Assisted Reproduction Technology

Assisted Reproduction Technology
Assisted Reproduction Technology

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Assisted Reproduction Technology

History of Assisted Reproduction Technology

In July 1983, the first successful human-human transfer of an embryo resulting in pregnancy was announced. Biggers and John report that the procedure took place at the Harbor-UCLA Medical Center under the supervision of Dr. John Buster. Subsequently, the first birth was reported in February 1984. It is estimated that between then and now, about 350,000-50,000 babies have been born following this procedure (Biggers and John 123).

The embryo was transferred from the woman in whom it was developing to another woman to the woman who gave birth 38 weeks after. Henceforth, this was considered milestone breakthrough for women who were infertile (Biggers and John 121). It has given light to embryo donation and the use of human oocyte as an alternative to adoption for these women.

 The Uses and Benefits

 According to Wagner, embryo transfer or assisted reproduction technology is used for women with infertility challenges such as, blocked and damaged oviducts or those whose fallopian tubes have been removed. Women with ovulation disorders can also take advantage of this technology. As well, it can also be utilized in case of men with male factor infertility (low sperm count or sperm immobility) and persons with genetic disorders (Wagner, Marsden, and Patricia 1028).

Same gender couples and individuals who choose to be single can also use this technology. The benefits that come with freezing of embryos include the ability to store them in case you are at risk of injury or is important for persons who conditions that require medical attention, which affects their fertility (Wagner, Marsden, and Patricia 1028). Freezing of embryos is also beneficial people undergoing sex-change operations. Finally, it gives people a chance to become donors and assist individuals with infertility problems.

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Problems and Risks

The only known problem with embryo transfer surface when a donor who is not registered participates without the consent of Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA) clinic. This compromises your health and that of the child because of lack of stringent screening and testing procedures (Wagner, Marsden, and Patricia 1030). Also, it becomes unclear on who is the legal parent of the child as this can allow the donor to take the legality. Furthermore, it will be impossible for this child to have any information of the donor since it will be missing in the HFEA files.

Apart from this, there are also several risks surrounding this technology (Wagner, Marsden, and Patricia 1028). As with other medical processes, fertility medications have side effects, which range from headaches, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome breath shortness, and fainting. Additional risks include; bleeding and infections during egg retrieval, the chance of multiple pregnancies and associated psychological and emotional stress (Wagner, Marsden, and Patricia 1028).

Society Viewpoints

There are some social aspects outlined by (Schoolcraft et al. 863). Some people, especially in professional settings, are of the opinion that this technology should be left to same gender couples only. In Asian countries, it is only allowed for married couples only (Schoolcraft et al. 866). It widely practiced in European countries while it is prohibited in South America because of religious reasons (Schoolcraft et al. 867). This is because Christians consider this technology immoral. Other people argue that the stress and pain that come with this procedure can make difficult for the parent to bond with the child.

Personal Effect

This technology has no significant effect on me because from my perception people should be given a chance to choose the mode of reproduction they consider most favorable. It is therefore not under my jurisdiction to judge it as wrong or right (Schoolcraft et al. 864). It is, therefore, a matter of individual choice because it only involves the individuals who choose it.

Works Cited

Biggers, John D. “IVF and embryo transfer: historical origin and development.” Reproductive biomedicine online 25.2 (2012): 118-127. Web.

Schoolcraft, William B., Eric S. Surrey, and David K. Gardner. “Embryo transfer: techniques and variables affecting success.” Fertility and sterility 76.5 (2001): 863-870. Web

Wagner, Marsden G, and Patricia A St Clair. “Are in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer of Benefit to all?” The Lancet 334.8670 (2014): 1027-1030. Web.

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