Crude Oil Industry

Crude Oil Industry
Crude Oil Industry

Impact of joining WTO on the Crude Oil Industry

Research Questions  

1.         What are the main impacts of WTO?

2.         How does WTO affect the crude oil Industry?

Research Objectives

1.         To determine the main impacts of WTO

2.         To evaluate how WTO impact the crude oil industry


1. H0   The WTO has no effect on the crude oil industry

2. H1   The WTO has an effect on the crude oil industry

3.1 Research philosophy

            In the present study, positivist philosophy is used in order to analyze the collected views. Consequently, this study is based on a comprehensive assessment of past studies relevant to the issue being explored to address the objectives as well as research questions while presenting a valid conclusion. Positivism is basically based on the notion that since is merely the way to learn about truth.

Considering the positivism philosophy, it is important to know that the idea adhere to the concept that factual knowledge can only be gained through the measurements and observations that are trustworthy. The studies based on the positivist philosophy, the role of researcher is mainly focused on the data collection and the interpretation through research findings and the objective approach which are mostly quantifiable and observable.

Moreover , t positivist philosophy has also been preferred in this study because in positivism studies, the researchers is generally independent from the study leading to the minimum or no impact of human interest within the study making it free from researcher biasness. In 2008, Crowther and Lancaster provided that generally the rule which positivist studies adopt is the deductive approach.

Furthermore, positivism philosophy is related to the point that the researcher must focus on the facts (Wilson, 2010). The major principles of the positivism philosophy include the lack of differences in logic of the inquiry across the sciences, aim of research should be explanation and the prediction, research must be empirically observable, and science should only be judged by the logic.

3.2 Research Approach

            The objective of this study is investigating the impacts of WTO on crude oil sector, deductive research approach is used in order to implement and organize the study. To maximize understanding, the research will use triangulation. This method involves using different data sources in the investigation in order create better understanding of the phenomenon. Some consider triangulation as the method for collaborating findings and to validate them. It has also been assumed that the weakness of one method can be compensated by the other, which makes sense of using different methods.

Instead of considering triangulation as the validation method, most qualitative researchers use this technique in order to ensure that they have used robust, rich, well developed and comprehensive account.  Therefore, this study used questionnaires for quantitative data along with the interviews for qualitative data in order to gather participants’ view and trends regarding the effects of WTO on the crude oil industry.

3.3 Research Design

            This study utilized a mixed methods design. This model involves collection, analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data in order to clearly understand the research problem (Creswell & Miller 2002). The rationale for embracing this method is that qualitative or quantitative methods alone do not capture the trends associated with WTO, such as shifts in the activities of crude oil industry. When used in combination, the two approaches effectively complement each other hence facilitating thorough analysis.

3.4 Research strategy

The research strategy is a procedure used to responding to research questions. In this study, research objectives and relevant sources are employed. The research strategy suitable for this study is survey research for collection of quantitative data in which questionnaires are used in order to answer the research questions and interview method for the collection of quantitative data.

3.5 Qualitative and Quantitative Method

This study utilized a mixed methods design. The study embraced qualitative and quantitative approaches to providing a detailed comprehension of effects of WTO on the crude oil sector. In this case, the quantitative approach is used to collect descriptive and numerical data. In addition, the quantitative approach is employed to gather as well as assess, then used statistical programs in interpreting the results (Neuman 2011).

On the other hand, the qualitative approach is used not only to gather but also investigate and interpret information through observing participants. Qualitative and quantitative techniques are considered suitable for this study because they can enhance evaluation by ensuring that the constraints of one data may be balanced by the other. This guarantees enhanced understanding through the incorporation of various ways of perceptive. 

The use of quantitative and qualitative methods is also helpful in giving respondents a voice while ensuring that findings are based on their experiences (Creswell 2014). Moreover, these techniques promote scholarly interaction, because such a study enhances breadth as a large amount of data is gathered.

3.6 Methods

3.6.2 Quantitative data collection techniques

To quantitative information, the questionnaires are used. The questionnaires are considered suitable for this study because it enables the research team to collect a large quantity of data within a short time frame and in a cost-effective manner (Bryman 2016). In addition, questionnaire results are not just quick but also easier to analyse. Quantitative data is crucial in this study, in terms of presenting comprehensive recognition of impacts of WTO on the crude oil sector.

In addition, such information is vital when it comes to comprehending the main effects of WTO.  Moreover, quantitative data will present useful insights for recognizing association of data (Creswell 2013). Since this study will investigate the impacts of WTO on the crude oil sector, both qualitative and quantitative research methods will be used.

3.6.3 Qualitative data collection technique

In this phase, semi-structured interviews and elicitation materials will be used to collect data which will help explain some of the impacts of WTO, tested in the first phase. Qualitative method is used in the present study because it represents main aspects of data collection and helps in in-depth analysis of quantitative results.


            The primary instrument that is used in this study is the questionnaire; the questionnaire is designed in a way that it enables the researcher to collect participants’ regarding the problem in hand. The questionnaires focused on the impact of WTO in general and impact of WTO on crude oil industry. Likert scale has been used in order to measure the responses of the participants where 1= Strongly Disagree, 2=Disagree, 3=Undecided, 4=Agree, 5=Strongly Agree.

Online based questionnaire are used and questionnaire were distributed among participants through internet. While the questionnaires are rigid, the researcher left spaces for respondents to give their views or choose from the choices provided. Hence, the questionnaire is designed suitably. In the design of the questionnaire, the research questions and past studies relevant to impacts of WTO on the crude oil sector are highlighted.

The major domains that are covered in the questionnaire include the impact of WTO on the revenue, jobs, and policies working conditions, and developments in the crude oil sector. For obtaining qualitative information, semi structures interviews are conducted, the pattern of semi structured interviews was made carefully and uniform pattern is used for all participants. 

Participant Selection

The selection of participant in this study is a purposive sampling. This aims at selecting individuals who have vast knowledge of the crude oil industry. The sampling process is intended at ensuring that important constituencies of the phenomena are represented so that the actual effects can be explored.

The setting of this research will be the crude oil industry in WTO member states. Managers and supervisors of firms operating in the crude oil industry will be asked to facilitate online interview requests. The reason for choosing online interviews is that it is not possible to travel to every country to collect owing to financial constraints.


Broome, Stephen A., 2006, “Conflicting Obligations for Oil Exporting Nations?: Satisfying Membership Requirements of Both OPEC and the WTO”. George Washington International Law Review, 38, p.409.

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