Data Collection Strategies Essay Assignment

Data Collection Strategies
Data Collection Strategies

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Based on what you have learned about qualitative research methods, what data collection strategies do you think could be relevant to your research question? Why are they appropriate? Answer this question in 2-3 well-formed paragraphs.
Research Question: How can I use group forums to motivate students in an eighth-grade algebra class? 

Prior to identifying data collection strategies, it is important to develop the specific questions that the evaluation will address. Evaluation questions should be reasonable, answerable, and appropriate given the program’s process and outcomes. Well-defined evaluation questions consider the purpose of the evaluation, intended use of the results, the needs of stakeholders, and the real world circumstances that influence program success. Important contextual information for rural areas includes local beliefs and behaviors, system capabilities, and limitations regarding capacity, technology, and needed resources.

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Research Problems, Designs, and Sample

Research Problems, Designs, and Sample
Research Problems, Designs, and Sample

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Week 3: Research Problems, Designs, and Sample

This week’s graded discussion topic relates to the following Course Outcomes (COs).
COs Apply research principles to the interpretation of the content of published research studies. (POs 4 and 8)CO4 Evaluate published nursing research for credibility and lab significance related to evidence-based practice. (POs 4 and 8)

This week, we will discuss the research problems, designs and sample for your nursing clinical issue. The research design flows from the research question and outlines the plan for the study that will answer the research question. The design identifies the major components of the study. It is important to remember that there is no one best design for a research study.

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After you review the designs, describe which research design you would expect to find when searching for evidence relevant to your own research question from Week 2. Why? Explain your answer.The most common sampling method is the convenience sample; therefore, many of the studies that you find for evidence use this sampling method. What are the implications for using a convenience sample on the way you interpret and use the findings?

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Critical Research Essay Paper

Critical Research
Critical Research

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Critical Research

The aspect that was to me was the approaches that are applied in communication research. These approaches are divided into quantitative research, qualitative research, critical research, and rhetoric research. Of the four, the model that I found to be quite interesting is the critical research model. According to Wood, critical research is not interested much with understanding and explaining organizational communication (Wood, 2014). However, I learned that this model lays more emphasis on analyzing, judging, and criticizing values.

Additionally, critical research just as the word “critical” suggests, focuses more on seeing how the society or an organization exists in a world full of power imbalances. In ideal societies and institutions, there are those individuals that have power and those that lack. Researchers who conduct critical analysis strongly believe that those without power are purposefully prevented by the powerful from attaining ultimate quality. Therefore, critical scholarship tends to be inclined towards the side of weaker individuals when commenting or studying relations of dominance (Wood, 2014).

I also noted that critical theory aids us to question institutions, ideologies, identities, and interests that seem to be dominant and challenging. For instance, critical research helps us to examine whether or not ideologies that have been established within an institution are fundamentally dangerous particularly to the workers. Moreover, with critical research we are in a better position to question certain ideologies on where they came from and the effectiveness of their applicability.

Usually, managers come up with certain ideologies that tend to be inherently problematic for the employees. Therefore, it is the duty of workers to put their best foot forward and challenge such ideologies lest they become implemented for several years without being challenged. Critical is also significant since it aids in examining different institutions to identify which ones are dominant in the society and which ones are not safe for the general worker.

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Wood, J. (2014). Communication mosaics: An introduction to the field of communication. Cengage Learning.

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Mixed Method Approach: Research Design

Mixed Method Approach
Mixed Method Approach

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Mixed Method Approach Research Designs

            Every work involves the use of specific tool or apparatus that enhances the attainment of the desired objectives. Similarly, in research, there are diverse methods that can be applied to collect data and come up with scientific reality or information about the social reality. In some instances, research work will need to apply combined techniques or more than one technique to increase the chances of getting more reliable information.

One of the prominent research techniques is the use of the Mixed Method Research, (MMR). Mixed method approach, also referred to as the multi-methodology, involves the application of both the quantitative and qualitative techniques in a single study. The application of both techniques can either be concurrent or sequential. The mixed method approach is likely to give a wider dimension of approach to research when applied in psychology-based study.

The current paper describes the mixed method research as an integration of both quantitative and qualitative methods. In addition, the paper explains the type of questions best explained by the mixed method approach. The paper also elaborates the strength and limitation of mixed method approach. Finally, there is the rationale for and against the utility of mixed methods in psychology.

            According to Johnson & Onwuegbuzie (2004), the mixed method approach can be used to bridge the rift between quantitative and qualitative techniques. Both techniques though viewed as different, may have closer similarities. For example, both techniques aim to gather empirical evidence or data to address the questions posed. Mixed method approach is therefore an integrated approach that erases the limitations posed by the single method and can be used to answer a question posed on the social phenomenon (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004).

The mixed method approach technique usually uses both quantitative and qualitative techniques in order to create a greater validity that can be derived through the use of varied techniques of data collection. In the mixed method research technique, both the qualitative and quantitative data are collected. Afterwards, the data are mixed together to produce more comprehensive and integrated results regarding the social reality.

The mixed method technique can therefore be viewed as the bringing together of the qualitative and quantitative techniques (Creswell, 2014). Consequently, the mixed method technique can be explained as a convergence of results arising from both the qualitative and the quantitative results. This can be illustrated by the diagram below.


The data collected from both the qualitative and quantitative techniques are then connected together to form integrated research results.

Lastly, the information that is got from the result of carrying out both techniques is then embedded together and used to explain the social phenomenon that was under enquiry.

Any research study usually aims to answer a specific question or identify a gap that has been identified. When applying the mixed method of approach, one question is usually developed and then extended into quantitative and qualitative sub-questions. Once the enquiry has been undertaken, different perspectives of research are got and can therefore be used to explain the social phenomena under the study (Collins & O’cathain, 2009).  The questions that are raised and are to be investigated can be answered from a number of perspectives.

In a concurrent mixed study method, both the quantitative and qualitative studies are carried out together and results emanating from the study combined. In a sequential study approach, the qualitative method for instance can be carried out first while the quantitative technique will be used to test a named hypothesis arising from the study so as to enhance generalization of the facts (Burkholder, Cox, & Crawford, 2016).

One of the advantages of using the mixed method approach is that the researcher can be able to use narratives, words and pictures to be able to explain reality or factual data in social phenomena (Creswell, 2014). For instance, Psychological facts can better be understood when a combination of these concepts will be used to aid in the explanation of the social reality.

From another insightful perspective, the researcher has an ample platform that allows him/her to be able to generate and at the same time test any grounded theory (Burkholder, Cox, & Crawford, 2016).  Since the researcher will not be confined to particular tenets of the single method of research, he/she can be able to tackle broader and complete varieties of questions.

This allows the researcher to explore fully and comprehensively the case that he/she is studying to come up with conclusive information on what he/she is studying. In the mixed method approach, therefore, there is the concept of complementarily. Additionally, the mixed method allows the researcher to be able to add insightful facts and methods that can be ignored when a single research technique is applied in carrying out research work especially in psychology.

On the other hand, the mixed method can be considered to be more time-consuming and expensive. From another perspective, a lot of researchers may also find it difficult to handle any conflicting ideas or results arising from the study that uses the mixed method research technique.  Furthermore, there are some researchers who may hold methodological predilections, which may make them lean on one method at the expense of the other. In such cases, the researcher may fail to understand the mixed methods as a complete integration of both the qualitative and quantitative methods.

Psychology-based researches require intensive implementation of research techniques that come up with viable results that fully explain a specific social phenomenon. For example, when the mixed method is used in finding out psychological concepts in the social world, the researcher is likely to come up with stronger evidence that will be derived from the convergence and collaboration of ideas from both the qualitative and quantitative techniques, applied together.  

When both methods have been applied, the researcher can come up with a complete knowledge that can be effective in explaining and informing psychological practices and theories (Edmonds & Kennedy, 2012). From another insightful perspective, when the mixed method approach is used to investigate a psychological concept, overlapping, though diverse ideas about a social phenomenon can be derived.

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When undertaking a psychological study, the mixed method can enhance complimentarily between the quantitative and qualitative techniques. For instance, the results that can be derived from one method can be verified using the other. For example, the qualitative study can be used to come up with a psychological concept in the social world. Quantitative study can afterwards be undertaken to verify the facts through coming up with a hypothesis following the survey undertaken from the qualitative study (Mertens, 2014). Consequently, when qualitative technique is used as a platform to carry out a survey study, quantitative technique can be used to verify the facts.

Contrarily, the mixed method approach can pose difficulties to the researcher especially where he/she will be required to apply two or more approaches concurrently to study a psychological concept on a certain population. The researcher will be required to go an extra mile to understand how to apply both methods and how to mix them appropriately.

In conclusion, a single method used in carrying out research can produce a variety of weaknesses. The mixed method approach can be used to compensate for the weaknesses that can be prevalent in every single technique. For instance, the use of both the qualitative and quantitative techniques yields results that give a comprehensive outlook about the social phenomenon under enquiry.


 Burkholder, G. J., Cox, K. A., & Crawford, L. M. (2016).The scholar-practitioner’s guide to research design. Baltimore, MD: Laureate Publishing.

Collins, K. & O’cathain, A. (2009). Introduction: Ten points about mixed methods
research to be considered by the novice researcher. International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, 3(1), 2-7.

Creswell, J. (2014). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). A concise introduction to mixed methods research. Sage Publications.

Edmonds, W. A., & Kennedy, T. D. (2012). An applied reference guide to research designs: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. Sage Publications.

Johnson, R. & Onwuegbuzie, A. (2004). Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come. Educational Researcher, 33(7), 14-26.×033007014

Mertens, D. M. (2014). Research and evaluation in education and psychology: Integrating diversity with quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. Sage publications.

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External Validity: Designing Quantitative Research

External Validity: Designing Quantitative Research
External Validity: Designing Quantitative Research

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External Validity: Designing Quantitative Research


The results of a research study are significant in the event that they can be considered as accurate and confidently in their interpretation. The element of accuracy and confidence in the interpretation of a research study’s result is subsequently dependent on the validity of the study. Validity in this case infers to the degree in which a research study’s inferences can be articulated from the results of the study.  In consideration of this, there are two primary aspects of validity that include the internal and the external validity.   

Internal Validity

            This can be established as the extent in which the results of a research study are considered as a function of the variables that are manipulated in a systematic way, measured and observed during a study. An example of this can be seen in a researcher determined to establish which of the two instructional approaches are superior in teaching a mathematical concept within a classroom setting (Haegele, & Hodge, 2015).

The researcher would be intrigued to encourage two tutors to use each of the instructional methods and then take a comparison of the mean test scores of each and every class following the use of the instructional method. The validity of this study can be depicted in the tutors efficiency and enthusiasm in using the instructional method, the interest of the class and their preparation. In this case, it is essential to establish that some of the potential threats of internal validity include:


            History can be considered as the occurrence of events that are prone to alter the end result or outcome of a research study. In this case, before conducting a research study, it is essential to determine that a previous history is likely to have taken place (Haegele, & Hodge, 2015). For instance, a study on the effectiveness of a new concept used in teaching a unit on the biology of a nervous system may be overtaken by history since many students may have watched a documentary on this on the television.


            The aspect of maturation depicts the changes that are likely to occur on the subjects of a study during the research period. These changes are considered as not part of a study since they are likely to affect studies results (Haegele, & Hodge, 2015). For example, in a biological growth process, a researcher may be forced to consider the element of weight gain or the increase in an individual’s height that results from lunch or breakfast programs as a change that may occur during a study.

Mitigating the Potential Threats of Internal Validity

            In addressing the element of history in internal validity, a research may consider using a control group that is selected within the same population within an experimental group (Haegele, & Hodge, 2015). This group therefore needs to experience the same history as the experimental group, an aspect that would eliminate the effects of history. On the other hand, the duration of an experiment may be shortened in reducing such effects. On the other hand, the effects of maturation can be compared to those of maturation and can be mitigated through the selection of the same population from as that of an experimental group and the study period may be shortened as well.

External Validity

            This refers to the extent in which a studies result can be generalized in a confident way to a larger group that engaged in the study (Haegele, & Hodge, 2015). In this case, a researcher needs to determine the reasons behind the use of variables that are similar to the aspects that exist within the larger population. Some of the potential threats of an external validity include:

The Selection-treatment Interaction:

            This is primarily considered as the possibility of the selected participants characteristics interactions with some elements of the treatment (Haegele, & Hodge, 2015). This may therefore include the participants learning, prior experiences, personality or any other elements that may interact with the effects of the study.

Effects of an Experimentation Arrangement

This primarily infers to the situations in which the participants of a study become aware of their involvement in a study and as a result of this, their performance and response changes from what would have been.

The possible approaches of mitigating threats to external validity include the inclusion of an efficient design by adding treatment or control groups and differential waves of measurement (Haegele, & Hodge, 2015). On the other hand, a researcher may also consider the use of statistical analysis

Ethical Issue in Quantitative Research

            Ethics can be perceived as the development of a good study conduct with the aim of making moral judgments on the element of good conduct. In quantitative research, one of the ethical issues that need to be given consideration is the acquisition of the participants consent in a study (Haegele, & Hodge, 2015). This may influence the design decision of a study since the researchers may have to include efficient methods aimed at attaining the consents of participants in a research study.

Amenability of a Research to Scientific Study Using a Quantitative Approach

In considering this, it is vital to establish that this element enables a researcher to scientifically establish the primary causes of his/her observations with the aim of in providing unambiguous answers to the research studies intent. This element remains essential since without it, the cause of an effect may not be established and isolated.

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Main Issue Post

            As established, the primary issues established in this post can be seen in the construction of a social variable that determines the limitations of racial identity with the biological differences that exist among races (Haegele, & Hodge, 2015). It is essential to consider that an individual’s experience on different faces may be viewed as systematically different within particular societies based on how these societies take cognizance of the element of racial differences.

            An instance of this can be viewed in the manner in which multiple races are socially contracted among the whites in U.S. Numerous immigrant groups that are now classified as Whites that include the Eastern Europeans and the Irish populations were first considered as racially different from other groups that include the North European and Western regions. In this case, racial identities may be viewed as changing as a result of the assimilation of demographic groups that differentiate themselves from other groups as a result of political, economic and social variables.

Response Post

            As a researcher, it is credible to take cognizance of the possibilities that result in the social construction and the manner in which such constructions affect the meaning of a studies variable. This is ion consideration of the fact that variables are constructed to have immense influence on studies validity (Haegele, & Hodge, 2015). This therefore requires a clear and concise definition of each and every variable in a study with the aim of increasing the validity of the study.  On the other hand, it is vital to establish the context in which research data is collected and interpreted.


As determined in this study, the element of internal and external validity plays a significant role in a study since they determine the confidentiality and accuracy of a research design.


Haegele, J. A., & Hodge, S. R. (2015). Quantitative Methodology: A Guide for Emerging Physical Education and Adapted Physical Education Researchers. Physical Educator, 7259-75.

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Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Data

Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Data
Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Data

Integrating qualitative and quantitative data

The mixed method, qualitative and quantitative, research design has been viewed as the most complicated process when it comes to research analysis. For this reason, different tactics which are essential have been implemented for a sound approach and the implementation of the rules of the data coming together. However, the mixed method research design is of greater significance due to the following reasons.

  1. Triangulation: When a researcher uses different sources to look for data validation of each of the method’s findings, (Fielding, 2012)
  2. Initiation: The results from either method may bring out new research questions which require being analyzed further, initiating the other study project with multiple sources of data, (Bazeley, and Kemp,  2012)
  3. Expansion: The researcher tends to develop one technique by using the find of the other.
  4. Complimenting: The researcher complement findings from a particular source with the utilization of the various source of data.

Ethical issues and feasibility constraints

When conducting research, the moral deliberation should be at the front position as the researchers get on ant capable future research. It is vital for the researcher to be by the ethical requirements. It means that the researcher has to consider the following ethical issues:

  1. Confidentiality: Companies might opt to be anonymous, and it is okay to employ pseudonyms for the firms and the person in a business enterprise studied.
  2. Permission: The researcher should not assume that they can video/sound record or even take photographs. It is necessary to seek for approval before undertaking the process and also request permission when in need to employ direct quotation and secure the image of the quoted author where appropriate, (Bryman, and Bell, 2015)
  3. Communication: The researcher is mandated to officially write to the person to be involved in the research highlighting the agenda to be discussed, (Mertens, 2014)

Budget and time constraints constrain the feasibility of the study.  It is vital for the mixed methods to carefully consider the access of different source of data in line with the significance permission as well as the extra time required to gather and analyze various types of evidence, (Bell, J., 2014).  It is usually impractical for a comparatively green student researcher to get the appropriate time and more so resources for such a complicated and time-consuming manner.

Significant barrier to the integration of qualitative and quantitative data

The most important barrier as far as the combination of the qualitative and quantitative data is concerned different audiences, (Glogowska, 2015). After the researchers have used both the methodology to come up with complete results, they at times feel that they end up writing their results from the qualitative and quantitative analysis for diverse audiences. That is, either the scenery of the content is attractive a particular audience or the notion of the readers and vice versa.

The mixed method’s expectation at times means that whichever set of data draws attention to or employed more or less entirely.  The opinion of such expectation of the viewers or readers might cause the researcher to be biased on the keeping out one of the research method or make it of less significance while stressing on the other, (Venkatesh, Brown, and Bala, 2013)


Bazeley, P. and Kemp, L., 2012. Mosaics, triangles, and DNA metaphors for integrated analysis in mixed methods research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 6(1), pp.55-72.

Bell, J., 2014. Doing Your Research Project: A guide for first-time researchers. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

Bryman, A. and Bell, E., 2015. Business research methods. Oxford University Press, USA.

Fielding, N.G., 2012. Triangulation and mixed methods designs data integration with new research technologies. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 6(2), pp.124-136.

Glogowska, M., 2015. Paradigms, pragmatism and possibilities: mixed-methods research in speech and language therapy. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, pp.1-10.

Mertens, D.M., 2014. Research and evaluation in education and psychology: Integrating diversity with quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. Sage publications.

Venkatesh, V., Brown, S.A. and Bala, H., 2013. Bridging the qualitative-quantitative divide: Guidelines for conducting mixed methods research in information systems. MIS quarterly, 37(1), pp.21-54.

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Quantitative Research Critique

Quantitative Research Critique
Quantitative Research Critique

Quantitative Research Critique

To deliver quality care for patients, it is essential for nurses to apply the best current practice.  However, the old adage “all that glitter is not gold” is also applicable in research.  This is because not all nursing research is of high standard, which implies that nurses should not just take research based on the fact that it is being published.  Critiquing of quantitative study follows a systematic approach to appraise the strengths and weakness of the piece of research, with the aim of determining their applicability or credibility to practice.

In this context, this paper will critically analyze this study: – Dobson, R., Whittaker, R., Jiang, Y., Shepherd, M., Maddison, R., Carter, K., Cutfield, R., McNamara, C., Khanolkar, M., and Murphy, R. (2016). Text message-based diabetes self management support (SMS4BG): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 17: 179. doi: 10.1186/s13063-016-1305-5

Background of study

 The title is the first thing observed in this article. An appropriate title should be about 10-15 word long.  Too short or long title can be confusing as well as misleading. In this context, the title clearly identifies the purpose of study, which is randomized controlled study on the impact of text message based diabetes support program.

The study’s abstract provides a succinct overview of the study research, including the aim of the study, sample size, study method, findings and conclusion. Reading the abstract, one is able to determine the relevance of the study to the researchers interest, and to whether continue or not continue reading the article (Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt, 2015).

The research problem is well presented in the back ground if the study. The statement in this section broadly informs a reader about the purpose of the study. For instance, the study highlights that the prevalence of diabetes is increasing internationally, and the burden of this disease is reported among the minority groups, especially those from low income household.

The quantitative research critique reports that effective self management strategies should include frequent monitoring of diabetic patient, empowering the patient with healthy behaviors, and appropriate dosages insulin administration in order to enhance improvement in glyceamic control.  In this section, the significance of the issue in nursing is also explored.

The study proposes that use of text message services to deliver health services and vital information is effective in supporting healthy behaviors and appropriate disease management.  The increasing ownership of mobile phones makes it possible to reach populations that would otherwise be difficult to reach (Hinshaw & Basu, 2015).

The research question is thorough and is well elaborated using substantial yet relevant details as well as the explanation process.  The study aims, research question and hypothesis helps the researcher to form a link between stated purpose and research problem. In this study, these concepts are clearly.

The aim of this quantitative research critique is to evaluate the effectiveness of mobile health diabetes in supporting program (SMS4BG) in patients diagnosed with diabetes type1 and type 2. The specific objectives includes a) enhancing self management processes to improve glycosylated  haemoglobin (HbA1c) and b) to assess its ability to improve diabetes management in remote populations (Dobson et al., 2016).

Methods of study

Methodology can be compared to nuts and bolts of a research study.  The study followed the Standards Protocol Items Recommendation for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) 2013. The study intervention was done based to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT)-EHEALTH checklist. The research method used in this study is quantitative research method.

There are various research method including experimental, non- experiment and quasi experimental design. In context, the study applied randomized controlled design to determine cause and affect relationship of the study variables. This type of research design is appropriate because it reduces potential sources of bias. This research method is easier to blind mask the participants because the treatment are identified clearly (Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt, 2015).

The sample size used was 1000 participants (500 per arm).  The stratification was done per health district with the urban and remote areas. This sample size was adequate and provided 90% power and 5% significance level to detect changes in 0.5% HbA1c within baseline of 9 months.  Randomization and blinding was done in a ratio of 1:1. The stratification was done according to health district categories i.e. high urban or remote and status of diabetes.

To enhance vigor, the randomization process was done using computer program based on block sizes of 2 or 4. The nature of intervention made it difficult to conceal treatment allocation to participants and the research staff. To improve study outcome validity, the primary patient outcome such as HbA1c, hospital emergency visits and admissions were the objective assessors of the intervention (Dobson et al., 2016).

 The next element is method of data collection. There are many strategies that can be adopted when collecting data in quantitative research including interviews, observational tools and attitude scales. This study used tailor made questionnaires that consisted of closed questions that had fixed answers. The paper outlines the process of data collection in clear and logical processes (Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt, 2015).

The last phase is analysis of data collected, which is often identified as the most daunting tasks. This is because it is associated with complex statistical tests. The study clearly identifies the statistical tests that were undertaken including descriptive and inferential statistics in order to identify the causal and effect relationship between the variables. In this context, the demographics attributes were summarized using descriptive statistics. The study’s continuous variables was summarized using mean, standard deviation, and mean (Dobson et al., 2016).

Results of study

            The discussion of the study findings flow logically and have been associated with literature review. However, the researcher does not indicate if the hypothesis supports the findings or not. The study discussions do not indicate if the findings relate to conceptual framework or not. However, the interpretations as well as the inferences met are clearly associated with study results.  The significance of study findings is stated. The researcher also explores clinical significance and its clinical implication of the study (Polit and Beck, 2006; Jackson et al., 2014).

In this context, the paper explains the protocol for the proposed intervention which is use of SMS4BG trial to explore its impact on diabetes self management program. According to the study findings, this kind of intervention provides tailored support for people with poorly controlled diabetes, especially those living in remote areas. The study develops a protocol that builds on previous evidence on the impact of technology in people with diabetes. The researcher states that the pilot study indicates that the intervention is applicable and is perceived and important in patients diagnosed with diabetes across the country (Dobson et al., 2016).

Ethical considerations

There are four fundamental ethical principles including justice, non-maleficence, autonomy and beneficence.  The principle of autonomy implies that participants have the right to decide whether or not they want to participate in research without any coercion or have fear of what the research is investigating. The Non-maleficence principle implies that the participants are protected from any kind of physical or psychological harm.

Beneficence principle in this context implies that the research should have positive impact to the patient and the society. Justice in case implies that the research should ensure that all participants are treated equally. In addition, moral rules connected with these ethical principles include fidelity, veracity, privacy and confidentiality (Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt, 2015).

To ensure that these ethical considerations are observed is by ensuring that the institutional review boards approve research before it takes place. This is to ensure that the principles and moral rules are adhered to. In this context, the research team sought ethical approval from Health and Disability Ethics Committee (14/STH/162), and that each participant signed an informed consent (Dobson et al., 2016).


The paper concludes by discussing the significance of the study findings. The study makes generalization but indicates that caution should be taken when implementing the recommendations depending on the study purpose and design. The paper does not make any meaningful recommendations for further investigations (Polit and Beck, 2006).


Dobson, R., Whittaker, R., Jiang, Y., Shepherd, M., Maddison, R., Carter, K., Cutfield, R., McNamara, C., Khanolkar, M., and Murphy, R. (2016). Text message-based diabetes self management support  (SMS4BG): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 17: 179. doi: 10.1186/s13063-016-1305-5.

Hinshaw, L., & Basu, A. (2015). Technology Use for Problem Solving in Adolescent Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, 17(7), 443–444.

Jackson, I. L., Adibe, M. O., Okonta, M. J., & Ukwe, C. V. (2014). Knowledge of self-care among type 2 diabetes patients in two states of Nigeria. Pharmacy Practice, 12(3), 404.

Melnyk, B. M., and Fineout-Overholt, E. (2015). Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing and healthcare; a guidance to practice, 3rd Edition.

Polit, D. and Beck. C. (2006). Essentials of Nursing Care: Methods, Appraisal and Utilization. 6th edn. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia

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