International Marketing

International Marketing
International Marketing

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International Marketing

Marketing continues to be one of the significant aspects of modern day businesses. This function is one that has led to the establishment of marketing departments in business and organizations. This is an indication that indeed, marketing is a vital element of any business. Whether there are good or bad economic times, marketing remains a pivotal operation in any industry or business.

Being able to determine and satisfy the needs of clients via products and services that have value and accessibility and whose qualities are well communicated is the primary target for any business. Production and marketing are two business functions that work hand in hand. This is because it is only through the output that a company can market their goods.

Marketing can be defined as the activity, combination of institutions and processes that are aimed at developing, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offering that possesses value for customers, partners, and the general society (Class notes). Another definition is that marketing is the supervision procedure that is responsible for recognizing, forestalling, and fulfillment of customer needs profitably. In this case, there will be a look at mobile marketing and how it has succeeded in China.

Before that, it is critical to understand the meaning of international marketing. According to Ghauri and Cateora, international marketing can be defined as the conduction of business activities that control the flow of a company’s goods and services to customers or users in more than one country for a profit. In China, it is essential to acknowledge that mobile marketing has been widely embraced.

It is vital to recognize that indeed, mobile phones have been said to present a potential for marketers to have a connection with their customers through the online channels. With the increase in the use of mobile phones, companies have been presented with a chance to change the way that they interact with their clients.

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According to (Session 2 Notes on culture), culture can be defined as the learned, common, compelling, and interconnected set of symbols whose meanings present some orientations for members of the society. When these orientations are combined, they offer solutions to issues that all communities must solve if they are aimed at remaining viable. The notes indicate that there are three essential components of culture.

These include beliefs, values, and customs. Going through the notes, one is enlightened that there are several factors that influence culture. These include language, religion, aesthetics, education, law and politics, technology, and social organizations.

Soares et al. (2006) stipulate that the growth of investigations addressing the connection between culture and consumption is exponential. Through this source, one is drawn to the fact that culture comprises the broadest influence on multiple dimensions of human behavior. The primary definition of culture as provided is that culture is the complicated whole which involves acquaintance, belief, art, ethics, tradition, and other capacities and habits that are embraced by man as a member of a community.

It is critical to acknowledge that indeed, culture is entirely different from other macro-environmental factors. Soares (2016)indicates that there are various scholars who have discussed the scopes that are most suitable for hypothesizing and operationalizing culture. However, the most outstanding dimensions are developed by Hofstede. In this case, Hofstede presents five magnitudes in his framework. The first of these is individualism-collectivism which illustrates the connection people have in each culture.

The second dimension is uncertainty avoidance which can be used to refer to the level to which a person feels threatened by uncertainty and ambiguity. The third one is power distance which is a reflection of the results of inequality in power and authority connections in society. The next dimension is that of masculinity-femininity. The final one is long-term orientation which is a representation of the virtues that are driven towards future rewards, especially in perseverance and thrift.

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Du (2012) indicates that the Mobile Marketing Association illustrates mobile marketing as the utilization of wireless media as an assimilated content delivery and direct reaction driver within a cross-media or stand-alone marketing communications program. He further indicates that the prosperity of mobile data and communication gadgets such as iPhones has driven more concentration towards the utilization of mobile devices for communicating marketing.

Du demonstrates that the increase in wireless and mobile communications around the world has in no small extent shifted the manner in which people interact, access, and distribute information. He indicates that the technology acceptance model (TAM) has played a significant role in marketing literature to illustrate a person’s behavior connected to the adoption and use of technology.

Through his research, Du discovered several things. In China, there are different factors that are directly and indirectly drive mobile banking acceptance. These include the likelihood of giving information, the probability of gaining access to content, the possibility of sharing content, the extent of risk reception, and degree of personal connection to one’s mobile device.

Zheng et al. (2012) indicate that in 1986, Davis among other researchers came up with the TAM model to illustrate the factors that drive decisiveness to the broad acceptance of computer technology. Davis and other scholars concluded that there were two aspects that influence users to adopt information technology. The first factor is assumed usefulness.

This was seen as a reflection of the extent to which a person believes that utilizing a particular system would increase his performance. The second factor is perceived ease-of-use. This was said to be a reflection of the degree to which a person considers that using a particular system would be easy or difficult (Zheng et al., 2012).

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According to Hong (2013), with an increase in the mobile phone adoption, it is critical for companies to adopt the technology acceptance readiness (TAR) methodology to forecast the customer’s willingness to utilize mobile commerce. However, as Hong indicates, one of the major influencers of mobile marketing is mobile marketing acceptance. In this case, he suggests that mobile banking includes a “two-way or multiple-way communication and promotion to offer a company and its clients utilizing mobile phones as a form of communication.”

In the past few decades, the rapid development of smartphone technology and mobile networks has presented more opportunities for mobile marketing. Under this, there are three main components of mobile marketing which include prompt messaging and advertising, mobile applications, and mobile social networks.

In China, the fast food companies have been viewed to adopt the mobile marketing method. One of these companies that have adopted this strategy is McDonald’s. Lee (2018) states that the utilization of digital marketing, electronic payments, and delivery have aided McDonald’s to come up with a unique growth strategy in China and which could be adopted in the home market in the United States. Lee states that in China, the utilization of mobile payments has been a significant part of the development of e-commerce.  

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In conclusion, it is vital to acknowledge that marketing is a function that has continued to prove its worthiness in various fields. Through marketing, companies have used this to gain competitive advantage. One of the backing factors is that the digital culture has been widely embraced in the society. To gain a global presence, international marketing has become widely adopted. Companies like McDonalds in China have adopted the mobile marketing strategy which has enabled them to remain competitive and have a broader digital presence. Such is a strategy that would be critical if all

References

Du, P. (2012). Factors Influencing Consumers’ Acceptance of Mobile Marketing: An Empirical Study of the Chinese Youth Market2(2), 24-37.

Ghauri, P., & Cateora, P. (2013). International Marketing1(1), 1-30.

Soares, A. M., Farhangmehr, M., & Shoham, A. (2006). Hofstede’s dimensions of culture in international marketing studies60(2007), 277-284.

Zhang, H., Li, Y., & Jiang, D. (2012). Empirical Study and Model of User’s Acceptance for Mobile Commerce in China9(6), 278-283.

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