Research Based Report

Research Based Report
Research Based Report

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Research Based Report

Your last writing assignment will be a report to a decision-maker on a problem and solution in an organization or community.

In the report, you will do the following:

  • define the problem persuasively and accurately
  • propose a solution or solutions to the problem or issue
  • present that solution to a decision-maker or group of decision-makers who can implement the recommendation.

The report will include the following components:

  • executive summary
  • letter to the decision-maker
  • table of contents
  • introduction
  • body of the report to include headings and subheadings
  • conclusion stated as a recommendation for implementation of the solution
  • References page, with references listed in APA format

o Instructions on how to list an interview in APA format can be seen at the following url:

The complete report should be 2200-3000 words, not including the list of references.

The complete report should also cite at least seven sources. At least three of them should come from peer-reviewed, scholarly journals. As noted above, your sources can also include interviews. The sources will be integrated into the paper to explain the problem, provide evidence of the problem, and support the solution.

Research Based Report

Defining the Specific Problem

In preparing to write this assignment, please be aware of the following cautions in fulfilling the assignment instructions:

  • If you write a report to your manager at work suggesting that more teleworking options be given to employees at your workplace, you cannot simply prepare a report on
    teleworking. You must show that teleworking will solve a specific problem or problems in your organization.
  • If you are proposing that email be used less frequently for communication at your workplace and that another application be used to improve communication, you cannot simply write a report on the problem with having too much email. You must show that the use of email at your current workplace presents problems and that the use of another means of communication would solve the problem.
  • If you write a report to your manager at work suggesting that your office become paperless, you cannot simply prepare a report on the benefits of a paperless office. You must show that your specific office can go paperless and indicate the benefits of your specific office going paperless.
  • If you write a report to the board of directors at your townhouse community to argue that the playground area in your community should be renovated, you cannot simply prepare a report on the benefits of a playground for a neighborhood. You must show that your specific neighborhood will benefit from renovations in its playground.
  • If you write a report to the manager of your unit at work noting that recycling facilities in the workplace should be improved, you cannot simply prepare a report on the benefits of recycling or of good recycling facilities in offices. You must show that your specific work environment lacks adequate recycling facilities and show how it will benefit from improved recycling facilities.

Research Based Report

A Reminder about the Role of Primary Research in Supporting the Argument

For your report, you will very likely find it beneficial to conduct some primary research. For writing assignment #3, you gathered some primary research. For writing assignment #4, you want to fill in any gaps needed by conducting additional primary research if necessary. Some suggestions for primary research were given in the instructions for writing assignment

They are as follows:

  • For a report on teleworking, you might conduct interviews with fellow workers on the topic to see how and why they might benefit from teleworking.
  • If you are proposing that email be used less frequently for communication and that another application be used to improve communication, you might interview fellow employees on the situation, and you might take screen captures of alternative communication tools to illustrate how they work and would improve communication in your office.
  • For a report on transitioning to a paperless office, you might take pictures of your office environment showing the clutter or unsafe environment that hard-copy files create.
  • For a report on building a playground area in the community, you might take pictures of the community area to show where such a playground could be built, and you might interview residents who have children.
  • For a report on recycling facilities, you might take pictures of the office environment to show that current recycling facilities are inadequate, and you might interview fellow workers about whether they find it easy to recycle materials at your office.

Please note that, if you interview people for your research, you must cite the interviews in your paper. In the paper, you cannot simply write that you “spoke with employees.” A url on how to cite an interview in APA citation style is provided in the list of components for the report.

Length of your paper:
Your report should be 2200-3000 words in length. Again, you are required to use at least seven sources, with at least three of them being acquired through UMUC Library OneSearch.

Your report might benefit from graphics. As mentioned above, pictures of your workplace or community situation might help illustrate the problem you are trying to address. Graphs, tables, or charts might help show trends that will persuade your decision-maker that the problem exists.
Please do not incorporate a graphic for the sake of incorporating a graphic. Include a graphic only if it helps communicate a message in your report.

Strategies to Consider for this Assignment:

  • Victoria University of Wellington has a thorough outline and review of the components of this type of business report.
  • Queen Margaret University has an excellent guide for this type of report.
  • Murdoch University has an excellent guide for this type of report.
  • Colorado State University presents excellent tips in organizing the report.

Research Based Report

Topics to Help You Come Up with Ideas on this Assignment:

Some possible workplace research topics are the following. These are examples to help you get started. Please contact your instructor to have other topic ideas approved.

  • Going to a wireless network
  • Going to a paperless office
  • Switching from Windows to Linux (or other similar switch)
  • Installing/upgrading company firewall
  • Establishing a drug policy
  • Establishing an employee leave donation program
  • Establishing an equipment donation program for used computers, etc.
  • Establishing a company recycling program (paper, etc.)
  • Education/retraining for your employees
  • Establishing a program for millennial workers (e.g., training on certain aspects of etiquette, on understanding other generations, etc.)
  • Designing a training program for workplace safety issues
  • Redesigning employee performance evaluations
  • Developing a work-at-home (telecommuting) policy
  • Developing a flex-time policy
  • Establishing on-site day care or providing other child care benefits
  • Providing gym membership or creating an on-site workout facility
  • Creating or revising a charitable contribution policy
  • Creating or improving a tuition assistance program
  • Accommodations needed for employee/s with specific health issues (for example, migraines)
  • Establishing a Habitat for Humanity (or other group) chapter at your organization

Research Based Report

Some students have chosen topics outside of their workplaces, such as the following:

  • Starting a neighborhood watch program
  • Starting a mentor program at your place of worship
  • Getting additional lighting in the neighborhood
  • Changing traffic patterns around your child’s school
  • Starting a PTA website for your child’s school
  • Installing a tot lot in your neighborhood
  • Constructing a crying baby room at your place of worship
  • Offering ESL courses at your church
  • Increasing participation in a military Family Support Group
  • Introducing a youth sports program to a school or community

Research Based Report

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Critical Research Essay Paper

Critical Research
Critical Research

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Critical Research

The aspect that was to me was the approaches that are applied in communication research. These approaches are divided into quantitative research, qualitative research, critical research, and rhetoric research. Of the four, the model that I found to be quite interesting is the critical research model. According to Wood, critical research is not interested much with understanding and explaining organizational communication (Wood, 2014). However, I learned that this model lays more emphasis on analyzing, judging, and criticizing values.

Additionally, critical research just as the word “critical” suggests, focuses more on seeing how the society or an organization exists in a world full of power imbalances. In ideal societies and institutions, there are those individuals that have power and those that lack. Researchers who conduct critical analysis strongly believe that those without power are purposefully prevented by the powerful from attaining ultimate quality. Therefore, critical scholarship tends to be inclined towards the side of weaker individuals when commenting or studying relations of dominance (Wood, 2014).

I also noted that critical theory aids us to question institutions, ideologies, identities, and interests that seem to be dominant and challenging. For instance, critical research helps us to examine whether or not ideologies that have been established within an institution are fundamentally dangerous particularly to the workers. Moreover, with critical research we are in a better position to question certain ideologies on where they came from and the effectiveness of their applicability.

Usually, managers come up with certain ideologies that tend to be inherently problematic for the employees. Therefore, it is the duty of workers to put their best foot forward and challenge such ideologies lest they become implemented for several years without being challenged. Critical is also significant since it aids in examining different institutions to identify which ones are dominant in the society and which ones are not safe for the general worker.

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Wood, J. (2014). Communication mosaics: An introduction to the field of communication. Cengage Learning.

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British steel industry Essay Paper

British steel industry
British steel industry

Background to the British steel industry

Steel constitute essential aspects of most elements of everyday life. Steel supports a broad range of businesses and practices. In the UK for instance, steel contains a key ingredient for various industries. Steel is used in various strategic processing and building supply chains.

Collectively, these industries embody 20 percent of those engaged in the production sector across the UK and create Gross Value Added (GVA) of £24.6bn (Bowler, 2016). The global steel industry in the UK is faced with extremely tough economic circumstances. Steel overproduction globally stands at thirty-five percent. This has seen the closure of several steel production plants in Europe.

Moreover, workers in the steel processing industry have fallen by seventy thousand. While demand for steel has not reverted to pre-crash levels, the cost of steel has dropped by 50% over the last few years. These uncertain times have culminated in some organisations having to assume severe commercial pronouncements. These consist of the closure of the SSI UK factory at Redcar, and innumerable layoffs at factories operated by Tata Steel UK and others (Simpson, 2012).

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As of 2014, the UK steel industry hired about 34, 500 workers from 465 areas and had an economic output of £1.7 billion. This type of placement is spread unequally across the UK, with fifty percent in Wales, Yorkshire and Humberside (Bowler, 2016). As such, the UK steel sector supports not only a collection of domestic industries but fundamentally local communities.

Whereas the steel industry has many benefits to the community, the product is subject to competition from any other in the market economy. The current crisis can therefore, be examined from a global and historical context. The UK steel business has withered significantly over the last four decades when it comes to production and job placement (Tovey, 2015). Conversely, other nations have enhanced capacity considerably.

In the previous decade, global steel production has gone through expansion, with overall production snowballing by ninety-six percent between 2000 and 2014. This escalation attributed for by China whose steel fabrication has increased four times since the turn of the century (Williamson, 2016). For the last forty years, steel production in the UK has fallen behind its competitors like France, Spain, Italy and Germany. Based on similar production, European nations, for instance, have put a premium on the domestic steel industry. 

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The role of government in handling the current crisis

During the crisis, the government took the centre stage and worked proactively as well as intensively to assist the British steel sector (Soubry, 2016). For example, the government hosted a steel conference to discuss the way forward with leading players in the industry to recognise the importance of steel firms among the locals. Other areas where the government has played a significant role are listed below;

Business rates

On business rates and steel firms, they are about 5 to 7 times compared to other rival nations in Europe. On the other hand, UK steel firms believe that there is a need for the government to remove investment machinery, as no measure has been taken. While such a move is associated with inexplicable effects, any adjustments of business rate would require transferring it to another sector. Because this issue will take the time to review as the local authority keep rates levied from organisations, there is no likelihood an immediate response as well as uncertainty regarding the government’s role to assist the sector in fulfilling these costs (Soubry, 2016).

Again, the government does not need EU to review business rates to provide an equal business field for all steel makers across the UK. Eliminating machinery from these rates may indicate the government’s dedication to rebalance the economy, increase the attractiveness of UK to domestic investors in production and maximise the sector’s output, and competitive edge by investing in sophisticated tools.

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Currently, the government is discussing procurement policy to assist steel manufacturers in the UK to compete for major contracts. By late last year, the government had published standards to put into consideration when purchasing steel. This attempt is likely to enhance opportunities for suppliers while assisting steel manufacturers level fields to compete with global providers and spur rivalry.

These standards aim at helping the government use a strategic and open method to source steel in critical projects. It is practical to put tendering provisions best on these elements without necessarily violating stand laws, and this flexibility is a regular application in other nations. The government role in adjusting procurement standards is necessary is increasing the probability of UK steel organisations access bigger projects.

Nonetheless, the effects of these adjustments will take a long period to occur. Moreover, the government needs to take an active role in promoting the use of UK steel in projects especially, public infrastructure (Tovey, 2015).

Rewarding SSI employees

The government promised to pay employees following the closure of Redcar steelworks and the bankruptcy of SSI. The compensation amounted to 80 million euros, however about 30 million euros would be in rewards as statutory redundancy (Soubry, 2016). Much as the government is committed to rewarding SSI employees, the figures are mainly estimates since the actual spending will rely on demand and a person’s conditions.

Government’s move to assist the affected is vital, although its response highlights in rewarding and retaining individuals that lost their employment opportunities, rather than protectingassets that are of great significance to the nation. Much as the government has a role in protecting the affected, there is no proof in terms of attempts to save Redcar steelworks from closing.

The employees who lost their jobs were prioritised and encouraging providers to assist in the distribution of funds; it is not evident whether these funds are adequate to support not only economic redevelopment but also the needed retraining. In fact, the response of the government should be determined not by some funds located and the number of affected workers.


Political factors

In the steel sector, the government play a significant function. For instance, the UK government imposes tariffs as well as barriers to protect domestic producers. Nonetheless, with Free Agreement Agreements (FTA) this function has been minimised. The UK government also offer tax holiday (subsidies in certain nations) to support the expansion of the sector. Moreover, governments streamline domestic and global environmental standards to minimise emissions while protecting the environment.

On the other hand, the government of India has initiated National Steel Policy to reduce the demand and supply gaps. Based on this policy the government gives the steel industry various incentives such as infrastructure, reduced duty and land. Since steel sector in India, the government has maximised sales tax from 15 to 20 percent while 75% of foreign direct investment (FDI) is permitted to present different concessions related to customs duty (Tovey, 2015). Nevertheless, with the current state of infrastructure in India is not adequate for the steel industry.

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Economic factors

Population growth, particularly in Russia, India, and China, has contributed to the high demand for cars, building and other infrastructural facilities that subsequently result to increase in demand for steel products. Consequently, the ballooning of different economies that permit duty-free imports have accelerated the demand for steel. However, with the current crisis, GDP is growing slowly (Robinson, 2016).  

Social factors

Steel sector provides employment opportunities to many; nonetheless, it divides a region into rural and urban areas since it is a certain area leading to its development. This sector plays a significant role in developing rural areas that in turn improves the living standard of the rural masses.

Technological factors

The steel industry is still using conventional technology. Steel companies use a considerable amount of energy, and the rising fuel cost is pushed producers to adopt efficient steel production techniques.  Furthermore, technology is vital in manufacturing quality steel items.

There is a lack of creativity when it comes to production, steel companies use electric furnace in production, but due to fluctuating energy, a significant proportion of the raw material is wasted (Wakefield, 2015). Technologies which are used are outdated; however, India’s Sail steel is planning to merge with PASCO to use modern technology.

Environmental factors

While steel industry is crucial, it creates adverse conditions to the environment. Moreover, many steel firms use pollution control as well as energy saving tools, which are not adequate to control the pollution. Nevertheless, certain steel companies across the world Like Tata uses environmentally friendly equipment in the production process to minimise carbon dioxide emissions (Simpson, 2012). In fact, the company has Ultra-low carbon steel manufacturing for reducing emissions in the atmosphere.

On macro environment factors,the steel industry appears weak in general. Also, the macro-environment factors surrounding the current crisis demonstrate a positive change in growth in particular nations. Much as the global economy is experiencing uncertainties, fluctuating cost of fuel may maximise economic development especially in oil-importing countries (Keir, 2016). Growth in the international steel sector has almost stopped.

With the increase of approximately 0.6 percent two years ago, demand was restrained at roughly 0.5 percent with a recovery of 1.5% in 2016. Main steel industries recorded a relatively high productivity in 2015, and the same is expected in 2016.  In the case of the uncertain market, some steel manufacturers are reducing production. Similarly, various steel projects have been achieved, and manufacturing started (Wakefield, 2015). Net importing countries continue to increase capacities.

Owing to weak demand for steel, the pricing for primary raw materials have been plummeting are likely to remain low. The cost of steel has been decreasing following excess steelmaking capacity and nose-diving raw material costs. The recent drop in oil costs has impacted steel prices, especially for tubes and pipes made from steel (Keir, 2016). Negligible revenues have led to a dwindling in the industry’s revenue over the last few years, with slight rebounds anticipated shortly.

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Based on the above analysis, the government is dedicated to providing an equal ground for steel producers in the UK. As such, British steel should take advantage of this move and increase its attractiveness to domestic investors so as to enhance competition, productivity and efficiency through investment in sophisticated equipment.

British steel should not rely on government support, regardless of how essential they may. However, British Steel is entitled to government support particularly regarding domestic laws allowing them to compete effectively with other European nations and at the global level when it comes to securing major projects.

In fact, British steel should collaborate with the government to recognise the magnitude at which other industries are threatened due to national guidelines. Therefore, British steel should establish mechanisms for working with other industries and ways of ensuring that they promptly respond to a crisis before they cause damage.

With regards to procurement standards, which have been amended, British steel should say comprehensively how such rules are beneficial to the sector and the supply chain by expensive procurement decisions. Furthermore, the British steel should initiate and develop internal R&D ability to constantly;

  • Reinforce production technology to ensure the sector is environmentally sustainable and efficient
  • Look for tactics to convert by-products to energy that may be recycled, this will reduce energy expenses while generating additional income for steel industry
  • Look for an alternative material, an aspect that will minimise dependence on metal.

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In a nutshell, this analysis demonstrates that the UK government recognises the steel sector as a key industry. However, past governments lacked an effective strategy to detect and tackle the crisis. Following the closing of Redcar steel, the UK leadership has attempted to respond to the effects of such closures in terms of policy framework at the local and global level.

Nevertheless, increased support has not contributed to a quantifiable effect for industry players as well as the community. Nor is the measure in place is adequate to present future certainty. As such, the UK government should collaborate with steel sector to adopt sustainable strategies for steel producers.


Bowler Tim. 2016. Britain’s steel industry: What’s going wrong? Accessed on 2nd of March, 2016 at

Keir Mudie 2016. How the UK steel industry crisis and worldwide slump in oil prices will affect YOU. Accessed on 2nd of March, 2016 at

Robinson Martin 2016. British steel industry enters ‘death spiral’ after another 1,000 jobs are axed. Accessed on 2nd of March, 2016 at

Simpson, Rob 2012. “Tata Steel restructures to improve the competitiveness of UK operations through market cycles. Accessed on 2nd March. 2016 at

Soubry Ann 2016. Statement on the UK steel industry. Accessed on 2nd of March, 2016 at

Tovey Alan. 2015. Steel crisis ‘strikes to heart of UK manufacturing’ Accessed on 2nd of March, 2016 at

Wakefield, Adam. 2015. Steel Industry in Crisis. Accessed on 2nd of March, 2016 at

Williamson David 2016. Warning that China is trying to ‘kill off’ the UK’s steel industry. Accessed on 2nd of March, 2016 at

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Operation Management Research Paper

Operation Management
Operation Management

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Operation Management


Many companies emphasizes mostly in operation management. They are mainly alarmed with the company’s planning, organizing, supervising as far as manufacturing, production and other service are concerned. The operation management departments ensures that the company inputs are been transformed to outputs at an efficient and effective manner. Operation management runs across two fields of operations.

That is the supply chain management and the logistics. It helps the operations mangers to have the knowledge of comprehending the current supply chain management so that they can meet the clients demand in a timely manner. As far as logistics is concerned, the operation managers are very keen when using the resources available on a cost effective basis.

An operation manager is mandated to know all the process of a company. Comprehending them make it easier for the operation manager to run them swiftly. Also, the operation manager must have the supply chain skills to run this operations and the skills related to logistics in order to integrate both the coordination and know-how of the organization work. This will make the operation manager to be successful when running company’s processes, (Gunasekaran, and Ngai, 2012).

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Kolak snack food limited is known to be the leading manufacturing company for snacks and crisps based products. Been the leading company, Kolak understands the interests of the company working in food services, retail, catering, cash and carry and specialty food sector to work with their trusted suppliers. For this reason, they have committed themselves by give their customer’s quality services from the sales of innovated crisps and snacks.

Putting the customers at their heart of operation, Kolak has been to grow and develop rapidly since 1984 and it is well known for its quality and flexible services and products for been the largest crisps and snack producers in Europe. The company has invested heavily in thee infrastructure with manufacturing machines and in people to. They aim at considering the finest inputs, flavors and ingredients and also restructure their supply chain so that they when they purchase their input, they do it at a cost effective way.

They consider their customers taste and preferences and when their customers select the brand of products they want, the company assure them of what they need since they have the experts, resources and they aim to deliver at a cost effective manner.

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With such a reputation, Kolak Company need to have a competent operation manager to ensure that the company brand name is maintained. Operations managers have a vital role in a company. They are meant to put everything in equilibrium according to the company policies and processes that run along all the company department.

Also they are meant to foresee the company’s plans on its onsite operations, (Burke, 2013) When launching a new product in the market, the operation manager should be flexible to coup up with challenges that will come with the product development and market development.  Some of the challenges the operation manager will have to deal with include the following, (Dekker, Bloemhof, and Mallidis 2012)

Competing practices- a new operation manager will find it difficult to manage a business that is highly competing in the global market and also that have competing activities within the company.  Various business procedures of the firm can have disadvantageous results on the company’s actions when they challenge the efficiency of the company distributing quality products and services. However, using the Kolak Company brand name, it will be easier for the operation manager to win the market since the company is well established.

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Sustainability-the operations manager have a task of coming up with long term customers and maintaining them, formulating a long term strategies employees that help them coup up with the company political, economic, socio-cultural, and technological environment. The strategies formulated is meant to minimize the negatives effects by eliminating wastes which aims to reduce the wellbeing of the clients.

The operation managers may face this challenge because the environment work are seemed to be more insular, (Teittinen, Pellinen, and Järvenpää, 2013). By doing so, the company can secure an opportunity that they should implement to the fullest and be in a position to meet the client’s needs.

Corporate reporting-in many organizations, the operation managers are accountable for issuing corporates reports to the top management. The reports given includes performance and financial data and they are involved to communicate this information to the shareholders. The challenges they face is when the company has not kept up to date and accurate reports for the business.

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Social responsibility-the operation managers oversee on how the organization is interacting with the community at large beyond the fact that they want them to buy the products. It becomes a problem to the operation manager to be able to organize projects that aims at involving the community to show them that the firm recognizes them and they are concerned about them and their customers beyond making profits and create awareness of their business and keep its brand name, (Tano, and, Data Tec, 2013)

 A new manager is be able to accomplish a fast fluctuating commercial and technological environment. To do so, the new manger should be able to address to the human side in a systematic way. It will involve the manager emphasizing on the transformation of peoples issues. The managers will have to step out of their cocoon, develop new skills and abilities and convince the employees on their tasks to handle.

The manager should be able coup up with the change and involve all the stakeholders, integrate all the changes and formulate a strategy that will help them to make an informed decisions. The strategic direction taken by the manager should be realistic and must be congruent to the company history and must be flexible enough to a capacity of a change, (Pérez-Feijoo, Martínez-López,  and García-Ordaz, 2015). For example the Kolak Company operation manager should try to use the product’s strength in order to overcome this changes and make their brand name to be well recognized and keep their reputation.

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Also, the manger should start at the top since change in an organization is unsettling for staff. The manager should come up with a new approach that will motivate the employees and at the same time challenge them. The approach should limit the employees from looking upon the top management team for direction, support and strength. 

The manager should be able to work with other people so that they analyze vividly on the direction they have to take for change, be able to comprehend the behaviors and the culture the change is inducing to the organization, and be able to find a solution to those changes, (Lunenburg, 2012). The new operation manager at Kolak Company should be able to communicate the dynamic changes that are facing the company operations. With a flow of communication, it will become easier for the company to know how they will deal with the internal or external environmental issues affecting the business.

In addition, the manager should involve every department of the company. The changes in the company running involve the changes in the company’s reengineering their plans and coming up with new targets that are to be implemented. The transformation of company activities must be part of the strategies that identify the management in the company and be able to roll the change down to the staffs so that they can help implement the changes throughout the organization, (Cameron, and Green, 2015.).

The changes that may be facing the Kolak Company may be outside their reach. The operation manager should involve every member of staff in order to come up with a plan that will help the company to adopt and coup up with the changes but keeps the company’s vision alive.

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The manager should make the change process as a formal case. To avoid questioning by the staff, the manager have to formalize the changes and write a new vision statement that will help create team work, (Scarbrough, and Corbett, 2013.)

The manager will to operate in a changing environment, should be willing to overwork during the time of change and be a fanatics who is willing to launch a serious figure amongst the work force in the kindness of change. The leader must be willing to own the company responsibility for overseeing change and coping with it in all the company’s department. The ownership by the manager will involve people who will help recognize problems and come up informed solutions.

The manager must be willing to motivate the so that they can work effectively and efficiently. Failing to coup up with the changes, the Kolak Company will face a bigger threat from any political, economic, social, technological, and ecological conditions that will hit the company unexpectedly causing a change in their operations.

The mangers who operates in a changing environment of commercial and technological change, should be able to communicate the message to the entire stakeholders. A good flow of communication from the top management to the junior staffs is aimed to communicate and pass the right information to the employees about the changes at the right time through communication from multiple and terminated networks, (Hayes, 2014).

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Lastly the manager is expected to prepare and plan for the unexpected. The manager should always review the company operations on their impact on a day to day activities. This will help the management to fully adopt to any unpredictable transformation.

Kolak Company have to formulate a strategy that’s abide to its marketing operation. The strategy may be as follows, (Bettis, Gambardella, Helfat, and Mitchell, 2015)

Operating location– The Company should come up with a strategic place where it is aiming to develop a market for its product. The decision about the market should be independent and should make sense regarding the company operations.

Customer analysis-the company through the marketing department should carry out analysis for developing their target market and gets the know-how on what their customers really needs. When a bigger number of customers are happy with the product offered, then the demand will vary as per the needs of them, (Lee, Chiu, Y.L, Wu, and Liu, 2014)

Competition analysis-the company should be able to analysis and understand the competition in the market.  This will help to create a distinction with their competitors operations.

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Analysis of capability and system of one’s own company– it will be of necessity when the company will have to achieve a continuous and a continuous abilities and also be able to come up with a stable system in order to offer a endless value to their client and show a different approach as compared to what the competitor is offering, (De Mooij, 2013)

Setting Quantitative targets– the company will set up a target they are aiming to achieve by the end of a certain period. The target will go hand in hand with the customers’ needs and if there is any change, the operations should be evaluated amicably, (Jain, 2014)

Aiming in context with the divisional strategies– each department in the organization should come up with their own plans that will help push the project onward.

Performance analysis-this will involve analyzing the gap between the desired performance and planned performance. It will encompasses on analyzing of the company historical performance that will help to forecast on future performance.

Choice of strategy– after a careful assessment of company goals, strengths, potential and limitations operations, the best alternative and strategy that will be congruent to the vision of the company will be implemented, (Gunasekaran, and Ngai, 2012)

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SWOT analysis

Kolak Company is best known for its snacks products. Producing another health product to the market will be a significant role to play since the company is well known by its brand name and the quality products it offers to its clients that come with efficient and effective services.

In the new market, the target market are the young populations who goes for snacks products. The company must be willing to meet the clients taste and preferences and fulfil they request when they order a special type of snack.

The company beliefs that the customers are the heart of the business. It means that the new product established will be according to the customers’ needs and it will be health so that it does not affect customer’s health issues.

The new product should be launched into a market where there is demand for a particular product. The company should be able to analyze the market gap in all its global markets and see an opportunity that will make them fulfill their target.

After establishing the customers’ needs and seizing an opportunity, the company will have to employ a competent person who will manage to administer quality services to the customers and be creative enough to know what the taste of the customer is. Also, the location of the business should be strategically placed such that it becomes easier to produce product with the new technology and also easier to distribute the products. With this, it will be easier to make profits due to better know how of the market, (Hollensen, 2015.)

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PESTEL Analysis

The Kolak Company should set up the market for the new product where there is political stability. This will ensure that the business is running swiftly and there is customers for the product.

Establishing a business in a political stable market, the Kolak Company is well assured that the economy of the market is stable and they make sales for their products.

The company should be socially responsible. They should interact with the community beyond the aspect of making profit. This will make the company to be well established and in return will be able to make maximum sales

Due to advanced technology, the company should set up the market for the new product where there is availability and accessibility of latest technology that will help them with ease of production, (Rachet, 2014)

The Kolak Company should develop a market in an environment that best suit its products and will be convenient for its customer’s hygiene.

To come up with a market, the company will have to adhere the government rules and regulations and it should have proper documentation before it starts operating.

It can be summarized that operation management in a company is well concerned with control, redesigning, the organization operation in the productions of goods and services. The operation manger should be competent in a way that he or she is very keen to ensure that the operations are handled in an effective way and at cost effective when meeting the customer’s needs.

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It can be concluded that the operation manager is the key person who is at the higher notch of maintaining the company operations. Any misinformation by the operation manger will eventually leads to unpredicted changes and this will alter with the company progress because of dynamic unexpected changes that may lead to the company incurring various cost when trying to control redesign, and oversee the company operations running swiftly. , (Belleflamme, and Peitz, 2015).

Having a competent operations manager, Kolak Company will be able to launch its new product in the market. Following the operation strategy and the operations manager has the skills of supply chain management and logistics, the company will develop the new product and develop a new market which it will be able to meet the customer’s requirements effectively and efficiently at a minimum hurdle rate.

It can be recommended that Kolak Company can launch the new product into the market. Having analyzed the market fully and the customers at the same time, the company through the operation management team can spear head the launch of the product that will be of high quality and will satisfy the customer taste and preferences.

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Current Product Offering within a Fashion Retailer

Fashion Retailer
Fashion Retailer

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A Report of Research and Analysis a Current Product Offering within a Fashion Retailer that has a UK Store Presence


 With changing global fashion trends, the clothing and textile industry has undoubtedly become one of the most dynamic and competitive as well as rapidly changing sectors. This has prompted many fashion retailers across the world to embark on regular product offering as well as global sourcing in order achieve competitive advantage in the international market for them to remain relevant (Akhil, 2015).  The aims and objectives of this report is to research and analyse a current product offering for a fashion retailer that has a UK store presence and make recommendations on how the product could be progressed for the following season (Spring/summer ‘17) for an international market.  

This is done with an emphasis on produce Illustrator designs for the following season (Spring/summer ‘17) within the allocated budget of £600K, which are appropriate for an international market. In addition, an assortment or range plan is produced in an Excel spreadsheet to indicate budget spend. Through this approach it is possible to present the buy per garment that includes a number of aspects with regards to the designed garment including volume (ranking), spend, distribution, attributes as well as sourcing country. Finally, the report will provide analysis of sourcing criteria with recommendations including a valid critical path.

Overview of current offer

The fashion retail to be considered in this report is the H&M, which has grown from a single women’s wear shop in Västerås, Sweden, and has nowadays extensively expanded its operations across the world to have presence across international market through its six different brands and 4,000 fashion retail stores all around the world. Six independent brands are the main outlets through which H & M Hennes & Mauritz AB comprises six runs its day to day operations in marketing and sale of fashion products, and these brands are: H&M, COS, Cheap Monday, Monki, Weekday, and & Other Stories (H&M, 2016).

The team which has been mandated with the function of innovating and developing H&M’s fashion designs has been playing an imperative role in creating sustainable fashion for all, while striving to ensure that they are always offered for sale at the best price and quality. The collections of fashion designs that are developed by H&M designers include everything from quintessential functional and basics sportswear for children, teenagers, women, and men, to dazzling party collections for every occasion or season (H&M, 2016).

In addition, to shoes, bags, clothes, jewellery, underwear and make up as well as fashionable interiors for children and adults. The variety and width of the H&M collections is an indication that customers are always able to find something to suit their wardrobe as well as their style. The fashion has since inception tremendously expanded its operations globally and nowadays it has presence across many parts of the world through the H&M stores in 61 markets worldwide. In addition, the fashion retailer has an extensive online presence through which it makes a significant proportion of merchandise mainly because of its online shopping in 32 countries (H&M, 2016).

The current garments on offering which are under consideration are the special ladies’ dresses fashion collections for the Conscious Exclusive 2016 in the month of May

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Analysis on current garments

The current garments on offering which are under consideration are the special ladies’ dresses fashion collections for the Conscious Exclusive 2016 in the month of May.

The description of the current garment under consideration is as follows:

Title: Conscious Exclusive 2016

Price: £499

Description: A sleeveless round neck wedding or ready to wear dress made from two layers, whereby the outside layer is made from organic silk while the inner layer made from Tencel. The dress has been subjected to further decoration through embellishment with Art Deco inspired embroidery of glass beads that have been made from recycled glass. The dress was offered for sale in April 7, 2016 and the offer is still ongoing (H&M, 2016).

An illustration of the picture is shown the picture below:               

Product Development

This part of the report will cover the Illustrator proposals for the fashion designs envisaged to be developed for next season (Spring/summer ‘17) for an international market. As a result, this part will be covered in two sections, the first one discussing the Illustrator proposals as well as the fashion design specifications for the considered garment, and the second part covering the assortment or range plan.   

Illustrator proposals

Through the illustrator proposals, designs are produced within the allocated budget of £600K for SS’17 season for an international market. This will include CAD drawings for each design showing two views (front & back) including colour ways or prints. Furthermore, specifications for each selected design will be provided starting with thumbnail sketches and using the mood boards as inspiration (Mayer, 2014).        


Assortment plan

The assortment range plan in this report was included for the purpose of compiling a collection of garments that was commercially acceptable within the design and financial parameters, before the mass production can commence. However, there are some procedures that is needed to be included and stringently followed in the assortment or range plan for the purpose of making sure that the buyer can have a glimpse or insight into the anticipated or planned collection offering.

For instance, the assortment plan has to include a number of factors of the production including the number of garments to be included in the collection range. In addition, there must also be inclusion of different types of garments or collection (fashion to classic, tops to bottom styles) as well as specific styles which are to be included e.g. color and fabrics used to make the garment. Furthermore, the assortment plan should also include the price at which each garment is to be sold, the cost price of producing each garment, sizes included, among others (Miller, 2008; Mayer, 2014).

Recommendations on how the product could be progressed for the following season for an International market (Spring/Summer ‘17)

In order to ensure that the most appropriate recommendations on how the product could be progressed for the following season for an International market (Spring/Summer ‘17), there is need to undertake an assortment fashion forecasting based on the prevailing fashion trends. This is attributable to the fact that fashion forecasting plays an important role in determining the fashion trends in future by focusing on upcoming fashion and lifestyle trends (Mayer, 2014).

For instance, the H&M must be able to specifically focus on fashion trends and predict the styles, fabrics, colours that have a high likelihood of presentation on the runaway as well as in the stores for the fashion events that are to take place in the near future. This concept of fashion forecasting applies across the entire fashion industry including mass market, ready-to-wear, haute couture as well as street wear (Miller, 2008).

Therefore, the product can be progressed for the following season for an International market through an appropriate and perfect merchandise mix by ensuring that the colours of leather and that of the fabric used are perfectly matched with a consideration of trending colours for the international market (Mayer, 2014). In addition, the product can also be progressed by accessorizing it in order to make it more appealing. However, the accessories to be used must be carefully selected bearing in mind the prevailing fashion, style, and social trends.

For example, the product can be progressed by decorating it through embellishment with Art Deco inspired embroidery of glass beads that have been made from recycled glass. Furthermore, variations of the bound cuff seams, necklines as well as hems can also be differentially used to give the dress distinctive appearances depending on the fashion trends. Moreover, inclusion of a side and/or arm mesh as well as invisible zip is the other way through which this product can be progressed (NPR, 2011).

Sourcing summary

Global Sourcing and International Trade

Global sourcing has become an important aspect of fashion industry in the international trade, and it involves the selection of a supplier of either a product or the raw materialcomponents and services used in the make up and delivery of the products. As a result, true global sourcing is when a business manufactures and sells a consistent product globally, sourcing some or the entire product from third parties chosen to enable cost-effective and efficient sourcing and coordinated globally.  

Global sourcing in contemporary international business is not solely concerned about reduction of production costs but also it focuses on improved on the supply and demand chains of finished products as well as raw materials. However, as observed in illustrations provided in the diagrams shown below it is important to note that, previously global sourcing was all about cost. As a result, the objective was to source product or components from a country with low labour costs with an ultimate goal of gaining cost advantage.

There has been changing trends in global sourcing whereby according to Kurt Salmon (2012) book acting as a global sourcing reference; the largest manufacturers of clothing and textiles are shown in the table shown below. The ranking is done based on the value of apparel exportation in terms of millions of U.S. Dollars expressed as percentages.

Source: Kurt Salmon Global Sourcing Reference, 11th Edition

In contrast, despite the fact that top apparel exporters are located in Asia most retailers are either found in the Europe or U.S. For instance, according to Salmon (2012), 88 per cent of clothing retailers are located within Europe and China is ranked as their number one sourcing destination. However, there has been an increasing trend of production costs over the recent past, where production costs have increased 160 per cent since 2005.

A comparison of production costs across the world reveals sharp variations which an important determinant of the choices of sourcing countries for fashion retailers in Europe and the U.S. For example, Bangladesh and Vietnam have lowest PCI’s of all sourcing countries. However, Southern China greater costs than Central USA meaning that specific locations or regions within a country also be considered but not generally considering the country as a whole.

The emerging markets are also playing a significant role where Ethiopia could be one to watch since many fashion retailers have expressed interest (i.e. H&M, Tesco & Primark are all running pilots) in the country whose attraction to fashion retailers is attributed to its lower social living costs and well established transportation infrastructure. The table below ranks countries based on their PCI

Source: Kurt Salmon Global Sourcing Reference, 11th Edition

Moreover, with regards to cost there have been significant changes in the global sourcing trends. For instance, according to fashion price tracker figures by RetailWeek Analytics shows that there has been significantly changing production on markdown expressed in percentage among the leading fashion retailers with online presence.

Source: Retail Week Analytics

Global sourcing also involve the issues of quality, ethics and social responsibility as well as supply chain management as discussed in the sections that follows.


  • No longer disposable fashion attitude
  • Ensures competitor advantage

As our business has become more fashion centric, we have been able to source products from Asia that are not just low cost, but also fit the needs of the customer. But perceived quality continues to be a factor – certainly globally sourced goods are seen by consumers to be inferior when tagged with “Made in China” when in fact the quality is higher than comparable goods sourced in the UK.

Ethical & Social Responsibility

  • Not just human rights and community development issues.
  • Concerns for security, carbon footprint, bribery, corruption and money laundering.
  • Media has placed this trend at the top of both retailer’s and consumers concerns.

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Supply Chain Management

Supply Chain Management (SCM) is a network of connected and inter-dependent organisations mutually and co-operatively working together in order to control, manage and improve the flow of materials and information from suppliers to end users. Key Supply Chain Management (SCM) ensures that the supply chain process starts and finishes with the consumer by making sure that each interface in the supply chain represents: 1) movement of goods; 2) information flow; and 3) purchase and sale. As a result, strategic SCM consists of developing smarter ways to choose who to buy from and sell to your business partners.

Importance of the Supply Chain Management

It is aimed to achieve the following benefits for the company:

  • Competitive Advantage

Supply chain management is now well established as a key source of competitive advantage, and the competitiveness achieved in International market is without any doubt the most imperative gain attributable to global sourcing. However, this is usually based upon consumers’ perceptions of the added value aspects of the retailer’s overall offering (Mayer, 2014).

For major success, businesses need to achieve a clear performance differential over competition   on factors that are important to target customers. The most successful methods are built upon some combination of 3 advantages: 1) being better in providing superior quality or service; 2) being faster in responding to customers needs; as well as 3) being closer to establishing closer relationships with customers (Miller, 2008).

  • Improving Financial Performance (Sales & Profits)

This determines the overall performance of a company and it can subsequently be measured through a number of methods including: 1) Financial Review; 2) Quality performance and practice; 3) Delivery and physical flow of stock; and 4) Information sharing, extended relationships.

  • Consumer & Supplier Loyalty

The “value” may either take the form of selling undifferentiated products at below competitors’ prices or unique benefits that justify premium pricing. The value chain may be used to identify and understand the sources of competitive advantage and how they relate to creating added value for customers

As a result, Porter’s 5 Forces Model should be used by fashion retailers prior to choosing companies or partners to collaborate with in their global sourcing strategy in order to determine the extent of factors that directly influence business including:

  • Threat new entrants
  • Threat of substitutes
  • Bargaining power of buyers
  • Bargaining power of suppliers
  • Degree of rivalry

Proposed sourcing strategy

This part focuses on a discussion providing an analysis of sourcing criteria as well as recommendations on how the product could be progressed for the following season for an International market (Spring/Summer ‘17) including a valid critical path. The proposed sourcing strategy will mainly emphasize on the supply base analysis and the appropriate and valid critical path as discussed in sections below:

Supply Base Analysis

  • Current sourcing
    • Brief overview for current product

The current product is usually made of a mixture of fabrics whereby the shell of the garment is made from 60 % leather (which has been ethically sourced from Nepal) and 34% of Bamboo Viscose (Mesh) as well as 4 % of Elastane. In addition, the lining of the current product consists of 100% Bamboo Viscose. The current product is a leather panelled dress, and the assortment consists of sleeveless, short-sleeved as well as one-sleeved leather panelled dresses.

  • Proposed sourcing
    • Sourcing analysis for each garment, consider components

The proposed sourcing including H&M and Nepal will involve ethical sourcing of leather in Nepal through a partner based in the country. In addition, the processing of the bamboo viscose will also continue in Nepal and Bangladesh. However, the subsequent tanning or processing of the leather and the bamboo viscose will be shifted to Bangladesh which has the lowest Production Cost Index (PCI) of all sourcing countries across the world. Furthermore, the production of the garments upon approval of the designs will also continue in Bangladesh, and the finished products subsequently shipped to Europe.

  • PEST analysis for sourcing countries

The political situation in both Nepal and Bangladesh pose a risk to the sourcing activities undertaken considering that both countries are not significantly politically meaning that political upheavals may arise at any time and hinder production. There is also technology risk since both countries have not significantly adopted technology in the production processes meaning that the rate of production can not reach the level of the countries where technology has been significantly embraced.

  • Rationale for sourcing choice

A comparison of production costs across the world reveals sharp variations which an important determinant of the choices of sourcing countries for fashion retailers in Europe and the U.S. For example, many Asian countries have low Production Cost Index (PCI) with Bangladesh having the lowest Production Cost Index (PCI) of all sourcing countries across the world. Thus, these emerging markets are playing a significant role for many fashion retailers by acting sourcing countries, which is attributed to its lower social living costs and well established transportation infrastructure. As a result, there will b reduced production costs.

Critical Path   

The validated and appropriate critical path will be provided in the template shown below:


In conclusion, it can be observed that it is possible for a fashion product on offering by fashion retailers to be adequately analyzed and Illustrator proposals as well as assortment plans designed leading to the development of new garments which are more improved that those offered. However, in order for this to take place successfully the fashion retailer must establish an appropriate fashion forecasting trend mechanisms as well as an effective global sourcing and supply chain management systems.      


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