Love that clearly shows the guides to sexual conquest.

3. Some of the inversions presented in these poems and the manner in which they point to the cultural contradictions in the Roman World include the social and cultural ramifications of the events that transpire in the poem and that relate to the Roman World (Perkins, 2015).

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

4. Some of the Roman concepts of masculinity and femininity in the poem can be seen when the poet uses a poetic figure of women that is constructed in reaction to the rhetoric need of the abject that seeks to establish the moral and the writing authorities (Perkins, 2015). The poet empowers herself through the contention with an absent beautiful figure which may be determined as either male or female.

5. The author makes use of the warrior character to depict Cupids power that was developed to chase some of the female characters (Perkins, 2015). In as much as the female characters looked non-committal, they choose to evade these capturing and followed their individual desires. This depicts the power of women as illustrated in the poetry.


Goh, I. (2015). The End of the Beginning: Virgil’s Aeneid In Ovid, Amores 1.2. Greece & Rome, 62(2), 167-176. doi:10.1017/S0017383515000042

Perkins, C. A. (2015). The Poeta as Rusticus in Ovid, Amores 1.7. Helios, 42(2), 267-285.

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

The Interpretation of Dreams

The Interpretation of Dreams
The Interpretation of Dreams

The Interpretation of Dreams

Sigmund Freud is the one of the most influential and controversial theorists of the 21st century. This paper discusses Sigmund Freud, from his life to his theory on dreams as discussed in his book The Interpretation of Dreams.

Sigmund Freud is recognized as the father of psychoanalysis. The work of Sigmund Freud aims at revolutionizing the study of dreams. In his book The Interpretation of Dreams, Freud analyzed dreams for the purpose of understanding personality aspects in relation to pathology. He believed that when people explain their own behavior, they rarely provide a true account of their motivation. Nevertheless, it is not that a person is deliberately lying.

Freud was born on May 6, 1856 to Galician Jewish parents in Austria. In 1881, he qualified as a medical doctor from the University of Vienna. Upon completion of his habilitation, Freud got an appointment as a docent in neuropathology. In 1902, he was promoted to an affiliated professor. Sigmund Freud resided in Vienna. He established his clinical practice in Vienna in 1886. In 1938, he moved away from Austria in the bid to escape the Nazi regime. Freud died in 1939 in exile in the UK.

Freud is considered the most famous figure as well as one of the most controversial and influential thinkers of the 20th century. His work and theories helped in shaping perspectives on therapy, sexuality, memory, personality and childhood. Out of Freud’s legacy grew several major thinkers who contributed to his work, while others have developed new theories to oppose Freud’s work.

Freud is famous for founding psychoanalysis, and for creating a wordlist that has been embedded within the vocabulary of western society. Through his theories, he introduced such vocabularies as neurotic, Freudian slip, cathartic, repression, denial, and libido.

Sigmund Freud introduced his theory on dreams in his book The Interpretation of Dreams. In the book, Freud explores the theory of the unconscious in line with dream interpretation and establishes ideas that would later be known as the theory of the Oedipus Complex. According to Freud, dreams refer to all forms for fulfillment of wishes; they involve attempts by the unconscious part of the brain to resolve any conflict arising from the past (Freud 3).

The fact that the information stored in the unconscious is disruptive and keeps disturbing a person implies that it cannot pass to the unconscious without alteration by a censor in the preconscious. When a person dreams, the preconscious tends to be more inactive in its duty of censoring information than in times when the person is awake. Therefore, information has to be distorted in the unconscious mind as the meaning of it proceeds to be censored.

In most cases, images in dreams are not a true representation of what they appear to be, and thus require a deeper interpretation for purposes of informing the structures of the unconscious. Accordingly, people struggle to remember their dreams when the superego is at work. The Superego plays the role of protecting the Ego from disruptive images and wishes conjured by the Id.

Freud proposed the condensation phenomenon, though which he suggested that a simple image or symbol presented in a dream is capable of many meanings. In line with this thinking, Freud focused on details during psychoanalysis and even requested his patients to tell him everything including what they might have termed as trivial. For instance, applying the phenomenon of free association, he could ask patients to interact freely and tell him whether they had seen any sign on the wall and what the sign actually was.

While Freud focused on individual biological drives, his colleagues such as Adler, Jung and Breuer did not subscribe to these ideas. According to Freud, when a person sees a hollow image in his/her dreams, such as a cave or a box, this may symbolize a womb. A long image may symbolize a penis. Critics attacked these statements and labeled Freud as a misanthrope or sexist on the ground that he overemphasized the role of instinct, implying that he perceived human beings as wild beasts.

It is interesting to note that Freud’s ideas had a very strong impact on psychology that a school of thought was established from his work. Although psychoanalysis was eventually replaced by behaviorism, the school of thought had a long-lasting impact on both psychotherapy and psychology. A limitation of Freud’s work is that most of his ideas were drawn from cases studies and clinical cases, which made it difficult to generalize his findings to a larger population (Mitchell and Black 102).

Psychoanalysis theory is an illustration of a global therapy that aims to help patients in bringing about major changes of their perspective about life. According to Wittels and Freud (47), psychoanalysis is based on the belief that the prevailing maladaptive perspectives are closely related to deep-seated personality traits. Most global therapists are guided by the contrary approaches that focus majorly on reduction symptoms such as behavioral and cognitive approaches.

Works Cited

Freud, Sigmund. The interpretation of dreams. Read Books Ltd, 2013.

Mitchell, Stephen A., and Margaret Black. Freud and beyond: A history of modern psychoanalytic thought. Basic Books, 2016.

Wittels, Fritz. Sigmund Freud (RLE: Freud): His Personality, His Teaching and His School. Routledge, 2013.

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

The Holy Spirit: Book Critique

The Holy Spirit
The Holy Spirit

The Holy Spirit

Book Critique

Bibliography Entry

MacArthur, John F. Strange Fire: The Danger of Offending the Holy Spirit with Counterfeit Worship. Thomas Nelson Inc, 2013.


            The book by MacArthur is very resourceful to Christians and leaders seeking to be effective in their ministries and in their personal growth in Christ. The book has three chapters, each delving in different topics, addressing the need for Christians to understand the immense power of the Holy Spirit. In the first chapter, the author states how Christians in several parts of the world have been faking their understanding of the working of the Holy Spirit.

Others use their position to swindle and steal from unsuspecting listeners using the language of generosity and faith.[1] He says prosperity is not a gospel but a heresy.[2] The author says that the Holy Spirit is already churning the Church through mighty revivals and it requires Christians to discern the times and workings of the Holy Spirit in their midst.

            In the second chapter, the author states the importance of speaking in tongues as a sign to the Israelites and as a transition to the new covenant from the old.[3] The use of tongues should be orderly and only for edification purposes and not for spiritual ecstasy. The author strongly reinstates the need to have faith in praying for the sick, whose healing should depend on the faith of their intercessors, not theirs.

The author in the third chapter brings several themes into light. First, the author highlights the dangers of counterfeiting the working of the Holy Spirit, stating that it is vital to have a true understanding of the Holy Spirit in worship. The Holy Spirit is God, whose presence in a person should result in a greater spiritual experience.

The Holy Spirit has the ability to secure a person’s salvation, but some charismatic Christians ignore this wonderful ministry of the Holy Spirit. The author states that it is important for believers to be filled continually with the Holy Spirit in order to offer effective worship to God and to be fiery in their ministries.[4]


            The works of MacArthur highlights several problems encountered in the Christian faith worldwide. The author is concerned with the low level of spirituality in the church; and how some ministers have reduced the message of salvation to personal gain. The author’s arguments on the working of the Holy Spirit resonates the need for the church to awaken and rediscover the power of revival, prayer, worship and evangelism.

I agree with the author’s analyses of several theatrics present in the church such as false tongues, false miracles, prosperity gospel, and use of the pulpit for personal gain. It is imperative for the minister to understand their call and adhere to their master’s command, the Holy Spirit, in their daily activities.

            The author has also stated how important it is to speak in tongues; genuine tongue that leads to edification of the person. This is the most abused practice in the church according to the author, and amounts to mockery of the highest order to the Spirit.

The fact that many Christians do not understand the work of the Holy Spirit in their lives in terms of His plans for their salvation also highlights the need for Christians to seek for a deeper understanding of the Holy Spirit.  To sustain the great revival and to keep the Spirit fire burning, Christians will have to safeguard themselves from false doctrines and practices and lean to the pure word of God.


            MacArthur reinstates the perpetual need for revival in the body of Christ in his book. Since the beginning of the 19th century, the church has experienced mighty revivals by the Holy Spirit seeking to change the static nature of the church to a vibrant one. The notion of being filled with the Holy Spirit and speaking in new tongues is a part of Christian experience that the mainstream churches have ignored for a long time.[5]

The Holy Spirit has immense ability to work in the current church in an even mightier state than the ancient church; something that has been plagued by the inability of the church to recognize His power and the need to yield under His authority. The Holy Spirit is a prerequisite for the successful operation of the church, which Jesus promised to send, without which we cannot be effective in ministry.[6]

            George Smeaton in his book The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit reiterates how this third personality of God has been working with humanity since the time of Enoch. The Holy Spirit is the finisher and effecter of the purposes and plans of God. However, the reason why the church has remained dormant for a long time is due to lack of understanding of the Holy Spirit and yielding to the spirit of confusion.

The church is at the edges of societal centrality due to entertainment of ungodly doctrines by ministers and congregation as well. Christians must learn to test the spirits to know which is from God in order to avoid deception.[7] God gave several people in the Old Testament the Holy Spirit in order to do specific tasks, requiring wisdom, courage, extreme strength, and skills.[8] Therefore, the infilling with the Holy Spirit is a requisite for effective spiritual experience in Christianity and realization of greater purpose. The author’s analogy of the works of the Spirit reflects the works of other authors as an imperative entity.

Works Cited

MacArthur, John F. Strange Fire: The Danger of Offending the Holy Spirit with Counterfeit Worship. Thomas Nelson Inc, 2013.

Smeaton, George. The doctrine of the Holy Spirit. Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2016.

Synan, Vinson. The century of the Holy Spirit: 100 years of Pentecostal and charismatic renewal, 1901-2001. Thomas Nelson Inc, 2012.

Thiselton, Anthony C. The Holy Spirit–in biblical teaching, through the centuries, and today. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2013.

[1] MacArthur. Strange Fire: The Danger of Offending the Holy Spirit with Counterfeit Worship. Thomas Nelson Inc, 2013. Pp. 10.

[2] Ibid, pp. 16.

[3] Ibid, pp. 143.

[4] Ibid. pp. 204

[5] Synan. The century of the Holy Spirit. 1901-2001. Thomas Nelson Inc, 2012.pp. 1

[6] Smeaton, George. The doctrine of the Holy Spirit. Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2016.pp. 60

[7] MacArthur. Strange fire. Pp. 38.

[8] Thiselton, Anthony C. The Holy Spirit–in biblical teaching, through the centuries, and today.Pp. 04

Yank in The Hairy Ape

Yank in The Hairy Ape
Yank in The Hairy Ape

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

Yank in The Hairy Ape

Based on what you know about bullying by today’s standards- in school, work, or social environment-is Yank in The Hairy Ape By Eugene O’Neill the bully or bullied? Explain your theory and include dicussion on the final outcome of the whole story.

Topic: The Tale of “Yank in The Hairy Ape” and the Bully in the Office.

Workplace bullying is a reality today as the statistics from Civility Partners LLC indicates that about 70 percent of adults working have been bullied at some point in their working life. The majority of the bullies are found in management positions represented by figures of over 71 percent.

This reflects the tale of “Yank” in “The Hairy Ape” who was a brutish, unthinking stoker that worked in a transatlantic liner who bullied and despised everyone around him as he thought himself superior to his mates. He felt secure and he was highly confident of his physical power over the ship’s engine as he stokes the engines of an ocean liner (O’Neill).

            According to Carbo and Amy, the consequences of workplace bullying are dire to a company and its employees as many employees would opt to leave rather than challenge the bully and stir up trouble. But because of the “bad job market”, they have no option but to stay which results in a demotivated worker and consequentially affects the company’s bottom line.

Bullying has been made illegal since the passing of the Health Workplace Bill which was in response to the illegal workplace acts that were occurring such as discrimination and harassment due to a variety of reasons. In the play, Yank challenged everybody’s opinion and even threatened physical violence as seen when he threatens “Long” when he talks about the Bible and tells him that he does not want to hear the religious nonsense.

He goes on further challenging the other ship workers as he says that his work is the most important and cannot be done by just anyone as they would faint (O’Neill). This reflects the thinking of today’s bullies in the workplace as they brag that they can easily do the work of other people in the shortest time possible while theirs cannot be managed by just anyone.  

This is common especially to those in power or the “rainmaker” that bring huge amounts of business to the company per year. It also could be the people in the management that suffered and strained in order to reach the position they are today are more predisposed to being bullies (Lavan and Wm Marty).

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

A bully usually struggles with the search for belonging in the world of the rich and this is what Yank goes through as he works in the liner. Bullies will look for ways to inflict pain to those that reject them or refuse to love them, especially those in the higher ranks or social class (Lavan and Wm Marty). Retaliation from bullies can be devastating, especially in the workplace as they can deliberately plan to sabotage the company as payback.

In the play when Yank faces rejection from the daughter of a rich industrialist, who owned various steel businesses, when she calls him a “filthy beast”. The rejection by the lady drives him into a depression and he later plans on how to destroy the factory owned by the lady’s father as payback. Companies should therefore implement anti-bullying policies and conduct anti-bullying training not only to protect themselves from the bullies but also protect its workforce. A company can shield itself from lawsuits of workplace bullying if they can prove that the supervisor or manager who harassed an employee received anti-bullying training (Carbo and Amy).

Although tough laws concerning workplace bullying do exist, the nature of the vice is difficult to diagnose. This is because most of the cases occur under the radar. We can ask ourselves if a demanding boss or a perfectionist is a bully or what it means to rise above the level of being a “mean boss” to being a bully. We must therefore seek first to understand the bully before they become destructive or even lead to their own demise (Lavan and Wm Marty).

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

Works cited

Carbo, Jerry, and Amy Hughes. “Workplace Bullying: Developing a Human Rights Definition from the Perspective and Experiences of Targets.” Working USA 13.3 (2010): 387-403. ABI/INFORM Complete. PROQUESTMS. 18 Sep. 2012 .

Lavan, Helen, and Wm Marty Martin. “Bullying in the U.S. Workplace: Normative and Process-Oriented Ethical Approaches.”Journal of Business Ethics 83.2 (2008): 147-65. ABI/INFORM Complete. PROQUESTMS. 18 Sep. 2012 .

O’Neill, Eugene. “The Hairy Ape: A Comedy of Ancient and Modern Life in Eight Scenes .web.  18th September 2012.

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

Aunt Hetty on Matrimony

Aunt Hetty on Matrimony
Aunt Hetty on Matrimony

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

An Explication paper on Aunt Hetty on Matrimony

This is an extremely funny piece written by Fanny Fern which has some inherent truth in it. For instance, men are often bored with their wives making them to neglect them. However, presently both women and men can neglect one another or each other on equal measures, but no matter what, women and men will always need each other. In the conclusion of this funny piece, Aunt Hetty makes a plea to girls, to totally shun marriage because of the fact that after their death, their husbands will remarry. However, she also strives to stop herself since irrespective of her warning; at some point in their life, the girls will try marriage (Fanny 49).   

Aunt Hetty is trying her best to offer advice to girls; this is because issues to do with marriage and love seem to disgust her and wants girls to be cautious on them.  According to Aunty Hetty, “love is a farce; matrimony a humbug; husbands are domestic Napoleons, Alexanders, and Neroes …” (Fanny 47). This indicates her disbelief in these things and is urging young girls to be careful before indulging in them. However, her motive to offer this advice is her unpleasant experience, but she concurs with the fact that at some point many women will always want to try marriage (Fanny 47).    

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

Aunty Hetty reiterates that after a man wins a woman’s heart; he moves on to conquer other women hearts (Fanny 48). In addition, Aunty Hetty also believes men rarely try to build the home because they envisage that work to be done by women. Therefore, she implies that matrimony should be left alone because it is the hardest thing.

“Remain aloof to any gentleman who gives his attention; until one of us can verify his circumstances” (Fanny 16). Aunty Hetty also advise women to seek knowing men better prior to engaging with them, because they are crafty and will seek to conquer other women’s hearts after they win theirs (Fanny 48).               


Fanny, F. (1985). Aunt Hetty on Matrimony. West Trenton, NJ: Hermitage Press.

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

Family conflict Essay Paper

Family conflict
Family conflict

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

Family conflict 

According to thesaurus dictionary, family conflict can be defined as any struggles or disagreements occurring between members of a family. It entails conflicts between parents and their children or even conflicts between siblings as well as those between spouses. Since works of art emanate from burning issues in the society many plays have been written focusing on this theme. This paper examines family conflict in Shakespeare’s Othello, Sophocles’ King Oedipus and Fences by August Wilson

In Fences family conflict seems to be the main theme in the play. It is first displayed by Maxson Troy’s conflict with his son Cory. The fight for power and might with troy trying to control his son. When Cory gets a college scholarship to play football his father refuses to sign the permission papers arguing that he prefers his son to work and make money rather than play football.

This clearly strains the father son relationship. The conflict further grows when he fights his father with a baseball bat and later disowns his father after the fight. Another conflict is between Troy and his wife Rose when she discovers that Troy has had a child with another woman, Alberta. She agrees to raise young Raynell but does no longer identify herself as Troy’s wife.

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

In Sophocles book King Oedipus, family conflict is seen at the introduction where King Oedipus two sons kill each other in a battle over the rule of Thebes. The young son Eteocles is in disagreement with the elder one Polynices as they both want to succeed their father as king. This opens us to the events that transpired historically before revealing the sad fate of King Oedipus who unknowingly kills his biological father King Laius and marries his mother Jocasta with whom he has had two sons and two daughters.

Another conflict is between King Oedipus and his brother in law Creon who he accuses of conspiring with the blind prophet Terasius when he sends them to consult the oracle. King Oedipus even threatens Creon with death and exile. According to Barrons (1984) Oedipus also got into conflict with his wife Jocasta because he did not follow her advice against searching for the true killer of Laius and the prophecy of the oracle about him.

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here

In Othello, the main type of family conflict is that between Brabantio and his daughter Desdemona who he feels has let him down by marrying the ‘wrong’ man. Brabantio high profiled man as a senator wants to select a husband for his daughter who will be of her class; she on the other hand believes that marriage should be build on the grounds of true love thus wants to marry the only man she truly loves.

This makes her to run off and marry Othello a moor without her fathers consent. Another conflict is that between Brabantio and Othello his son in law whom he accuses of tricking his daughter to marry him. The case he presents before the duke is dismissed on the grounds that the daughter agrees to having gotten married out of free will. At the end of the play Othello has a conflict with his wife who he suspects has been having an extra marital affair.

In an argument where Othello his asking his wife Desdemona where her handkerchief is, Desdemona denies having any affair with Cassio who has the handkerchief with him. Eventually Othello stabs his wife to death out of anger.

As seen in the three plays’ family conflict is evident in many families. Some lead to family break up since they are beyond reconciliation, others especially those emanating from jealousy can lead to suicide as well as killings while the many simple ones can be solved through forgiveness and reconciliation.


Barrons (1984) Book Notes, Sophocle’s Oedipus Tripology, Barrons Education Institute

Thesaurus Dictionary

Fence by August Wilsons

King Oedipus by Sophocles

Othello by Shakespeare

Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here