The importance of reputation to British American Tobacco

The importance of reputation to British American Tobacco
The importance of reputation to British American Tobacco

The importance of reputation to British American Tobacco


BAT (British American Tobacco) is a multinational Tobacco organisation that has its headquarters in London and operates in approximately 180 countries across the globe (Vance, 2011). The company has had several controversies in the past, which have in a number of ways deteriorated its reputation (Vance, 2011). These include the; Canadian class action lawsuit, HMRC fine due to oversupplying, Australian lawsuit, bribery in Kenya, Burundi and Rwanda, and Pakistan lobbying efforts, among others (Freeman & Chapman, 2010).

However, the company has put several measures to rebuild good reputation, owing to its benefits in the current ever-changing business environment. This essay therefore discusses the importance of reputation to BAT and how health issues affect its operations.

The importance of reputation to British American Tobacco

Reputation refers to opinions and perceptions that people, or customers have about a specific entity. BAT can enjoy many benefits for having a good reputation. To start with, a good corporate reputation is important for BAT because the company can use it as a promotional and marketing tool. In reference to Diermeier (2011), customers always remember unique or outstanding services and products, and they never forget or forgive products or services that fail to satisfy them.

However, if BAT products, for example, satisfy the needs of its target audiences, then these audiences can act as unofficial spokespersons of the company by convincing their friends and relatives to try the products. As such, it can be concluded that a good corporate reputation can reduce the advertising costs of BAT because the company does not need to spend a lot of money on employing or seeking services of agencies of advertising to convince its target audiences.

Moreover, with a good reputation as an already established brand, consumers of tobacco are more likely to prefer being associated with BAT, an indication that a good reputation can act as a promotional and marketing tool for BAT.

Secondly, according to Morphet (2015), a good reputation enhances integrity and credibility. Acknowledging that reputation describes its identity or organisation culture, BAT can become a credible organisation, and prove its integrity whenever people talk negatively about its products or services. This implies that instead of spreading bad reviews and warnings about the company’s products, customers can recommend and promote BAT’s businesses.

Thirdly, a good corporate reputation establishes confidence, trust, superb customer relationships and loyalty (Diermeier, 2011). BAT can enjoy this benefit by avoiding all sorts of controversies and scandals. However, in reference to Morphet (2015), achieving untainted reputation is not about avoiding scandals and controversies; it is more of satisfying the needs of target audiences.

As such, by building a good reputation through observing continuous perfection, BAT can earn a strong sense of security. This implies that the company’s customers can be assured that they will always get satisfactory results if they consume BAT’s products.

Fourth, having good reputation enables an organisation to increase its business opportunities (Komisarjevsky, 2012). As such, having a good reputation can enable BAT to not only attract customers, but also catch the attention of interested business partners and investors. In other words, having a good reputation can help BAT to generate many possibilities for expansion and growth of its business.

Moreover, according to Komisarjevsky (2012), a good reputation can enable a company to survive in a highly competitive market. This implies that with a well-established reputation, BAT is likely to lessen its worries about customers switching to other tobacco providers. This is because the company’s outstanding reputation can make consumers to prefer its products regardless of how expensive they might be because they trust that the products can satisfy their needs.

From a different perspective, Morphet (2015) postulates that a good reputation is important to the careers of CEOs. As such, by having a good reputation, the CEO of BAT is likely to benefit because it is likely to evaluate the CEO’s performance, and make necessary changes. This is because the reputation of an organisation is directly linked to the performance of a CEO (Komisarjevsky, 2012).

Megatrends in Tobacco industry: Health Issues surrounding BAT

Health issue is one of the megatrends in the tobacco industry, which affect BAT’s business operations (McInnes & Lee, 2013). This issue can be discussed further by looking at how regulation, legislation, education, among other factors affect the operations of BAT across the globe. With regards to regulation, World Health Organisation (WHO) drafted a convention on tobacco control measures to ensure high health standards (Lueddeke, 2016).

This convention acts as a regulatory strategy, which not only addresses the addictive tobacco substance, but also promotes awareness of the side-effects the consumption of tobacco has on human health (Miller & Cross, 2014). It holds that tobacco creates a global health epidemic, and this has resulted in many governments across the globe developing a series of restrictive measures such as standardised packing, and bans and warnings of consuming flavoured tobacco (McQueen, 2013). 

Health-based regulations, for example, those requiring organisations to print messages such as ‘smoking kills’ or ‘smoking is harmful to your health’ on their packets, and banning of advertisements related to tobacco affect the competitiveness of BAT and other companies operating in the industry (McInnes & Lee, 2013). Additionally, the enactment of WHO convention regulations that are not evidence-based increase complexity and costs and interfere with the ability of tobacco companies (Proctor, 2012). 

Education is another factor linked to the health issues in the tobacco industry. Public education and awareness of the health issues of tobacco consumption continues to increase in all parts across the globe (Lueddeke, 2016). For instance, the well-financed anti-smoking education programmes in schools, social media, and societies provide emotionally engaging, detailed, and prominent information about the hazardous effects of smoking tobacco, thus, reduce the demand for tobacco products (McQueen, 2013). 

Such programmes also warn target audiences that tobacco companies entice people to smoke their products through different types of advertisements (Freeman, Hawkes & Bennett, 2014). However, some companies in the industry have been in the forefront in sponsoring programmes associated with youth drinking as a way of building their reputation in the public eyes and minds (Proctor, 2012). 

This includes partnering with governments and less sophisticated public health groups, and this has enabled them to reduce the opposition of their industry operations in different regions (McInnes & Lee, 2013). This clearly indicates that their purpose is not to reduce youth smoking, but instead serve the tobacco industry’s needs, for example, marginalisation of public health advocates, control of harsh regulations on them, participation in policy making, and diffusion of opposition from educators, among others (Lueddeke, 2016).

In other words, it is evident that in the current tobacco business world, despite the increasing efforts in anti-smoking education and public awareness, little success has been achieved from the anti-smoking campaigns. This indicates that the demand for tobacco companies’ products is still on the rise.

With regards to legislation, many health-related laws have been adopted pursuant to the Tobacco Act by governments across the globe to control the sale, manufacturing, labelling, promotion, and consumption of tobacco (McQueen, 2013). However, public consultations are pursued whenever new laws are developed (Freeman, Hawkes & Bennett, 2014). 

One of the new laws regulating the tobacco industry is Tobacco Products Labelling Act which stipulate the health-related labels that must be displayed tobacco products. This law reduces the smoking rates, thus reducing the demand for tobacco products of BAT and other companies in the industry (Lueddeke, 2016). Additionally, the 2010 Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking Act, which some of its acts is still under litigation prohibits mailing of tobacco products and requires mail order and sales retailers to comply with requirements pertaining age verification (McInnes & Lee, 2013).

For instance, this law requires retailers to pay appropriate taxes for tobacco products. However, due to health concerns, many governments across the globe have and continue to raise taxes associated with tobacco business pursuant to Tobacco Act (Proctor, 2012). This law not only reduces the demand for tobacco products from companies such as BAT, but also increases the price of tobacco products and restricts companies from expanding to countries with stringent tobacco laws (Miller & Cross, 2014). 

However, despite taking appropriate health-related measures through regulations, legislations, and education or public awareness, the issue of tobacco addiction still remains a difficult issue to solve in many countries across the globe (McQueen, 2013). The addicted victims continue to boost the tobacco business because they can do without it.

However, most governments across the globe have taken effective rehabilitation measures to counter the issue of tobacco addiction, which in a number of ways have proved to be successful (McInnes & Lee, 2013). Therefore, the issue of health reduces the demand of tobacco products, thus, reduces growth and expansion of BAT and other companies operating in the tobacco industry.


The benefits of reputation to BAT include; reduces the advertising costs, enhances integrity and credibility, establishes confidence, trust, superb customer relationships and loyalty, enables an organisation to increase its business opportunities, and is important to the careers of CEOs. Regulation, legislation, education, among other factors affect the operations of BAT across the globe. These factors reduce the demand for tobacco products, thus, restrict the growth and expansion of BAT in its global tobacco business.


Diermeier, D. (2011). Reputation rules: Strategies for building your company’s most valuable asset. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Freeman, B., & Chapman, S. (2010). British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining article 13 of the global World Health Organization framework convention on tobacco control. Tobacco control19(3), e1-e9.

Freeman, M. D. A., Hawkes, S., & Bennett, B. (2014). Law and global health. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Komisarjevsky, C. (2012). The power of reputation: Strengthen the asset that will make or break your career. New York: American Management Association.

Lueddeke, G. R. (2016). Global population health and well-being in the 21st century: Toward new paradigms, policy, and practice. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

McInnes, C., & Lee, K. (2013). Global Health and International Relations. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

McQueen, D. V. (2013). Global handbook on noncommunicable diseases and health promotion. New York, NY: Springer.

Miller, R. L. R., & Cross, F. (2014). The legal environment of business. Australia: South-Western.

Morphet, J. (2015). Applying leadership and management in planning: Theory and practice. Bristol, UK: Policy Press.

Proctor, R. (2012). Golden holocaust: Origins of the cigarette catastrophe and the case for abolition. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Vance, B. (2011). BAT British American Tobacco. Oxford University Press.

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Demand Estimation: Case Analysis

Demand Estimation
Demand Estimation

Demand Estimation


Low-caloric foods which have already been frozen and can be warmed in a microwave have over the recent past continued to receive wide acceptance by consumers prompting many big food manufacturing companies to embark on expansion strategies both in the production potential and market share (Wall & Griffiths, 2012). The economic aspect in the demand estimation of the firm’s food for managerial and marketing decisions is to be covered in this paper.

The basis of the assignment is on focused on two regression models or equations highlighting two marketing options, and the data used in the demand estimation is for the month of April from 26 supermarkets that sell the firm’s foods. Thus, for effective marketing decisions to be made it becomes inevitable to adopt a multifaceted approach by considering a wide range of factors that have potential to influence the demand and supply of the firm’s foods (Frank, 2013; Samuelson & Marks, 2013).


In demand estimation, it is very imperative to apply analysis of demand in managerial economics to achieve the biggest market share possible (Sullivan & Sheffrin, 2013; McGuigan, Moyer & Harris, 2014; Metcalf, 2015). The demand estimation of either a single a multiple products in the market are very essential to provide a firm’s management as well as marketers with necessary market insights (Frank, 2013; Metcalf, 2015).

This is a very important step in devising and planning for an appropriate marketing strategy based on informed decisions that are data based as evidence (Frank, 2013; Sullivan & Sheffrin, 2013).

For the first option, the regression equations or model used in the calculation of the firm’s demand elasticities as well as the allowable standard errors and regression statistics are shown below:

Elasticity Implications

The implications of elasticity have far reaching effect on the quantities demanded as well as supplied in a market (Pettinger, 2012). According to Samuelson and Marks (2013), reiterate that this is because it provides important insights on demand estimation and making vital marketing decisions on whether the firm should embrace a discounting strategy or increasing or decreasing prices for its foods for increased generation of revenue.

Elasticity implications are a true manifestations of the law of demand to determine market equilibrium, whereby this phenomenon concurs with the law of demand and market dynamics, which outlines that demand is inversely related to prices whereby the former increases with a decrease in the latter and vice versa (Wall & Griffiths, 2012; Samuelson & Marks, 2013). 

According to Frank (2013), calculation of elasticitiees allows the determination of the nature of demand in the market whether it is elastic or inelastic and also if it is absolute or in absolute value so that the sensitivity of consumers to prices can be established for an appropriate pricing strategy to be devised. The calculated elasticity values are shown in the table: 

Pricing Recommendations

The firm’s price demand elasticity obtained through calculations is a 1.19 absolute value, which means that it is elastic. According to Wall and Griffiths (2012), this elasticity implies that price discounting is definitely that more appropriate marketing strategy that the firm can adopt. This is mainly because, this strategy has a very high potential to optimize market expansion and increase sales significantly (Frank, 2013).

This means that, by the firm reducing the prices of its foods, a significant influence of the foods supply and demand as well as sales levels. As a result, income elasticities of 1.62 and 1.11 are obtained through demand estimation calculation for both option 1 and option 2 respectively, which means that both are elastic an indication that the is a significant influence of the quantities demanded by consumers based on per capita income (Wall & Griffiths, 2012; Metcalf, 2014).

Therefore, in a market where consumers’ sensitivity to changes in prices is high because of their per capita income provides the company with an effective economic condition to embrace reduction of prices or provision of discounts in order to increase sales (Pettinger, 2012; Metcalf, 2015).

The Demand Curve

The firm’s calculated demand and supply based on the changing factor, that is, the price as well as the plotted firm’s demand and supply curves assuming that, apart from prices all other factors that affect the foods’ demand remained constant. Therefore, firm’s food prices utilized in plotting demanded and supplied food quantities of the firm are increasing at a fixed interval of 100 cents between 100 and 600.

Equilibrium Price and Quantity

According to Wall and Griffiths (2012), the determinant of market equilibrium is the relationship between the market demand and market supply. For instance, the market equilibrium for the food prices of the firm foods obtained through calculations is equivalent to the equations quantity supplied and for quantity demanded. Therefore, the intersection at where the two curves meet is referred to as point P, and which at the market equilibrium price value of 384.48 (Frank, 2013; Metcalf, 2015).

The most significant factors that can cause a shift in demand as well as supply curves are prices and income per capita within the region considered for statistical analysis of market dynamics (Wall & Griffiths, 2012). For instance, when the prices of the firm’s foods is decreased by 300 cents from 500 cents to 200 cents, an inelastic demand of 0.44 in demand elasticity results leading to an increased supply of demanded units of the firm’s foods by 284,400.

According to Wall and Griffiths (2012), this phenomenon concurs with the law of demand and market dynamics, which outlines that demand is inversely related to prices whereby the former increases with a decrease in the latter and vice versa. Alternatively, there is a likely for the supply and demand curves of firm’s foods to be shifted by consumer income whereby decreasing consumer income levels, especially during a recession leads to an outright decrease in demand (Pettinger, 2012; Wall & Griffiths, 2012).  

In conclusion, it is evidently clear that demand regression equation calculations are an ideal technique for the estimation of demand in the market for food products and in particular low-calorie and microwavable foods. Therefore, these calculations and modeling as well as demand plots can be can be a very important way through which informed marketing decisions can be made. However, it is also imperative to consider other factors that inform purchasing decisions in order to come up with an appropriate marketing strategy for the expansion of the firm’s market share as well as continue gaining more market competitiveness.


Frank, R. (2013). Microeconomics and Behavior, (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

McGuigan, B. P., Moyer, R. C., & Harris, F. H. (2014). Managerial economics: Applications, strategies and tactics, (13th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.

Metcalf, T. (2015). How to Calculate Demand Elasticity with Sales & Price. Retrieved October 26, 2016, from6 

Pettinger, T. (2012).Understanding Elasticity. Retrieved October 26, 2016, from

Samuelson, W. & Marks, S. (2013). Managerial Economics, (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Sullivan, A. & Sheffrin, S. M. (2013). Economics: Principles in Action. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Wall, S. & Griffiths, A. (2012).Economics for Business and Management. New York, NY: Financial Times Prentice Hall. 

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Marketing Strategy Report: The Adidas Company

Marketing Strategy
Marketing Strategy

Marketing Strategy Report

Executive summary

This report will analyse the Adidas Company. This report provides an analysis and evaluation of effective marketing planning process, techniques for controlling marketing activities, contemporary marketing techniques, and their use in global and international markets. Furthermore, the report examines the skills of marketing managers and their role in the effective management of the marketing team, value of a brand from a number of different stakeholder perspectives, and the organisation’s marketing campaigns in different international markets.

Methods of analysis will include SWOT analysis, marketing controls, and international marketing trends. Results of analysis depict that Adidas has abundant opportunities and strengths, but suffers from a number of weaknesses and threats. The report finds that Adidas has taken advantage of its strengths and opportunities to develop effective marketing plans that have assisted them to achieve their marketing objectives.

The Adidas Company has adopted marketing controls, such as annual control, profitability control, and strategic control that have helped in spotting deviations in its marketing activities and provided timely remedies to the variations. Adidas has implemented contemporary marketing techniques, such as email marketing, PR marketing, mobile marketing and the use of social media that have assisted in growing awareness of its new products in different international markets.

Marketing manager skills, such as excellent communication skills, problem solving skills, and project management skills are noted to be vital in offering effective management to marketing teams. Stakeholders, such as employees, suppliers, and customers play a significant role in influencing the value of the Adidas brand. The various stakeholders participate in building the brand equity.

The Adidas has tailored its marketing campaigns to suit the different international markets. The company uses local athletes from various countries and influencers of markets to promote its new products, X 15 and ace 15 in different international markets. The report recommends that Adidas should design products that are affordable to several customers and implement marketing techniques that promote and differentiate its products from its competitors.


            The purpose of this report is to analyse the effective marketing planning processes and evaluate techniques for controlling marketing activities of the Adidas Company. This report also studies the contemporary marketing techniques and their use in global markets, examines skills of a marketing managers, and evaluates their role in providing management to the marketing team. Furthermore, this report assesses the impact and value of the Adidas Company brands from diverse stakeholders perspectives. In addition, this report looks into the marketing campaigns the Adidas Company has employed in different international markets.

            The competitive global market calls for companies to plan their marketing activities, establish their strategies and accomplish their objectives more effectively. The contemporary marketing techniques aim to create a link between the customer and the organisation. Companies attract customers through social media content significant to their needs or writing newsletters that have valuable information.

Businesses that employ contemporary marketing techniques are seen to be successful in achieving their objectives than those companies that rely on conventional marketing techniques. The report will utilise references from the company website and other research articles. Besides examining the Adidas Company marketing strategy, this report will look at modern strategies that the company can utilise to expand its international markets.

Effective marketing planning process

            Companies in all industries require marketing plans to succeed. Effective marketing planning process offers companies guidelines on how to market and trade their new products in the market within a specific period. The marketing plans guides the company in choosing an appropriate target market and then fulfill the customer needs in that segment. Moreover, the marketing planning process establishes the promotional strategies that can boost the sales volume of the company products.

The Adidas Company is an international corporation that designs and fabricates sports shoes, outfits, and accessories. The company is a leading sportswear in Europe and the global market. The Adidas Company has adopted a three divisional structure for its Adidas brand. The divisions include sport performance, sport heritage, and sport style. The adidas sport performance division centers on novelty, functionality, and design.

Furthermore, the division designs products for sports performance market, but have design appeal that pushes the consumers to wear the products off the playing field. The adidas sport heritage division includes adidas original products that aim to expand the exclusive and valid heritage of adidas to the lifestyle market. The sport style division is a fashionable assortment that consists of men’s and women’s shoes, clothing, and accessories.

The division targets young consumers who are looking for fashion-oriented sportswear products. The three divisional structures assist the Adidas Company to design and market innovative products, which satisfies the needs of varied customers. The Adidas has introduced new products like X 15 and Ace 15. X 15 is designed for players who control and bringing order to a chaotic game, while Ace 15 is designed for players who cannot be controlled.

Therefore, the Adidas Company requires an effective marketing planning process that would establish a target market for its new products and formulate plans of marketing its products and fulfilling the needs of that market. The marketing planning process is achieved through five fundamental steps. The five steps include objective and goal setting, assessing organisational resources, evaluating risks and opportunities, developing marketing strategy, and implementing and monitoring marketing plans (Adidas 2016).

Objective and goal setting

            This initial stage of marketing planning process includes setting of goals and objectives the company wants to achieve. The company should link the marketing plan with its mission statement and determine the primary target audience. Moreover, the company should establish the profit margin it wants to achieve after implementation of the marketing plans (Social care institutes for excellence 2013).

            The Adidas Company has developed a global brand in sporting products industry by designing quality new products that seeks to fulfill the expectations of customers. The Adidas Company has developed objectives that will assist the company to expand the global market of its new products. The company objectives include market penetration, which would aid in attaining market share in the global markets that the company competes.

The market development objective will enable the company to capture new business markets and respond to the needs of customer segments. In addition, the product awareness objective would offer visibility and realization of the company new products. The company objectives conform to its mission statement that states that the Adidas Company endeavor to be the global leader in sporting products industry with brands built on passion for sports and a sporting lifestyle (Chartered Management Institute 2015).

Assessing organisational resources

            Marketing plans are influenced by internal factors, such as organisational resources. The organisational resources include capacity in manufacturing, advertising, finance, and technology. Assessment of these resources will enable organisations to locate their strengths and limitations. Strengths aid organisations to develop objectives, establish plans for accomplishing objectives, and gain from marketing opportunities. On the other hand, resource limitation might hold back an organization from benefitting on marketing opportunities (MLF4 2012).

            The Adidas Company has several strengths that assist it to achieve its objectives. The company has strong financial position that is attributed to its several stores around the globe that make the company to achieve a profit of billions of dollars annually. The company trades its products from company owned stores, online stores, and supermarket stores. The effective distribution system enables the company new products to be available through diverse channels. The Adidas Company has increased consciousness of its new products through supporting major sports organisations, such as UEFA, NBA, world cup, and Olympics. The Adidas Company has uitilised YouTube to create videos that promote consciousness of its new products. Moreover, Adidas created videos that used David Beckham to promote its new products X 15 and Ace 15   (Nadeau et al. 2015).

            However, the company has some limitations that prevent it from taking advantage of marketing opportunities. The company faces a risk of over dependency on outsourcing. The Adidas Company has subcontracted a bigger percentage of its production to third party manufacturers, such as Asia to benefit from easy accessibility of raw materials and fair labour cost. The premium prices of X 15 and Ace 15 sporting shoes due to inventive technology and manufacturing techniques have made the products exorbitant to deprived customers, particularly in developing countries (Adidas 2015).

Evaluating risks and opportunities

            Nevertheless, the company has myriad of opportunities that will aid in fulfilling its marketing plans. The shifting lifestyle, taste, and preferences of rising economies have increased demand of premium brands. Furthermore, the company can extend its product line that will unlock new opportunities and attain an edge over its rivals through differentiation. In addition, the Adidas Company can integrate backwards that will aid in protecting their patent rights and combine their research and development division with the operational division in order to enhance brands innovation and development (Teach a man to fish 2014).

            Nonetheless, the Adidas Company faces threats that might influence its marketing plans. Despite Adidas being a global brand, it still faces strong competition from other premium brands, such as Nike. Moreover, local companies and substitutes provide standard competition to Adidas brands. The over dependency on outsourcing its production has made supplier to have more bargaining power than the company (Institute of Risk management 2013).

Developing marketing strategy

            Marketing strategy assist organisations to win market shares and converse to target market the advantages and aspects of a new product. Furthermore, the marketing strategy communicate the general value to their customers (Planning effective marketing strategies 2013).

            The Adidas Company utilizes online marketing and other promotion campaigns to communicate their legacy of innovation and technology to customers. The company uses celebrities in its online marketing. Adidas use players like Mesut Ozil to promote its Ace 15 sporting shoes. Adidas argues that Ace 15 is built to control and suited to players like Mesut who bring order to a chaotic game. On the other hand, Adidas use players like Gareth Bale to promote its X 15 sporting shoes. The X 15 is built to give thorough traction to energetic and agile players in the world. The Adidas has adopted sports marketing through sponsoring sporting events that offer many opportunities to the company, such as new products promotion and brand consciousness. In addition, the Adidas utilises search engine optimization (SEO) tools to optimize its website by considering the key words used by people in search engines. The strategy has generated high consumer traffic for Adidas. Furthermore, Adidas place banner advertisements on other webpage that has promoted awareness of its new products (Khankaew et al. 2015).

Implementing and monitoring marketing plans

            After developing the marketing plans, organisation follow the steps outlined in the plan towards achieving the stated objectives. The organisation provides continuous assessment to evaluate whether adopted strategies are achieving the objectives and goals. The Adidas Company stresses flexibility when implementing their marketing plans. The environmental opportunities and threats might not match with the company expectations. Shift in consumer demand, extension of distribution channels, and changes of supply costs might influence the outcomes, thus should be included into the monitoring of the plan (MLF4 2012).

Needs and techniques for controlling marketing activities

            For Adidas Company to effectively control its marketing activities should adopt control systems that provide standards for assessing performance in each division of marketing. The outcomes of marketing departments, such as interactive advertising and marketing research department cannot be evaluated by similar standard because they are not similar. Hence, Adidas should implement control system that has matching standard for each department.

Furthermore, effective control system should be able to discover variation and report them to the management. The control system should also recommend possible remedies that can correct the deviations. In addition, the control system should be easily understandable by employees and cost-effective to the organisation. A control system that is customized to Adidas specifications provides comprehensive information that is significant to the company line of business (Adidas 2015).

Annual plan control

            Annual plan control assists Adidas to evaluate its current marketing activities and outcomes to ensure that the yearly sales and profit objectives are attained. The annual plan control detects any variations on the performance of its X 15 and Ace 15 products and suggests possible corrective actions. The annual plan control utilizes tools, such as sales analysis, market share analysis, market expense analysis, and financial analysis to evaluate marketing activities and detect any deviations (Adidas 2015).

Profitability control

            Profitability control helps Adidas Company to establish the definite profitability of its X 15 and Ace 15 products, market segments, and distribution channels. The information generated from profitability control will influence the company decision on extension, reduction, or deferment of its marketing activities.

The profitability control will identify the functional expenditure, allocate the functional expenditure to the marketing entities, and prepare income statement for every marketing entity. Therefore, the profitability rely on the of sales and marketing cost analysis in determining the profitability and expenditure of the marketing entities (Adidas 2015).

Efficiency control

            The efficiency control aids the Adidas Company to enhance the effectiveness of its marketing activities, such as video marketing, network marketing, and blogging. The efficiency control assesses and reduces the marketing expenses of the marketing activities. Efficiency and profitability control are closely connected. Higher profits signify efficient management of the marketing activities (Adidas 2015).

Strategic control

            The strategic control ensures that Adidas marketing objectives and strategies are suited to the present and predicted marketing environment. Furthermore, the strategic control will evaluate if the company is pursuing the opportunities presented by the distribution channels, products, and markets. T

he company management should continuously utilize the strategic control because the continuously shift in marketing environment might render the company objectives, strategies, and policies obsolete. Moreover, the strategic control examine the company marketing efficiency by employing tools, such as marketing audit and marketing effectiveness ranking appraisal (Adidas 2015).

Contemporary marketing techniques and their use in Global and International markets

            Companies seek to expand their market share by venturing into global markets that are unsaturated and that offer the companies with several growth opportunities. Companies use contemporary marketing techniques to promote their new products in international markets. Most companies recognize they have limited markets when they concentrate in their local markets.

Hence, companies respond by looking international opportunities to raise their market share and customer base. The emergence of technology that crosses both cultural and national boarders presents the companies with the opportunity of utilizing technology to promote their products in global markets.

Moreover, the technology has resulted to development of contemporary marketing techniques, such as email marketing, social media, blogs, and public relation marketing that aid companies to market in global and international markets. Adidas Company has responded to customer migration to online world by embracing email marketing to promote its new products. Adidas utilizes email marketing to connect with current and prospective customers (Direct Marketing Association 2014).

            Public relation marketing increases the awareness of the new products offered by Adidas and advances the company reputation in the media. The public relation marketing also publicizes new products introduced to the market by the company. The PR is responsible of writing press releases, newsletters, and speaking about the organisation in public meetings, which help in promoting the image of the company (Introduction to Public Relation 2012).

            Social media sites, such as face book, and twitter offer Adidas exclusive opportunity to interact with customers and promote its new products. Adidas has utilized social media networks to increase consciousness of its new products, X 15 and Ace 15.In addition, studies suggest that companies who participate in social media platforms and mobile marketing enjoy higher loyalty from their customers.

Moreover, Adidas has embraced mobile marketing by acquiring an Australian fitness app maker, Runtastic. The app maker have over 130 million downloads and 75 million registered members globally, and is offered in 17 languages, thus giving Adidas a platform to market and promote its new products (Mobile Marketing Association 2014).

            Adidas has shifted its bulk of its marketing budget into online marketing through focusing on instantaneous content and online video. The company has developed Adidas’ digital newsroom that aid in promotion of its new products. The brand newsroom aid the company to create quality contents that is unique and form emotions. Furthermore, the digital newsrooms create content that is tailored to its audience and it is delivered promptly and to the accurate standards (Adidas 2015).      

Marketing manager skills and their role in the effective management of the marketing team

            Technology advancement has altered the role of marketing to a point that the duties of present marketing managers vary significantly from those of some years ago. Nowadays marketing managers should understand how trends, technology, and social media work in the marketing mix. However, there are essential skills that marketing manager must possess to enhance their management and performance of marketing roles.

The Adidas Company success greatly depends on the effective management of its marketing managers to devise strategies that enhance new products promotion and increase sales. The marketing manager should possess excellent communication skills and create open and operating channels of communication. Strategic thinking is a vital skill that assists marketing managers to reflect and solve challenges with exceptional perspectives.

Furthermore, the marketing manager is able to make decisions based on long-term viewpoint and recognize how to handle the exclusive needs of each member participating in the project. The marketing managers are faced with the need to handle challenges from clients, team members, and the management. Excellent problem solving skills enable the marketing manager to handle swiftly the challenges from the three stakeholders.

In addition, the marketing managers are required to hone their project management skills to guide their teams in realizing their objectives and taking advantage of social media opportunities (National careers Service 2012).

            Marketing managers play a vital role in providing effective management to their marketing teams. The marketing managers develop departmental targets and individualize them for each departmental staff. Moreover, they demonstrate how the individual targets would assist the department and the organisation as whole.

The marketing managers also identify the distinctive behavior of the team members and encourage them to achieve their targets by utilizing their unique traits. In addition, the marketing managers conduct performance appraisal of their marketing teams and congratulate them in departmental meetings when their transitional targets are achieved. This strengthens the significance on their individual capacities (National careers Service 2012).

Impact and value of a brand from a number of different stakeholder perspectives

            Brand equity can enable companies to set premium prices to their products because customers believe that products with famous names are better than products with unrenowned names. Customer-based brand equity results when customers recognize the brand and hold exceptional brand association in their mind. Adidas has positioned itself as a premium brand and customers are willing to pay more for its products. The positive customer-based brand equity has offered Adidas long-term revenues and capability of charging premium prices for its new products (Angulo-ruiz 2014).

            Employees play vital role in developing brand equity. Adidas recognizes its employees as major stakeholders in building the value of its brand. Adidas involves their employees in decision-making process and boost their satisfaction in order to attract the best talent that would help in designing new products. In addition, suppliers aid companies to have excellent reputation in the market. The brand equity of the Adidas Company assists in attracting reliable suppliers who might not be willing to render their services to unbranded firms (Cornell University ILR School 2013).

 Organisations marketing campaigns in different international markets

            The competitive environment prompts companies to develop marketing campaigns that will increase the brand consciousness and sales. However, due to diversity organisations should tailor their marketing campaigns to suit the international audience when expanding to international markets. The Adidas Company has used different marketing campaigns to promote its X 15 and Ace 15 products in different international markets.

The Adidas has promoted its new products in the US market by utilising online marketing that feature top players of National Hockey League (NHL) and National Football League (NFL). Moreover, the company has initiated major basketball marketing campaigns that resulted to a significant increase in its sales. The online purchasing has made it easy for consumers to purchase products directly from manufactures.

Adidas has adopted online purchasing by placing links on other websites like Google homepage that create high consumer traffic to the company website. The links help to promote product awareness to potential consumers. Furthermore, use of SEO tools to optimize the company website has made it visible to new consumers (Tesseras 2014).

            The Adidas has used the Chelsea FC’s players and collaborated with the British Paralympics Association to promote its new products in the UK market. This year Adidas launched a marketing campaign dubbed I am here to create that comprised a sequence of films that featured several sporting celebrities. The marketing campaign aired in fifty countries during broadcast of UEFA champion league and the Grammys awards.

In China market, the campaign featured the local players that have the power of influencing the market. The marketing campaign helped to promote the X 15 and Ace 15 sporting shoes that Adidas launched to the market. Adidas has embraced Web public relations (WPR) by placing news of product or service launches on company’s website and review sites for consumers to read. Furthermore, Adidas uses direct e-mail for its online promotion. Both WPR and direct e-mail have helped adidas in promoting its new products to consumers (Department for culture, media, and sport 2012).


            A company success is greatly attributed to the effective role played by is marketing function. Adidas effective marketing planning has guided the company to develop business activities that helps in achieving its organisation objectives. Marketing control systems have aided Adidas to assess its marketing activities and offer swift remedies to detected deviations. The Adidas Company has embraced contemporary marketing techniques, such as social media that have significantly enhanced its new products awareness. Furthermore, the Adidas marketing techniques that are tailored to different international markets have been successful in promoting its new products.


            Customers are noted to be satisfied with the design and durability of the Adidas products, however in aspects of price; Adidas should design products that are affordable to deprived customers, especially in developing countries. Moreover, the company can provide special offer of price in a certain period to boost its sales and attract more customers. In addition, Adidas should develop more marketing campaigns and techniques that promote and differentiate its brands from competitors.

StakeholderNegative brand impact Negative brand valuePositive brand impact Positive brand value
Employees of the Adidas GroupUniversities boycott High wages Worker strikesSkilled employees, Creative employees 
Authorisers: government, trade associations, shareholders, Executive BoardTax laws, Tariffs, Unsound decisionsTax incentives, Intellectual property law,Strategic decisions  
Business partners: unions, suppliers, service providersLow quality materials, Labor laws,Exorbitant pricesProviding quality material and services, Timely deliveries, Affordable prices  
Workers in our suppliers’ factoriesWorker strikes, Demand for higher wagesSkilled workers, Low wages
Opinion-formers: journalists, community members, special interest groupsNegative publicity, Use of kangaroo leather, Environmental impacts  Public relation, Product promotion 
Customers: professional athletes, distributors, retailers, consumersConsumer switching, Bargaining power, Consumer preferencesBrand loyalty, Product promotion, Product awareness
Peers: other multinationals, consumer goods companies and brandsCompetition  Partnerships  

Marketing mix for adidas

Foot wear,Apparel AccessoriesCompetitive prices,Skimming priceExclusive stores,Multi brand showrooms,Online storesOnline marketing,Top player brand ambassadors,Sponsoring teams


Angulo-ruiz, F., Donthu, N., Prior, D. & Rialp, J. (2014) ‘The financial contribution of customer- oriented marketing capability’, Academy of Marketing Science [online] 42 (4), 380-399. Available from [17 October 2016]

Adidas (2015) Strategy overview [online] available from<> [17 October 2016]

Adidas (2011) ‘adidas Launches Biggest Marketing Campaign in Brand’s History’Marketing Weekly News, pp. 1282 available [17 October 2016]

Cornell University ILR School (2013)Is There a Correlation for Companies With a Strong Employment Brand Between Employee Engagement Levels and Bottom Line Results [online] available from             <  t> [17 October 2016]

Chartered Management Institute (2015)Setting smart objectives checklist [online] available from                <  ng%20SMART%20objectives.ashx>[17 October 2016]

Direct Marketing Association (2014)Email marketing guide [online] available from <> [17 October 2016]

Department for culture, media, and sport (2012)Great campaign [online] available from <> [17 October 2016]Introduction to Public Relation (2012)PR vs Advertising [online] available from <> [17 October 2016]

Institute of Risk management (2013)A risk management standard [online] available from <> [17 October 2016]Khankaew, C., Ussahawanitichakit, P. & Raksong, S. (2015)A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF ALTERNATIVE MARKETING STRATEGY AND MARKETING OUTCOMES‘Allied Academies International Conference’ Academy of Marketing Studies [online] 20(2), pp. 1-16

MLF4 (2012)Develop and implement marketing plans for your area of responsibility [online] available from    <> [17October 2016]

Mobile Marketing Association (2014) ‘MMA and adidas publish The Mobile Marketing Playbook to Drive Global Marketing Efforts’Marketing WeeklyNews [online], pp. 179

National careers Service (2012)Marketing manager [online]available from            <> [17 October 2016]

Nadeau, J., O’Reilly, N. & Heslop, L.A. (2015) ‘Cityscape promotions and the use of place images at the Olympic Games’Marketing Intelligence & Planning[online] 33(2), pp.147

Planning effective marketing strategies for a target audience– Adidas (2013) Business Case Studies LLP, London [online] available [17 October 2016]

Social care institutes for excellence(2013)The importance of goal setting [online] available             from<>[17 October 2016]

Tesseras, L. (2014)‘The Marketing Year’the top campaigns of 2014Centaur Communications Ltd, London [online] available [17 October 2016]

Teach a man to fish (2014)How to evaluate your organisation [online] available from            <> [17 October 2016]

Maintenance Aviation Safety Action Programs at Dubai World Central Airport

Maintenance Aviation Safety Action Programs
Maintenance Aviation Safety Action Programs

Maintenance Aviation Safety Action Programs at Dubai World Central Airport

  1. Proposal Summary

Maintenance as well as aviation safety programs are implemented for the purpose of encouraging maintenance station and air carrier employees to voluntarily forward reports on errors, a practice which is fundamental in making sure there is identification of potential causes of accidents and/or incidents.

Under aviation safety programs, proactive action is taken to resolve safety issues rather than by disciplining or punishment the concerned individuals. As a result, these programs are aimed at enhancing aviation safety mainly by preventing incidents and accidents both at the airport as well as air carriers by focusing on encouraging compliance to the safety issues’ reporting voluntarily.

For instance, the introduction of Aviation Safety Action Programs (ASAPs) in the flight domain within the aviation industry was encouraged by the hope of motivating pilots towards disclosing their errors, and also of significance reporting the factors that may have contributed to the errors.  

Thus, keeping a record of these reports may help in the implementation of systemic solutions in order to preclude recurrence. Generally, the air carriers can significantly benefit from their maintenance and/or safety programs, which can be essential in addressing the identified systemic discrepancies that could have otherwise resulted to detrimental effects if left unresolved.   

Maintenance and safety play a significant role in maintaining airline fleets throughout the world through appropriate ASAPs. ASAPs provide a blanket term for all the services that relate to assuring the safety and airworthy of aircraft. Ayeni, Baines, Lightfoot and Ball (2011) noted that the global market worth of the ASAPs market is $50 billion. ASAPs providers and implementers typically provide four main capabilities: Engine, Airframe, Airport, as well as Component Services. Dubai World Center (DWC) is located at Dubai City.

The airport opened first as a cargo operations center but later opened for passengers handling services and flights in 2013. The airport is touted as the next world’s largest global gateway due to its capacity of more than 160 million passengers every year. For this reason, many airlines will operate from the airport and this will necessitate the need for maintenance and repair organization, which must be accompanied by appropriate safety programs.

Air transport, cargo operators, and airlines operate schedules that require high utilization and serviceability levels and minimum cost. Since they have high capital and utilization costs, they require a large amount of support by the ASAPs. The airlines operate large fleets of aircraft, and since many of their aircraft are on the lease, they require that they have high maintenance so that they can maximize their value in agreement with the requirements of the lesser. This paper explores the feasibility of ASAPs in DWC.

The United Arab Emirates has four airlines operating from various countries such as the Emirates airline & Fly Dubai operating from Dubai International Airport, Etihad operating from Abu Dhabi International Airport as well as Air Arabia operating from Sharjah International Airport. All of these airlines operate fleets of varied aircrafts ranging from Airbus A330 to heavy duty and new generation Boeings B800; whereby the number of aircrafts owned by Emirates Airline, Fly Dubai, and Etihad are 260, 49 and 122 respectively.

The management of ASAPs by these airlines is either in-house or through outsourcing. For example, Emirates and Etihad accomplish maintenance of their fleet and management of ASAPs at their facility; whereas Air Arabia outsources this from Joramco in Jordan, Amman. In addition, Fly Dubai outsources aircraft maintenance and management of ASAPs from ADAT in Abu Dhabi.    

  1. Topic Literature Review    

According to Ait-Kadi, Duffuaa, Knezevic and Raouf (2009), ASAPs play a significant role in making sure that optimal safety levels are sustained including providing maintenance that is in relation to the process of promoting airworthiness of the airport as well as the air carriers’ condition. Also, Easterby-Smith, Thorpe and Jackson (2012) noted that ASAPs provide maintenance of damaged components of the airport or an aircraft as a strategy to ensure they operate properly in order to improve safety.

Choules (2013) evaluated the need for ASAPs for commercial aircraft as well as large airlines including Emirates, Fly Dubai, Etihad, and Air Arabia in order to provide them with support throughout their operational network and found that these programs were of vital significance. According to Jankowicz (2004), minor maintenance and safety actions may be needed at remote destinations, even though it is more significant if they are done at the operational bases of respective air carriers.

According to Jankowicz (2004), in his study to examine the need of ASAPs for military aircraft operators found that operators of military aircrafts required high maintenance and safety action service reliability and availability considering the complexity of their functions and they are more expensive compared to other aircrafts.

Furthermore, Ait-Kadi, Duffuaa, Knezevic and Raouf (2009) suggested that unlike the airlines, small aircrafts such as helicopters which operate in a an area that is relatively small, and cannot fly for long distances than typical airlines as well as other aircrafts with fixed wings require less aggressive ASAPs.    

  1. Objectives

The primary objectives of this study include:

  1. To investigate the impacts of establishing maintenance aviation safety action programs at Dubai World Central Airport.
  2. To explore the services and functions to be offered by the maintenance aviation safety action programs at Dubai World Central Airport.
  3. To recognize key factors that will encourage global airliners to embrace the appropriate fleet maintenance aviation safety action programs at Dubai World Central Airport.
  4. To establish the internal and external factors that impact maintenance Aviation Safety Action Programs (ASAPs) at Dubai World Central Airport.
  5. To establish appropriate recommendations and conclusions which identify approaches of solving the negative impacts of these factors on maintenance Aviation Safety Action Programs (ASAPs) at Dubai World Central Airport.  

It is essential to determine that the maintenance Aviation Safety Action Programs are an imperative approach in the process of making sure that there is seamless running of operations at an airport whether locally, regionally or internationally recognized, which can influence the goals stipulated by the respective airports negatively or positively.

In this case, the maintenance Aviation Safety Action Programs can be impacted by a number of components in a work environment due to the vital role they play in ensuring airport operations take place without incidences or accidents that can possibly translate to significant levels of losses.

The aim of this study therefore, is to draw a focus on some of the programs established by Dubai World Central Airport with regards to maintenance and aviation safety action. In particular, this study will make sure that some of the variables affecting the maintenance and aviation safety action both internally and externally are succinctly detailed.  

As a result, this paper proposes establishing maintenance aviation safety action programs at Dubai Central airport including safety equipment such as escape slide rafts and life jackets, among others. In addition, the study will also consider the safety maintenance operations at the aircraft structural repair workshop, brakes, and wheels overhaul workshop, engine module replacement facility as well as Non-Destructive Test facility.

Therefore, considering that Dubai World Central Airport present operations are within a limited number of airlines, the ongoing plans to ensure that it is converted to multi runways operation makes it essential to prioritize maintenance and safety programs. This is attributable to the fact that, the major infrastructural development plans envisaged to take place in the near future will require ambitious as well as comprehensive maintenance aviation safety action programs.

  1. Project Outcomes

Establishing maintenance aviation safety action programs at Dubai World Central Airport is a venture of fundamental importance not only to the airport facility, but also for the airlines expected to be using the airport since there will close monitoring and evaluation of airport as well as airlines activities’ safety while at the same time ensuring that maintenance of the airport and/or airplane is progressing.

This means that, maintenance and safety is an inevitable activity program to undertake as the airlines to be served by the airport of interest continue to grow bigger in terms of fleet strength and customer base. Thus, outsourcing maintenance activity as well as implementation of aviation safety action programs will be beneficial because they will play an imperative role in making sure that these airlines can invest their resources on their core business of airline’s operations.

Establishing these kind of programs can significantly help the airlines in reducing their operational costs by ensuring that, very minimal accidents or incidents are reported at the airports as well as the airplanes used by the airlines to transport passengers. In addition, capital investment will be freed up by these programs since they have a potential of reducing inventory control, upon obtaining approval from the UAE General Civil Aviation Authority.

Moreover, these maintenance aviation safety action programs ought to be implemented in collaboration with pilots, airline operators, airline attendants, airport employees as well as maintenance engineers.

Therefore, in order for the research aims and objectives to be achieved, the structure of the study and analysis will follow the format shown below:

  • Analysis of the currently available maintenance and safety programs at the airport.
  • Identification of factors necessary for the establishment of maintenance aviation safety action programs at DWC Airport.
  • Explore the sustainability of MRO market at DWC.
  • Analyze and understand key factors that forces airlines to choose this new MRO.
  • Investigate factors that have potential to encourage compliance to maintenance aviation safety action programs at DWC Airport.
  1. Why are you interested in the project?

The reason why am interested in this project is because, it has always been my dream to ensure that air transportation becomes safe by significantly reducing accidents and incidents both at the airports and airplanes through establishment of reliable and effective maintenance and aviation safety action programs. In addition, professional curiosity that is primarily business-oriented has also attracted by attention towards undertaking a study on this crucial topic.

For instance, an observation of the huge infrastructural investments made by airports as well as airlines managements, I found it worthy to embark on this study to establish if maintenance and safety action programs put in place are sufficiently enough to ensure safety of commuters, airport infrastructure and the airplanes.

The desire to evaluate if the current maintenance and safety programs are economically viable was also another factor that motivated my interest in this project, especially considering that airplanes which have been developed in the recent past are technologically advanced meaning investment in their maintenance and safety resources has also grown significantly higher. Furthermore, my thoughts and interest in this project were substantially influenced by the training from MBA studies, which has pushed my desire to carry out an in-depth analysis of this subject.

  1. What are the key questions the project attempts to answer?
  2. What are the internal factors that affect maintenance Aviation Safety Action Programs (ASAPs) at Dubai World Central Airport?
  3. What are the external factors that maintenance Aviation Safety Action Programs (ASAPs) at Dubai World Central Airport?
  4. What are the approaches that can be employed in solving the internal and external factors that affect the maintenance Aviation Safety Action Programs (ASAPs) at Dubai World Central Airport?        
  5. What Research Methods do you intend to use?

This project is going to be a quantitative research. According to Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill (2012), an appropriate research methodology is essential for any research process to be carried out effectively. The project will involve an exploratory case study to explore the operations of maintenance and safety programs at DWC Airport that are currently faced with high uncertainty levels.

In addition, limited information exists concerning the specific maintenance aviation safety action programs adopted by various airlines as well as the additional programs that airlines ought to adopt, particularly at the DWC Airport (Ross, 2003). The significance of exploratory case study research in this project is that, it will play an essential role in the identification of the salient features and factors that can potentially affect an establishment of maintenance and aviation safety action programs at Dubai World Central Airport, as well as determining the boundaries limiting the implementation of maintenance and safety action programs in aviation.

Easterby-Smith, Thorpe & Jackson (2012) noted that, inductive research method is an approach that allows specific observations to be made subsequent to moving them towards wider views, assumptions as well as theories. As a result, inductive research is envisaged to result to the development of the research hypotheses. However, analytical research in the aviation industry can play a significant role towards helping in succinct understanding of present and future trend of maintenance and safety action programs in the aviation industry through the meaningful insights obtained.

Various strategic and analytical management tools to be used in this study to evaluate the phenomenon under investigation include: PESTEL, SWOT, Performance Driver analysis, and Porter’s Five Forces analysis to investigate the strategic imperativeness, the socio-economic conditions, restrains and drivers in the aviation industry as well as the effectiveness and efficiency while establishing a maintenance aviation safety action programs at DWC Airport.

However, the project will involve participation of a randomly picked sample size of 200 participants from who primary data will be collected. Therefore, the research sample will particularly consist of airlines executives based at the airport, aviation consultants and regulatory body executives, as well as representatives of aircraft manufacturers.

During this study, I plan to investigate the airlines and airport maintenance and safety action programs as well as current and future strategies among various airlines that are utilized by DWC Airport towards heightening safety levels through their respective implementation plans together with the necessary operational elements including the technical expertise, human resources, capacity and available resources. This will be achieved by conducting specific statistical analysis using the information gathered from research participants based on SPSS.            

The quantitative data to be gathered for this study will be primarily collected from secondary sources of data through a review of the available literature materials and other online databases. Moreover, structured interviews will also be used in gathering information from airlines and airport personnel based at Dubai World Central airport with regards to maintenance and safety action programs currently in use as well as those envisaged to be implemented in future.

The responses obtained from randomly selected research participants to the structured interviews and questionnaires will then be used as the primary data for this project. Alternatively, the secondary data will primarily be collected from online sources and databases (Ghauri and Grønhaug, 2005). For instance, data concerning the present maintenance and safety and the extent of action programs adopted by the airport as well as various airlines will be established by reviewing literature from secondary sources.    

  1. What primary and/or secondary data sources do you intend to use?

In order to ensure that the research is appropriately carried out and the findings or results are credible and reliable, it is important to make sure that valid and unbiased sources of data are used. As a result, in this project I am planning to use both primary and secondary sources of data.

Therefore, am planning to conduct structured interviews, as well as administration of questionnaires [directly as well as via e-mails] to current administrators of maintenance aviation safety action programs, airlines executives based at the airport, aviation consultants and regulatory body executives,  as well as representatives of aircraft manufacturers in order to collect qualitative and quantitative data for this study.

The questionnaires with a set of questions will be forwarded to the randomly selected participants followed by structured interviews and email follow-ups to allow collection of valid and reliable data.

In addition, I will also collect secondary data for this study by reviewing published data on articles written about the subject. Secondary data will also be collected by reviewing aviation magazines, journals (both print and online), aircraft manufacturer websites, newspaper articles, and regulatory authority websites. 

Furthermore, I plan to physically visit the case study airport in order to interact and interview maintenance and safety programs’ administrators or managers so that I can get first-hand view of the subject. This will be achieved by conducting informal interviews as well as holding discussions with relevant personnel concerning day-to-day maintenance and safety action programs during my visit.

List of References       

Ait-Kadi, D., Duffuaa, S.O., Knezevic, J., & Raouf, A. (2009). Handbook of maintenance management and engineering. London: Springer.

Ayeni, P., Baines, T.S., Lightfoot, H., & Ball, P. (2011). State-of-the-art of ‘Lean’ in the aviation maintenance, repairs, and overhaul industry. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, p.0954405411407122.

Cameron, S. (2008). The MBA Handbook: skills for mastering management. London: Pearson Education.

Choules, C. (2013). Maintenance and repair organization Exposition. Retrieved on 10th September 2016 from:  

Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R., & Jackson, P.R. (2012). Management research. Thousand Oaks, NJ: Sage.

Endsley, M.R. & Robertson, M.M. (2000). Situation awareness in aircraft maintenance teams. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 26(2), 301-325.

Ghauri, P.N. & Grønhaug, K. (2005). Research methods in business studies: A practical guide. New York, NY: Pearson Education.

Goddard, W. & Melville, S. (2004). Research methodology: An introduction. London, UK: Juta and Company Ltd. 

Graham, S. & Thrift, N. (2007). Out of order understanding repair and maintenance. Theory, Culture & Society, 24(3), 1-25.

Jankowicz, A D. (2004). Business Research Projects, (4th ed.). New York, NY: Thomson Learning.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2012). Research Methods for Business Students, (6th ed.). New York, NY: FT Prentice.

Peters, M.J., Howard, K., & Sharp, M.J.A. (2012). The management of a student research project. London: Gower Publishing, Ltd.

Robson, C. (2011). Real World Research: A Resource for Social Scientists and Practitioner Researchers. New York, NY: Blackwell Publishing.  

Ross, W.A. (2003). September. The impact of next generation test technology on aviation maintenance. In AUTOTESTCON 2003. IEEE Systems Readiness Technology Conference. Proceedings. IEEE. 

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Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics

Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics

Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics

  1. Introduction

This report is an analysis of the data generated using SPSS and presented using charts and tables. The report firstly presents the results of selected descriptive statistical analyses. Subsequently, the report summarises the numerical results with descriptive statistics analysis tables or graphs, including the interpretation of these tables and graphs. The fourth section or the report is a presentation of the data regarding numerical results of the inferential statistics. This is followed by a discussion of the same, before a summative conclusion is presented in the last section.

  • Selected descriptive statistics

Descriptive statistics refers to the kinds of data that analysts and researchers use in presenting the characteristics of the sample used in a study. According to Kothari (2004), they are used in checking whether the variables that the researcher has chosen to use violate any assumptions that the researcher might have made, which might be consequential to the findings. Another important function of descriptive statistics used in this section is that they help to answer the core research questions.

In the present study, the descriptive statistics selected are for public use micro data area code (PUMA), house weight (WHTP), state code, (ST), numbering of persons (NP), rooms (RMS), bedrooms, (BDS), and household income (HINCP). The data retrieved was as presented in table 1 below

Table 1: PUMA, ST, BDS, RMS, mean, median, and standard deviation

Std. Deviation1.9331.197.00081.573

Table 2: RMS, BDS, ST, and PUMA, frequency table

 PUMAFrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent
NPFrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent
RMSFrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent
BDSFrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent

From the data in table 1 above, a number of observations are blatant and clear. The first is that the means of RMS, BDS, ST and PUMA are 4.87, 2.61, 15, and 248.05 respectively. For rooms, the number of rooms, the median score was 5, where the scores varied from 1 to 9. This means that the majority of respondents have about 5 rooms.

When it comes to the number of bedrooms, the median score was 3, whereas the mean was 2.61, this shows that the majority of respondents have 3 rooms. The state code was 15 for all respondents whereas the mean for public use of micro data area code was 248.05. The mean was 302, whereas the minimum and maximum scores were 100 and 307 respectively.

From table 2, a number of assertions can also be made, and the first is about PUMA. From the table, the evidence shows that for public use of micro data area code, 19.4% of the respondents scored category 100, which made it the highest selected category, whereas 15.9% of the respondents checked 200, making it the second most selected category. Comparatively, 301 was the least selected category at 8.7%.

Additionally, for number of bedrooms, a majority of the respondents said that they had three bedrooms in their houses, and this represented 3.9% of all responses, closely followed by those with two bedrooms at 24.6%. At the same time, the number of people living in houses with no bedrooms or five bedrooms was the least with a score of 4.3% and 6.3% respectively.

This data is in line with the data about rooms, which shows that 22% of respondents stay in a five-roomed apartment, followed by 18% and 15%, who stay in four and five roomed houses respectively. Because of the number of rooms and bedrooms in their houses, it is plausible to conclude that a majority of the respondents stay with other people or expect other people to visit often, which are why they have extra rooms in the house, as well as extra bedrooms in the house.

Additionally, from the data, it is obvious that a majority of the people are in the middle between the rich and the poor, as those who stay in studio apartments are as marginal as those who stay in luxury apartments that can contain at least five bedrooms. . 

  • Selected inferential statistical analyses

Inferential statistics refer to the data analysis methods where the researcher or analyst uses a given set of data to determine whether there is a link between given variables being studied. By using inferential statistics, the researcher can tell whether the relationship that seems to exist between variables is a fact, or whether it is not a fact. According to Kothari (2004), a number of measures and techniques can be used to accomplish inferential statistics. The two types of inferential statistics used in this report are correlation and regression analyses.  

Correlation was conducted using the Pearson correlation analysis. Pearson correlation analysis is employed to measure the linear relationship between two or more variables. The value of Pearson correlation ranges between -1 and +1, with -1 indicating negative correlation, 0 indicating no correlation and +1 indicating positive correlation between the variables.  Besides, the closer the value is to +1, the stronger the relationship between the variables (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2007). For this study, the data is as shown below.

According to table 4-20, Sig. (2-tailed) =0.000, and all the four variables have a significant correlation at the 0.01 significant level. Pearson correlation between PUMA and NP is .110, whereas the relation between PUMA and BDS and RMS is .042 and .067 respectively. This shows that there is a weak but positive relationship between PUMA and all the independent variables, although the weakest relationship is that between PUMA and BDS.

Table 3: Correlations

PUMAPearson Correlation1.110(**).042(**).067(**)
Sig. (2-tailed) .000.003.000
NPPearson Correlation.110(**)1.447(**).396(**)
Sig. (2-tailed).000 .000.000
BDSPearson Correlation.042(**).447(**)1.878(**)
Sig. (2-tailed).003.000 .000
RMSPearson Correlation.067(**).396(**).878(**)1
Sig. (2-tailed).000.000.000 

**  Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Regression analysis helps estimate and investigate the association between variables. R Square is used to show the degree of relationship between the dependent and independent variables. R Square value ranges between 0 and 1, and the closer the value is to 1, the stronger the relationship between the variables further indicating the greater degree to which variation in independent variable explains the variation in dependent variable (Seber and Lee, 2012).

Based on the model summary table 4-21, R stand for the correlation coefficient and it depicts the association between dependent variable and independent variables. It is evident that a positive relationship exists between the dependent variable and independent variables as shown by R value (0.126).

However, the relationship is a very weak one. Besides, it can be seen that the variation in the three independent variables (RMS, BDS and NP) explain 1.6% variation of PUMA as represented by the value of R Square. Therefore, it means that other factors that are not studied on in this study contribute 98.4% of the PUMA programs. This means that the other factors are very important and thus need to be put into account in any effort to enhance PUMA. Additionally, this research therefore identifies the three independent variable studied on in this research as the non-critical determinants of PUMA boundaries.

Table 4: regression analysis results

                                 Model Summary

ModelRR SquareAdjusted R SquareStd. Error of the Estimate

a  Predictors: (Constant), RMS, NP, BDS

Further, this research established through the analysis f variance that the significant value is 0.00, which is less than 0.01, therefore the model is statistically significant in foretelling how NP, RMS, and BDS can influence PUMA groupings. The F critical value at the 0.01 level of significant was 26.501. Given that F calculated  is greater than the F critical value of 26.501, then it means that the overall model was significant (Seber and Lee, 2012).


Model Sum of SquaresdfMean SquareFSig.

a  Predictors: (Constant), RMS, NP, BDS

b  Dependent Variable: PUMA

At the same time, the beta coefficients also gives significant inferential information. According to the regression coefficients presented in table 4-23, this research found that when all independent variables (the number of persons (NP), number of rooms (RMS), and the number of bedrooms (BDS)) are kept constant at zero, the level of public use micro data area code (PUMA)  will be at 231.13. A 1% change in number of persons will lead to an 11.4% increase in PUMA, whereas a one percent change in BDS will lead to a 12.1% changes in PUMA.

Comparatively, a one percent change in  RMS will lead to a 12.8 percent change in PUMA. This leads to the conclusion that of the three variavles, RMS leads to the largest impact in PUMA when the three independent variables are pitted together. Further the statistical significance of each independent variable was tested at the 0.01 level of significance of the p-values.


Model Unstandardized CoefficientsStandardized CoefficientstSig.
BStd. ErrorBeta
(Constant)231.1303.161 73.128.000

a  Dependent Variable: PUMA

In general form, it can be said that the equation used to determine the link between  Public use microdata area code, numbering of persons, rooms and bedrooms is of the form:

Y = β0+ β1X1+ β2X2+ β3X3+ ε

From the equation, β0 is a constant, whereas β1 to β3 are coefficients of the independent variables. X1 X2 and X3 are the independent variables numbering of persons, rooms and bedrooms respectively, whereas epsilon ε is an error term. Additionally, the dependent variable Y in the equation represents public use microdata area code. Pegging the present discussion in the formula above, the model would be as follows.

Y = 231.130 + .114X1 – .121X2 +.128X3

This means that the public use micordata area code = 231.130 + (0.114 x numbering of persons) – (0.121 x rooms) +(0.128 x bedrooms).


Kothari, C. (2004). Research methodology, methods & techniques (2nd ed.).New Delhi: Wishwa Prakashan.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. (2007). Research Methods for Business Students. 4th edition. England: Prentice Hall.

Seber, A. F. G. and Lee, J. A. (2012) Linear Regression Analysis. 2nd Edition. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons

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Comparative Advantage and Absolute Advantage

Comparative Advantage and Absolute Advantage
Comparative Advantage and Absolute Advantage

Comparative Advantage and Absolute Advantage

Measures of Economic Growth

            According to economists, there are different ways of measuring the growth of an economy. According to Baldwin and Borrelli (2008), Gross Domestic Product is the commonly used measurement tool used to measure the economic growth of a given country. Nevertheless, certain economists believe that GDP is not a fully reliable method of measuring the growth of an economy.

In certain countries and institutions, improvement of the living standards can also be used as a tool for measuring the economic growth (David, 2005). GDP and other metrics such as unemployment rates, living standards, and inflation rates can help in determining the actual economic growth. Additionally, factors such as spending versus productivity can also help in quantifying the level of economic growth.

Comparative advantage and Absolute Advantage

According to David (2005), absolute advantage is the difference in the productivity of various countries while the comparative advantage denotes the differences that are there in the opportunity cost. Ideally, using smaller inputs to produce a large quantity of produce is known as an absolute advantage while the ability to produce at lower opportunity cost is a comparative advantage.

Therefore, certain countries such as China and the US have the absolute and comparative advantage at some point (Baldwin & Borrelli, 2008). For instance, the US use fewer resources to produce a given product compared to other countries. However, countries like China have a comparative advantage when they produce specific products at relatively lower margins.

            Both absolute and comparative advantage are two main important factors for the international trade. These factors elaborate how different nations use the little resources that they have to produce given quantities of produce (Hansen, 2012). However, the advantage and the disadvantage of a country also depends on its choice of goods to produce.

For other countries, devoting resources and manpower to other countries limits competition. For example, the US would devote resources to the vehicle-producing Japan rather than compete with it. In which case, Japan would have the absolute advantage while the US has a comparative advantage.


            Studies have revealed that China is one of the countries that continue to enjoy the advantage of its resources and human resources (Seretis & Tsaliki, 2016). China has overtaken countries like Japan to become the second-largest manufacturer after the US. Ideally, the country enjoys low labor costs while producing most of its products (David, 2005).

For China, the human resource is still an absolute advantage over many nations. The vast labor supply attracts larger investments and companies in the region. Compared to places such as the US where the human resource is declining, China enjoys a bigger absolute advantage (McConnell, 1999).

GDP Growth Rate in China

            The Chinese economy has grown to 6.7% in 2016, which is by the expectations. The GDP growth in China has been successful hitting a high rate at 15.4% in 1993.


            Unlike China whose production is labour-intensive, the US enjoys a comparative advantage by using its specialized labor resource. In as much as the labor resource in the US is abundant, the country’s main advantage is that its human resource is skilled. As such, the US can produce high-quality products using its rich and skilled human resource.

GDP Growth in the US

            The GDP in the US increased to 2.9% in the third quarter of 2016 1.4% higher than the last quarter. However, the increase is attributable to personal expenditure increases, the increase in exports, inventory investments as well as the increased federal government spending.

Saudi Arabia

            Unlike other countries such as China and the US, Saudi Arabia is a country that relies on a single vast natural resource. According to Hansen (2012), this country would be poor without the large oil reserve. However, the nation enjoys a natural comparative advantage over other countries. With its large oil reserve, the country can engage in a profitable international trade with other major countries. As such, Saudi Arabia continues to enjoy a wealth of natural resource that gives it the extreme comparative advantage.

GDP growth Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia GDP grows at a rate of 0.5%. The Trading Economics analysts, the rate will remain 0.5% at the end of this quarter. However, the long-term growth rate is projected to increase to 3.5%.

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

            Likewise, DRC is another country that enjoys the vast amount of natural resources. This country has large scale diamonds and copper compared to other countries. With its large scale natural resources, this country enjoys an absolute advantage when it comes to trade. The GDP of DRC increased from $241.87 to $306.1 between 2009 and 2016. This, therefore, makes 2% of the global GDP.

Annual GDP Growth Rate

Unlike the increased GDP growth rates in most countries with absolute and comparative advantages, DRC remains one of the countries whose GDP is sluggish. The outraging political conflicts in DRC makes it hard for them to enjoy a stable economy. The growth rate in 2016 remains at 4.6%, which is low by 0.2% from the last rate.

Variance in Economies

            The GDP growth varies across countries of various continents. However, Ural (2007) maintains that there are four main factors that determine the variations. The main factors that lead to variations in the GDP growth across countries include differences in the workforce, physical capital, human capital and technology differences (Shelburne, 2016).

Workforce Differences across Countries

            The differences in workforce across countries affects the rate of GDP growth and the growth of the entire economy. Ideally, the differences depict the amount of labor that a given country has towards its production (Rnskov & Foss 2016). Countries like China have vast workforce I term of human resource. This helps them during production because they can get abundant labor as compared to other countries such as Saudi Arabia.

On the other side, the level of the workforce can also help a country in ensuring a large scale production. The abundant labor force is advantageous in production. As such, nations such as the US, China and India tend to have higher economic growth than the other countries.

Difference in Physical Capital across Countries

            Physical capital is a determinant of economic growth. The larger the physical capital of a country, the stronger the economy of that country. For example, the US has a capital stock of $30 trillion compared to smaller countries such as DRC and Saudi Arabia. Although China’s physical capital is also high, analysts believe that the US enjoys more efficiency in production due to a larger physical capital that the nation has (Hansen, 2012). Physical capital helps a country to fund its production efficiently without outsourcing for credits. This makes various nations different from one another.

Human Capital Differences

            Human capital refers to the value of the human resource that a country has. In most cases, developed countries have more valuable human resource than less developed countries. Grandke et al. (2015) reiterated that the value of human capital is measured by determining the level of education and level of skills that individuals of a given country possess. According to McConnell (1999), the level of education is correlated to the GDP growth.

Therefore, the differences in literacy levels in various countries lead to variations in the economic growth of different countries. For example, the US has high literacy levels than DRC and Saudi Arabia. Conversely, this affects the levels of expertise and skills that the human resource has in such countries. This difference explains why China and the US produce larger amounts of products that DRC and Saudi Arabia (Ural, 2007).

Technology Differences

Technology is fundamental in the production and growth of an economy. Rnskov and Foss (2016) opine that despite capital, human resource and workforce levels, the availability of technology also helps in determining the rate of production and consequently the economy. Through Research and Development, large firms can acquire knowledge and skills of producing various products (Shelburne, 2016).

To produce efficiently, individual countries must use the right technology. Nonetheless, the cost of employing the right technology in production can only be met by specific countries that have stronger and stable economies. For example, countries such as China and the US have the capacity to acquire the right technology for production. On the other hand, countries such as DRC lack the adequate capital to acquire the right technologies in production (Seretis & Tsaliki, 2016).

In most cases, countries such as Saudi Arabia and DRC will import technology from other countries such as China and the US. Technology increases efficiency. Thus, it determines the levels of output. The nature of the technology used by a particular company helps in achieving a high level of production (Rnskov & Foss, 2016).

Trade and the Strength of Economy

            Trade is one of the drivers of economic growth. International trade is attributable to economic development by reducing the levels of poverty while increasing the commercial opportunities for countries. Through trade, countries like China and Saudi Arabia have expanded their production rates. Additionally, trade increases the value of investments in various countries as they go up into the global value chain.

The international trade facilitates diversification of exports thus, helping countries to access fresh markets internationally. On the other side, trade ignites innovation through the exchange of technologies and expertise (Grandke et al. 2015). It is through trade that countries such as China and the US have the ability to create employment opportunities to their populations. Moreover, trade helps in stabilizing the relationships between various nations thus, creating peace and harmonious environments that facilitate development (Shelburne, 2016).

Lifecycle of Trade

            Trade life cycle comprises of the stages that the trade goes through. With the predicted outcomes and objectives at hand, trade life cycle is supposed to represent the forecasted events. Grandke et al. (2015), acknowledge that stages of a trade determine the progression of the trade from its inception throughout its progression. Different countries go through different stages of trade life cycle.

            To execute a trade, various processes and procedures must be followed. Ideally, the stages determine the success or failure of the trade. In most cases, the processes start with the execution of trade after the agreements have been made. In cases of international trade, Rnskov and Foss (2016) note that the stages of trade are determined by the progress made in previous stages (Shelburne, 2016). For instance, countries such as China and the US have established trade lifecycles compared to developing countries such as DRC. Based on a country’s resources, trade lifecycle can be efficient.


Baldwin, N., & Borrelli, S. A. (2008). Education and economic growth in the United States: Cross-national applications for an intra-national path analysis.Policy Sciences, 41(3), 183-204. doi:

David, H. L. (2005). So many measures of trade openness and policy: Do any explain economic growth? (Order No. 3179497). Available from ABI/INFORM Collection. (305006923). Retrieved from

Grandke, F., Singh, P., Heuven, H. M., De Haan, J. R., & Metzler, D. (2016). Advantages of Continuous Genotype Values over Genotype Classes for Gwas in Higher Polyploids: A Comparative Study in Hexaploid Chrysanthemum. Bmc Genomics, 171-9.

Hansen, T. J. (2012). The use of business tax incentives: An analysis of the economic performance of minnesota’s JOBZ (job opportunity building zones) program (Order No. 3503148). Available from ABI/INFORM Collection. (1009056994). Retrieved from

Mazurek, J. (2015). A Comparison of GDP Growth of European Countries during 2008-2012 from the Regional and Other Perspectives. Comparative Economic Research, 18(3), 5-18.

McConnell, I. E. (1999). Trade and the environment: Defining a role for the world trade organization (Order No. NQ41085). Available from ABI/INFORM Collection. (304561048). Retrieved from

Ørnskov, C., & Foss, N. J. (2016). Institutions, Entrepreneurship, And Economic Growth: What Do We Know And What Do We Still Need To Know? Academy Of Management Perspectives, 30(3), 292-315.

Rnskov, C., & Foss, N. J. (2016). Institutions, Entrepreneurship, And Economic Growth: What Do We Know And What Do We Still Need To Know? Academy Of Management Perspectives, 30(3), 292-315. Doi:10.5465/Amp.2015.0135

Seretis, S. A., & Tsaliki, P. V. (2016). Absolute Advantage and International Trade. Review of Radical Political Economics, 48(3), 438-451

Shelburne, C. R. (2016). Long-Run Economic Growth: Stagnations, Explosions and the Middle Income Trap. Global Economy Journal, 16(3), 433-458.

Ural, B. P. (2007). Essays in international trade and development (Order No. 3281742). Available from ABI/INFORM Collection. (304767664). Retrieved from

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Prevention and Management of Hypertension among Blacks

Hypertension among Blacks
Hypertension among Blacks

Prevention and Management of Hypertension among Blacks


Research done over time has shown that hypertension among blacks is prevalent. It is evident from several types of research done that more African American men are exposed to hypertension compared to other races. Such health outcome is associated with several factors. They include socioeconomic factors, barriers to access to appropriate health care and mostly because of a genetic predisposition for high blood pressure.

A study done focusing on recognition of hypertension in older persons reveal that; hypertension is the most commonly diagnosed illness among persons over the age of 60. Hypertension is also associated with other several chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. These diseases include heart failure, stroke and ischemic heart disease (Peters & Flack, 2016).

Studies have been done on prevention and management of hypertension, and some of them have proved to be valid to the rest of the populations, but unfortunately, more has to be done for the African American community. This study will focus on various strategies for early detection or recognition of hypertension among blacks as it also occurs in the first ages for them compared to other races (Huntley & Heady, 2013). Blood sugar level reduction has been an appropriate mechanism designed for the blacks to minimize the mortality rate and morbidity of cardiovascular disorders stemming from hypertension.

Most researchers have recommended the use of thiazide diuretics and calcium channel blockers after careful evaluation of the sick, for the initial drug therapy process. The study will focus on the management and prevention of hypertension among the elderly African American population. This is because the age, from 60 years and above, and mostly blacks are categorized as high-risk groups. The study will seek to understand the problems associated with previously advised recommendations and why they failed to achieve intended purpose.  

Theoretical Framework

Salt sensitivity

This theoretical framework indicates that there is a linear relationship between salt sensitivity and age. There are various categories, specifically five, associated with salt sensitivity and these include social and racial factors, demographic factors, dietary habit factors, hormonal factors and renal function factors. The study further concluded that a direct and positive relationship exists between salts sensitivity and age (Fox et al., 2011).

This means that salt sensitivity escalates as an individual continues aging or getting older. The increased salt sensitivity among African-Americans has been proven through using i.v. NaCl loading alongside using dietary sodium designs (Peters & Flack, 2016).

Cooper et al. attempted to disassociate the environmental, social, and genetic aspects of race through studying sodium intake and hypertension within populations of the Africans in Diaspora. Seven populations originating from West African revealed a regressive rise in prevalence of hypertension from 33% in U.S to 26% in the Caribbean and 16% in West Africa.

The study unveiled strong cross-cultural relations of high blood pressure risk based on social-environmental aspect and intake of sodium-potassium responsible for approximately 70% of the geographic variation in prevalence of hypertension. However, the report failed to discuss the psychosocial factors that dumbfound the hypertension risk among the subjects (Huntley & Heady, 2013).

It should also be noted that in this study, the prevalence rate of hypertension in West Africa is lower compared to that for Caucasians in the U.S. The findings show the profound essence of environmental exposure in salt sensitivity development among patients. Therefore, it is quite debatable the racial reason behind high prevalence of hypertension among blacks in the US environment, but the concept of high salt sensitivity among the older people remains unaltered (Sandra, 2016).

Diagnostic Approach

A general evaluation of the population to be investigated is done. A thorough clinical assessment is conducted and includes initial and periodic orthostatic blood pressure measurement among older black adults. It involves closer investigation and analysis of historical data of the patient (Still, Ferdinand, Ogedegbe, & Wright, 2015). In the process, it is also essential to enquire about factors that may impact prognosis and therapy of the patient ranging from lifestyle behaviors to socioeconomic status, to psychosocial and also environmental factors.

Lifestyle Modifications

This includes dietary modification, weight reduction, and increased physical activity. They were particularly significant in the treatment of old African Americans as both primary and secondary level of interventions considering the high prevalence of obesity in this group (Still, Ferdinand, Ogedegbe, & Wright, 2015).

Research Questions
  1. How effective is the diagnostic approach of preventing hypertension among the older African American population?
  2. How can the prevalence be controlled among the aged and are the interventions appropriate?
Target population

The target population entails the hypertensive African-American over the age of 60, and the population will be selected through sampling method.

Research Design

The study design adopted by this study is descriptive and will focus on management and prevention of hypertension among the elderly blacks over age 60 years. The main aim of using a descriptive design is to carry out a survey of randomly selected individuals that fit the sample criteria identified for this study. In addition to this, research articles will be used to determine the methods prescribed and their effectiveness.

The data will be collected from 50 homes of African Americans from every region. However, the validity of data gathered from the survey may limit the scope of this research regarding full details. The other factor includes researcher biases that restrict objectivity in the study. This is because of the time limit factor that prevents considering the whole population.The threats identified above can be addressed through the use of more respondents in future studies and use of patient records in the hospital after seeking the patient’s consent. To minimize biases then proper and non-prejudgment approach will be employed.


The sample size is 50 hypertensive patients within the states. The selection method of participants is through convenience sampling. The representatives of this study involve willing and able participants in the study which improves the reliability of data provided by them for the study. The threats identified include; individuals selected may provide unreliable or tailored responses to the questionnaires used during the survey.

The sample size is reliable within the time framework provided and is a good representation of the whole population. However, for a more reliable data, a larger sample size is recommended for the research. The information or any data obtained from the patient will be treated with confidentiality, and patient anonymity will be maintained as per the regulations of the IRB. Written consent will be signed by the then patient without revealing any identity and filed before filling out the questionnaire.


Within this research, several variables underlying the prevention and management of hypertension can be seen. This includes the dependent variable as the prevalence of hypertension and the independent variables which include lifestyle modifications and proper interventions such as the primary, secondary and tertiary interventions as mentioned above. They are the strategies employed towards preventing and managing high blood pressure (Peters & Flack, 2016).


Fox, E., Young, J., Keating, B., Li, Y., Dreisbach, A., & Musani, S. et al. (2011). Association of genetic variation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure among African Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource study. Human Molecular Genetics, 20(11), 2273-2284.

Huntley, M., & Heady, C. (2013). BARRIERS TO HEALTH PROMOTION. A CASE OF AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN WITH HYPERTENSION. American Journal of Health Studies, 28(1).

Peters, R. and Flack, J. (2016). Salt Sensitivity and Hypertension in African Americans. [online] Medscape. Available at:  

Sandra, A.M., (2016). Hypertension in African Americans & its related chronic diseases.-PubMed – NCBI. Retrieved 22 October 2016, from

Still, C., Ferdinand, K., Ogedegbe, G., & Wright, J. (2015). Recognition & Management of Hypertension in Older Persons: African Americans. Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, 63(10), 2130-2138.

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The Role of Media in Influencing Decision-Making in P-20 Education

Role of Media in Influencing Decision-Making in P-20 Education
Role of Media in Influencing Decision-Making in P-20 Education

The Role of Media in Influencing Decision-Making in P-20 Education

Research Question

What is the role of media in influencing decision-Making in P-20 Education?


The media, especially television, video, and social media, are often viewed negatively in the education sector. In early childhood and K-12 models of education and in more conservative environments, children are even discouraged from exposure to media such as video and social media, which are considered bad influence over learners. In such surroundings and circumstances, it is perceived that media can only affect education in a negative way.

However, this negative perception about the influence of media on education is fast changing in many settings, institutions, and jurisdictions as more studies unearth the real nature of the correlations between media and learning or education (Jabbar et al., 2014). In recent times, it has become more apparent that media not only affect learners but also decision makers and policymakers in educational institutions.

Decision-making is core to the success of all educational concepts, models, systems and institutions. Given the fundamental influence and role of media in modern educational systems, the media, most likely, influence the people and processes in learning institutions in several ways (Galway & Sheppard, 2015). Thus, the proposed study is justifiable in several ways. First, the study may enable P-20 education stakeholders to establish whether media is a core external force that affects their decision making, thus influencing P-20 education’s relevance and competitiveness in the education sector and in economic circles.

Second, from the study’s findings and recommendations, it may be possible for P-20 education leaders and learners to appreciate the potential role of media as an incentive to decision-making and education improvement. Third, the study may be of help to P-20 education’s stakeholders by highlighting how media can be used to influence federal, state, or local educational policy to favor the pursuit of skilled, knowledgeable, and productive learners and workforce.

Background Information

The P-20 is a model of education that builds on the principle that educational programs, financial and human resources, strategies, performances, expectations, and outcomes should be focused on the early years of learners’ growth and development. Unlike the early childhood and development concept, the P-20 model covers the kindergarten or early childhood years, the K-12 years, and the post-secondary school years.

The main purpose of P-20 education is to ensure that pre-school, K-12, and college years are formative years during which self-discovery ought to be emphasized. Instead of the public education system mandating everything that students learn, educators should be more concerned with preparing learners for their future life’s challenges. The years following the P-12 should be characterized by academic performances and outcomes that would imply quality adult life. 

P-20 education also covers learners’ lives during their workforce years. That is, an education should prepare an individual to survive and perform in the workforce long after graduation with post-secondary education. The skills acquired during learning must translate into expertise in the workforce.

Essentially, P-20 education is based on the realization that the knowledge and skills that learners acquire in their early childhood or K-12 education should prepare them for college education and their lives in the workforce. Thus, all the stages of academic development are weighted equally and allocated the deserved financial and human resources and effort.

Numerous studies have been conducted to establish the connection among communication, communication technology, communication media, the learning process, and education. While studies have been done on the influence of media on education in general, no studies have been done to link media and decision-making in the concept of P-20 education. Most studies have just plainly established the relationship between media and education.

In one such study, Cuc (2014) sought to establish the influence of media on both formal and informal education. In the study, Cuc (2014) not only studied the influence of media on learning but also rephrased the research question and hypothesis to help the research establish how media affects the process of learning and the actual and potential relationships between media and learning. The commonest media found to greatly influence education are books, television, radio, video, and social media (Cuc, 2014).

Malin and Lubienski (2014) established that the practical dimensions by which media influences education are the development or inculcation of new interests in learners, adoption of novel leisure-time skills, availability of fresh entertainment options and expanded areas of learner preoccupation.

Malin’s and Lubienski’s (2014) findings concurred with Lubienski, Scott and DeBray (2014) who established that while media has positive influences on education, most learners pick up media messages and turn them into behaviours and cultures, which interfere with learning processes, habits, and activities. Clearly, media influences education in various ways and may possibly greatly influence decision-making in emergent concepts such as P-20 education in the technologically advanced 21st century.

Data Sources and Collection Methods

The proposed study will combine qualitative and quantitative research approaches to collect and process exhaustive data on the variables and constructs of the study. The study will specifically target P-20 stakeholders as the source of its data and information, targeting a population of 1500 and a sample size of 300. The sample size will be representative of P-20 education officials, educational programme managers, school and college administrators, teachers, local education leaders, education system’s beneficiaries and the public. Selective methods of sampling such as purposive sampling, expert sampling, snowball sampling, modal instance sampling and diversity sampling will be used in the study.

The main reason purposive sampling techniques are preferred for this study is that these techniques enable the researcher to access the targeted sample rather fast (Shields & Rangarjan, 2013). Second, purposive sampling techniques make the identification of the potential respondents with the desired characteristics. Purposive sampling also enables the use of a variety of qualitative research approaches (Mannay, 2010).

Data will be collected using questionnaires, interviews, observations and focus group discussions while data analysis will be done using Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS) software and Microsoft Excel. The questionnaires will contain structured and unstructured items to capture qualitative and quantitative data. However, the study’s independent and the dependent variables will be identified prior to the development of the data collection tools.

The analysis and presentation of the findings will be done using inferential and descriptive statistics. The study will use Spearman’s Rho, regression and ANOVA to establish correlation between the dependent and independent variables of the study and establish the role or influence of media on decision making in P-20 education.

Possible Impact on the Field

The proposed study is likely to impact educational policy and advocacy once the role of media in decision-making in P-20 education is established. From the findings of the proposed study, P-20 educationists may be able to design and realign their advocacy efforts champion the preferred educational policies notwithstanding the findings of earlier studies on the role of the media on education. The study may also erase any doubts on the role of media on education that may have been reported without much evidence, particularly on the effects and effectiveness of media on education.

In particular, P-20 educationists and other stakeholders may be able to associate media with educational decision making for the first time. From the proposed study’s findings, educational policy advocates may read implications of media on education that have elided research experts in their interpretation of study findings. Hence, the study may be of great help to the policymaking processes in P-20 education.

The other likely impact of the study is the elimination of the disconnect that exists between high school and college on one hand and adult life on the other. From the study’s findings, educationists may be better placed to give the most appropriate and effective classroom support and guidance to learners that would prepare learners for the challenges of adult life. The study may also help in the better use of media to make educational decisions that would create a seamless kindergarten-to-college education system.


Cuc, M. C. (2014).The Influence of Media on Formal and Informal Education.Social and Behavioral Sciences, 143(1); 72.

Galway, G., and Sheppard, B. (2015). Research and Evidence in Education Decision-Making: A Comparison of Results from Two Pan-Canadian Studies. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 23(1); 10.

Jabbar, H., Goldie, D., Linick, M., and Lubienski, C. (2014). Using Bibliometric and Social Media Analyses to Explore the “Echo Chamber” Hypothesis. Educational Policy, 28(2), 281-305. Retrieved on November 2, 2016 from

Lubienski, C., Scott, J., and DeBray, E.  (2014). The Politics of Research Use in Education Policymaking. Educational Policy, 28(2), 131-144. Retrieved on November 2, 2016 from

Malin, J. R., and Lubienski, C. (2014). Educational Expertise, Advocacy, and Media Influence. Retrieved on November 2, 2016 from

Mannay, D. (2010). Making the Familiar Strange: Can Visual Research Methods Render the Familiar Setting More Perceptible? Qualitative Research, 10(1): 91.

Shields, P., and Rangarjan, N. (2013). A playbook for research methods: integrating conceptual frameworks and project management. Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press.

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A personal Perspective on Leadership and Organization Justice

Leadership and Organization Justice
Leadership and Organization Justice

Leadership and Organizational Justice


It is no longer news that diversity is an inherent part of modern societies. With the diversity, it means different needs and competing interests. Such diverse needs are more pronounced when it comes to the area of educational. To address the competing interests and diverse needs in education, organizational justice is paramount. In this regard, it is incumbent upon educational leadership to ensure that they adopt the best practices to promote organizational justice and fairness in matters of education.

A personal Perspective on Leadership and Organization Justice


Considering the rise in globalization, diversity is an inherent part of virtually all organizations. The implication of such diversity is that the needs of all the stakeholders must be addressed. To address the issues generated by diversity, leadership and organization justice becomes at the core. This essay offers my personal perspective on leadership and organization justice based on the interview for a job advertised by the US department of Education.

How Will I Prepare For the Interview

In preparation for the interview, the first step will be to research the organization. Under research, I will establish the location, the mission and values, and the size of the organization. Understanding the organization is critical because a person cannot deliver effectively for organizations that they do not know about (Marilou, 2016). The second measure I will embrace while preparing for the interview will be making comparisons of my skills and qualifications to the requirements of the job.

This step is vital granted that it will ensure that I convince the interviewers with my skills, knowledge, and experience in relation to the position in question (Marilou, 2016). In the next step, I will create potential responses that I may use during the interviews. The process of generating responses is important because it puts the mind ready for the interview. Lastly, I will decide on what to wear and what documents to bring during the interview.

Developing a Set of Notes to Use in My Interview that Address the Following

What I would need to know about the job in order to prepare

Regarding the job, the first aspect I would need to know regards qualifications. About qualification, I would determine the level of certification, the years of experience needed for the job, and other added skills or advantages that may be preferred for the job. Secondly, I would also need to know about the responsibilities associated with the job.

Knowing responsibilities will help me determine my capability based on my experiences (Marilou, 2016). Another aspect I would know about the job in order to prepare is the objective of the position. Determining the objective of the position is critical to matching skills and qualifications to the vacancies offered.

My Qualifications as an Educational Leader from Ethical Perspective Based On the Courses I Have Taken In the PhD Program and Especially Leadership and Organizational Justice

Based on the courses I have taken in the Ph.D. program and especially the course in leadership and organizational justice, my qualifications as an educational leader from an ethical perspective emerges from two areas. The first area is that the courses in the Ph.D. program and leadership and organizational justice have provided me with insights on what ethical leadership in organization entails.

The second area that demonstrates my qualifications as an educational leader from an ethical perspective because of the Ph.D. program and the course of organizational justice concerns the view that passing the courses in the program is an indication that I have grasped the concepts of the ethics and leadership.

Capacity, capability and sustainability from an organizational justice perspective

For me, organizational justice is having the virtue of fairness in the organization conducts and operations. Capacity from an organizational justice perspective entails the development of mission-fuelled efforts geared towards ethical management and transparency in organizations (Jeffry & Elizabeth, 2016). For example, ensuring that the education departments and institutions have vision and mission statements that tie with the element of justice will show capacity to uphold organizational justice.

Capability from an organizational justice perspective implies the ability of the organization to have systems that facilitate justice and fairness in the affairs of the organization (Zhang et al.2013). For example, having a code of ethics and conducting evaluations to ensure that the employees in the education sector adhere to the code of ethics will be a demonstration of capability from an organizational justice perspective.

Lastly, sustainability from an organizational justice perspective means the ability of the organization to uphold fairness and justice not in an episodic manner but rather in a continuum way where justice is the norm in every aspect and operation (Ibrahim, 2016). For example, the application of code of ethics to all employees in the education sector regardless of the positions or stature will be an indication of sustainability from an organizational justice perspective.

How I as The Equal Opportunity Specialist in The Department Of Education, Office for Civil Rights will apply My Passion Toward Educational Reform, Organizational Justice And Social Change

As an equal opportunity specialist in the department of education, Office for Civil Rights, I will apply my passion towards educational reform, organizational justice, and social change in a variety of ways. Regarding education reforms, I will participate in education policymaking processes that are aimed at promoting equality and access in the area of education (Jacobs et al. 2014).

I will also participate in the formulation and implementation of the education programs directed towards minority in the societies. For example, I will formulate policies on programs targeting children with disability. Moreover, I will also embrace the advocacy role regarding the need for equality and fairness in the sector of education. When it comes to organizational justice, I will ensure that the codes of ethics become supreme when discharging duties.

In the same vein, I will also act as a whistleblower whenever I spot any injustice or activity that is contrary to the established and expected mores of the organization (Demirtas, 2013). Being a leader in the educational sector, I recognize that I assume a societal responsibility that comes with obligations. As an agent of social change, I will offer advices on different affairs of the society.

Through my department and collaboration with other organizations, I will formulate programs and policies that act as catalyst for change in the educational system. I will also be an advocate regarding different societal issues pertinent to the education. As an example, I will speak against child labor and respond appropriately whenever I will encounter such incidences. In this sense, I will be improving the society by speaking against injustices done to the children.

What It Means to Be a Leader for Sustaining Organizational justice and My Philosophy of Organizational Justice

To be a leader for sustaining organizational justice in an organization, it means that one has to be authentic and lead from the front. In this sense, the leader has to demonstrate that he or she professes fairness and justice through practice. My philosophy of organization justice is to be guided by the laid down regulations and embrace fairness while making all decisions related to the organization.

Examples and Support of Future Goals in Education Leadership

One example of future goal in education leadership is for the education leadership to have an understanding of the legal and moral consequences of decision making in education departments. The support for this goal stems from the observation that such an understanding will enable education leaders facilitate social justice in all aspects of education.

Another example of future goals in education leadership is that education leaders should develop professional and personal qualities and skills that are able to address diversity challenges. The rationale for this goal is that the educational needs have changed and continue to change and such skills are required to address the changes.


In essence, the world is changing at a rapid speed and one of the areas where such changes are reflected is the education sector. With increasing diversity in societies, the educational needs are also becoming more divergent. To address each of the unique and divergent needs, organizational justice at the education departments is a sine qua non. It is through ethical leadership and organizational justice that the various educational needs will be addressed.


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