RFID technology Research problems inside the Apple Company

RFID technology
RFID technology

RFID technology

Order Instructions:

Formulate a research problem to solve with RFID technology, and the Apple company. Identify one key problem to study with RFID. Develop one hypothesis that will be the key question that would be addressed by such an analysis.

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RFID technology research problems inside the Apple Company

Research problem

Apple Inc., among other leaders in technology, continues to take up wireless systems as part of their bid towards the progression of technology. Among the recent uptakes has been variants of wireless technology for data and information transmission, as well as wireless charging. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is primarily the backbone of such breakthrough technologies (Ghosh, Goswami, Kumar, & Majumder, 2015). At Apple Inc., for example, RFID and other related subsets are responsible for the development of such products as Apple Pay, Apple TV, and Apple Watch.

As Apple Inc. continues to develop new products based on radio frequency identification, the technology has morphed to include various subsets of similar technologies. In the case of Apple Inc., the most usable of these is the original RFID implementation, as well as the newer NFC (Hayashi, 2012). Each of these technologies has its advantages, as well as some drawbacks. Research and reports from Apple Inc. show an uptake of NFC by the company over RFID. However, could the advantages of the ‘Old school’ RFID outweigh the current and potential benefits of NFC?….

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Research Purpose

Research Purpose
Research Purpose

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Research Purpose

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate purpose statements in research studies published in peer-reviewed journals
  • Analyze alignment among theory, problem, and purpose in research studies published in peer-reviewed journals
  • Explain relationship between research and social change
  • Apply APA Style to writing

Learning Resources

Required Readings

Babbie, E. (2017). Basics of social research (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

  • Chapter 4, “Research Design”

Burkholder, G. J., Cox, K. A., & Crawford, L. M. (2016). The scholar-practitioner’s guide to research design. Baltimore, MD: Laureate Publishing.

  • Chapter 10, “Writing the Research Proposal”

Discussion: Evaluating Purpose Statements

For this Discussion, you will evaluate the purpose statements in assigned journal articles in your discipline and consider the alignment of theory, problem, and purpose. You will also explain your position on the relationship between research and social change.

Alignment means that a research study possesses clear and logical connections among all of its various components. To achieve these connections, researchers must carefully craft the components of their study such that when they are viewed together, there is a coherent interrelationship.

As you read the authors’ purpose statements, consider how well the intent of the study, and its connection to the problem and theoretical framework, is presented. Also consider if the purpose statement reveals the study’s potential for engendering positive social change.

Post a critique of the research study in which you:

  • Evaluate the purpose statement using the Purpose Statement Checklist as a guide
  • Analyze alignment among the theory, problem, and purpose
  • Explain your position on the relationship between research and social change

Research Journal Article

Swan, B., Coulombe-Quach, X-L, Huang, A., Godek, J., Becker, D., & Zhou, Y. (2015). Meeting the needs of gifted and talented students: Case study of a virtual learning lab in a rural middle school. Journal of Advanced Academics, 26(4), 294–319. doi:10.1177/1932202X15603366


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Research Purpose

Evaluation of the purpose statement

Swan, Coulombe-Quach, Huang, Godek, Becker, and Zhou provide a purpose statement for their article as “… to provide stakeholders with an authoritative, in-depth well-documented explication of a virtual learning lab (VLL) school located in a rural region in the Southeastern United States and information about its benefits and challenges” (2015, p. 295). The purpose statement in this article identifies the problem of inadequate teaching and learning in brick and mortar schools that presents the need to study the VLL School.

The authors provide a justification of the problem by diluting the need for traditional brick and mortar model through a comparative analysis of blended learning. The purpose statement conveys the approach used in the study to address the problem; more research into VLL schools. Of the twelve sources used in the literature section of the article, seven are within five years of the article’s publication date.

Analysis of the alignment among the theory, problem, and purpose

The theory, problem, and purpose of the article have logical connections among the various components (Babbie, 2017, pp. 97 – 98, 338). The prevalent connection among the three is the is the use of a blended learning theory to solve the problem of dependency on traditional brick and mortar schools to achieve the purpose of extending the research into the virtual learning labs and blended models of teaching and learning….

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Evidence Translation and Change responses

Evidence Translation and Change responses
Evidence Translation and Change responses

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Evidence Translation and Change responses

Order Instructions:

Why would having a survey of the staff be beneficial for identifying the barriers before making changes? how can this help guide my research and projected changes?

While a range of health and health care entities collect data, the data do not flow among these entities in a cohesive or standardized way. Entities within the health care system face challenges when collecting race, ethnicity, and language data from patients, enrollees, members, and respondents

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Gathering, Analyzing, and Summarizing Research Literature

Gathering, Analyzing, and Summarizing Research Literature
Gathering, Analyzing, and Summarizing Research Literature

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Gathering, Analyzing, and Summarizing Research Literature

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This week you will again gather at least four more articles pertinent to your research problem and discuss attributes surrounding the problem and your investigation of the problem. You will also again present the studies as a synthesized review in the discussion board.

Upon successful completion of this assignment you should be able to:

Summarize research literature pertinent to a nursing problem.


Textbook: Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Approaches (2018), Chapter 2, 4

PowerPoint: Chapter 2 Review of the Literature

File: Chapter 2 Review of the Literature, Notes

PowerPoint: Chapter 4 Writing Strategies & Ethical Consideration

File: Chapter 4 Writing Strategies & Ethical Consideration, Notes

Textbook: Practical Research: Planning and Design (2016): Chapter 3, 13

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PowerPoint: Chapter 3 Review of Related Literature

PowerPoint: Chapter 13 Plan & Prep Final Report

Textbook: Preparing Literature Reviews: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (2016), Chapters 3, 4, and 5

Website: IWU Off Campus Library Services

Website: An Evidence Based Practice Toolkit for Nursing

Website: Cochrane Library

Website: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

Website: How to Conduct a Literature Search http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/TUT-10 and/or http://media.indwes.edu/media/Lit+Search+-+how+to+in+OCLS/0_7dn204mb

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File: Sample Spreadsheet of Articles Reviewed

File: Spreadsheet of Research Articles Reviewed

File: Spreadsheet of Research Study Analysis

File: Synthesized Summary-Draft 2.12.2018.docx

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Website: How to Write a Literature Review https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t2d7y_r65HU and

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2IUZWZX4OGI Part I

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UoYpyY9n9YQ Part II

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FK6Lsl1tcm0 Part III

Background Information

Research questions often change during the search for current research articles related to the problem. According to Ling Pan (2016), a search which nets a large number of articles may warrant a narrowing of the question; and a search which nets only a handful of articles may call for a broader question. There may be other influences as well, i.e., when a previously thoroughly researched topic is now outdated. Some problems may be acknowledged in the literature, yet there are no current studies addressing the problem or subproblems. Be sure and use the databases in the OCLS and request help so that you get the literature you need. Also, it is not uncommon to revise the study question as needed to better target the problem.

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Read chapters 2 and 4 in Research Design, chapters 3 and 13 in Practical Research: Planning and Design, and chapters 3, 4, and 5 in Preparing Literature Reviews: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Review all materials listed.

Navigate to the threaded discussion below and post your quantitative research question.

This discussion has three components:

Gathering Research Literature IV

In the OCLS, find four research studies which pertain to your topic/problem/ research question. (Your search results should provide additional articles. Save this search as you will be reviewing a total of 16 articles over the course of this class.) Ensure that your articles are within the past 4 or 5 years. If you cannot find more than 25 current articles related to your problem / question on this first search, let your instructor know immediately.

Complete the information requested on the spreadsheet entitled, Spreadsheet of Articles Reviewed for four articles and attach it to this discussion. The completed spreadsheet with 16 articles will be due with your final synthesized Literature Review due in Workshop Six day seven.

Analyzing Research Literature IV – Complete the information requested on the spreadsheet entitled, Spreadsheet of Research Study Analysis for each of the four studies for this week and attach to this discussion.

Summarizing Research Literature IV

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Critical Assessment Literature Review

Critical Assessment Literature Review
Critical Assessment Literature Review

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Critical Assessment Literature Review

Write 6-7 pages of a Critical Assessment Literature Review related to your research question. Your textbook (McMillan, 2012) includes an excellent definition of, and step-by-step instructions for, writing a literature review in chapter 3.

Research Question: How can I use group forums to motivate students in an eighth-grade algebra class? 
Use the literature review template (see attachments). 
Use the following instructions to complete your literature review:

1. In addition to the peer-reviewed primary research articles, you found earlier this week, locate and use 2-5 additional sources related to your research question.

Critical Assessment Literature Review

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2. Analyze the literature and write a scholarly review of the 5-8 sources as they pertain to your question/statement.

3. Use the Sample Literature Review 1, and Sample Literature Review 2 as guidelines for your writing.

The Sample Literature Review is a full review from a thesis paper. For this assignment, your literature review needs to be only 6 pages (double-spaced, 12 point, APA format). 4. Use the Literature Review Template to write your literature review.5. Include a reference page with proper APA style and formatting.

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Research Problems, Designs, and Sample

Research Problems, Designs, and Sample
Research Problems, Designs, and Sample

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Week 3: Research Problems, Designs, and Sample

This week’s graded discussion topic relates to the following Course Outcomes (COs).
COs Apply research principles to the interpretation of the content of published research studies. (POs 4 and 8)CO4 Evaluate published nursing research for credibility and lab significance related to evidence-based practice. (POs 4 and 8)

This week, we will discuss the research problems, designs and sample for your nursing clinical issue. The research design flows from the research question and outlines the plan for the study that will answer the research question. The design identifies the major components of the study. It is important to remember that there is no one best design for a research study.

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After you review the designs, describe which research design you would expect to find when searching for evidence relevant to your own research question from Week 2. Why? Explain your answer.The most common sampling method is the convenience sample; therefore, many of the studies that you find for evidence use this sampling method. What are the implications for using a convenience sample on the way you interpret and use the findings?

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E-commerce Research Paper


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In the early of the 20th century 90s, internet commercialization directly promoted rapid development and growth of electronic commerce (Yan, 2008). Revolution that e-commerce has brought is comprehensive and far-reaching. While development and application of it is the process of continuous, change and evolve. Different from traditional business, e-commerce builds on the network and has been impacted by the environment of network. Not only the network brings competitive to it, but also some limit to it.

From the birth to now, tremendous growth of e-commerce has rested on clipping growth of computing technology. Computing technology has played a pivotal role on progress of e-commerce. Thereby, some issues of e-commerce could be solved with technology advancing. Similarly, appearance of e-commerce has brought improvement to supply chain. E-commerce linked the independent processes, which improved efficiency of operation of supply chain.

Main Body

E-commerce has advanced with the introduction of computers in doing business. It involves use of technologies such as computers and network communication in doing business. Defining e-commerce simply is that managing business in the Internet and Web (Shelly, Aileen, 2008). According to their same position and different angle of the e-commerce and different extent of participation, governments, academics, business people gave many different definitions.

It is however important to understand that e-commerce is not the same as doing business electronically. The approach of e- commerce tends to vary across nations and countries. The applicable of the concept is also different across these countries. Nevertheless, with all these variations, it is important to understand that the concept is still same because it relies on internet communication and electronic equipment.

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As the technology space increased, many other functions or services are now being provided through the internet. Shopping is one of the most widely service that takes place through electronic and network communication technologies. Nowadays, other services such as logistics, financing, among many other ancillary services take place through electronic technologies.

Other areas where e-commerce applies is in  electrical trading market, supply chain management, network marketing, electronics currency exchange, online transaction processing, automated data collection systems, inventory management and electronic data interchange (EDI). This functionality has enabled various businesses across the globe to engage in businesses without any physical border obstructions. Information technologies such as email, databases, extranet, internet, mobile phones, and electronic catalogs have been very important if facilitating e-commerce.

It is also very important to understand that e-commerce is classified into two; narrow and broad. Narrow e-commerce involves uses of internet in performing business activities, while on the other hand, broad e-commerce involves adoption of electronic tolls such as computers, and even use of Smartphone to conduct business. Regardless of these divisions, it is important to note that in both, internet is critical for their functionality. Otherwise, it cannot be called for e-commerce; the second it is just a kind of business activities which is finished in the Internet.

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Environment always has effect the organization and the stakeholders of the organization. From microanalysis, internet could offer information to organization. According to Holden et al. (2009), the network is a collection of electronic documents—the inventor calls it a supposed space of information. Every user of network is a part of network; he had unrestricted access to network. At the same time, the network must influence him.

The network could play its role and influence in changing. It is an advantage of network to be updated and change constantly. From macro analysis, network would not impact the profitability of organization in a short term, but it would affect the development of organization in long term. The macro environment including political and legal environment, economy environment, humanities and social environment, levels of education and science and technology, natural environment and population.

Because of the characteristics of network, for twenty-first-century entrepreneurs, online business is the representative of moneymaking opportunities. In their analysis, Holden et al. (2009) recommend that online business could bring much strategic advantage to traditional business, such as low cost. For example,online business need not physical store to start as the traditional business. During operating, organization could communicate with consumers on the network, which would cut the cost of communicating cost in traditional methods.

On the other hand, marketing efficiency of online business is higher than traditional business’s. Compared with traditional methods of marketing, marketing on network has far more wide audience.Also, online business has higher transaction efficiency than traditional business. Network could make commercial messages in trade to become standard, this makes it easier to process messages, and to transmit the same in short span of time across the globe. Network could expand sales of organization with unlimited space and time.

At last, online business has price advantage. Operation of online business reduced intermediate links of sales and changed the structure of the market. So that the price of products must be lower than the price of products of traditional business. E-commerce breaks through the limitations of time and space. Extended trading hours will give more opportunities for traditional enterprises to increase sales to some extent to be listed companies. E-commerce as well impact on business customers.

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E-commerce allows interactions between customers and the sellers. This enhances the relationships between these parties hence it helps in improving the quality of customer services. Customers feel a sense of care and concern if they keep intact with their sellers. Through these platforms, buyers or customers have an opportunity to enquire, ask questions, ask for clarification an even give their feedback. This wholesome situation impacts positively on this relationship. Furthermore, customers have the discretion to purchase products during any time of their convenience.

Companies nowadays provide personalized services to their customers, in accordance to their needs. They achieve this through tracking customers’ tastes and preferences and storing this information in their databases. This information is also important in helping the companies make decisions pertaining the kind of goods they need to stock and the best strategies they employ to meet the needs of the clients.

Customer and business relations improve with adoption of e-commerce. It allows real-time interactive conversations through the internet giving an opportunity to customers to contribute their views. Companies through these evaluations become aware of the market dynamics that allows them to position their products well. Through this interaction as well, it helps to improve their services, level of customer satisfaction creating positive relations that add value to the company as well as to customers.

However, online business is an immature business model with some characteristics which have negative impact to this model to be developed. Network has limitation that consumers cannot see and touch the products, which is great different from traditional shopping habit. Consumer attitudes of customers in developing areas cannot accept virtual transactions. Currently, the revenue of online business in developing countries is less than developed countries (Hoffman, 2000).

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Doing business through the internet also known as virtual transactions requires use of credit money. Customers need to have knowledge and capacity to use this form of money transactions to do business over the internet. The development of e-commerce is much advanced in the western world compared to other countries in Asia and Africa. One of the reasons for this mismatch is the wide acceptance and use of credit money as well as better market environments. The concept of credit money has as well continued to gain approval across the globe with increasing advancement and penetration for technology.

These developments will see the entire world change the way they shop. It is however, important to understand that credit money has also had some security challenges that have seen people hack into other accounts. It is therefore essential that this is looked into to ensure that all users of credit cards are secure and that can have confident in their credit cards. This is a important reason of limitation of e-commerce’s development. On the hand of law, the legal constraints in e-commerce have not yet been standardized. It requires managers to make some changes for them to adhere to the new rules and methods.

These rules are subject to changes because of the continued changes in development of technologies. Therefore, to keep abreast with the changes of this standardization, it is important to keep in mind various management concepts such as technology management, business, and service management aspects. Therefore, achieving a more satisfactory level specification in these areas simultaneously needs a long-term plan.

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Anderson (2004) considered that low demand and low sales volume of products stands a chance of gaining a competitive edge when the distribution is done through online. The level of competition in the market is likely to be mitigated with the virtual world, as this will ensure wider reach in the market place. Long tail theory, is one of the recent theories that have emerged in this modern world connected with internet networks.

Internet has contributed to increase supply and reach of goods. Stores have the capability and the opportunity to offer or sell their products through different channels. The space has been widened with the introduction of e-commerce. This trend has affected the cost of production, which has gone down. These changes have as well affected the prices of these commodities because of the low production costs. Nowadays, there are products that every person can afford.

It has also become easy to determine and reach to niche markets with developments in technology. Businesses have the capacity to provide products or services that target a particular market segment. This has as well helped in provision of high quality services and products that meet the needs of particular category of audience or customers (Kotler & Kevin, 2012). Customers have a variety of choices to make and have many options or channels to choose to shop. These changes have changed the way businesses operate and the shopping trends of customers.

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Compared with the traditional business, e-commerce is more competitive, and inclined to personalized service. Sampson describe that traditional tradesman feel pressure in the competition with online business (Sampson, 2008). In order to survive, intense competition makes ecommerce sites (companies) must be concentrated mostly on the promotion of their sites and products, to seize the market. Variety revenue model which traditional business do not have was formed gradually in the process of the enterprises to adopt various methods to promote their sites and products. Such as the revenue model is to gain membership fees from registered members.

B2B is the real domination of revenue model of e-commerce (Yuan, 2008). Alibaba is currently the world’s most successful B2B e-commerce company with this revenue model. The advantage of this revenue model is that when the organization has fixed member companies in walks of life, they must update and manage members of these companies supply and demand information simply and assist them to carry out the transaction. Organization charges membership fee from those members every year to gain tremendous benefits.

However, the drawbacks of this revenue model are that organization must do a lot of work at the beginning to attract members, and establish a fair, safe image in members’ heart. It would not be only profitable, but also need to continue to invest a lot of money at the beginning, which requires a strong capital supporting. Some companies use the revenue model is that sale their own products or services. Success of this model relies on producing the competitive products or services mainly, and using innovative marketing methods and business model.

The advantage of this model is that consumers will follow the brand and companies can occupy an important position in the market to gain huge profits after they created their own brand image. The cost of marketing would be reduced after the brand image. But the disadvantage is it is difficult in the early promotion. Especially, the companies are in the competition with other similar companies, which required stamina, endurance and lots of capital investment.

In other hand, Amazon is the successful enterprise which uses the revenue model selling others products. Its profit comes from the different price between cost and selling. The advantage of this model is it allow the website operation become simply. It only concentrates on solving the promotion of website and logistics without paying attention to the goods. The disadvantage is companies cannot control the price, quality, after-sale service.

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E-commerce is a business model which use computer networks for business activities, also is a direct product of rapid development of internet technology and WWW. The computer network is the computer technology and communication technology combining discipline is an important infrastructure development in the 21st century information age. Since 1969, the advent of ARPA network, computer network technology has been rapid development (Leiner et al., 2010).

It not only changed the way people live, learn, work and even ways of thinking, and science and technology, politics, economy and society as a whole have had a significant impact. With the development of computer network technology, growth in the economy in 21st century has received contributing from e-commerce. It has become an important indicator to measure the strength, technological level, and social information of the country. In a word, appearance of e-commerce is based on maturity of computing technology and internet. On same note, e-commerce continues to advance and develop unremittingly with development of computing technology and internet.

According to Zhu (2004) empirical analysis, e-commerce capability and Information technology relate. Computer technology has provided the platform of the development of e-commerce transactions. This means that it is impossible to have an e-commerce without computer technology. Therefore, any advancement in e-commerce cannot happen without this computer technology as the basis. Any advancement in computer technology will help improve e-commerce as well. For instance, if the computer security is guaranteed, then e-commerce is as well going to thrive and remain beneficial to the users.

The rapid development of e-commerce to promote the development of computer technology. Problems encountered in the development process of e-commerce are the power of computer technology development, and profit obtained in e-commerce activities to the development of the computer to provide a source of funding. More and more organizations communicate and exchange information between organization members such as customers, suppliers, partners and other third parties (Wilkinson, 2005).

Thereby, organizations must protect their information safety through improving computing technology.Computer technology is a prerequisite for the safe operation of e-commerce. During transaction, how to ensure the secure transmission of transaction information and other data become one of the main factors and the impact of e-commerce development and growth.

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Achieving the cooperation and sharing of information in the environment of e-commerce could make e-commerce reply the demand of market to improve the operation efficiency of supply chain (Enarsson, 2009). E-commerce and supply chain management are in fact from one manufacturer to the end user’s value-added process. E-commerce operates as a virtual supply chain that functions courtesy of the available computer network technology. Therefore, value is gained through its supply chain management concept.

This chain allows or make supply chain operations to maximize and minimize costs, the process from procurement to delivery are efficient operation. E-commerce linked independent business processes on the supply chain to become adhesive of supply chain.The impact of e-commerce on supply chain are impact on supply chain structure. Traditional supply chain is complicated and its value does not match that of the e-commerce.

The traditional chain has various levels or hierarchies that make the process of making decisions tedious. It also contributes to duplication and complexities in the operations. Other disadvantages of this traditional multi level chain are that it   contributed to increased costs, it is also slow, and has no agility compared to e-commerce supply chain.

After the emergence of electronic commerce, the development of a product by the manufacturer, the raw material supplier, retailer, etc., many businesses constitute the supply chain network (supply chain network structure). Secondly, the impact is on supply chain operations. Technology advancement especially with e-commerce and network technology, businesses have managed to connect with their customers easily compared to traditional mode of operations. In the traditional mode, only few key product and serve need to rely on single or few suppliers.

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E-commerce has enabled companies to have the discretion of choosing specific products from different suppliers that provide better selling terms. This has impacted positively on the competitive of this suppliers contributing to increased quality and efficiency. It has also helped to achieve synchronizing of both electrical supply chains with other kinds of supply chain impacting on operations. Clearly, e-commerce compared to traditional commerce has a great advantage.

In traditional commerce, business experience stiff competition at the market level and it is very difficult to plan and to forecast their demands (Misre & Khan, 2010). Enterprises could utilize the system of supply chain management e-commerce built to connect the manufacturers, suppliers, vendors, customers together to enable them get most useful marketing information on the appropriate time. Thus reduces the circulation greatly, reduces costs, and helps to improve management levels, levels of efficiency and effectiveness.  


The history of e-commerce is less than 30 years, which is enough to prove that it is a new business model with a rapid development. According to Al-Qirim & Nabeel, as a phenomenon, e-commerce’sstatus has been prominent in SME (Al-Qirim&Nabeel, 2006). During its growth, there are some problems to be solved. Though the negative effect that network brings is unescapable, organizations could choose appropriate model to exert e-commerce’s advantages.

Developments in technology have contributed to developments of e-commerce implying that e-commerce can only function when the computer technology is available. On contrary, e-commerce has positive effect to supply chain. Those effects made the competitive of supply chain management prominent. In a word, e-commerce caused some shock on traditional business, but enterprises could gain more profit through using the model that online sales and offline sales simultaneously.


Al-Qirim&Nabeel A. Y. (2006). Global electronic business research: Opportunities and directions. Hershey: London doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-642-6

Anderson, C. (2004). The Long Tail. New York: Hyperion.

Enarsson, L. (2009). What do we really mean by supply chain management? Retrieved from             http://www.supplychainquarterly.com/topics/Logistics/scq200901book/

Hoffman, T. (2000). UN: Global e-Commerce challenges abound. Computerworld, 34(28). 12–14.

Holden, G., Belew, S., Elad, J., Rich, J.R. (2009). E-Business.Chichester, New York: John Wiley.

Holden, G., Belew, S., Elad, J., Rich, J.R. (2009). E-Business.Chichester, New York: John Wiley.

Kotler, P., Kevin Lane, K. (2012). Marketing management. (14th ed.) London:Pearson.

Leiner, B.M., Cerf, V.G., Clark, D.D., Kahn, R.E., Kleinrock, L., Lynch,D.C., Postel, J., Roberts, L.G., Wolff, S. (2010). Brief History of the Internet. Retrieved from http://www.internetsociety.org/internet/what-internet/history-internet/brief-history-internet#Leiner

Misre, V., Khan, M.I. (2010). Supply Chain Management Systems: Architecture, Design and Vision. Journal of Strategic Innovation and Sustainability vol. 6(4), 102-108.

Sampson, G. (2008). Electronic business (2nd.). Swindon: British Computer Society.

Shelly, G., & Aileen, C. (2008). Electronic commerce: concepts, methodologies, tools and applications. Retrieved from http://rc4ht3qs8p.search.serialssolutions.com.libaccess.hud.ac.uk/?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF-8&rfr_id=info:sid/summon.serialssolutions.com&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:book&rft.genre=book%20itemrft.title=Electronic+Commerce%3A+Concepts%2C+Methodologies%2C+Tools%2C+and+Applications&rft.au=Grist%2C+Shelly&rft.au=Cater-Steel%2C+Aileen&rft.atitle=The+Definition+Dilemma+of+E–Commerce&rft.date=2008-01-01&rft.isbn=9781599049441&rft.spage=2093&rft.epage=2102&rft.externalDocID=2858200178&paramdict=en-US

Wilkinson,P (2005). Construction collaboration technologies: An extranet evolution. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis.

Yan, T. (2008). History of E-commerce. In Shelly, G., Aileen, C., Electronic commerce: concepts, methodologies, tools and applications. (pp.1-8).

Zhu, K. (2004). Journal of Management Information Systems.: The Complementarity of Information Technology Infrastructure and E-Commerce Capability: A Resource-Based Assessment of Their Business Value. Vol. 21 Issue 1, 167-202.

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Activity Based Costing

Activity Based Costing
Activity Based Costing

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Activity Based Costing


Activity based costing (ABC) is one of the accounting concepts where costs relating to operation processes are traced back to their causes. Costs are not directly assigned to the products instead they are assigned to activities that relates to their production in the company. The product costs are calculated from its usage of the activities involved (Jurek et al, 2012). ABC costing requires thorough knowledge of the business process that involves the ABC costing in order to calculate and determine the distribution of the costs (Garrison et al, 2009).

The ABC costing concept traces all the resources that have been channeled to the activities and later to the cost objects for accurate calculation of cost distribution. Each cost object represents a process or product while the individual activities are actions that must be executed to enable the creation of the cost objects. The resources in ABC are typically the objects that consumed in the manufacturing activities and ultimately results in such costs as labor, materials or equipment.

The concept of ABC in cost accounting is such that the cost objects in the manufacturing process consume activities that also consume the resources and later the consumption of the resources ends in costs (Weil and Maher, 2005).

ABC accounting provides the true costs of the finished products while also providing a detailed insight on the reasons of the current product costs. These details provide various aspects and opportunities to improve the products while also exploring ways of cost reductions.

The drivers in ABC cost accounting are applied in tracing the resources to particular activities while the activities are utilized to trace the resources to the cost objects. The resource drivers trace all the actual resources to the process activities while the activity drivers extend the trace to the cost objects. The drivers basically represent the actual causes of consumption hence permit accurate distribution of cost down the ABC chain. The drivers shown below in figure 1 represent some resources in ABC accounting and the activity drivers. The drivers must however be accurately correlated with the causes of production consumptions.

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ABC accounting is directly associated with values mostly in monetary terms, however in ABC costing the values can be modified to include additional measurements like environmental factors. ABC costing facilitates the dual calculations as it measures quantities of resources that have been consumed by the manufactured products. From the quantities calculated one can apply specific costs or the results of the environmental impact provided to calculate the required total cost.  For example, in automobile production plant, a product can consume up to 4MWH of electricity amounting to $200 per MWH.

ABC Cost Calculations

ResourceResource AmountSpecific CostTotal Cost
Electricity4 (MWh)200 ($/MWh)$800

The specific impact to the environment may be 20 kg CO2 for every MWH. Hence the products total cost both in monetary and environmental terms would amount to $800 and 80kg of CO2. The expansion of the ABC costing aspect is materially applied in the processing industry to analyze Life Cycle Assessments or analysis of the plant’s manufacturing processes.

ABC Environmental Calculations

ResourceResource AmountSpecific CostTotal Cost
Electricity4 (MWh)20 ($/MWh)80 (Kg CO2)

The Paint Shop in Automotive Industry

The manufacturing processes in an automobile plant are divided into three important departments:

  1. The Paint Shop
  2. The General Assembly
  3. Body Shop

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The body shop utilizes and transforms the basic raw materials that make up a vehicle into the initial structure of a vehicle. The protective coating is applied in the paint shop while in the final assembly plant of the factory other components are fitted before the vehicle finally rolls over to the show room. These components are like wheels, engines, gear boxes, headlights among other components. Each of the above departments has also different departments. For example, the paint shop has the following departments;

  1. Application of ELPO
  2. Sealing Application
  3. Paint Booth
  4. Post paint repairs that also include cavity waxing.
  5. Pretreatment of the product

The pretreatment stage allows the cleaning of all the contaminants that have accumulated on the body of the vehicle. Phosphate is usually applied at this stage of production as primary coating to ensure a protective layer is evenly applied. The Electro Coat Primer Operation is applied to increase the vehicles paint effectiveness. Sealing and the other remaining processes are utilized to obtain a fine finishing of paint application. The other activities in the paint line are listed in table 1 below.

Activities in Paint line (Table 1)

A1 – Air Abatement
A2 – Light Building
A3 – Air Conditioning
A4 – Liquid Heating
A5 –  Manual Sealing
A6 – Moving Air
A7 – Moving Liquid
A8 – Moving Product
A9 – Operating Robot
A10 – Lighting Process
A11 – Repairing Product

Each of the activities mentioned above have several other activities below them. The following are the activities under Air conditioning activities in the paint shop.

Example of Activity States (Table 2

Level 1Level 2
A3 – Air ConditioningA3.1 – Startup Air Conditioning
 A3.2 – Production Air Conditioning
 A3.3 – Setback Air Conditioning
 A3.4 – Maintenance Air Conditioning
 A3.5 – Shutdown Air Conditioning

To conclude, ABC costing has a wide range of applications. Numerous studies have been successfully undertaken to determine the flexibility of activity based accounting including the environmental metrics. ABC accounting can be applied to any manufacturing process and can also be expanded to include other non-traditional costs that are only associated with cost accounting.


Garrison, R., Noreen, W. & Brewer, P. (2009) Managerial Accounting, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin. 65 -70

Jurek, P., Bras, B. Guldberg, T., D’Arcy Seon-Chan, O, and Biller, S. (2012) Activity Based Costing Applied to Automotive Manufacturing, http://www.manufacturing.gatech.edu/sites/default/files/uploads/pdf/Final%20version%20_Jan%2026%202012_.pdf

Weil, R.L. and Maher, M.W. (2005) Handbook of Cost Management, New Jersey, John Wiley & Sons.

Activity Based Costing

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Innovative Capabilities Research Paper

Innovative Capabilities
Innovative Capabilities

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Innovative Capabilities

City, State

Globalization has led to expanded markets for business enterprises. However, the level of competition has increased making it challenging for the organization to exist in the market without developing strategies to gain competitive advantage (Rothaermel, 2015). Innovation is among the important aspects that enable a company to develop superior products and services thus creating a competitive advantage.

Innovative capabilities is developed through the creation of enabling environment for innovation development based on culture development, availing of resources, competencies and use of inter-organization networks to build an innovative organization (Thompson et al., 2013).

Innovation is creation of customer values by coming up with new ways of doing things to meet new, undefined or existing market demands in unique ways. Innovation may result in the development of new or more effective merchandise, services, processes, ideas or technologies that are made available to different stakeholders.

Competitive advantage refers to the advantage a company has over other key players in the industry. Competitive advantage leads to the generation of greater sales or more customers compared to the firm’s competitors. A competitive advantage comes from the firm’s cost structure, good customer support, distribution networks, and product offerings among others (Schilke, 2014).

It is hard for competitors to neutralize competitive advantage if such advantage is sustainable. Competitive advantage can either be a comparative or differential advantage. Comparative advantage occurs when a firm can produce a product or services at a lower cost as compared to its competitors. In so doing the firm will be able to sell the product at a low price. These way customers will tend to purchase such price thus creating a larger margin on sales.

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Innovation Capabilities

Innovation is a critical aspect that leads to the creation of sustainable competitive advantages (Johnson et al., 2013). Innovation enables all the stakeholders to see things from a new angle, take risks, seeing the bigger picture and become more flexible. Therefore, management should develop an enabling environment necessary for innovation to take place. Innovation necessitates that organization should address four key innovation capabilities; technology development, operations, management and transaction capabilities. These capabilities enable a firm to achieve what is termed as Schumpeterian profits.

A firm is viewed as a hub for resources and utilized to produce products through the price mechanism. Different firms produce such products and services through different processes. Based on coordination based approach to firm development, a firm is considered to be an agent of planning and coordination of production and transaction process through the administration of a manager (Lew & Sinkovics, 2013). The management key role is to organize and allocate resources to achieve efficiency and growth.

On the other hand, capabilities approach to firm development describes things that a firm can do, and how a firm seeks to change and innovation to gain business sustainability. According to Schumpeter, an entrepreneur is a change agent and success of a firm is through utilization of different sources of knowledge used in business enterprises so as to deliver goods and services (As cited Camisón & Monfort-Mir, 2012). These goals are attained by utilizing the firm’s capabilities to develop new products and manufacture them for commercial purposes.

Each organization is built based on technological synthesis that enables a firm to build business relations. An organization depends on technological and business driver to be in a position to produce a good and transact in the market. A technological driver refers to those aspects that enable an organization to develop a new product and their consequent production (Camisón, C., & Villar-López, 2014). The technological driver is dependent upon operations and development capability. Organizations that can develop and sustain these capabilities can gain competitive advantages.

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On the other hand, the business driver enables a firm to integrate the different parts of the firm and move the produced goods from the firm to the market for transaction purpose. It is through management capability that a firm can achieve integration of different parts of the company (Kindström et al., 2013). The firm depends on the four innovation capabilities to become innovative and gain competitive advantage.

Development Capability (DC), this type of capability, encompasses of creating a new product, service, or solution to be offered for sale on the market (Alegre et al., 2013). Development capabilities assist in the technological development process and encompass the conscious application of knowledge to solve different problems in the market. Technological capabilities help create, adapt and develop new technologies that give a firm competitive advantage. Examples of technological resources include patents, licenses, knowledge, and skilled manpower among others.

Operations Capability

Coming up with new innovative products are key practices a firm should do from time to time to survive in the market. Nevertheless, it is required that a firm turns the technological outcome of innovation into a set of operation so as to produce goods to be sold in the market.  All these is attained by means of operations capabilities (OC).

Operation capabilities refer to a firm’s ability to come up with products that are of high quality and reliable at a competitive cost (Williamson et al., 2013). Operation capabilities give decisions on production, planning, and control. Some of the aspects of quality include quality, efficiency, cost, delivery, flexibility, and responsibility.

Development capacity area of concern is changing technologies. On the other hand, operation capacity focuses on routines, efficiency, stability and standardization. The aspects of Operation capacity mainly focus on features that are necessary to manufacture a product. Operation capability is very important for generating technical change.

Management Capability

Apart from operation capacity and development capacity, a firm requires a set of skills to enable it to integrate all internal capabilities in an efficient manner. It is through management capability that a firm is able to plan, manage and coordinate business activities to attain efficiency and growth. Management Capability assists a firm to efficiently coordinate and integrate different activities within the organization resulting in economies of scale and scope requisite for a firm to compete in the market.

Managerial Capabilities are borne out of human capital, as well as cognitive and social management (Verganti, 2013). Managers are able to develop, integrate and engineer both tangible and intangible resources to gain competitive advantage. Management requires a lot of abilities and leadership skills in order to apply in problem-solving.

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Transaction Capabilities

Transaction capabilities feature the firm’s set routines, knowledge, and abilities that a company comes up with the aim of reducing marketing cost, logistics, distribution, and trading among others. Transaction cost acts as a bridge between the firm and its external environment (Wang & Wang, 2012). Transaction capability is important for analyzing the market for new opportunities, and changes in order to offer products that satisfy customer needs and expectation.

Transaction capability enables a firm to understand demands for customers and transact at the lowest possible cost. On the same note, the firm will be able to come up with new products and services that are economically feasible.

How innovative capabilities are developed

There are many ways a corporation can create innovative capacity. An organization can either improve on its technological drivers or business drivers to attain the much desired competitive advantage through the creation of innovative goods and services.

Training and development: Organizations create an innovative and dynamic environment by training and talent development of its employees. When employees are hired, they go through rigorous training aimed at imparting the necessary skills for the employee to perform duties efficiently. The management should also identify and retain skilled workers who are innovative and perform their duties exceptionally (Li & Liu, 2014). Training and employee development help to create competencies which are responsible for quite some new goods and services that a firm develops to sell in the market.

Acquisitions: Organizations can also create innovative capability through acquisition. Firms may decide to use acquisition instead of developing innovative capabilities from scratch. Through the acquisition, a company is able to own the rights and all the resources, technology, employees and market position belonging to the acquired company. If the acquired firm is bestowed with processes and values that are a source of competitive advantage, the acquiring firms should not integrate the company into the new parent firm because it may lose these processes and values.

Instead, the acquiring firm should rather let the business exist on its own but instead, provide additional information to the acquired firm and to take advantage of the acquired company’s processes and values (Reed et al., 2012). However, if the goal were to acquire the firm’s resources, then it should be integrated with the parent firm. This implies that the acquired employees, products, services, customers, and technology be integrated into the parent’s existing innovative capabilities.

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Creating New Capabilities Internally

Firms can also develop new capabilities within the firm’s different units. Firms can develop new capabilities by changing organization processes, look for individuals with new skills. Raise capitals, develop organization brand and licensing the technology to create innovative capabilities and sustained competitive advantage.

However, creating change within the organization may be hard. There are organization boundaries that may hinder the creation of new processes. However, managers should come up with ways to address different challenges and develop new team boundaries that facilitate implementation of new work patterns and new capabilities requisite to transform raw materials into finished products.

Creation of innovation capabilities through Spin-Out process

Organization will be able to create new capabilities by looking at the current trends and adopt new technology in the production (Davenport, 2013). This can be achieved by spawning capabilities within spin-out ventures. Rarely do large firms whose cost structured is developed in such a way to compete in high-end markets work well in the low-end market. Such firms should develop a cost structure that is competitive and profitable.

The spin-out operation is necessary when the current size of the new opportunity is small compared to the growth demand of the mainstream firm. The firm should run the old business strategy while looking out for new value-based business processes

Ways in which Competitive Advantage can be constructed through building capabilities

Sustainable competitive advantage is becoming more dynamic because of globalization and increased competition. In the past, competitive advantage was created through strategic positioning, first-order capabilities, production scale and delivery and customer care (Wang & Wang, 2012). These factors are still important today. However, these factors alone are not able to provide sustainable competitive advantage.

Thus, things have changed, and organizations are constantly looking for new organizational capabilities that can result in rapid adaptation to new changes. Firms are required to be good at learning how to do new things in a better and innovative manner. Organizations with sustainable competitive advantage are able to act quickly to change. Such organizations engage in Research & Development and have learned how to experiment faster, economically and frequently (Davenport, 2013). Such firms research not only on the production of goods and services but also on strategies, processes and business models.

A good example of an organization that is able to read and act quickly based on signals is Google Company. This company is able to do dynamic research on the changes in the external environment. On the same note, the firm can rapidly act on the information to re-invent its business model and produce information that is necessary to meet customer demands.

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Organization capabilities enable a firm to create new and innovative products that give them a competitive advantage over its competitors. For example, Apple Incorporation can constantly develop revolutionary smartphones through innovation and resource capability. Apple Inc. possesses unique resources and human capital and other technological drivers that enable them to develop unique products that suit customer needs. The firm also engages in extensive research and development as well as consumer analysis to spot trends and provide goods that suit customer needs and demands.

Innovation capabilities also enable a firm to produce products at a lower production cost and thus create a competitive advantage (Reed et al., 2012). Innovation capabilities enable a firm to develop new ways of production that are efficient and cost effective. Through innovation capabilities, firms are able to reduce production cost significantly.

This way, the firm will able to sell it products and services at a lower cost compared to other competitors and thus able to gain sustainable competitive advantage. Another example of a firm that has gained a sustainable competitive advantage through low pricing is Wal-Mart. Through innovation capabilities, Wal-Mart is able to utilize strong pricing strategy to gain competitive advantage

Similarly, innovation capabilities enable a firm to develop unique processes that cannot be easily imitated by other competitors (Alegre et al., 2013). A good example is Coca-Cola company sustained competitive advantage. Coca-Cola Company can gain a sustained competitive advantage because of the unique formula for creating cola products. All of its competitors are not able to copy or use this formula in creating their products, therefore, giving Coca-Cola a competitive edge over other key players in the drinks and refreshments industry.

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Innovation capabilities also enable a firm to create superior database management and data processing capabilities and thus creating sustainable competitive advantage. A good example is Google Inc. The firm possesses superior data analysis, processing, and management making the company market leader.

Innovation capabilities also enable a firm to develop strategic assets such as patents that lead to sustained competitive advantage (Johnson et al., 2013). Such assets are not easily acquired because they are protected by patents and other legal rights. A good example of a firm that is able to obtain sustained competitive advantage is General Electric. The company has several patents that help to protect its strategic assets making the firm very powerful.

Creation of Brand Value: innovative capabilities enable a firm to create brand equity. Brand equity enables a brand to gain customers because of its reputation for producing products that are unique, innovative and easily recognized in the market. Examples of companies that are able to gain brand equity include Coca-Cola and Apple. Coca-Cola company products are well known all over the world. People prefer taking Coca-Cola drinks more than Pepsi and other brands of Soda.

In conclusion, innovation is very important for a firm’s business success and sustainable competitive advantages. Therefore, business organizations should focus on developing innovative capabilities that add to the firm’s innovation performance. These capabilities include development capabilities, operations capabilities, management capabilities and transaction capabilities. By developing these different aspects of innovative capabilities, a firm is able to create sustained competitive advantage through the development of new products, strategic assets, f brand equity, and superior database management among others.

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