Forms of Personality: Personality Theories

Forms of Personality
Forms of Personality

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Personality Theories

Various psychologists have developed theories that explain certain forms of personality. One of most influential set of counseling theories originates from Sigmud Freud- an Australian neurologist. He was the first to propose the psychoanalysis theory; which collectively are referred to as psychodynamic theories.

Although there are different psychodynamic theories, all of them lay emphasis on unconscious desires and motives, and how childhood experiences shape an individual’s personality. In particular, I will explore on Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis and Jungian theory which belongs to the school of psychodynamic theories; and  theories from  school of humanistic theories including Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow (Thurn, 2015).

The main tenets

 Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis was developed by observing patients. Based on this theories, people’s personalities are established when they attempt to resolve conflicts between the societal demands, aggressive impulses and unconscious demands.  The main tenets of this theory are the three levels of consciousness.

These include;

a) consciousness which refers to what a person is thinking and or experiencing at a particular time. For example, the book Myre is reading, the objects that are near her sight, the sounds she can hear, and other experiences such as pain, thirst or hunger at that moment are her conscious;

b) pre-conscious which refers to what one can readily remember (call to consciousness). For example, Myre’s home address, make of her vehicle and other past experiences are in pre-conscious level; and

c) unconscious which refers to desires, thoughts as well as impulses that a person is not aware of.  These include desires, feelings and memories that influence each aspect of Myre’s life. For example, she could contain feelings of anger towards her classmate for a bullying incident that she may have experienced at age five (Tobin, 2011).

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According to Freud, the structure of personality comprises of 3 major systems namely Id, ego and super ego. Any action taken by a person or any problem they have arises from the degree of balance and interaction among these three systems. Id operates based on the pleasure principle. It is the primitive unconscious part of personality that is present at birth. It comprises of two instincts that compete. These include the life/sexual instincts and the aggressive instinct. Ego works according to the principle of reality.

It acts as a mediator between the id and superego (Davies, 2009). The superego comprises of conscience and moral ideas which are used to judge the id activities. The defense mechanism of Freud’s theory includes repression, denial, displacement and projection.  Repression occurs when one have a threatening idea or memory that makes their emotion blocked consciously or unconsciously.

Projection defense mechanism arises when the repressed feelings are associated with someone else. The displacement defense mechanism is directed towards other people or animals that are not real part of the emotion. Reaction formation occurs when a feeling of belief causes anxiety is transformed into the feeling of belief in an individual’s consciousness.  Denial is when a person refuses to admit that she has undergone unpleasant experience that provokes their anxiety (Ferrari, 2016).

 The other psychodynamic theory is Jungian theory also known as the analytical psychology.  This theory divides unconscious into two different parts. The first part is the personal unconscious which is a reservoir of individual’s information as well as memories that were at one point of life was conscious, but it has been forgotten or suppressed. Jungian theory states that personal unconscious theory is unique to each person. Collective unconscious refers to the deepest level of a person’s psyche which consists of the universal memories, experiences and symbols of humans.

It is the reservoir of experiences that are inherited that appear in stories, myths and dreams. According to this theory, personalities arise not only due to system conflicts but also by individuals future goals and desire to fulfill them. Basically, these psychodynamic theories share a general belief that one must explore the unconscious origins and dynamics. The main challenge of these theories is that it is not possible to disconfirm unconscious motives and they violate falsifiability principles (Steinberg, 2015).

 Unlike psychodynamic theories, humanistic theories focus on the goodness of a person and their needs to achieve their full potential. Carl Rogers’s personality theory focuses on the importance of self-actualization in shaping the personalities of a human being.  According to this theory, human react to stimuli subjective to their reality, and over a period of time, the person develops a self concept. 

He further divided self in to two categories namely the real self and the ideal self.  He stated that a patient experiences congruence when thoughts on ideal and real self are similar. Therefore, high congruence leads to greater sense of self concept and a productive life. Conversely, if there are any discrepancies between the ideal and actual selves, the patient experiences incongruence state which results into maladjustment (DeRobertis, 2015).

 Rogers’s theory also elevates the importance of unconditional positive regard which is determined by the environmental conditions.  Unlike Freud, Rogers described the life based on the principles instead of stage of development. Therefore, a healthy person continues to fulfill their potential and ends up having what is known as a good life. Such kind of people allows their personality and self concept to emanate from experience. Based on this theory, fully functioning person posses several traits including openness, existential lifestyle and have organismic trust. Such people have higher degree of freedom, creativity, and reliability which make their lives rich of experiences.

   Maslow’s humanistic theory of personality argues that people attain their full potential by moving their basic needs  to reach their self actualization.  The humanistic psychologist approached the concept of personality by evaluating on a patients subjective experiences, innate drive and free will towards self actualization.   The theory explores ways human needs transform throughout a person’s lifespan and the way they influence their personality development.

The tenets of this theory are his established hierarchy of needs which basically lists   human needs from the most basic needs to the most advanced needs of actualization which have been developed inform of a pyramid. Each layer of the pyramid must be attained and mastered before one can move up the pyramid. This process is continuous throughout a person’s lifespan (Himelstein, 2011).

References

DeRobertis, E. (2015). Philosophical-anthropological considerations for an existential-humanistic ecopsychology. The Humanistic Psychologist, 43(4), 323-337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08873267.2014.961637

Davies, J. (2009). Psychoanalytic practice and state regulation. Psychodynamic Practice, 15(3), 311-313. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14753630903016016

Himelstein, S. (2011). Engaging the moment with incarcerated youth: An existential–humanistic approach. The Humanistic Psychologist, 39(3), 206-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08873267.2011.592436

Ferrari, G. (2016). Sexualities: contemporary psychoanalytic perspectives. Psychodynamic Practice, 1-4. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14753634.2016.1207200

Pinto-Duschinsky, S. (2010). Spontaneity: a psychoanalytic inquiry. Psychodynamic Practice, 16(2), 247-248. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14753631003650852

Porucznik, H. (2012). Psychosomatics today. A psychoanalytic perspective. Psychodynamic Practice, 18(1), 137-141. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14753634.2012.640167

Ratner, J. (2015). Rollo May and the Search for Being: Implications of May’s Thought for Contemporary Existential-Humanistic Psychotherapy. Journal Of Humanistic Psychology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022167815613880

Spurling, L. (2011). Off the couch: Contemporary psychoanalytic approaches. Psychodynamic Practice, 17(1), 99-100. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14753634.2011.535364

Steinberg, P. (2015). Psychoanalytic filiations: mapping the psychoanalytic movement. Psychodynamic Practice, 22(1), 78-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14753634.2015.1101709

Thurn, D. (2015). A review ofClinical Implications of the Psychoanalyst’s Life Experience: When the Personal Becomes Professional. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 51(3), 562-571.  Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00107530.2014.963459

Tobin, R. (2011). Fixing Freud: The Oedipus Complex in Early Twenty-First Century US American Novels. Psychoanalysis & History, 13(2), 245-264. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3366/pah.2011.0091

Tribe, R., & Morrissey, J. (Eds.). (2015). Handbook of professional and ethical practice for psychologists, counsellors and psychotherapists. Routledge.

Welfel, E. R. (2015). Ethics in counseling & psychotherapy. Cengage Learning.

Parahoo, K. (2014). Nursing research: principles, process and issues. Palgrave Macmillan.

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CHILD DEVELOPMENT THEORY AND PRACTICES

Child Development Theory and Practices
Child Development Theory and Practices

Child Development Theory and Practices

Introduction

Child development is the theory and practice of procedures to ensure that the child is given the proper resources, guidance and nutrition to see them through their infancy up to middle school. Child development can also be the biological, social and psychological change in a child as they grow. However, it is supported by the various efforts and developmental models chosen and taken by their parents and guardians.

Indeed, the development of a child involves aspects such as pedagogical development and the development of the various biological systems in the body. The whole process is geared towards achieving total autonomy in the child. Children are exposed to many issues at an infant age. The most challenging of these issues is the introduction of new diet. 

Children often have to begin feeding on supplementary diet that is different from mammary milk after they attain the age of twelve months. Child development policies and strategies ensure that these steps and stages in the development of the child are done incrementally and professionally to achieve desired impact (Bevans, Riley & Forrest, 2010).

Background on child development

Child development has been a source of scientific and medical research over the last few decades. Policies in child development often relate to the ability of the parent to help them achieve autonomy. However, with regard to theories in child development, the concern has often been about the emotional and physical relationship of the child and the mother.

Many studies have been done on issues in child development. They have since resulted in aspects of child treatment, immunization and even nutrition. The most significant theories in child development are the Developmental theories and the attachment theories (Warner, 2007). It is necessary however to realize that although most of the theories on child development have hardly been refuted, they have not been unanimously approved as well.

Child development is often the cause of controversy in many policy development forums. There are particular goals that need to be achieved in child development but many different approaches to achieve these theories.

Where child development in a biological context is concerned, the physical change in the body of a child as they move from childhood to puberty is often a marvel in scientific research. Many children often realize a particular affinity for certain objects, games and pleasantries as they grow. However, there is likely that a child’s growth potential is achieved by the time they reach puberty (Bevans, Riley & Forrest, 2010).

Children however do not easily learn the psychomotor skills on their own. The exposure the child gets as they grow often determines how well they grow with regard to psychological and emotional development. There is indeed a direct relationship between the child’s environment and their eventual personality traits. More so, the adaptability of the child at the infancy stage is higher than at any other stages in their development. This is why child development theory and practice takes center stage among many pediatric research and education practices (Capel, 2012).

Child development however exceeds past growth. For instance, when a child grows, organs do not just grow, they are specialized. The same is the case for the various body cells and senses. They become bigger (grow) and better at their functions (develop). Child development theories thus take all these issues into account. However, with regard to the aspects and determining factors in child development; it is often the case that cases of child development complications are often treatable.

Medical research asserts that since the mind of the child keeps changing and growing, it is often the case that children may outgrow behavioral and psychological issues. There is however contention on the possibility of child brain research towards the treatment of regressive growth involving limbs and other bodily organs with a rich nervous system (O’Connor & McCartney, 2007).

Child Development Theories

Child development theories assess the growth and development of the child; the mitigating factors and the various aspects of the growth. Theories try and explain why phenomena such as development of limbs, ability to walk, talk and read as well as the growth of the intuition in a child occurs as it does. The major categories children are classified into often include; newborns, infants, toddlers, preschoolers, school-aged children and adolescents. These different categories of children often exhibit different traits.

This is why models are often specific to the category and explain how growth takes place from one category to the next. There are various theories formulated towards contributing to child development policies. However, this paper will discuss two main theories; child development theories and child attachment theories. These theories help scientists assess various growth factors and inhibitors to proper development of the child (Rigby, 2007).

Child development theories assess and explain the factors behind a child’s development. The most common of these theories is the ecological systems theory. The ecological systems theory was first proposed by Urie Bronfenbrenner. He proposed four categories for child biological development. These include; microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem and macrosystem. The microsystem of the child is the nervous and cardio vascular system. The mesosystem defines the muscular system in the body.

The exosystem defines the skin organ of the body and all systems that interact with the external environment while the macrosystem defines the organ system in the body. A child’s development is expected to take place simultaneously in all these four stages. The theory also proposes that each of these subsystems contains particular norms and principles that guarantee development in a symbiotic manner. The relationship between the systems defines how well or retarded growth in a child is.   

The child attachment theory defines the psychological, evolutionary and ethological development of a child. The theory asserts that interpersonal relationships between human beings are based on the development and proliferation of psychological needs. These needs stem from the child’s emotional upbringing and contact with the environment they live in. It is thus a concern that needs to be addressed by care givers.

The child’s evolutionary needs have to do with the child’s nutrition and socialization. Aspects such as early schooling, introduction to sporting activities and involvement in household chores contribute greatly to child development. It is thus critical to achieve these early. However, ethological (behavioral) growth in a child is cultured from the observations the children make on their own. This is why the environment one raises a child in must be protected from unnecessary exposure.   

Early Childhood Education Theories

Early childhood education theories discuss the development of the child as they progress through school from introduction to later stages in school. For instance; the Development Integration Approach in child development discusses child development on aspects such as; physical, social, emotional, language and cognitive skills. Physical development is assessed through measures such as the body mass index (BMI) that evaluates the mass against the height of the child.

Social and emotional development skills are the skills the child acquires from interacting with other children and adults. Language can be considered in two aspects; the first language the child was exposed to; known as L1 and the other languages follow as L2, L3…However, language can also be the ability of the child to learn etiquette, euphemism and other necessary language skills at an early age.

Cognition in a child is the most observable change. Abilities such as reading, learning and concentrating however take time to develop in a child. The ability to use language properly is very important to the child’s growth as it makes them able to communicate (Warner, 2007).

The other common theory in early childhood education is the socio-cultural learning theory. This theory asserts that the impact of the child’s social experiences as well as their cultural disposition affects their individual thinking and the development of their mental processes. This is why it is important to raise children in environments that elicit such growth potential.

All the same, whatever environment the child finds themselves in is able to affect their mental and psychological health either positively or negatively. The theory by Lev Vygotsky proposes that cognition should be trained by the child’s care givers since it occurs on a social context. Allowing children to play and undertake certain responsibilities early prepares them for such responsibilities in the future (O’Connor & McCartney, 2007).

For instance, early driving classes make the child develop an intuitive sense that helps them discern the path to take while on the road and the decisions that can help them avoid accidents and dangerous driving. Socio-cultural learning also presents the argument that a child born in cultural practices will likely learn them and embrace them early if they are exposed to them from the onset.      

Conclusion

Early childhood development is a phenomenon that has been observed by scientists across the world for centuries. Indeed, aspects of child development such as the development of psychomotor skills, cognitive development and physical development often relate to the child’s culturalization.

Most care givers are advised to monitor the path through which the child takes in their development actualization pattern in order to grow into the anticipated adults society envisions. However, there are biological factors in child development and growth that do not really have anything to do with the care givers but actual parents. Genetic factors are often difficult to deal with as they are as the result of recessive genes since childhood.

In such cases that these recessive genes lead to visible impaired limbs, it is necessary to seek medical attention to know how to handle these cases (Ogunnaike, 2015). Children should always be brought up in environments where they feel safe and able to interact freely with all persons in their vicinity. Since most of what they learn is acquired from vision, it is important to invest on the child’s environment and control it as much as possible without interfering with it.  

References

Bevans, K. B., Riley, A. W., & Forrest, C. B. (2010). Development of the healthy pathways child-report scales. Quality of Life Research, 19(8), 1195-214. 

Capel, C. M. (2012). Mindlessness/mindfulness, classroom practices and quality of early childhood education. The International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 29(6), 666-680. 

Rigby, E. (2007). Same policy area, different politics: How characteristics of policy tools alter the determinants of early childhood education policy. Policy Studies Journal, 35(4), 653-669.

O’Connor, E., & McCartney, K. (2007). Examining teacher-child relationships and achievement as part of an ecological model of development. American Educational Research Journal, 44(2), 340-369.

Ogunnaike, Y. A. (2015). Early Childhood Education and Human Factor: Connecting Theories and Perspectives. Review Of Human Factor Studies21(1), 9-26.

Warner, M. E. (2007). Child care and economic development: Markets, households and public policy.International Journal of Economic Development, 9(3), 111-121.

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Integrated Theory of Behavioral Change

Integrated Theory of Behavioral Change
Integrated Theory of Behavioral Change

Integrated Theory of Behavioral Change

      Health care professionals and practitioners use theory in practice and apply it in rendering or conducting patient care and as leaders determining and promoting system change. A health behavior change I would choose is the integrated theory of behavioral change which is a new mid-range descriptive theory. I believe that an individual’s health is influenced by their behavior and such improvement in health can be achieved by managing chronic conditions or employing health promotion practices (Ryan, 2009).

      Health promotion, requires individuals to come up with healthy behavior variations which positively influence health. These practices include activity and exercise, management of stress, moderate alcohol consumption, proper nutrition, and cessation of smoking. Prevention behaviors such as cancer screening and immunization are also vital. Therefore, for primary health promotion, healthy lifestyles must be incorporated to improve and maintain people’s health status.

This assumption goes hand in hand with health models such as the health belief model. For example, a person’s perceived susceptibility, a severity of an illness and the benefits of taking action will influence the person’s health-related behavior. Therefore, he/she will address any health concern by changing the behavior.  For instance, an individual would abstain from sexual behavior to avoid the possibility of contracting HIV/AIDS.

 The trans-theoretical model also advocates for behavioral change through some stages for modification of lifestyle. This will help clients adopt new positive changes in lifestyle which is important in their health promotion and maintenance (Ryan, 2009).  The theory of planned behavior also assists in understanding the various ways we can change people’s behavior through a prediction of deliberate conduct. This behavior influences a person’s lifestyle; therefore, the knowledge and beliefs stated in the theory help understand health behavior.

Reference

Ryan, P. (2009). An integrated theory of health behavior change: background and intervention development. Clinical nurse specialist CNS, 23(3), 161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/nur.0b013e3181a42373

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Leadership Theories/Approach/Style

Leadership Theories
Leadership Theories

Leadership Theories/Approach/Style

Introduction 

            In an increasingly competitive world, effective leadership ensures that a firm can maintain a reasonable niche. This calls for the adoption of leadership styles and approaches that best enhance the organization’s performance. This paper is an assessment of Global Delivery Direct one of the prevalent leadership theories, leadership approach and leadership style; in a bid to determine the candidate that best suits the position of a manager for the new custom delivery service.

Leadership Theories: GDD’s Results

The table below illustrates the common leadership theory, leadership approach and leadership style at GDD.

Leadership TheoryLeadership ApproachLeadership Style
Relational leadership theory can be observed at GDD. Leaders applying this model are inclusive, purposeful, empowering and ethical.The proactive leadership approach best applies at GDD. Leaders are future oriented and always focused on finding solutions to benefit the company.A combination of situational and transformational leadership style applies to GDD, which believes in a different ideal for each situation.

The relational leadership theories are most prevalent in GDD, which aims at enhancing success in the 21st century. This is a modern theory in which shared vision is encouraged and maintaining effective relationships is considered important in promoting performance.

GDD considers proactivity in leadership a major prerequisite for effective leadership because it ensures better performance through futuristic thinking that ensures that leaders can come up with solutions to drive the organization’s vision as opposed to being reactive to problems. Leaders at GDD are required to identify new opportunities for the company and also be on the lookout for potential leaders within the organization.

A modification of situational and transformational leadership styles is evident in GDD, where leaders are encouraged to treat each situation uniquely while encouraging and mentoring followers to effectively achieve the organization’s performance. At GDD, leaders are not only interested in situations but also people involved in accomplishing organizational goals.

This style of leadership is effective in the modern world where the relevance of workers is becoming increasingly important in enhancing innovation and championing change (Grant, 2016). Accordingly, respect, trust, ethical values, and expertise are considered worthy traits for leaders who aim at promoting employee commitment and organizational effectiveness.

Candidate’s Results

Based on an assessment of the candidates, the table below is a summary of their prevalent leadership theory, leadership approach and leadership style.

CandidateLeadership TheoriesLeadership ApproachLeadership Style
Henrietta RaynardGreat Man TheoryStructural approach  Authoritative leadership
Orson HernandezContingency theoryInclusive approachLaisse-Faire
Jonathan LivingstonRelational theoryProactive approachTransformational leadership
Adrianna CoyoteRelational/servantPeople-focused approachServant/authoritarian

Raynard believes in great man leadership theory, and this can be demonstrated by her how she is more concerned about being the leader while giving no concern to employee participation. She prefers to make the rules as opposed to including the opinions of others and believes the best way to enhance performance is to ensure rules, policies, and structures are followed. She seems rigid in her approach and is not proactive.

She does not seem aware of her leadership approach, but hers can be described as the structural approach. Her leadership is authoritarian because she prefers to be in control.

Hernandez exercises the contingency theory and this means that he tends to lead depending on the situation. He understands the importance of motivating and empowering employees, and this explains his leadership style, which is laisse-faire.

This is a leadership style where employees are empowered to make decisions in performing their work thus enhancing productivity. Hernandez says he does not have an approach to leadership, but his approach appears to be an inclusive approach, influenced by his leadership style.

Livingstone exercises relational theory and considers this imperative due to its ability to influence relationships within the organization. He has a proactive approach, demonstrated by his previous visit to both companies before the interview and his approach of looking for leadership opportunities and encouraging others to act on them. He is also a transformational leader and believes in people relations.

Coyote’s leadership style is more about enhancing motivation and satisfaction of her followers. She achieves this through flexibility, looking into her team’s needs and allowing them an opportunity to be happy with their jobs. While she does not seem to know her leadership approach, hers is a people-oriented approach where her team’s happiness is considered of great importance.

This can be associated with her recognition that happy employees perform better. This also explains her leadership style which is servant leadership. This means that she is more concerned with the needs of her team and how she can help them achieve the best. By combining this with a bit of authoritarianism, she has managed to achieve success in her leadership role.

GDD/Candidates’ Comparison

Candidate1 No Fit2 Bad Fit3 Not Sure4 Good Fit5 Best Fit
Raynard     
Hernandez     
Livingston     
Coyote     

Raynard is considered a bad fit because she is an authoritarian as opposed to a transformational leader as required by GDD. She does not seem social with employees, and this means that she is not in a position to influence them or motivate them to perform better as required at GDD.  Based on her emphasis on the use of rules, structures, and procedures, her approach does not encourage innovation and proactivity. She also seems unsure of her leadership approach style. 

Hernandez is a good fit because he seems interested in employee involvement, motivation, and empowerment, which are considered highly important at GDD. He also exercises situational leadership which is encouraged at GDD alongside transformational leadership. However, his leadership style does not match that of GDD, and he does not seem to be aware of his leadership approach.

 Livingstone’s leadership theories, leadership approach and leadership style is a perfect match with that of GDD. Livingstone exercises relational theory takes on a proactive approach and is a transformational leader. 

 Coyote is considered a good fit because besides having experience with the company, she is people-oriented, which means that she keeps her employees motivated. She is more concerned about employee welfare and provides a flexible working environment. Her authoritarian style may, however, impede performance to a certain extent. It is not certain whether she is proactive and innovative and she is also unaware of her leadership approach. 

Recommendation

Livingstone’s leadership theories, leadership approach and leadership style best matches that of GDD. Accordingly, he is considered the most suitable candidate for the job. GDD promotes relational leadership, and it can be established that Livingstone recognizes the importance of relationships with followers, given the role played by individuals in making change work.

A similar theory is taken by GDD which encourages the creation of fruitful relationships to enhance performance. The proactive approach taken by Livingstone matches GDD’s as evidenced by his quest to seek leadership opportunities and encourage employees to work on them. This matches the example of Juan Carlos, the college intern at GDD who was recognized as an opportunity for leadership.

Livingstone also took the time to visit both companies before the interview and this shows his proactivity. Regarding leadership style, Livingstone is a transformational leader, and this remains a desirable trait at GDD. 

Reference List

Grant, R. M. (2016). Contemporary Strategy Analysis: text and cases, 9th Ed. Chichester: Wiley & Sons.

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