Five Personality Traits

Five Personality Traits

Five Personality Traits

Five Personality Traits Personality characteristics represent individuals’ distinctive patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviours. Consistency and stability are implied by personality characteristics (Cherry, 2021). Characteristic psychology is based on the concept that people differ from one another based on where they stand on a set of basic trait dimensions that endure across time and contexts. The Five-Factor Model is the most often utilized trait system. This approach comprises five basic qualities that may be recalled with the abbreviation OCEAN: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (Cherry, 2021). Each of the Big Five features may be subdivided into aspects to provide a more fine-grained examination of someone’s personality. Personality trait theories have long attempted to quantify the number of personality qualities that exist. Earlier theories, such as Gordon Allport’s list of 4,000 personality traits, Raymond Cattell’s 16 personality components, and Hans Eysenck’s three-factor theory, proposed a wide range of potential qualities (Cherry, 2021). Many researchers, however, believed that Cattell’s hypothesis was too complex, and Eysenck’s was too narrow in scope. As a consequence, the five-factor theory was developed to define the basic qualities that serve as the foundation of personality (Cherry, 2021).

Five Personality Traits

Openness to Experience describes a dimension of cognitive style that distinguishes imaginative, creative people from down-to-earth, conventional people (Ackerman, 2021). Open people are intellectually curious, appreciative of art, and sensitive to beauty. They tend to be, compared to closed people, more aware of their feelings. Intellectuals typically score high on Openness to Experience; consequently, this factor has also been called Culture or Intellect. Openness is often presented as healthier or more mature by psychologists, who are often themselves open to experience. However, open and closed styles of thinking are useful in different environments (Smith, 2018). The intellectual style of the open person may serve a professor well, but research has shown that closed thinking is related to superior job performance in police work, sales, and a number of service occupations. Its facets include imagination, artistic interests, emotionality,adventurousness, intellect and liberalism.

The Five Personality Traits

Conscientiousness concerns the way in which we control, regulate, and direct our impulses. Impulses are not inherently bad; occasionally time constraints require a snap decision and acting on our first impulse can be an effective response (Ackerman, 2021). Impulsive individuals can be seen by others as colourful and fun to be with. Acting on impulse can lead to trouble in a number of ways. Some impulses are antisocial. Uncontrolled antisocial acts not only harm other members of society, but also can result in retribution toward the perpetrator of such impulsive acts. Another problem with impulsive acts is that they often produce immediate rewards but undesirable, long-term consequences (Smith, 2018). Examples include excessive socializing that leads to being fired from one’s job, hurling an insult that causes the breakup of an important relationship, or using pleasure-inducing drugs that eventually destroy one’s health. Conscientious individuals avoid trouble and achieve high levels of success through purposeful planning and persistence (Ackerman, 2021). They are also positively regarded by others as intelligent and reliable. On the negative side, they can be compulsive perfectionists and workaholics. Furthermore, extremely conscientious individuals might be regarded as stuffy and boring. Its facets include self-efficacy, orderliness, dutifulness, achievement-Striving and cautiousness.

Extraversion is marked by pronounced engagement with the external world. Extraverts enjoy being with people, are full of energy, and often experience positive emotions (Ackerman, 2021). They tend to be enthusiastic and action-oriented. In groups they like to talk, assert themselves, and draw attention to themselves. Its facets include friendliness, gregariousness, assertiveness, activity level, excitement-seeking and cheerfulness.

Agreeableness reflects individual differences in concern with cooperation and social harmony. Agreeable individuals value getting along with others. They are therefore considerate, friendly, generous, helpful, and willing to compromise their interests with others’ (Ackerman, 2021). Agreeable people also have an optimistic view of human nature. They believe people are basically honest, decent, and trustworthy.Disagreeable individuals place self-interest above getting along with others (Smith, 2018). They are generally unconcerned with others’ well-being, and therefore are unlikely to extend themselves for other people. Sometimes their skepticism about others’ motives causes them to be suspicious, unfriendly, and uncooperative. On the other hand, agreeableness is not useful in situations that require tough or absolute objective decisions. Disagreeable people can make excellent scientists, critics, or soldiers. Its facets include trust, morality, altruism, cooperation, modesty and sympathy.

Neuroticism is a trait characterized by sadness, moodiness, and emotional instability. Individuals who are high in this trait tend to experience mood swings, anxiety, irritability, and sadness (Ackerman, 2021). Those who score high on Neuroticism may experience primarily one specific negative feeling such as anxiety, anger, or depression, but are likely to experience several of these emotions. People high in neuroticism are emotionally reactive. They respond emotionally to events that would not affect most people, and their reactions tend to be more intense than normal (Ackerman, 2021). They are more likely to interpret ordinary situations as threatening, and minor frustrations as hopelessly difficult. Their negative emotional reactions tend to persist for unusually long periods of time, which means they are often in a bad mood. These problems in emotional regulation can diminish a neurotic’s ability to think clearly, make decisions, and cope effectively with stress (Smith, 2018).At the other end of the scale, individuals who score low in neuroticism are less easily upset and are less emotionally reactive. They tend to be calm, emotionally stable, and free from persistent negative feelings. Its facets include anxiety, anger, depression, self-Consciousness, immoderation and vulnerability (Ackerman, 2021).

Five Personality Traits


Cherry, K. (2021, February 20). The Big Five Personality Traits. Retrieved from Verywell Mind:

Ackerman, C. E. (2021, April 15). Big Five Personality Traits: The OCEAN Model Explained. Retrieved from Positive Psychology:

Smith, D. G. (2018, September 18). Big Data Gives the “Big 5” Personality Traits a Makeover. Retrieved from SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN:

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