Safe guarding in health and social care

Safe guarding in health and social care
Safe guarding in health and social care

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Safe guarding in health and social care

Reasons particular people are more vulnerable to abuse and harm self and others

A vulnerable group includes peoples who are eligible or are in receipt of community care.  This includes people with physical disabilities, learning disabilities, and people with cognitive deficits, people who are frail physically and mentally. Drug addicts and alcoholics are also identified as vulnerable group.  These people are generally weak and are unable to defend themselves from harm or abuse and therefore need safe guarding in health and social care.

In this context, abuse refers to the violation of a person’s human rights as well as their civil rights by another stronger being.  Abuse takes many forms including sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and psychological abuse, physical, financial or institutional abuse (Callewaert, 2011). Some of the signs and symptoms include unexplained injuries and frequent illnesses. If the care giver gives implausible injuries explanation is an indicator of neglect or physical abuse.  

Other indicators include frequent ER visits for vulnerable people with chronic diseases or if the functionally impaired vulnerable person comes to the hospital without any company (Podnieks, Penhale, Goergen, Biggs & Han, 2010).

Safe guarding in health and social care

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Sexual abuse includes all sexual practices where the vulnerable people have not given consent such as rape, sexualised language and inappropriate touching. Physical abuse includes pushing, pulling, burning, forcefully restraining a person and misusing their medication. Psychological abuse includes all activities that cause a person to have emotional distress such as verbal abuse, humiliation, intimidation and harassment. 

Financial abuse includes stealing from the person, fraud and resource exploitation.  Neglect is a type of abuse that involves denying the vulnerable person the adequate medical and social care (Alexandra Hernandez-Tejada, Amstadter, Muzzy & Acierno, 2013).

 In discrimination type of abuse, the person is treated in unfavourable manner due to their gender, age, type of disability and ethnic background. Lastly, the institutional abuse includes failing to give services to the vulnerable person due to reason to another.

It is important to note that abuse can take place in various settings including the vulnerable person’s homes, nursing homes, state facilities, and at the hospitals. The main issue is early identification of abuse. This is because of the many abuse of the vulnerable people, only a small fraction of them is detected (Ansello & O’Neill, 2010).

Safe guarding in health and social care

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 The vulnerable groups are at risk of self-harm and abuse mainly because they often dependent of care givers to manage their daily activities such as dressing, bathing and in the maintenance of their personal hygiene. Additionally, these people tend to have little ability to utilize their self-defence tactics or mechanisms to avoid violence. It is also commonly assumed that these people with disability do not comprehend what is happening to them; hence, even when the persons disclose what has happened to them, they are often not believed. The following are the reasons why the some people are vulnerable to abuse and self-harm.

 One of the reasons for vulnerability of the special group is the issue of dependency. The special group are more vulnerable if they are dependent to other people for daily activities.  Evidence base studies reports that 97%-99% of the people who abuse the vulnerable individuals are care givers and trusted individuals, and it is estimated that 44% of the victims relate to the persons extent of disability. In most cases, the abuse may not be reported because of fear of the vulnerable person’s safety, shock, and reluctance of the witnesses to get involved or in breaking the silence code (Callewaert, 2011).

 Communication abilities are other reasons why vulnerable individuals are prone to abuse or self-harm. The vulnerable person may lack means of communicating to others about their abuse. This could be due to poor articulation and lack of effective expressive skills. In some cases, the vulnerable person may need assistive devices to communicate which could be lost, taken away or even become misplaced, hindering communication between the abused person and the person in charge.

In some cases, the vulnerable may lack enough resources (in terms of monetary), which can be used to replace the faulty or lost communication devices. This is worse of the person is physically unable to move due to the nature of their disability, which would make themselves unable to move or run way from the abusive situation. In adequate resources will make the individual person run away from the abuser or terminate their services (Podnieks, Penhale, Goergen, Biggs & Han, 2010).

Safe guarding in health and social care

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 Other reasons that are associated with increased vulnerability include social isolation where the vulnerable person lives in over protected environments. The lack of physical access makes the vulnerable individual lack skills to communicate to the community that they are suffering.  The presence of misleading roles as well as expectations in the society can make the abused individual remain silent, increasing risk of abuse.

For instance, the vulnerable groups are normally advised to be submissive and compliant, and are not support to question their authority. This lack of social exposure could make the vulnerable person to continue to suffer (Podnieks, Penhale, Goergen, Biggs & Han, 2010).

 Stigmatization, discrimination and stereotyping are other reasons why the vulnerable persons continue to be abused. For instable, the disable people may be discriminated in their work environments. Most of the discrimination cases in the justice systems are often dismissed, denying the vulnerable discriminated individuals their human and civil rights. It is often believed that the vulnerable people such as the disabled are asexual.

People believe that the disabled people (for instance) cannot hold intimate relationships. It is also commonly assumed that the vulnerable people intellect is compromised. This makes it difficult for people to believe their abuse complaints. In incidences where the vulnerable persons have signs and symptoms of abuse, the abuser may quickly claim that they are self-inflicted, putting the vulnerable person to greater risks of abuse and sexual assaults (Hawkes, 2015).

Safe guarding in health and social care

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Risk factors which may lead to incidents of abuse and harm self and others

As mentioned above, vulnerable groups of people are likely to face abuse from their care givers. Risk factors sometimes can be correlated with causes or causatives of abuse of the vulnerable persons. In some cases, the risk factors could also be the risk indicators of the confounders that influence the causal factors on abuse of the vulnerable group. 

For instance, care givers mental status such as depression is causal factors that lead to abuse of the disabled or elderly persons; it is also a risk indicator that this kind of care giver is likely to neglect the disabled or the elderly persons because the care giver is socially withdrawn or lack of interests associated with depression (Hawkes, 2015). Another example of causal relationship is that of shared living with vulnerable person’s abuse.  

Therefore, it is important to identify the risk factors that are associated with abuse incidences as they help in identifying indicator of abuse or maltreatment. To begin with, the health status of the person influences how the person will be treated.   The vulnerable group have reduced decision making ability due to their reduced cognitive functionality. Additionally, the dynamic health status and restricted mobility makes it difficult for the vulnerable person to seek refuge or rescue. The reduced energy levels in these people reduce their ability to perform daily living activities or become independent (Callewaert, 2011).

Safe guarding in health and social care

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The living arrangement has also been identified as a risk factor for abuse. Vulnerable people living alone are likely to be less physically abused. One study conducted indicated that Alzheimer patients living with their immediate families were more likely to be abused. This is because shared residence tends to increase their contact opportunities with the care givers and relatives, hence increasing the rusk for abuse or violent behaviour.

In nursing home settings, abuse of the vulnerable groups is likely to take place if the standards of the nursing home are low, the settings have inadequate staff. Interactions between untrained staff and the vulnerable groups living in these home care settings. In most cases, these home care settings have deficient physical environments and the policies in these institutions are based on the homecare settings interests instead of the vulnerable groups (Hawkes, 2015).

Cultural factors are key determinants of abuse on the vulnerable people. For instance, in some cultures, domestic violence is viewed as illegitimate and is most likely hidden.  This is because if family friends, neighbours and kin learn of the behaviour, they are likely to result in informal sanctions. In this case, person’s abuse is likely to be hidden from the society and the relevant authority.

Other cultural factors include the general assumptions that vulnerable people are weak, dependent and weak. In some cultures, there has been erosion of bonds between the generations; especially where young people have migrated to the urban centres in communities where the elderly people are cared for by their young ones. The elderly people are left alone and become socially isolated (Callewaert, 2011).

Safe guarding in health and social care

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 The intra-individual characteristic of the abusers is another risk factor for patient abuse. If the care giver suffers from psychotic disorders or is using substance use; then it is likely that the care giver will mistreat the vulnerable person.  The type of abuser dependency is another risk factor that determines if the vulnerable will be abused or not.  The risk of abuse is higher if the vulnerable person depends financially on the care giver.  

The study indicates that caregivers may lack coping strategies or lack resilience. This is often associated depression and increased anxiety. In some cases, the perspectives of the care givers determine their attitudes. Aggressive and abuse caregivers believe that the care giving on these vulnerable   persons as burdensome without any reward (Podnieks, Penhale, Goergen, Biggs & Han, 2010).

The intra-individual characteristics of the victims also increase risk of abuse. One study conducted in Netherlands found that victim’s verbal and physical aggression influenced how they would be treated by the care givers. The study also indicated that financial mistreatment of the care givers can make them become aggressive.  Several studies have associated gender as a risk factor for abuse; which reports higher number of victims with adults. The study indicates that women tend to have more emotional and physical abuse as compared to males.

The relationship between the perpetrator and the victim has been investigated. Although the study findings in inconclusive, it is believed that the most of the abusers are spouses of the victims. Other studies have reported race or ethnicity as the key concern; but the study findings cannot be generalized (“Older people have high risk of suicide after self-harm”, 2012).

Safe guarding in health and social care

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 Other risk factors mentioned include the intergenerational transmission. Research indicates that adults who had undergone child maltreatment, neglect and abuse are likely to maltreat or harm others. Similarly, social factors play a major role as risk factors for abuse of vulnerable individuals.

Poverty, unemployment and low socioeconomic status increases the likelihood of the vulnerable groups to be maltreated or abused; especially if poverty interacts with other social factors such as depression, drug use and social isolation. This could lead to aggression of the care giver on the vulnerable persons (Parle, Kaura, Sethi & Jena, 2013).


Alexandra Hernandez-Tejada, M., Amstadter, A., Muzzy, W., & Acierno, R. (2013). The National Elder Mistreatment Study: Race and Ethnicity Findings. Journal Of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 25(4), 281-293.

Ansello, E., & O’Neill, P. (2010). Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation: Considerations in Aging With Lifelong Disabilities. Journal Of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 22(1-2), 105-130.

Callewaert, G. (2011). Preventing and Combating Elder Mistreatment in Flanders (Belgium): General Overview. Journal Of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 23(4), 366-374.

Hawkes, N. (2015). Young goths may be more vulnerable to depression and self harm, study finds. BMJ, h4643.

Older people have high risk of suicide after self-harm. (2012). Mental Health Practice, 15(9), 5-5.


Podnieks, E., Penhale, B., Goergen, T., Biggs, S., & Han, D. (2010). Elder Mistreatment: An International Narrative. Journal Of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 22(1-2), 131-163.

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Health and Safety in the Health and Social Care Workplace

Health and Safety
Health and Safety

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Health and Safety in the Health and Social Care Workplace

A Case Study of Silver Meadows 


Health and safety is always a crucial aspect that poses a concern to everyone with regards to day-to-day affairs. In health and social care settings, especially care homes for the elderly health and safety remains a fundamental consideration for all law enforcement agencies as well as practitioners. This makes the importance of continuous monitoring in addition to reviewing of health as well as legislations and safety policies’ implementation for health as well as social care workplace undisputable and this has been succinctly discussed and explained in this assignment.

According to Graham & Steven (2008) this is attributable to the fact that, good health and safety of care home residents is the key to their happiness something which has made the management and staff of home care workplaces to be cautious enough in managing health and safety issues. As a result, health protective agencies have been emphasizing on the implementation of appropriate policies, systems, and procedures for health and safety in all health as well as social care settings to alleviate hazards.

The context of this assignment will provide a clear view of policies, systems, and practices and their effect in the promotion of safety in health and social care home in the perspective of Silver Meadows Care Home. From the perspective of health and social care home, employees, patients and their relatives or visitors ought to be protected from hazards. Therefore, in health and social care working environment, the management, staff as well as individual patients have the right to participate in implementing health and safety plans for the benefit of all those involved.

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This assignment intends to discuss and evaluate the necessary health and safety policies, systems, procedures, and practices in accordance with legislative requirements as well as possible solutions and the associated dilemmas based on the case study of Silver Meadows Care Home. Three major tasks are covered in this assignment.

Firstly, the implementation of policies, systems, procedures, and practices aimed to communicate health as well as safety information; responsibilities of health and social care home management and staff in managing health and safety; as well as an analysis of appropriate health and safety priorities of case study health and social care home.

Secondly, risk assessment and the importance of obtained information in health and social care planning; analysis of a particular aspect concerned with health and safety policy; as well as dilemmas that are encountered in implementing health as well as safety policies and systems in addition to potential effect of non-compliance with legislations concerned with health and safety. Finally, the process of how to monitor and review of health aa well as safety policies, systems, procedures, and practices and their effectiveness in promoting safe culture and a healthy workplace as well as evaluation of personal contribution. 

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Health is without any doubt the most important concern for everyone, and safety is inseparable from health service. As a result, this has been the key reason why various policies and laws have been formulated concerning health and safety with regards to health and social care working environments. Discussion of the details is presented in the sections below:

Task 1: (a) Implementation of Policies Systems, Procedures, and Practices for Communicating Information on Health and Safety 

In conventional health care as well as safety settings communication usually involve various aspects, including information exchange among staff, management as well as patients and their relatives. However, due to technological advancement there has been continuous expansion of possibilities for storage, processing and retrieval of medical data.

According to Tripathi et al., (2009) varied types of information technologies and applications in the medical field have continued to enormously grow and evolve to ensure effective management and communication health as well as safety in both social and health care settings. From a perspective of social and health care workplace, there are several legislations that aim to support health and safety that are discussed below:

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  • The 2008 Act on Health and Social Care

In this Act information technology and communication (ICT) in health products are considered critical in disseminating important information concerning welfare, health and safety. This is attributable to the fact that, ICT can be used to allow control or combination of various sources of information in order to gain efficiency and provide better care within a health and safe environment while making sure that staff and resources are freed up. As a result, implementation of communication policies, systems and procedures in the Silver Meadow Care Home in accordance with this legislation will lead to various benefits, including:

Patient Safety: This is because they will result to reduction of medical errors such as surgical errors, adverse drug related admissions, transfusion errors, as well as professional negligence.
Quality of care: Health information technology (HIT) reduces paperwork and provides more time to nurses which can be used to attend to their patients (Tripathi et al., 2009). As a result, Silver Meadows Care Home residents can get quality care from the physicians, nurses and the cares due to the saved time.

Patient access to care: Access to health and social care is improved using Health information technology (HIT) by ensuring that processes that are ineffective are streamlined resulting to increased staff productivity. The indicators of success in provision of care includes: time-out results analysis, time taken to respond to patients’ inquiries, as well as improved self-management of chronic diseases.

  • Health and Safety at Work Act 1974

This Act usually considers a variety of issues that are related to health, safety, as well as welfare of employees across various workplace sectors. With regards to requirements of health and safety, this Act delegate a general obligation to the management and staff of health and social care homes to cooperate and take care of others concerning issues pertaining health and safety.

  • Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1992

The Act is a refinement of 1974 Act where it requires the management of health and social care homes to regularly conduct risk assessments and record findings prior to communicating them to employees and patients. This Act compels the management to arrange on implementation of health and safety measures for the purpose of improving emergency procedures as well as providing clear information and training to their staff and also work in collaboration with other stakeholders.

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  • Health and Safety Regulations 1981

In order to boost health and safety, this regulation compels the management of health and social care workplace to provide information to staff, patients and visitors on first-aid arrangement. In addition, they must also ensure that there is provision of first aid equipment as well as availability of trained first aiders.

This means that it is inevitable for the implementation of health information technology in Silver Meadows Care Home to step up health and safety in its settings, which has to be carried out in accordance with the entire raft of standard, legislation, as well as guidelines altogether referred to as “Information Governance” in UK. It has been operational for sometimes and cover issues of accessing and disclosing health information as well as confidentiality.

The 2008 Act on Health and Social Care establishes the National Information Governance Board for Heath and Social Care, (NIGB) which is mandated to carry out a statutory duty of supervising the governance of information (Tripathi et al., 2009).

Figure1: Implementation Model                                 (Source: Pall, 2012)

According to Stranks, (2005) Health Department is obliged to formulate policies regulating provision of services related to health and social care to people across UK. Even though implementation of these policies and procedure may be compromised by non-compliance, rectification can be achieved through regular monitoring by supervisory agencies shown in the above figure which ensure home cares oblige to specific health and safety policies at all levels.

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Task 1: (b) Responsibilities of Management and Staff in Managing Health and Safety

Management and staffs of Silver Meadows Care Home just like those in other home care settings have certain responsibilities that they are supposed to adhere to. Elderly people are without any doubt the most vulnerable age group of the population implying that special consideration must be taken towards their safety, care, and security (Fisher, 2005).

According to Sowers & Catherine (2008) all the staff of elderly home care must be able to readily access up to date policies for nursing care and medication guidelines. On the other hand, the British National Formulary must also be readily accessible to nurses working at Silver Meadows Care Home.

In the UK, planning of health and safety in health as well as social care workplaces is conducted by both non-government institutions as well as government institutions. There exists a public health and health care system in the government of UK. In this system, there is distribution of responsibilities from the department of health down to the local authorities. As a result, the system includes health and social care providers and takers,

NHS commissioning board, clinical commissioning board, monitoring system as well as public and local health (Pall, 2012). There is an integration of this system where responsibilities are delegated to all organisational bodies based on health and safety which ought to be provided by social and health care homes.

Management is the other crucial aspect of safety and health with regards to organisational structure, particularly in relation to the management and staff responsibilities at health and social care home.  In the management of health and safety responsibilities of management as well as staff include: systemic utilisation of standardised techniques which are important in the identification and removal of impeding hazards; and controlling potential risks by influencing behaviours as well as encouraging attitudes during techniques (Pall, 2012). 

As a result, the responsibilities of management and staff in relation to health as well as safety management at Silver Meadows Care Home can be assessed in the context of care and support plan for a physically disabled individual because palliative care is offered.

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For example: A Care and Support Plan for a Physically Disabled Individual

Based on the care and support for the physically disabled individual, the plan includes taking the person to a restaurant once per week to take dinner since he/she is unable to this individually. However, the person wants to eat a burger at the restaurant every time when taken out, but the carers or support workers are of the opinion that burgers are not healthy and the person should not eat them that often.

Here the management and staff of Silver Meadows Care Home through their responsibilities with regards to management of health and safety can devise individualised mental capacity for making a better decision. But within the responsibilities of management and staff is it a good decision to hinder such a person to take fatty foods? From this perspective, the answer is yes; however, they should ensure that they use in supporting and encouraging tone of voice so that they feel as though they are being bullied.

They should also concern them in taking responsibility when they eat foods that are unhealthy. This implies that responsibilities and management of health and safety are related to individuals as well as the organisation. Furthermore, the example of care and support plan provided shows how the management of health and safety can be comprised and the appropriate steps that can be used to rectify it also discussed.

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Task 1: (c) Analysis of Health and Safety Priorities

Care homes should be maintained in a manner that portrays a home in order to be pleasant to live in by providing safe and healthy environment. Hence, the management and staffs of care homes should prioritise the most important issues with regards to maintaining high quality health and social care for the residents.

In the context of Silver Meadows Care Home, which offers dementia care, palliative care, nursing care, and residential care for the elderly people, it is clear that there should be some appropriate health and safety priorities. For instance, since Silver Meadows is taking care of elderly people whose movement is limited there is need to prioritise the safety of entry and exit in the workplace to allow easier movement in case of an emergency (Moonie, 2000; Sprenger, 2003).

Also considering that elderly people are not stable and vulnerable to fallings, the floors should always be maintained in good state and not wet or slippery through better housekeeping practices (Sprenger, 2003). In health and social care settings, infection is the main risk and its prevention should be prioritised since elderly people often have compromised immune systems meaning new infections or cross infections may pose a significant danger to them.

This can be controlled by limiting the number of visitors or employees to an area considered risky; using measures of hygiene which reduces or prevents transferring of infectious agent through regular hand washing and ensuring that the work environment is maintained in a hygienic condition. Reducing the risk of sharp injuries should also be prioritised at care home through engineering controls and elimination of risks as well as safe usage and disposal of sharp objects (Sprenger, 2003).   

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Task 2

In order to understand the impact of requirements of health as well as safety on practitioners and customers of health and social care homes, there is need to carry out risk assessment, as well as impacts of policy on customer and care practice, care planning, encountered dilemmas, as well as effects of non-compliance. Details of these aspects are discussed in the contents that follow:

Task 2: (a) Risk Assessments’ Information and Care Planning for Residents

Information on the services offered by health and social care home constitutes an important element of ensuring services are provided and taken in the context of health and safety in care planning. This can either be in the context of organisational decision making as well as individual care planning.

Risk assessment is the most appropriate method to collect this information because it involves identification of impending hazards, possible severity of harm likely to result from of the identified hazards, calculating the extent of risk, monitoring as well as reappraisal of the risk (Grinnell & Yvonne, 2008). Hence, there is need for regular risk assessments in order to assess the risks associated with health and safety of individual care planning.

In most instances, the nature of risk assessments tend to be simple and can be done through direct observation/examination, but some are more complex and requires lengthy procedures to ascertain. The process of risk assessment involves several steps which have to be executed as follows:

(1) significant hazards are identified through observations or interviews;

(2) making a decision on who is likely to be harmed by the hazards;

(3) evaluating the risks and deciding on the effectiveness of existing precautionary measures followed by implementation of proper measures if the existing ones are ineffective;

(4) recording the findings and communing them to the staffs; and

(5) reviewing the risk assessment and if necessary revisiting it (Lishman, 2007). The model of risk assessment in health as well as safety management is illustrated in the figure below:

  Figure 2: Model for managing health and safety in work place, (Source: Dowding & Barr, 1999)

The information obtained from risk assessments plays a critical role in informing care planning for residents and organisational decision making concerning policies and procedures because its inherent features which include: it is recognised as a risk control, its implementation is done in accordance with modern procedures to manage risk, the risk assessment needs to be reviewed and revisited or amended if necessary, it ensures that there is control of all hazards, and it results in mitigation of any residual risk to be reasonably practicable.

According to Carr (2010) getting information from risk assessments can be of considerable benefits; for example, at individual care planning they include: knowing different care services offered by various health and social care facilities, knowing better providers of health and social care, knowing the rights of getting the services of health and social care homes, appraising services offered by health and social care homes, as well as helping to make decisions on services to be sought.

In addition, in the context of organisational decision making benefits include: an organisation gets to be aware of different procedures policies that concern social and health care, an organisation can get to be aware of new procedures and policies concerning health as well as safety management at care homes, it helps an organisation to decide on the services to give to a client and how to give, and also the information helps organisations to be conscious with regards to their right, client right as well as obligations (Carr, 2010).

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Task 2: (b) Analysis of a Particular Aspect of Health and Safety Policy

In UK, various health and safety policies do exist with regards to regulation of different aspects of health and social care settings. There are both positive and negative impacts of these policies. One of safety and health policy is the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1992. This regulation is the basis of the policy made against aggression and violence in care homes and has varied impacts care home service users and the care providers (OSHA, 2012).

This is because aggression or violence expressed by some service users is a source of distress and injury to care providers at work. This policy helps in reducing aggression and violence which positively impact the care providers. Alternatively, it may hinder health care provision to service users with aggressive or violent behaviours, especially those seeking dementia care due to their limited cognitive ability. The policy also causes financial burden to care providers since they have to continuously train their staff on how to effectively handle patients who are potentially aggressive or violent.

 Another policy is Health and Safety Regulations 1981 which compels the management of health and social care workplace to provide information to staff, patients and visitors on first-aid arrangement as well as ensuring that there is provision of first-aid equipment and presence of trained first aiders (AHS, 2010).

This policy helps care providers or other patients to immediately get first when injured by violent patients or from any other accidents. However, it increases cost of running care home in purchasing first aid equipment and recruiting first aiders. Both policies seem to have both positive and negative impacts, but it is also clear that their overall impact is good to care providers and patients even though they may hinder service provision (Balarajan et al., 2011).

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Task 2: (c) Addressing Dilemmas Encountered Implementing Systems and Policies for Health, Safety and Security

Silver Meadows Care Home is faced with dilemmas in ensuring that every legislation is adhered to because of their budgetary implications as well as quality care improvement or staff performance and also security measures. Popple & Leslie (2008) asserted that based on required expectations and stakeholder needs implementation of necessary systems is needed with emphasis on government requirements. Dilemmas are the concerns the facility face to ensure security and safety of patients is guaranteed (Popple & Leslie, 2008).

Thus, the specific dilemmas include the need to ensure security and safety of patients always since it is the responsibility of the facility to guarantee the well-being of patients within a secure environment. In addition, budgetary requirements to implement the appropriate systems for assured security and safety of patients is another dilemma because the facility is faced by financial constraints and needs to outsource for the required capital.

Considering Silver Meadows Care Home is considerably large, there is need to maintain high security levels as well as safety processes. Through implementation of new technology for operating systems and departments, it is possible to effectively manage time and increase the quality of care. However, these dilemmas can be addressed by liaising with management through which services of consultants can be used to monitor the activities through which the performance of employees can be improved.

In order to increase the quality level of health and social care, continuous training programs need to be provided for the staff in order to ensure standards are developed. Finally, the dilemma with security can be addressed by implementing security camera system to increase safety at home care. According to Mizrahi & Larry (2008) implementation of a process of performance evaluation can maintain standards of employees with regards to Health and Safety Act 1981.

Stringent adherence to policies, legislations and codes or standards of practice is also essential in achieving this goal as well as reducing risk irrespective of investments required since through cost benefit analysis should obviously give more benefits than costs.

Task 2: (d) Effects of Non-Compliance with Health and Safety Legislation

In case, health and social care home is non-compliance with a legislation or regulation which govern health as well as safety, its performance becomes ineffective and clients are dissatisfied. This means that when standards are not maintained in a home care, clients become unhappy and often seek health care services from other providers.

According to Mathis & Jackson (2010) failure of a home care to provide the necessary training programs to their employees on existing legislation, regulations and standards often results to non-compliance subsequently hindering performance and quality service which eventually reduces the profits.

According to Rosenfeld & Russell (2012) non-compliance to legislation may result to legal actions, especially when patients’ rights are violated as a result of failure of home care to maintain the legislation or the standards. The legal actions may also incur the home care a significant financial burden in terms of compensations and legal fees.

Also, the home care may be banned to operate by the government due to gross violation of patients’ rights arising from non-compliance to legislation. Furthermore, when a home care is non-compliance with existing legislation the overall impacts may be increased risk, customer dissatisfaction, poor performance, poor levels of productivity, and a possibility of a ban from the government.

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Understanding of the process of monitoring and review of health as well as social care workplace policies, systems, procedures, and practices is central to success in health and safety implementation. This section covers the monitoring and review of safety and health policies, systems and practices as well as their effectiveness in the promotion of safe culture and healthy workplace as well as evaluation of personal contribution. Details of these aspects of health and safety have been discussed in the following contents:

Task 3: (a) Monitoring and Review of Health and Safety Systems, Policies, Procedure as well as Practices

Health as well as safety systems, policies, procedures, and practices monitoring plays a fundamental role in managing safety and health in home cares. However, writing and launching of health and safety policy does not mean that is the end of responsibilities. In fact, it is the initial step in implementing a safety and health policy, which is vital in ensuring the required standards and codes or procedures are outlined alongside the need to ensure that they are always adhered to by everyone.

Since there is a continuous change in safety and health management, the monitoring of the policies’ effectiveness needs to be done proactively for the purpose of regular evaluation of the progress and timely identification of deviations. Hence, monitoring and review of social and health care is required due to legal, morale as well as cost reasons. However, two general ways of monitoring as well as reviewing health and safety policies exist such as: proactive and reactive monitoring.

Proactive monitoring which involves taking precautionary actions prior to a hazard constitutes the checking of implemented standards as well as control of management needs through regular inspections in addition to safety audits. This plays an imperative role in ensuring that preventative or protective measures and interventions are developed and implemented.

As a result, this leads to significant reduction of risks as well as considerable gains in terms of costs reduction through minimised damages. Alternatively, reactive monitoring involves examination of events upon their occurrence and constitutes learned lessons from previous mistakes. Regular inspections of health and safety policy are an appropriate method of reviewing the progress of implementation.

This approach is important in ensuring that risks or damages are mitigated in a timely manner for the purpose of abating their negative effects, which if left unaddressed would result to significant liability or taint the reputation of the facility. Thus, the need for devising the correct interventions is very important for long-term impact to be felt.

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Task 3: (b) Effectiveness of Safety and Health Policies, Systems, Procedures, and Practices in the Promotion of a Positive, Healthy and Safe Culture

Health as well as safety systems, policies, procedures, and practices’ effectiveness is depended on social and health care promotion by focusing on several factors such as: the promotion of non-occupational factors and healthy lifestyles, as well as the organisational environment. Non-occupational factors are: home and community conditions as well as family welfare. On this aspect, emphasis should be directed to improving home and community conditions mainly by devising an appropriate approach through which collaboration between all the concerned parties can be achieved.

Healthy lifestyles can be achieved through heightened awareness creation programs across all groups as well as encouraging change of lifestyles by highlighting the envisaged benefits. In addition, organisational environment is achievable through implementation of the necessary occupational safety and health standards as well as developing and implementing appropriate workplace designs and organisation. WHO proposed an effective model presented in the figure below: 


Figure 3: Effectiveness Model of Health and Safety      (Source: WHO, 2013)

The policies discussed previously such as the Management of Health and Safety at work Regulation 1992 puts more emphasis on risk assessments and reporting of findings, while Health and Safety Regulation 1981 compels home cares to provide first aid. These two policies play a critical role in promoting healthy workplaces as well as safe culture.

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In conclusion, it is safe to state that health and safety implementation in home care, an integrated policy is required through which everyone will get surety to equity in health and social care. For the development of competence of health service providers, there is need for an integrated training since without such policy individuals will be taking their health risk responsibility.        


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Facilitating change in health and social care

health and social care
health and social care

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Facilitating change in health and social care


This paper evaluates the aspect of change in health and social care setting. Economic factors, operational framework, policy setting, and knowledge are highlighted as the core drivers of this change. Moreover, the paper evaluates not just the challenges brought about by this change but also its impact, and suitable service response mechanism. When it comes to essential principles of change management, PowerPoint presentation is employed.   Furthermore, planning of changes, monitoring process, the plan for determining current transformations, social care policy and benchmarks for measuring change are discussed.

1.1Main factors that lead to change

Change refers to the transformation from the current state to a preferred future state. The cycle of change is never ending in our organization. Some welcome and enjoy uncertainties it comes with it; others fear change because they think that something valuable will be lost, and they feel that change will bring unnecessary stress (Brown & Jones 2012). In health care and social services, care is about those who provide the service and those who need the service. People are receptive to impacts of change such as managers have to establish how changes will deliver intended care within the organization.

The main reason why change is always constant is because stimuli of change, as well as other factors that drive change, are economic factors, social factors, operational factors, change in policy, and technological developments. 

Economic factors

The cost of health services has been on an upward trend in spite of, the increased financing in the sector. For this reason, there is a need to reduce expenditures of the current services while looking for cost-efficient ways of delivering the services in the future. Of concern is to ensure that the skills of the existing workforce are up-to-date and specialization has to be enhanced.

Besides, cost reduction has to be maximized through the use of private and nonprofit, supplies (Hayes 2014). The rising user expectation also has to be addressed. This is because as roles develop, information becomes readily available meaning that a large group people will be able to quickly access the available information leading to more informed citizens on the services available.

Availability of information leads to a more informed choice. In other words, people will be in a position to analyze the risks involved, the value of treatment provided, and learn the long-term effects of the treatment method that they have chosen. This affects the demand for certain services and institutions depending on how people view them.

In a social point of view, consumers are encouraged to be active and choose how their needs will be met. This has been made possible through the provision of means for people to directly purchase services, meaning that intermediary parties have been eliminated. This option is boosted by the increasing number of individuals who understand their rights and what they are entitled to.

There is also an increase in the roles of women, and globalization of the medical sector has led to a changed workforce. These changes mean maintaining existing working patterns will be difficult to maintain. It also means that new ways of working will be created based on different career structures and patterns of recruitment. The mixed economy will also contribute to social care change.

This is further enhanced by the shift of authorities towards direct service provision. This method has enabled a shift towards efficiency and economy. Furthermore, it has led to the emergence of improved regulation due to improved knowledge, skills and training leading to long term changes.


With expanded knowledge, improved medications and new ways of doing things, expansion and improvement of services have been achieved. In areas such as drugs, the rate of change is slowing, while new discoveries are increasing. However, given the rising costs of healthcare, the expectation is that with the new developments and technological advancements, it will create new demand on available resources.

Innovations will strengthen or improve existing institutions. Expansion of clinical know-how boosts changes in health care. This is because increased specializations lead to improved healthcare and expands the range of roles leading to the development of new working opportunities.

Development of information technology has allowed professionals to search and present advice without the need for face-to-face consultation. Social care service provision widens staff groups which are providing specialized knowledge and skills. This leads to expansion of expectations, responsibilities, and requirements for new competencies and training.

Improved technology has led to new methods for storing and delivering information. The emergence of the internet has enabled people to do certain tasks online; thus, reducing the need for involvement of specialized staff. This gives them more time to concentrate on more complex care and management duties. Also, this has led to the increased number of individuals responsible for their care.

Operational Framework

Operating environment is also starting to change. For instance, the patient’s choice of where to be treated may undermine the financial position of health care provision centers. Likewise, the introduction of the private sector will, in the long run, affect the existing trusts and provide new opportunities for service delivery.

Policy Environment

Given the new regulations by the government aimed at improving performance, new ways of working and delivering care are evolving. Roles are changing as well as management and organizational structures. The need for improved performance occasioned by financial constraints is also bringing about change (Brown & Jones 2012). This is due to increased innovations in service delivery meaning that there is a continual change in professional roles. Policy changes are also reducing demarcation lines between different professional boundaries, making it much easier to effect changes. Increasing emphasis on interdependence has led to improvement in joint performance through joint monitoring and evaluation.

1.2Challenges and main factors of change

Inadequate capital affects final project outcomes owing to the costs related to the provision of social care service such as hiring new staff, acquiring new equipment, training, and staffing costs are significant challenges for health care provision. Staff resistance or difficulty in adapting to changes is difficult since workers are accustomed to certain ways of operating (Payne 2014). Switching to the new system could be very challenging to them. Political pressure can also compel the institution to achieve set targets.

The changing nature of healthcare comes with challenges and prospects. Staff training and the need for continued professional development are some of the challenges. Furthermore, maintaining quality health care and ensuring the safety of patients, requires extended care and meeting demands for integrated services. To reduce these challenges, there is need to increase the workforce, proper planning, and proper governance to enhance collaboration between administrators and medical providers 

Several opportunities will also come along health care transformation. The increase in skills depths provides advantages and serves to make use of skill mix and expertise in the team. This method also ensures proper staff utilization through identification of specialized knowledge and skills leading to proper utilization of resources (Kadushin & Harkness 2014). Better patient outcomes and more focused patient services, opportunities for development, and job satisfaction will be realized.

2.1Strategy and principles for assessing current changes

Making transformations in an organization involves the determination of the changes that worked and those that never worked; thus, leading to improvements. Therefore, it is expected that one collects data before, during and after the implementation to help measure the progress based on the set goals (Cameron & Green 2015).

Recognize the variables to be estimated and the data required. This relates to the kind of information to be analyzed such as staff attitudes, perceptions et cetera. Secondly, decide the best tools for data collection and develop the best ways to collect them. Thereafter, choose the best tools depending on information required such as the need to know staff attitudes by analyzing members of staff through individual interviews or groups.

Training the personnel is important in developing methods to allow for valid, reliable and accurate data collection.  The information gathered should be organized not just in a systematic way, but by considering the purpose, and technique for efficient data collection.  The data is then analyzed to understand the scale, nature, and the cause of a problem.

2.2. The impact of recent changes

Owing to improved health care standards, and increase population in will be experienced leading to congestion. This change will occasion improvement of transport systems due to the changing demands. The increase in the number of young people requiring social and health care will exert pressure on the providers of social amenities (Brown & Jones 2012)

Owing to the improved standards of living, higher wages are demanded to provide for the increased cost of living. This also means an additional charge for personal care. Improved health care means improved well-being and improvement of the quality of life. This is associated with delivery of high-quality primary care, better access to medical services, improved patient participation through tailored services, and continuity of attention.

Moreover, this will also lead to improved skills while making services available within the community. Collaborative working means provisions of full range services while utilizing available resources, getting access to a larger population leading to improved income generation;  hence; increased profitability.

2.3. The effects of current change in health and social care

Organizational transformations can lead to improved efficiency. This can be achieved by meeting set goals. All agencies should strive to be more efficient following modifications. This is connected to the utilization of available resources to attain the desired output. It also refers to resources utilized by a firm to generate the desired productivity.  Efficiency in organizations maximizes resources during production without wastage (Bourke et al. 2016)

Reduction in cost benefit is geared towards overall cost reduction. Benefits or outcomes should be more than costs incurred to achieve that end. Whether the organization aims to make profits or not, the total cost should be balanced with the outcome of the service so as to be viable. 

Referral in health care refers to the process of transferring patients from a low cadre hospital to a high cadre hospital for further treatment. This referral rates can be used to measure the effectiveness of a hospital based on the number of referrals done to a  high cadre hospital vs. the number of cured patients (Kadushin & Harkness 2014).                                                

This is often done through restructuring and training to improve their skills and technical know-how. The time the patient waits to be attended to is a significant method to evaluate impacts of changes in a health facility. Minimal waiting time indicates speedy patient care administration and by extension faster service delivery and timely intervention.

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2.4. Suitable Responses to recent changes

There should be improved employee participation through the creation of employment opportunities. The management should conduct proper staff training on different technologies. There should also be a change in the structure of the Directorate; new employees should be hired to handle the increased work occasioned by improvements and introduction of new facilities.

There should also be a change of equipment to handle new developments meaning new manpower should be hired to manage or train staff on how to handle new equipment (Cameron &Green, 2015). There should also be a change in service delivery and communication owing to improved facilities.

Local authorities should ensure that people are advised correctly to make good decisions about care and support and the range of available support providers. They should also promote caregivers, children, and families.

3.1. Fundamental principles of change management using Power Point Presentation

3.1.1 Address the “human side” systematically.

Any transformation creates issues touching people. New jobs will be set up new skill and capabilities will be required. Dealing with such changes requires the involvement of leadership, engagement of key stakeholders and leaders.  

3.1.2 Start at the Top.

CEO is seen as the main point as everybody looks to him for strength, support, and direction. Leaders should, therefore, embrace new challenges so as to motivate the rest of the institution. The executives should work together to get the best success.

3.1.3 Involve Every Layer.

Changes affect all sections in the organization and as such training must align individuals to the mission and vision of the organization with the bid of make change happen.

3.1.4 Make the Formal Case.

Legal case allows for creation and alignment of leadership. This is achieved through confronting reality, developing a faith that the company has a healthy future, and provides a clear roadmap that will guide behavior and decision-making.

3.1.5 Create Ownership.

Leaders should accept responsibility in all areas under their control. This achieved through involving people in all the processes and reinforcing by use of incentives and rewards.

3.1.6 Communicate the message.

Communication provides employees with the right information at the right time, and they get their feedback through various channels.

3.1.7 Assess the cultural landscape.

Effects of cultural change should be identified early and addressed to avoid backlash at later stages.

3.1.8    Prepare for the unexpected.

This is achieved through continual assessment of impacts and the willingness to adapt to transformation

3.1.9.    Speak to the individual.

This is intended to educate employees on the intended effects of change constituted, how it will be measured and what success or failures will be expected. By so doing, it will make people aware of the coming changes, and they feel involved in the change process.

3.2. Planning changes in health and social care

Planning for change in health and social care is necessary for continuity of the organization. Any projected effect should be expected. Detailed plan including support after implementation should be documented to ensure that the project is implemented successfully. There is also the need to think of possible mishaps that can occur after implementation. Possible mitigation strategies should be developed to counter the mishaps.

During planning, the goals of the organization are identified, goals are set, tasks are outlined, and schedules of how to accomplish those tasks are developed. It also involves deciding what to do, how, and who will do the tasks. This stage assists in determining the direction of the project (Bourke et al. 2016).  Planning also includes defining the  health tribulations within the society, identifying needs that have not been met, analyzing the resources to meet them, setting goals, and setting action plans for the accomplishment of those programs. Planning also involves establishing policies, programs, objectives, schedules, and budget.

When planning, the following factors, and methods can be considered: stakeholders, staff, management styles, consultation, and communication. All these factors should be aimed at improving health outcomes to reduce inequalities in health and produce effective approaches of care. The change has to be clinically-based; hence, each proposal should then meet the local status. Therefore, the senior management should be at the forefront of the design and development, and patients and members of the public should also be engaged. Local authorities are relevant stakeholders and they can be integrated when planning.

3.3. Monitoring recent changes

To evaluate changes, it is crucial to start with weighing the evidence against each other as this is the best way for determining change.  Several changes exist such as transformational, incremental; episodic, planned, and continuous changes. These changes may be considered by evaluating research, surveys, and sample assessments (Valentin, Schepman & Brinjzeels 2013).  Data collection may be based on people’s opinions regarding on what they view to be the truth, beliefs in what people know, preferences in what they choose, behaviors in what they do, and attitudes in terms of what they need.

Basic questions can be asked that are based on opening response, closed response through different scales that are agreeable, and ranking scales. When reviewing change through the survey, rewards and costs have to be taken into account; People should be more willing to help in evaluating the impact if there is a reward. Reliability and validity should be considered when reviewing the change.

Sampling technique is another method that can be used to monitor and evaluate the change.  This approach provides sample statistics for classifying the targeted people through obtaining controllable objects of study and quantitative representation of resident’s distinctiveness.

Group forums can also act as a basis for reviewing changes in social care services. This platform ensures discussion is carried out either online or through gatherings. Through this avenue, messages are posted and people can hold conversations regarding different topics. Through group feedback, it makes it easy to learn and assess the effect of health services.

Monitoring also ensures the improvement of essential functions in the implementation of health services. It enables one to determine if the service is meeting the set objectives, identify program challenges and benefits, and areas to be revised. This is achieved through analysis of program domains.


The paper has sought to assess the current transformations in health and social care settings. Economic factors, operational framework, policy environment, and knowledge were seen as the underlying factors that drive healthcare and social change. While the challenges and impacts of the change process were evaluated, effective service response mechanisms were proposed.

Essential principles of change management were presented through Microsoft PowerPoint application. In the end, the paper highlighted planning, monitoring, strategy for quantifying change, social care policy, and tools for measuring change.


Brown, K., & Osborne, S. P. 2012. Managing change and innovation in public service organizations. Abingdon: Routledge.

Bourke, A. et al 2016. Evidence generation from healthcare databases recommendations for managing change. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety.

Cameron, E. and Green, M., 2015. Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. London: Kogan Page Publishers.

Epstein, M.J. and Buhovac, A.R., 2014. Making sustainability work: Best practices in managing and measuring corporate social, environmental, and economic impacts. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Hayes, J., 2014. The theory and practice of change management. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Swayne, L.E., Duncan, W.J. and Ginter, P.M., 2012. Strategic management of health care organizations. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Payne, M., 2014. Modern social work theory. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Thompson, N., 2015. Understanding social work: preparing for practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Kadushin, A. and Harkness, D., 2014. Supervision in social work. New York: Columbia University Press.

Huber, D., 2013. Leadership and nursing care management. London: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Valentijn, P.P. et al 2013. Understanding integrated care: a comprehensive conceptual framework based on the integrative functions of primary care. International Journal of Integrated Care13(1).

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Performance Management in Health and Social care

Performance Management
Performance Management

Performance Management

Performance management is defined as an integrated strategic approach to delivering sustainable success to the organization by improving individual performance. Performance management is a system that helps in identifying ways to achieve the set organizational goals by constantly assessing and providing feedback that results in improved employee performance (Johansson‐Sköldberg, et al, 2013, p. 121).

The main approaches to measuring performance have identified the domains where adjustments are necessary. Performance appraisal is one of the appropriate ways of measuring individual performance. Performance appraisal involves measuring, providing feedback, positive reinforcement sharing and agreeing on set standards. Measurement is the process of determining if the set organizational goals were achieved.

After obtaining individual performance progress feedback is provided involving positive feedback to reinforce good performance. Exchanging and sharing of ideas involves reviewing the past performance and sharing experiences for learning purposes. The agreement is the final process where the set goals and objectives are discussed (Gale, et al, 2010, p 606).

Task 3.2                                                    

Identifying individual training needs of an employee refers to reviewing the set goals and addressing the key activities to be conducted to achieve the set goals. Assessment of individual training and development needs entails monitoring performance and evaluating weak points.

Keen observation and measuring employee performance and progress is important because the outcomes will provide the training needs and the type of training and development for individual employees. Development of needs involve conducting period training as part of the learning and development process.  Periodic training will improve individual skills and behavior attitudes to increase the level of performance (MacFarlane, et al, 2011, p 63).

Task 3.3

According to Tay, Moul and Armstrong (2016, p 115), some of the strategies that can be implemented for improvement of individual in health and social care place of work can be done by offering performance feedback and incentives. Performance feedback is offered using appraisals and targets. Employees will be motivated to achieve certain targets and goals which are geared towards achieving organization goals.

If employees achieve the goals they will be rewarded by using incentive packages such as bonuses in form of increasing salary, additional training or other recognition rewards. If an employee does not achieve the goals, they should be criticized constructively to work towards achieving organization goals. This will boost individual performance because the employee will understand what is expected of him.

Performance feedback whether positive or negative can solve conflicts and update employees on their weak areas hence giving the opportunity to rectify their performance behavior that might hinder employees from achieving their career objectives.

Gale, et al. (2010, p 609) states that attractive performance –based incentives motivate employees with nonfinancial incentives having lasting impact than financial incentives. Incentives might vary from increased wages to training and development program and special rewards.

HR managers need to implement reward systems that will motivate employees. Rewarding is the process of recognizing employee’s performance and acknowledging their contribution .Rewards will encourage individuals to aim higher and work towards meeting the set objectives.


Taylor, P. (2013).Performance Management and the New Workplace Tyranny. A Report for the. Scottish Trades Union Congress .Retrieved from  

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Social and Health care for the Elderly

Social and Health care for the Elderly
Social and Health care for the Elderly

Social and Health care for the Elderly


This essay revolves around the case review associated with elderly abuse in health and social care. Elderly abuse has been on the high increase in the recent past largely because the government has failed to perform its obligations. This paper sets out to put certain issues into perspective so as to enable a friendly environment to the elderly to the elderly persons in the community.

Task 1.1 Description of how information could reach the public

The content based on the case study analysed in this paper ought to reach the public sphere at all costs. To begin with, there is a need for a well-structured response mechanism to facilitate the disclosure of all manner of abuses to the concerned authorities (Seale, 2003). Again, the abused persons should not be afraid of the outcomes of disclosing the wrongs meted against them.

There has been a culture where wrongs meted out by one party are perpetuated because the injured party is ignorant of the right channels that would help them seek help or talk about them to get the required public attention. In our contemporary world, for instance, help relating to electronic shopping, fast foods among other associated aspects is widely available.                              

Nonetheless, no one pays much attention to  the elderly. Moreover, available channels of communication have been outrun with time, an aspect that makes it intricate to communicate.  This backdrop calls for an appropriate review of the situation by the regulators. However, because the government may not be able to do everything for everyone, people ought to take initiatives when it comes to reporting the issues to the relevant authorities. In the UK, for instance, the modifications to the components of Southern Cross have culminated to several mistakes (Hara, 2011).                                                                                                            

The Southern Cross has been relentless to providing new information concerning the projected new operators for a momentous proportion of its residential and nursing homes in England.  Nonetheless, owing to poor management and communication methods, there is a scenario of chaos right now (Johnston & Andy, 2013). The authorities and the law enforcers should work closely with those respective houses. On the other hand, the locals should help the authorities as much as they can to ensure these cases are reported promptly.

Task 1.2 Analysis of different media techniques such as media, leaflets, newspapers used for communicating information associated with elderly care.

Media plays an integral role when it comes to disseminating societal issues. However, information linked to elderly care never reaches the public because of the failure of the media to report about it. Nevertheless, the media house should not be subjected to blames or held responsible for not covering some issues, or for simply reporting issues that the public is interested to hear. Contemporary media for instance, reports more about the popular trends regardless of whether or not they have any relevance to the public (Hickey, 2014).

During prime time, media goes out to report sensational news too. In this respect, the perception of the media attitude should be altered (Davies, 2005). Moreover, information associated with elderly issues should be disseminated without any repression or omission. With the advents of social media, it becomes easier to disclose social ills rather fast. There is a need to put into use social media.

Task 1.3 influence of divergent ways on people’s attitudes, thoughts, and behaviors

Much as  people’s attitudes and behaviors are diverse, it is easier to influence them through different channels. For instance, type of media, presentation layout, content, logical visual basics, and sound influence people’s attitudes and behaviors. And because the people’s attitudes can be altered through visualization and sounds, it becomes effective per se. In due course, enhancing people’s understanding about particular issues through graphical representations will certainly enhance their attitudes and behavior. 

Task 2.1 Influence of media on the attitudes and behaviour of people

The media has many functions and the key one is informing the public about current events. In the healthcare sector, the media informs the public about current issues related to health and social care including an outbreak of illnesses, new medicines, treatment techniques and so forth. The increased demand for data has contributed to advancement in periodicals, newspapers, television programs that address health, and social care. Discussions on current events associated with health and social care is done to inform public.

Such debates involve professionals from different fields of health and social care to influence perception of the public (Willby, 2008). For instance, in the US there was a discussion on a department in Novartis that paid a large sum of money to physicians following a prescription manufactured by the company. This scenario will affect public behaviors and attitude towards the products of these firms.

The media can be used as a watchdog of political structure to influence people’s attitude and behaviour. This way the media creates awareness about political structures, by releasing important political opinions, and conditions associated with health and social care. Therefore, a person is empowered to access information about the government, rights and assists them in formulating decisions in health and social care (Davies, 2005).

Moreover, the media is in charge of educating people on health and social care, as it is able to reach many. For instance, the media can educate the public about risks associated with smoking. This can be carried out through health education programs through social media platforms. Again, the media can be used as a platform for announcing events related to health and social care including risks of certain drugs, and epidemics.

Health and social care institutions can also utilize the media to market services to the larger public. However, they should ensure that the ads are convincing and also attractive to help people make informed decisions (Kelly et al. 2005). The objective of any ad is to attract the attention of people; the more attractive the ad is the higher the ability to influence their attitudes and behaviors.

Task 2.2 Evaluating the Reliability and Validity Of Media Content

It’s vital for people to assess validity as well as the reliability of information prior to considering it factual. The public can ascertain this by evaluating the source of information, the issuance of the data and the manner in which it is released and presented. There are different sources of data, for example, government websites, and advocacy groups, political, and religious institutions. The public must understand the agenda behind any information or basically to create awareness. For instance, information released by the Ministry of Health (MoH) on a given policy issue is reliable in comparison to that provided by lobby groups (Hopson, 2013).

Presently, UK is campaigning for quality health and social care by incorporating the elderly people. This campaign is organized by the government, making it valid and reliable as it values the interests of its population. Conversely, in the United States, there is Obama care, which purposes to modify insurance sector to cater for the healthcare needs of low-income earners. The bill was widely debated; some opposed it while other supported it. However, the media plays an important role of presenting facts and views about the bill (Hopson, 2013). By and large, the public must get information from reliable sources like government sites and publications.

Task 3.1 Contemporary Issue

Compared to previous years, Britain population is healthier than ever. Nonetheless, regardless of the improving health of the population, minorities’ health is increasing at a remarkable low rate in comparison to the general population. In the attempt to address the issues, it has been challenging, particularly, for healthcare providers as well as policy makers. It is evident that causes of inequalities are determined based on social factors (Hara, 2011).

Employment industry and education structures plan access to job opportunities based on the society. Moreover, inequalities are influenced by sexuality, gender, and racial background. Experts have demonstrated that addressing unequal allocation of the variable of health is vital in terms of improving Britain’s health sector. Facts on the mortality rates of immigrants demonstrate the presence of heterogeneity across minorities.

Task 3.2 Monitoring different perspectives

In the UK, ethnic groups comprise of about eight percent or 4.6 million individuals of the entire population. Previous studies have shown that racial communities have a low quality of health in comparison to white Caucasians in conditions like heart diseases, mental health, and stroke among others (Hickey, 2014). In the past years, healthcare inequalities of various ethnicities are common in various healthcare institutions across the UK. The UK government in the past decade provided data on the healthcare gaps across the nation and also certain areas that the gap was increasing (Davies, 2005).

The inequalities start at birth, for example, children born in poor households are in danger of being born premature and developing chronic illness in adulthood. This leads to the cycle of inequalities. As such, the government has initiated a number of measures with the objective of investigating aspects of healthcare inequalities while reducing it among racial communities. Some of the initiatives are; Health Challenge England; Spearhead Primary Care Trusts; Race for Care and so forth. Much as initiatives were introduced to not only improve, but also minimise healthcare gaps. Some have been successful, while others were have failed in addressing inequalities in healthcare.

Task3.3 Significance of results to health and social care

Previous studies on health and social care documented in a number of journals have been the basis upon which health experts use to practice while improving service delivery. These studies are crucial when it comes to creating awareness about challenges in health and social care and presents a general understanding of handling such challenges. For example, many intellectuals have investigated about the significance of training of healthcare experts on ethnicity and cultural diversity of UK’s populace (Davies, 2005). This a suitable step because it helps health care experts to be conscious of the expectations of racial communities, including beliefs, practices, and social conditions.

Furthermore, findings are used publicly as the foundation for informing them about new events in health and social care industry such that the they are aware of the healthcare gaps across health care institutions across the UK. Data from government published on their sites about health care gaps is helpful since it informs the public on current issues on health and social care. In addition, advocacy groups publish information about social and health care on their sites and other channels to create public awareness.

Task 3.4 Factors influencing development of various perspectives

A number of factors are attributed to the development of various perspectives over a given time frame, for instance, ignorance about the health care requirements racial minorities. Regardless, of the enhanced outcomes conducted through ethnic diversity initiatives, three is a lack of provisions for health care experts across the UK apart from in psychiatry.

Therefore, it is important for health education to integrate principle that purpose to achieve the objectives of improving health for the entire population, and identification of special health requirements, belief and communication challenges of racial groups (Anon, 2013). Many health professionals state that changing lifestyles in inner cities have contributed to increasing the number of ethnic minorities. In fact,

Asians people in the UK has increased considerably, hence, it is crucial to find a remedy to these issues. Other elements that influence the growth of various perspectives include economic constraints, availability of adequate information, and changing roles of corporates in managing hospitals. These factors were evident in the past and they have greatly influenced the perception of people. As such, this is a field that planners and policy makers should take into account when making decisions (Anon. 2013).

Task4.1: The extent of local attitudes reflect those found at a national level

Recently, NHS has been under pressure to review measures aimed at reducing health inequalities. On one hand, reports indicate that NHS is not effective in terms of minimizing health inequalities, on the other, the gap is increasing considerably. The reports call upon the government to concentrate on issues at different health institutions while highlighting the main cause of such inequalities.

Social and economic issues are main causes of changes in behaviour and attitude in local and national levels are not adequately emphasized (Morris, Carrell & McDonald, 2016). There is the need for education and training programs on social causes of illnesses while encouraging health specialists to advocate for patients. The media has played its role of reporting health gaps as well as changing racial minorities face in the UK.

While the released data can be deceptive, its necessary for the government to provide information so as to ascertain accurate facts on health inequalities reach the public. Furthermore, the government must use various modes of media to release the information including television, radios, websites among others (Hara, 2011). Again, the government must inform the public on necessary measures to address health inequalities, for instance, integrating progress records on initiatives they have implemented.                                                                                                                

With respect to local level, there is a wide range of beliefs and practices that greatly influence health status. The majority of people in local areas do not want to change the manner in which they take medication, they still believe in their practices. This is an aspect that contributes to spreading of diseases. At the local level, social care facilities are regarded as ineffective and simply a place for caring for elderly individuals.

Subsequently, local attitudes lead to many national issues. If individuals are not able to reduce the spread of endemic, it is reflected at the national level, which leads to remarkable risks to economic, health and physical issues. Therefore, to reduce while ensuring the country’s population is health, everyone should be involved.

Task 4.2 Evaluation of validity of public attitudes and behaviors

Healthcare is a field that entails creating awareness about health related issues (Willby, 2008). This also entails wide areas  associated with social, spiritual, intellectual, physical, and environmental health.  This is the basis upon which people learn to conduct themselves in a way that is appropriate to the promotion of health. In many instances, media post news without taking into account the element of empathy.

The variation in public attitude and behaviour can be as a result of the gap in income. The public’s response to social platforms in the promotion of health is positive. As a matter of fact, social platforms are commonly employed to influence individuals’ behaviour towards health. Social promoters use several marketing strategies including placing information in clinics, community outreach, and promotion. Therefore, based on the case study the information will significantly influence public attitude as well as behaviors. In addition, releasing information on elderly abuse in the public will demonstrate the increased health gaps of this group.

In turn, this will contribute to the formation of groups that aims to create awareness about elderly abuse. The groups can also organize peaceful protests to get the government to enact laws that prohibit abuse of elderly. The groups can also educate elderly people about their rights and how to increase their wellbeing. Releasing such data contributes to contemporary thinking in terms of health and social care, which makes the government be effective in the provision of services to all.

Task 4.3 Effects of contemporary thinking

Contemporary thinking in the delivery of health and social care can result in many consequences. For instance, it helps in educating the public about what  the government is doing and ways of addressing a given social and health event. Nonetheless, the public should be cautious regarding the sources of the information. Moreover, the public must ensure the information is not only valid, but also reliable (Willby, 2008).

This is because the released data impacts on the public’s attitude, behaviour, and thoughts.  Caution should then be considered prior to release. Contemporary thinking involves the utilization of informatics in health and social care, which is imperative in obtaining good outcomes including; management of care setting; team collaboration; and negotiation.


In the end, this paper determined to highlight not just an overview and insight on global health issues, but also the role played by the media to inform the wider society. Accordingly, the public has a pertinent role to play as well. While almost everyone has an obligation towards reporting, individual attitudes and the motive behind reporting is of a great importance .

The national health issues tend to play out in the global sphere. Hence globally major issues tend to happen to owe to the attitudes of local peoples. Again the relevant authorities should take a lead to create public awareness, in healthcare related issues and determine the veracity of publications. While it is vital to champion the notion that the young should always be educated through media, they should always take limited interest in media publications. It is imperative for the public to assess the consistency and legitimacy of media content before they can think of consuming it. 

This starts with evaluating not just the information source, but also who is dispensing the information and how the content is disseminated. Some of these sources may include the political class, religious agenda, government sources and lobby groups among others. The public ought to analyse whether or not the information presented is aimed at playing with the public emotions or simply reporting plain facts.


Anon., (2013). NHS told to do more to ‘reduce health inequalities’. Accessed on 24th May, 2016 at

Davies S. (2005). Research Governance Framework for Health and Social Care Accessed on 24th of May, 2016 at

Hara, O, M (2011). Sustainability: Living our values. Why the responsible reporting of mental health issues is so important. Accessed on 24th May, 2016 at

Hickey, S. (2014). How technology in the home can improve health and social care. Accessed on 24th May, 2016 at

Hopson, C. (2013). Is the NHS really that bad – what does the evidence show? Accessed on 24th May, 2016 at

Johnston J. & Andy D. (2013). Care homes let my dad starve to death. PUBLISHED: Accessed on 24th May, 2016 at

Kelly, M. P., McDaid, D., Ludbrook, A., & Powell, J. (2005). Economic appraisal of public health interventions. London: Health Development Agency.Accessed on 24th May, 2016 at

Morris, S., Carrell, S & McDonald, H. (2016). How healthcare differs across the UK. Accessed on 24th May, 2016 at

Seale C (2003). Media and Health Guidance and units – Edexcel Level 4 BTEC Higher Nationals in Health and Social Care– Issue 1 – October 2004 155

Willby P. (2008). The media’s addiction to the controversy can seriously damage your health. Accessed on 24th May 2016 at

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Public Health in Health Care and Social Care
Public Health in Health Care and Social Care

The Role of Public Health in Health Care and Social Care

Public Health


 The concept of public health has grown in importance and stature since its inception in the UK.  The main aim of public health is prevention of illness and diseases in the entire population as well as promoting and sustaining health of the citizens. This is facilitated by recognizing many social factors that contribute to health (WHO, 2015).

This paper aims at investigating the roles of different agencies that work within the community to reduce the incidence of diseases. This paper will investigate both non-infectious and non-infectious diseases which are widespread as well as explore the various strategic approaches and statistical methods applied to evaluate, monitor, and regulate the incidence of the diseases.  The paper will also explore the various effects of illness and diseases in delivery of health care and social care services. The paper will put into consideration the current lifestyle in the community that impacts the delivery of quality health and social care services (Department of Health, 2013).

Roles of different agencies in the UK

Public health refers to science and art of ailment prevention and prolonging of life using planned efforts to help the society make informed choices. The main role played   by the different agencies is to identify incidences of diseases   within various communities. The different agencies involved in  public health include International agencies such as World Health Organization (WHO)  and European Union (EU); National level agencies (Government  and UK Department of Health  (DH) and the local authorities  and local health trusts (Social welfare 2013).

The World Health Organization (WHO) has six core functions. To begin with, they provide strong leadership on critical health issues and engage in partnership especially in areas that are in need joint action. They are also responsible in research agendas that facilitate dissemination of knowledge on health issues.

The organization also sets norms and standards that should be used to promote and monitor the effectiveness of specific interventions of public health issues.  The organization facilitates the establishment of evidence based policies that are ethical. This includes provision of technical support by catalyzing change and developing sustainable institutional policies. WHO also monitors the health situation and evaluates the current health trends (Forest & Denis 2014).

 The European Union has the responsibility of complementing the national policies. It does so by helping the EU affiliated governments to achieve the established shared objectives, pool resources so that they can generate the scale of economies as well as tackle the shared challenges. The role of this international organization also includes promotion of healthier lifestyle, and ensuring equitable distribution of resources to tackle the serious health threats that are predominant among EU member countries (Social welfare 2013).

 At the national level, the UK Department of Health (DH) leads the strategy, policy and outcomes of health improvement. The agency leads by establishing policies that protect the citizens from a range of health threats.  It leads in emergency preparedness, providing health programs for Olympics and Paralympics et cetera. It helps the health care providers at the national level to harness the cutting edge in the advancement of medical science to improve health care.  The agency also designs the systems for England public health.  

The Department of Health (DH) helps the UK residents to have better and longer life. The role of the agency is to lead, shape, and provide funds for the healthcare system in the UK.  This ensures that people have adequate support as well as helping to, maintain the dignity of the citizens. The agency also creates national policies and healthcare legislation. It also supports the integrity of the healthcare system by ensuring delivery of quality care and accounting for the funds provided to it by parliament in a way which represents the interests of the patients.

The agency also champions innovation and supports research and technology, transparency, openness, and honesty. This improves the out-patient care by establishing the safest and highest quality of healthcare services. Ultimately, the efficiency and productivity of the healthcare system is improved (Department of Health, 2013).

  The local authorities have a convening role and also promote co-existence between the Local authorities and the GP consortia. The key role of the local authorities is to lead joint strategic needs assessments (JSNA) to ensure coordinated and coherent strategies.  The agency also supports local voice and promotes patient’s autonomy. The local agency also leads on local health in order to prevent occurrence of diseases.  The agency promotes the commissioning of the social care and Local NHS services to improve delivery of quality care (Reiner et al. 2013)

Epidemiology of infectious and non-infectious disease

 Epidemiology refers to the study of distribution of infectious and non-infectious diseases, and the determinants of these health related events within a specified population, and application of research studies to control the health issue.  Epidemiology involves studying of global patterns, risk factors, and preventive measures that can be applied to improve the health issue.  

Non infectious disease is also referred to as non-communicable disease. This refers to a health condition that is non transmissible. More often than not,, most of non-communicable diseases are chronic and progress slowly. Examples include asthma, obesity, malignant disease. and cancer. Infectious diseases are highly contagious, which implies that they are transmitted from one person to another. They are often caused by pathogens.  Examples of infectious diseases include HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, influenza, childhood diseases, MRSA, influenza, food and water borne diseases (Social welfare 2013).

  UK is reported to have the highest level of obesity in the Western Europe. Obesity is a non-infectious disease and it refers to body mass index (BMI) that is between 25 and above.  According to the Health and Social Care Information Centre, 24.9% of the population is obese and approximately 61.7% is overweight. The levels have increased in the past three decades, and it is projected that if intervention measures are not put in place, half of the population will be obese by 2050.

This trend is attributed to the fact that most people have adopted modern lifestyles which includes unhealthy dietary and physical inactiveness. Obesity is the biggest health crisis in the UK because it is also associated with other health complications such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disorders (National Obesity Forum n.d).

 The most common type of infectious diseases is influenza. The latest epidemiological reports indicate that influenza has continued to increase considerably.  The influenza virus is the leading cause of respiratory tract infections, which is associated with severe complications which lead to hospital admission and mortality.  The internet based surveillance indicates that influenza affects 18.4 per cent out of a population of 1000 people. However, 20-44 people report higher rates of infection which is reported at 23.1 per cent out of a population of 1000 people   (Social welfare 2013).

The effectiveness of different approaches as well as strategies of diseases control

There are various approaches being utilized by the Department of health in controlling obesity and influenza in the UK.  Some of these approaches include screening, vaccination, legislation, education, and creating awareness and surveillances (Social welfare 2013).

The Department of health has established interventions that will help people make healthier choices by ensuring that they are in a position to make healthy dietary and to become more active. This includes programs such as Change4life. The department has established strategies that will help effective labeling of drinks and food which will help people to make informed choices.

The legislation requires the factories to include ingredients such as calories.  The National institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has established a series of initiatives that aims at reducing obesity. This includes improving the physical environment and leisure parks to improve the amount of physical activeness among the population (Public Health England 2014).

The departments at national and community level encourage the use of school based programs as the main strategy to tackle obesity. For example, the Croydon Healthy Schools program was established in order to ensure that local schools support healthy food programs and promote physical activeness. The public health agencies at the national level deal with four specific networks including food, physical activity, alcohol, and health safety at the workplace.  These initiatives have helped people to adopt healthy lifestyles.  In addition, regular education has helped to reduce discrimination as well as enhance self confidence among people with obesity (Social welfare 2013).

 The Public health of England also conducts surveillances of the Influenza after every week to monitor the influenza activity at community and national level. Influenza is the leading cause of hospitalization in the UK. For this reason, the healthcare agencies at the government level (Department of Health) supported by the local authorities have developed annual a flu program that seeks to vaccinate individuals at high risk of developing influenza. The high risk individuals include the older people, infants and toddlers, pregnant women, immune-suppressed, and those suffering from cardiac diseases.

In addition, the program provides training to help the citizens in detecting signs and symptoms of influenza. The public health department also requires that any suspected case of avian flu must be reported to the nearest animal and Plant Health agency. This helps the agencies to effectively control the infection. A recent case of low severity (H5N1) avian flu was reported in Dunfermline early this year, but the agencies managed to control the infection by using restricted movement (Public Health England 2014).

The current priorities and approaches

The priorities for delivery of health services are influenced by evaluating the burden of a disease. The analysis of the community burden of disease provides comparable assessment of the cost of health, injuries, risk factors and mortality rates. This is normally done using the disability-adjusted life year (DALY). DALY that normally evaluates the number of years lost as a result of premature deaths within a certain time (Social welfare 2013).

According to DALY report in the UK, the leading health burden is mental illness, heart complications, cancers diseases and respirational diseases respectively. In 2010, the leading causes of DALY were cardiovascular disease, chronic osteoporosis (back pain), as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Most of these disorders are associated with unhealthy lifestyles such as poor dietary, alcoholism, smoking, and lack of exercises.

Therefore, the current healthcare priorities in the UK include preventive services for mental health, smoking, diet control, alcoholism as well as promoting physical activeness.  The second priority is to improve the clinical services by providing adequate support for mental health services, respiratory disorders, and cardiovascular disorders (Public Health England 2014).

 The approaches being used to provide healthcare include primordial prevention. This involves   identification of legislation that aims at delivering quality services. Other approaches include education and awareness, environmental controls and social welfare.  The second approach is through primary prevention. This primarily focuses on health promotion interventions such as health education on immunization, chemoprophylaxis, and serophaylaxis. Environmental modifications will help to protect the community from various hazards in the environment. The nutritional interventions and behavioral changes will ensure that people adopt healthy lifestyles (Social welfare 2013).

 The other approach is the secondary prevention which mainly focuses on halting the progression of the disease and prevents complications. The main activities in this stage include screening tests, laboratory findings, and adequate treatment programs. The fourth approach is through tertiary prevention. This involves use of all interventions to limit disabilities and impairments associated with the health event and help promote a patient’s health condition.

This mainly focuses on interventions that prevent disability limitation as well as rehabilitative services.  Rehabilitative services are coordinated through medical, vocational, educational, and social training measures to help the patient retain their functional ability to the highest level (Public Health England, 2014).

The approaches being used include monitoring and surveillances. Monitoring is used to describe the performance and analysis of measurements that are aimed at evaluating the environmental changes such as water quality and other forms of pollution, dietary intake et cetera. Monitoring also entails all other forms of measurements of health services and the extent to which patients adhere to the advice provided by healthcare professionals.  On the other hand, surveillance is the inspection of the determinants of health, and the distribution of   the other health related illnesses (Public Health England, 2014).

Relationship that exists between the prevalence of disease and the service requirements

There are considerably adequate healthcare resources including hospital, community health services, personal medical services, and community health services.  The community health services providers (HCHS) and dental staffs are about 105,000. There are bout 41 300 healthcare providers who provide consultation services and an additional 53,000 who provide training services. 

There is about 971,000 non-medical staff whereby 319,000 are qualified nurses, 136,000 are technical and therapeutic professionals, 187,000 in infrastructure support, and 36,000 are managers.  In the new health and social care setting, these healthcare providers consist of clinical commissioning groups (Department of Health, 2013).

The UK health and well-being board brings together organizations to work in partnership in order to deliver powerful that advocate for the needs of communities and patients.

 These healthcare professionals have combined efforts to help people lead healthier lives.  This involves ensuring that people have adequate support, care and treatment as needed, and in the most compassionate, respectful, and dignified manner.  The specialists are working together to ensure that they provide evidence based care. This is achieved by bringing in the multidisciplinary teams together in health and social care to manage healthcare efficiently and effectively. 

This facilitates timely referrals which are important in reducing time for making diagnosis. Although there have been massive improvements in healthcare, the public health of England continues to be burdened by diseases such as obesity and influenza.  This often calls for strategic frameworks and policies (Department of Health, 2013).

Impact of current lifestyle choices on the health care future needs

The UK people’s health is determined by their lifestyle choices.  This is attributed to the increased globalization and   busy schedules that make it difficult for people to engage in healthy lifestyle.  For instance, obesity is associated with poor dietary and increased physical inactiveness.  The food available in the UK today is just refined ingredients mixed with some chemicals. These food products are cheap, and taste very good that one cannot have enough.

This makes the food to become hyper-palatable which makes people eat them in high quantity due to food addiction.  Food addiction is a complex issue that can be very difficult to overcome. This often leads to mental disorders and increases a person’s susceptibility to other infectious diseases such as influenza (Health Protection Agency 2010).

 Obesity is associated with energy imbalance. The main variable factor and one that can be modified is physical activity. Most people are not active. Physical activity has continued to decline in developed countries. The pattern is being reflected in developing countries. Over the past decades, each household in the UK own second hand carts and appliances that help to cut on labor. Outdoor activities have also reduced considerably; consequently, one in every four people in the UK is at risk of becoming obese. The impact of physical inactivity affects the   future of the healthcare industry because increases cardiovascular disease burden through the increased cost of preventive care (Department of Health 2013).

Most of the health complications are associated with behavioral risk factors.   Chief among the behavioral risk factors includes smoking and binge drinking. It has been hypothesized that smoking helps in reduction of weight gain. However, these beliefs are over-simplistic. Both smokers and non-smokers are at risk of becoming obese if they feed on unhealthy foods and are physically inactive. The impact of tobacco smoking and alcohol affects the   future of the healthcare industry because it increases the cost of preventive care (Enfield 2013).

Priorities for people in specific health setting

 The well-being and health of the populace in this community are highly related to each other. According to WHO, health has a great influence on the nation’s economic development. The healthier a community is the more productive it becomes.  The healthcare settings of a community are influenced by many factors such as communication, poverty and social services.

These determinants can be categorized by many physical factors such as the individual health factors which include hormonal imbalance, genetic disorders, and immune system.  These factors increase people’s risks of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. These factors also affect the behavioral, cultural and psychological factors. For instance, stress is a psychological factor whereas unsafe sexual behavior, abuse of alcohol, and smoking are behavioral factors that have an impact on an individual’s health. (Public Health England, 2014).

 The environmental factors involve all factors that affect the wellbeing of humans. These include safe water and a clean environment. Other factors include chemical factors, biological and physical environment. The socioeconomic factors such as income affect the well-being of an individual. For instance, in the UK, health disparities are evident between the high income and low income earners. The high income households get better medication and education, and are less likely to be affected by infectious and non-infectious diseases (Social welfare 2013).

Priorities of elderly people’s health should be based according to the health issues facing the age group, and are projected to face the age group if not addressed adequately.  Infectious diseases such as Influenza affects the elderly people especially those living in low economic zones. Such diseases are associated with long term effects; hence, they need immediate and appropriate health solutions such as preventive management.

Abuse of the elderly people is another issue that must be prioritized. The elderly people are abused physically, emotionally and psychologically. The protection agency must ensure that they are adequately prepared to help the frail human beings.  This is to ensure that they are housed, fed, and their healthcare is taken care of (Paterson 2014).

Effectiveness of strategies systems and polices

The effectiveness of the policies that are implemented in taking care of the elderly involves enactment of policies by the various agencies of the public health. There are various agencies that contribute towards the enhancement of children’s health and are all working to meet the same goal. The partnerships established by these institutions are designed to facilitate incorporation of effective healthcare services.

These services include involvement of the PCTs, CCCs and other local authorities. Due to the modifications conducted in the white paper, these policies and systems have been found to be very effective in delivering care .However; there are some areas where the ground level implementation has not been successful. In such instances, there is need to establish more interventions to help implement the policies more effectively (Stewart, Cutler, & Rosen 2009)

 Changes that could be established to improve the healthcare

 The changes that are needed in the UK healthcare system are changes that will influence positive behavior. For example, there are limited opportunities that promote physical activity. In this context, the public health agencies should respond to the private sector to ensure that recreational facilities are not interfered with to ensure that there is enough space for physical activity. This includes maintaining of the cycle routes, sports areas, children play ground areas and pedestrianisation (Social welfare 2013).

 The second priority is to change the local culture and beliefs of physical activity. Most people in the UK do not value physical activity. The public health agencies must put in place awareness programs that will help to ensure physical activity is valued by everybody in the community.  The public health is also responsible for community safety. There have been few worries regarding personal security especially when exercising. The public health must liaise with the community groups and the police to help restore a safe community (Public Health England 2014).

 The public health community must work in partnership with the groups such as educational institutions and communities to increase awareness on preventive measures such as healthy foods, physical activeness, and vaccination programs.  The commissions should improve access to organic food at affordable prices especially among the socially marginalized people (Public Health England, 2014).

Task 3.4 Evaluation of an activity that have been implemented to promote behavior change

 Under the Health and Social Care Act 2012, the main agency in charge of improving the health of the populace is the local authorities. They have a statutory function to improve public health by providing advice to the clinical commissioning groups. The local authorities are entrusted to deliver National Child Measurement Program.  One of such program is “cooking from scratch”. This is an initiative established by NHS and Bristol county council.

The scheme targets to teach the low household income on ways to make simple healthy foods that can be achieved at specific budget.  The program also trains the community on importance of physical activeness and adhering to vaccination programs. The program has been successful as it trains people from diverse settings including the elderly in community day care centers, staff working in these centers, youth clubs, and new mothers. This has helped to reduce the rates of obesity in this county (Public Health England 2014)


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Managing Human Resources in Health and Social Care

Managing Human Resources in Health and Social Care
Managing Human Resources in Health and Social Care

Managing Human Resources in Health and Social Care


Recruiting efficient workers remains an important factor to the success of every organization. Consequently, organizations adopt approaches involving training and developing the most effective employees. Within the health and social care fields it is imperative measures aimed at understanding systems used to monitor and promote the development of employees are integrated. The paper explores the various legislative frameworks that must be observed during recruitment processes. This includes exploring leadership theories which can promote effective team spirit.  This is particularly important to progress the healthcare organization leadership and management of the employees as well as the recruitment processes.

How Individuals Interact In Groups within Health and Social Care Settings

It is essential to note that the theories of behavior can be defined as the behaviors that are displayed by leaders since behavior remains the single most predictor of a leader’s results, success and influences. The Tuckman’s model remains the most famous theory that explains the manner in which individual’s work in groups. Tuckman divided the team interaction stages in four phases that include the forming phase, storming, norming, and performing.

Linking the Theories to Health and Social Care

In light of the formation of group’s theory, it is important to determine that the theory primary guides on how effective groups can be developed within the health and social care industry. The theory can be incorporated within this industry in the formation of effective groups that goes through the formation process (Rodgers, pp. 373.2014).  The Belbin theory on the other hand provides appropriate approaches through which groups can work in partnership. The two theories in this case would aid in the formation of an effective group that incorporates the element of teamwork in the achievement of goals.


Downey, L, Lee, B, & Stough, C 2011, ‘Recruitment Consultant Revenue: Relationships with IQ, personality, and emotional intelligence’, International Journal Of Selection & Assessment, 19, 3, pp. 280-286, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 April 2016.Retrived From:

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Working in partnership in health and social care
Working in partnership in health and social care

Working in partnership in health and social care

Working in partnership in health and social care is a vital aspect.  Partnership refers to a shared jointness and power, marked by respect for one another, divisions of roles, accountability and individual input. Different terms are used to define partnership including cooperation, shared learning, teamwork, participation and multi-disciplinary working.  The staffs in healthcare have the responsibility to recognize the importance of promoting autonomy within the service users and the service providers. 

They are not only expected to be attentive to their own roles but also learn to relate with each other’s within the within St Andrew’s healthcare facility.  This is important particularly in the view of the unrest and cynicism observed in the NHS. Therefore, it is important for those concerned about their commitment in developing a mutual relationship for the good of the service users (Soni 2014).

For this reason, there is need to explore the philosophy that facilitate the staff to work in partnership at the St Andrew’s hospital. The philosophy is needed for several reasons but the ultimate goal is to providing quality care to the service users. The philosophy ensures that there is equity, quality and efficiency in the delivery of the healthcare and social care services. The philosophy is governed by ethics- a complex activity that is concerned with the moral obligations and dilemmas.  Ethics in healthcare philosophy are governed by the ethical theories.

For example, the theory of deontology is concerned with the moral duty as well as the action rightness (Petch, Cook, and Miller 2013). Therefore, this theory suggests that a healthcare staff must always do what is morally right irrespective of the associated consequences.  The other theory is the utilitarianism proposed by Jeremy Bentham, which is based on the principle of utility. Although these theories do not describe exactly on how a staff should behave, it gives the healthcare staff an understanding on how to motivate each other and pull ideas especially when confronted by ethical dilemmas and in accordance to ethical principles of autonomy, non-maleficence, justice and beneficence (Paterson, Nayda & Paterson 2012). 

 The working in partnership in health and social care at St Andrew’s hospital should be governed by the partnership philosophies such as respect, autonomy, and empowerment, power sharing, and making informed choices.  The philosophy of empowerment involves sharing power with other partners who may not have the power.  This philosophy is centered in healthcare service users and providers to enable them take greater charge of themselves. 

It involves the process of recognizing, enhancing and empowering other people’s ability to meet their demands and to resolve their own issues with the available resources, making them feel in control of their lives.  This enriching experience is associated with satisfaction and often leads to smooth partnership relationship (Robert& Cornwell 2011).


Cameron, A., Lart, R., Bostock, L. and Coomber, C. 2013. Factors that promote and hinder joint and integrated working between health and social care services. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at:

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Interprofessional Practice
Interprofessional Practice

Interprofessional Practice

It is essential for the healthcare team to ensure efficient collaboration and adherence to the requirements of interprofessional practice while caring for patients for the effectiveness of every task performed. The interprofessional practice and collaborative approach among health care team members are explored during the management of Ms.Tuckerno’s care. There are barriers hindering effective collaboration between the internist and the nurse practitioner which leads to disagreements of the decisions made by each of them (Mulvale et al, 2016).

These barriers include poor communication between the internist and the nurse practitioner which affects the readiness to work together and interprofessional collaboration which might lead to problems in ensuring patient-centered and quality care. The other barrier to effective collaboration is caused by the failure to understand each other’s professional role and responsibilities while caring for the patient (Matziou et al, 2014).

The internist and nurse practitioners need to collaboratively agree in using each other’s capabilities and expertise professionally and in a patient-centered way rather than discrediting the different tasks performed by each of them. Such poor collaborations between them which also does not involve the patient in the care process is a poor approach in addressing the health conditions facing Ms.Tuckerno.

 The position of the nursing organization that I want to work for in future is strong regarding interprofessional practice and the best collaborative approach. The American nurses association holds that collaborative care would involve the integrated enactment of skills, knowledge, and values that define professional ways of working together with the objective of improving health outcomes.

The position of the organization when it comes to interprofessional practice is that patients should be put first during the process of care, effective communication between the healthcare team members is also essential in ensuring effective outcomes after collaborations in treating the patients(Sangster,2015). Ensuring patient-centered approach while adhering to the ethics and values of interprofessional practice is also vital. The final position holds that the leadership should be committed to prioritizing the inter-professional collaboration. The best approach should be adopted in handling the case for Ms.Tuckerno leading to the desired results.

Professional communication between the internist and nurse practitioner or other workers would strengthen interactivity thus eliminating cases of conflicts while making decisions which slows the adoption of the best medication approaches (Jean et al, 2016). The understanding of the responsibilities and roles of each is essential in enhancing effective functioning which influences the provision of quality treatment to Ms.Tuckernon thus improving her condition. In a nutshell, the shared responsibility between the healthcare team members would ensure the effectiveness in executing roles thus better health outcomes for the patient (Parke et al,2014).   


Jean Jacques van Dongen, J., Lenzen, S. A., van Bokhoven, M. A., Daniëls, R., van der Weijden, T., & Beurskens, A. (2016). Interprofessional collaboration regarding patients’ care plans in primary care: a focus group study into influential factors. BMC Family Practice, 171-10. doi:10.1186/s12875-016-0456-5

Matziou, V., Vlahioti, E., Perdikaris, P., Matziou, T., Megapanou, E., & Petsios, K. (2014). Physician and nursing perceptions concerning interprofessional communication and collaboration. Journal Of Interprofessional Care, 28(6), 526-533. doi:10.3109/13561820.2014.934338

Mulvale, G., Embrett, M., & Razavi, S. D. (2016). ‘Gearing Up’ to improve interprofessional collaboration in primary care: a systematic review and conceptual framework. BMC Family Practice, 171-13. doi:10.1186/s12875-016-0492-1                      

Park, J., Hawkins, M., Hamlin, E., Hawkins, W., & Bamdas, J. M. (2014). Developing Positive Attitudes Toward Interprofessional Collaboration Among Students in the Health Care Professions. Educational Gerontology, 40(12), 894-908.

Sangster-Gormley, E. (2015). Interprofessional Collaboration: Co-workers’ Perceptions of Adding Nurse Practitioners to Primary Care Teams. Quality In Primary Care, 23(3), 122-126.

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