Positive Health Behaviors
Positive Health Behaviors
One of the most basic instruments of modern public health and preventive medicine is disease screening. Screening programs have a long and illustrious history in efforts to prevent infectious disease outbreaks and focus chronic illness therapy. Pregnant women are frequently tested for a complete blood count, blood type, diabetes, syphilis, and other diseases. The approach of disease screening has been demonstrated to save lives, save health-care expenditures, and alleviate suffering. Breast and cervical cancer screening has been particularly effective in decreasing the disease burden in women (Backer, Gesk, McIlvain, Dodendorf, & Minier, 2005). Health screenings should be a top priority for everyone to promote good health. some of the most important advantages of health screening Early diagnosis of illnesses can lead to improved treatment and management, lowering the risk of complications and improving the odds of a positive health outcome. Health screening determines if a patient is at risk for, or already has, a disease or condition (Farrington & Mikkelsen, 2020). Furthermore, health screening can aid in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and diabetes in those who have a family history of these conditions, as well as offer prompt treatment (Farrington & Mikkelsen, 2020). Age is a key risk factor for a wide range of life-altering illnesses. Early identification and treatment, on the other hand, might provide the body with the strongest resistance against these disorders (Farrington & Mikkelsen, 2020).
Screening, however, can be harmful. When three characteristics of screening programs work in concert, the impact is greater than often recognized. As an example due to the fact that the majority of people who are checked do not have the illness, screening can potentially damage more people than it can help (Farrington & Mikkelsen, 2020). There will always be false positives and negatives since screening tests are not 100 percent sensitive or specific. Early identification of diseases can lead to overdiagnosis, which is when a person is diagnosed with a condition that will never damage them in their lifetime (Farrington & Mikkelsen, 2020). Also, the ability to reach the desired audience, load on the government, and how everyone involved approaches the problem. Every Woman Counts initiative, which aimed to provide women with preventative health care, proved ineffectual. In looking at the enrollees in the Nebraska Every Woman Matters program who were getting checked for breast and cervical cancer, it was discovered that there was a link between socio-demographic factors and obtaining cancer screening. As a result, getting cancer screening services is hampered by people’s social position, income, and knowledge.
Because the advantages and risks of screening are diverse in nature and are assessed and valued differently, it’s impossible to compare them. Valuing benefits and harm is affected by such things as the economic capability of individuals. That is why organizations such as Every Woman Matters (EWM) which is a state-run federally funded program were formed to reduce financial and public awareness barriers to preventative breast and cervical cancer screening by improving public knowledge of the danger and making screening more affordable for low-income women (Backer, Gesk, McIlvain, Dodendorf, & Minier, 2005). A clinical breast examination, mammography, and Papanicolaou smear test are provided at a reduced or free cost to eligible women. Practices can use the EWM program’s services to help them implement the program. With the aim to reduce the number and impact of risks as well as improving their service delivery in hospitals and clinics, the EWM program conducted an analysis using the GAPS method (Backer, Gesk, McIlvain, Dodendorf, & Minier, 2005). They included office employees at each phase of the GAPS model to improve preventive care and alter office operations: goal-setting, analyzing existing routines, planning routine modification, and giving support for these improvements (Backer, Gesk, McIlvain, Dodendorf, & Minier, 2005). The findings of the analysis showed that the main reasons why program was not effective in meeting its preset goals include lack of enthusiasm from some physicians and staff, lack of leadership skills of individuals who are in charge of the facilities and also organizational problems hence some internal instability (Backer, Gesk, McIlvain, Dodendorf, & Minier, 2005). Despite the obstacles that prevented large improvements in screening in some of the practices, we feel the GAPS model’s ideas are valid and propose it as a realistic structure for bringing desired change to a complex organizational system like a clinical practice (Backer, Gesk, McIlvain, Dodendorf, & Minier, 2005). In addition, additional process factors like as leadership, cohesion, resources, and shared vision were emphasized in our research (Backer, Gesk, McIlvain, Dodendorf, & Minier, 2005).
There are a good number of successful advocacy programs for early cancer screening and evaluate the characteristics that are deemed effective and are given credit for the work they do. A good example is the American Cancer Society who promote a healthy lifestyle to help prevent cancer for all people. By supporting cancer advocacy in nations with growing cancer societies, the ACS has taken a leadership position in global cancer advocacy (ACS, n.d.). The centerpiece of the ACS global effort is training international cancer control leaders through the American Cancer Society University (ACSU) in all aspects of running a community-based cancer control organization or program (ACS, n.d.). The ACSU program begins with a week-long course, which is held a few times each year in different parts of the world, followed by support of participants in home countries (ACS, n.d.). This society donates millions of dollars annually to cancer clinics and hospitals, all of which is utilized in cancer research, cancer prevention, cancer screening and many other services (ACS, n.d.). Another such organization is The International Union Against Cancer, also known as UICC, which is the most prominent and inclusive international body dedicated to cancer control. It is a membership organization with a small administrative head office, with controlling committees made up of volunteers (Mortara, 2011). The World Cancer Congress, conducted every two years in a large city, most recently in Washington, DC in 2006, is the most conspicuous UICC activity (Mortara, 2011). Thousands of people from all walks of life attend these conferences, the vast majority of whom are from high-income nations, but with a growing focus on establishing efficient cancer management in those countries (Mortara, 2011).
Those involved in the health care system, nurses, physicians, patients, and others play increasingly interdependent roles. Problems arise every day that do not have easy or singular solutions. Leaders who merely give directions and expect them to be followed will not succeed in this environment. What is needed is a style of leadership that involves working with others as full partners in a context of mutual respect and collaboration. To accomplish the objective of a reformed health-care system, strong leadership will be necessary. Strong leadership is critical if the vision of a transformed health care system is to be realized.
Backer, E. L., Gesk, J. A., McIlvain, H. E., Dodendorf, D. M., & Minier, W. C. (2005). Improving Female Preventive Health Care Delivery Through Practice Change: An Every Woman Matters Study. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine.
Farrington, J., & Mikkelsen, B. (2020). Screening programmes: a short guide. Copenhagen: World Health Organization.
Mortara, I. (2011, July 18). The International Union Against Cancer. From touch oncology: https://touchoncology.com/immunotherapy/journal-articles/the-international-union-against-cancer/
ACS. (n.d.). Facts About the American Cancer Society. From American Cancer Society: https://www.cancer.org/about-us/who-we-are/fact-sheet.html