Quality Management: Session Long Project

Quality Management
Quality Management

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Quality Management

Session Long Project

Using the fictitious company from the previous SLPs, continue to develop the company profile and operating information. This is a very open-ended SLP, and it will give you an opportunity to expand your knowledge and use creativity in providing the solution to the challenges.

Identify how your company uses quality management.

Categorize the quality problems in your company, and identify different areas for quality measurement and management.

What types of quality tools and techniques are the best to be employed, process control, quality tools, employee involvement?

Consider quality management programs such as TQM, Six Sigma, ISO9000, etc.

How might these be employed, and which of these do you think are best for your company?

• First discuss a recap of your company and provide any additional information about it that will be necessary and/or an interesting background to a discussion of quality and quality management.

• Identify at least three areas of types of quality focus (e.g., product quality, etc.). Discuss these areas and explain why quality is important.

• What are some quality tools and techniques that can be used to chart, diagnose, and improve quality in these three areas?

• Discuss the types of quality programs and recommend what you think is the best program or programs for your company to use and explain why.

Quality Management (TQM) is the organization-wide management of quality that includes facilities, equipment, labor, suppliers, customers, policies, and procedures. TQM promotes the view that quality improvement never ends, quality provides a strategic advantage to the organization, and zero defects is the quality goal that will minimize total quality costs. While this special topic on TQM is not a comprehensive discussion of all aspects of TQM, several key concepts will be discussed.An important basis for justifying TQM practice is understanding its impact on total quality costs.

TQM is rooted in the belief that preventing defects is cheaper than dealing with the costs of quality failures. In other words, total quality costs are minimized when managers strive to reach zero defects in the organization. The four major types of quality costs are prevention, appraisal, internal failure, and external failure.

Prevention costs are the costs created from the effort to reduce poor quality. Examples are designing the products so that they will be durable, training employees so they do a good job, certifying suppliers to ensure that suppliers provide quality in products and services, conducting preventive maintenance on equipment, and documenting quality procedures and improvements.

In a traditional organization that does not practice TQM, prevention costs typically comprise the smallest percentage of total quality costs.A good example of good product design occurs in all Honda products. Honda produces a wide variety of items, including automobiles, ATVs, engines, generators, motorcycles, outboard motors, snow blowers, lawn and garden equipment, etc. To say the least, Honda engines last a long time. For example, Honda Accords typically run for well over 200,000 miles.

Employee training is also a very important prevention cost. For instance, employees in a vegetable/fruit packaging warehouse need to know what a bad vegetable/fruit looks like, since customers will not want to find spoiled produce in the store. Lifeguards at a swimming pool must know proper procedures for keeping swimmers safe. In many circumstances in both manufacturing and service businesses, the training of employees can make an enormous difference in preventing defects.

Supplier selection and certification are critical prevention activities. A product or service is only as good as the suppliers who partner with an organization to provide the raw materials, parts and components, and supporting services that make up the final products and services that the end customers receive. For example, a home furnishings store might use an outside subcontractor to install carpeting, but if the subcontractor fails to show up on time, tracks mud into the customer’s home, or behaves in a rude manner, the store’s reputation will suffer. Similarly, a car manufacturer who purchases defective tires from a supplier risks incurring high costs of recalls and lawsuits when the defects are discovered.

Preventive maintenance is necessary for preventing equipment breakdowns. Many manufacturing companies use sophisticated software to track machine usage, and determine optimal schedules for regular machine maintenance, overhauls, and replacement.

Documenting quality is a necessary prevention cost because it helps the organization track quality performance, identify quality problems, collect data, and specify procedures that contribute to the pursuit of zero defects. Documentation is important to communicating good quality practice to all employees and suppliers.

Appraisal costs are a second major type of quality cost. Appraisal costs include the inspection and testing of raw materials, work-in-process, and finished goods. In addition, quality audits, sampling, and statistical process control also fall under the umbrella of appraisal costs.Inspection and testing of raw materials is very important, since substandard raw materials lead to substandard products. Raw materials used for a bridge determine the strength of the bridge. For example, soft steel will erode away faster than hardened steel. Moreover, the concrete bridge decking needs to be solid, as concrete with air pockets will erode and crumble faster, creating an unsafe bridge.

Finished goods and work-in-process inventory also need inspecting and testing. For example, worker error is quite common in the home construction industry, and this is why inspections occur frequently on newly constructed homes during and after the construction process is complete. Building inspectors ensure that the house has the proper framing, electrical, plumbing, heating, and so forth.

Quality audits and sampling are also important appraisal costs. Quality audits are checks of quality procedures to ensure that employees and suppliers are following proper quality practices. With sampling, a company can ensure with confidence that a batch of products is fit for use. For example, a wooden baseball bat manufacturer may test 10 out of every 100 bats to check that they meet strength standards. One weak bat can signal that quality problems are present.

Statistical process control (SPC) is the final type of appraisal cost. SPC tracks on-going processes in manufacturing or service environments to make sure that they are producing the desired performance. For example, a restaurant might statistically track customer survey results to make sure that customer satisfaction is maintained over time. In manufacturing windshields for automobiles, SPC might be used to track the number of microscopic air bubbles in the glass to make sure the process is performing to standard.

Internal failure costs are the third category of quality costs. This cost occurs when quality defects are discovered before they reach the customer. Examples of internal failure costs include scrapping a product, reworking the product, and lost productivity due to machine breakdowns or labor errors. Internal failure costs are typically more expensive than both prevention and appraisal costs because a great deal of material and labor often has been invested prior to the discovery of the defect. If a book publisher prints 10,000 books, then discovers that one of the chapters is missing from every copy, the cost of reworking or scrapping the books represents a major loss to the company. It would have been much cheaper to have procedures in place to prevent such a mistake from happening in the first place.

In the case of internal failure cost due to machine failures, FedEx and other courier services cannot keep up with demand when a conveyor belt breaks down in the package distribution center. Major delays and costs occur when such incidents occur. Other examples include a road construction company having a road grader break down, a tool and die shop having a CNC machine break down, and a farmer having a combine break down during harvest time.

External failure costs are the fourth major cost of quality. External failure costs occurs when the defect is discovered after it has reached the customer. This is the most expensive category of quality costs. Examples include product returns, repairs, warranty claims, lost reputation, and lost business. One spectacular example of external failure cost was when the Hubbell telescope was launched into space with mirrors that were ground improperly. When the telescope was turned on, instead of a magnificent view of stars, planets, and galaxies, the scientists could see only blurred images. The price of correcting the problem was over USD 1 billion.

External failure costs also occur when the wrong meal is delivered to a restaurant customer, when a computer breaks down shortly after it was purchased, when the wrong kidney is removed from a patient, and when a poorly designed automobile causes the death of drivers and passengers. Because of the enormous costs of internal and external failures, all companies should strive for zero defects. Successful TQM practice dictates that pursuing zero defects will result in the minimization of total quality costs by spending more on prevention and appraisal activities in order to reduce the much higher costs of internal and external failure.


Required Reading

Optional Reading

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Quality Management

The management of quality in an organization is becoming increasingly important. In order to assess this importance, this project determines an organization whose quality management, control, planning, and analysis will be assessed. This paper looks into the areas of quality focus, various tools and techniques used, and a number of program recommendations for the chosen organization.

Recap of the chosen company

The choice company is Better Medical Hospital, a health care facility with a bed capacity of 200 and approximately 2500 employees. The firm offers a number of services to local, state, and out of state patients. These include diagnosis, treatment, palliative care, medication, and end of life care services. The organization’s key operational processes are diagnosis, medication, documentation, and patient flow processes. The use of various approaches in the field of quality management could help to improve the operational processes within the organization. This would help in the increase of efficiency and productivity for Better Medical Hospital.

Areas and types of quality focus

A focus on quality by a company is important, as it is one of the key cornerstones of a business. The main importance of quality is the loyalty it creates in the fan base of the business (Loureiro & González, 2008). There exists a number of areas and types of quality where an organization should focus. Bearing in mind the chosen firm, some of these are outlined below.

Product quality

A key focus area for any business should be the quality of the products and services offered to the consumer. Several definitions exist for product quality. Given the nature of services provided by Better Medical Hospital, the preferred definition is the user-based approach, where the quality of the product is judged based on its ability to satisfy the varying needs of the various consumers (Garvin, What Does “Product Quality” Really Mean?, 1984).

Customer focus

The second area of quality focus is the focus on the customer. In order to determine the best forms of managerial, operational and production practices, a firm should base such decisions on the experience of their customers. In using this focus area type, the views of the consumers are held in high regard in terms of what the company does. An institution such as Better Medical Hospital should have a customer-centric approach to its operations as this will lead to better performance metrics for management (Garvin, 1987).

Employee engagement

A firm that seeks to deliver on its mission and vision should focus on the quality of personnel at its disposal. Such a company seeks to optimize the skills and interactions of its members of staff. Once the employees of the organization are empowered, they provide the needed services which lead to satisfied customers. In the case of the healthcare facility, the availability of engaged employees makes a big difference in the attitude of the customers. This is because the employees have a direct engagement with the customers that are usually at a personal level….

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What is Child Development?

Child Development
Child Development

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What is Child Development?

Child development basically is any transition in human beings between birth and the end of maturity. It is progressive and is bound to affect the next change or preceding development of a child. Child development may be as a result of many factors including; getting educated, environmental factors and the completion of adolescence. They are many development times in a child before being an adolescent. (Feldman, 2012, pg 67) A child is referred to as a new born between the first 4 weeks of childhood, an infant between 4 weeks and 1 year, a toddler up to 3 years, a preschooler 4-6 years, school aged child 6-13 and an adolescent as from 13 years up to 19 years.

There are many factors that lead to proper child development; parents being one of the many factors, the parents hence play a key role. They help the child to blend socially, academically and reach development wholly. A child is also supposed to receive good care for any chance of proper development which should be the case in order to reach full development. There are so many theories that define child development, such a theory is the ecological systems theory brought up by Urie Branfenbreener who based his postulates on four systems .These were Microsystems, Ecosystem, Macrosystem and Mesosystem .The systems clearly give directives on development. (Feldman, 2012, pg 87)

Jean Piaget a Swiss scholar also developed a theory solely on animals. He came up with stages which include the sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete stage, formal operations stage which is the last stage. During the sensorimotor stage the child is able to perceive the unseen .At the preoperational stage children explicate their surrounding using symbols of the mind such as words and images.

With this the child is able to apply them in their childish endeavors assuming that they know better and very well as compared to other people. They tend to display ego mostly and knowing more than most people .The concrete stage shows how children begin to think differently and bear a sense of mind. They are able to make it out of situations just by putting their mind to it.

The formal operations is the  final stage which  depicts children as beings able to relate very well and have the clear indication of things that happen or are to happen. This however also means that the child creates a sought of feeling of superiority to most people at times thinking that maybe he/she is at the peak and above the rest which  is not the case. Vygotsky based his theory on the society’s role in developing the child. The child first grows then is able to relate with other people at large. With the help of an adult the child is able to grow and learn for example using rhymes or by certain movements such as tapping.   

John Bowlby came with the attachment theory but Mary Ainsworth improved it. It clearly depicts that the strong ties or bonds between a child and a guardian, a child and a parent, a child and the one looking after the child helps with the growth of the child.  Eric Erickson developed a theory to the aspect of child development too. (Demick & Andreoletti, pg 82, 2014) This include trust vs. mistrust (infant),Autonomy vs. shame (toddlerhood),Initiative vs. guilt (preschooler),Industry vs. inferiority (young adolescent),Identity vs. role confusion (adolescent),Intimacy vs. isolation (young adulthood), Generativity vs. stagnation (middle adulthood),Ego integrity vs. despair (old age).

Other theories include behavioral theory as well as the psychosexual theory .The stages needed to be fully complete for the preceding one to take course basing it also on the libido in a particular place or different places. (Demick & Andreoletti, pg 85, 2014)  The theory has similarities with Bowlby’s theory of attachment and the study of motor development .It helps to relate developments together and to create assertiveness and perception to things.

A different theory known as the “core knowledge perspective” is based on certain domains very important to development which include; physical ,linguistic, numerical, psychological and biological. The main cause of growth is mainly genetic or as a result of the immediate environment. Genetic factors have a great influence on the cell, the diet required, development of the brain too and its growth basically. Certain experiments show that organisms are able to survive with a small change in the environment too or when exposed to environments of slight variation.

However the environment still serves as a factor of development, sometimes both genetic and environmental factors both cause developmental changes .When the rate of genetic factors on the child is high this means that the rate of environmental factors is very low.(Crowley, 2014, pg 114). Physical growth is mainly change in stature over time and this includes the size, weight and physique or stature. This is accompanied with the change in structure such as of the limbs, as a child one has small limbs but as one matures into an adult the limbs become even bigger.

The child shows growth from the head up to the toe with development of vital organs too in the body. The child at first grows fast then progressively and much slower later on. Nutrition ,dieting ,diseases, injuries and exposition to certain things play an important role in the general development. .(Crowley, 2014, pg 114) Variations created later could be as a result of the environment or the genes of the parents and sometimes differences created as a result of different reproductive maturation.

Movement too is a factor of development with the child developing from single steps to continuous and progressive much more conducive steps. This also has an effect on the final posture what is known as motor development. Continuous and vigorous exercise also determines the posture and the ability to move oneself. Children with developed complications may find it very hard to develop and may develop complications. .(Crowley, 2014, pg 115)

This includes sitting, talking or even walking. Development may also vary due to individual differences such as a boy and a girl or even of the left foot and hand as well as the right hand and foot. A child should also be able to develop intellectually and grow certain cognitive abilities .However this depends on certain factors including nutrition, exercise and the parents’ response to the child.

A child first develops response to time and sequence and these increases with the continuing years. This ability was built on successive years checking keenly on their speed and pattern. This is however affected by an individual being left behind or choosing to, this happens in the case of boys and girls. Newborns also tend to create a liking which later changes and they later become weak and scared of people and certain things.

As the child grows he/she becomes friendly and is able to pick out her friends as well as developing feelings attached to people warding off anger or resentment. The more the child tends to relate with the parents certain aspects of social and emotional development are also seen to grow and build. Boys acquire certain behaviors while girls also acquire certain behaviors with differences in their character. (Charlesworth, 2016, pg 20)

Language serves a very important role in development .The components of early childhood development are phonology which leans more on the sounds of language, lexicon, morphology which entails looking deeply into the forms and pragmatics .Infants usually at first have soft vowels and develop cooing and then babbling comes in next ushering repetition of sounds.

(Charlesworth, 2016, pg 22) At 6 months the child is able to understand other’s speech and build on it up to age six as well as acquire mastery of speech and pronunciation .This ensures full participation of the child and exchange based on language .Theories of language development include the bootstrapping theory which bases it theory on the child’s ability to pick out meaning .

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The multi-route model believes in the parent’s ability to influence strongly the speech of the child. Children’s language depends on the attachment of words also known as semantics. .However speech is an important form of development. Delays may lead to serious consequences on the child’s side and the parent therefore should keenly monitor the child’s speech .

There are many causes to this and could be either environmental such as the concentration on other development milestones and stages whereby a child focuses on standing or even walking and neglects even talking. Dire causes could be as a result of neurological causes, for example, deafness, dyslexia and autism. (Brainerd & Pressley, 2012, pg 115) Factors that may pose a risk to the child’s development are either environmental or hereditary.

Environmental factors include those of the prenatal and post natal environment. Prenatal factors are those factors during pregnancy they include nutritional deficiencies, use of drugs, state of the uterus, exposure to radiation, infections, placental implantation. The post natal factors include the external environment, hormones influence, family, nutrition of the child. However malnutrition, maternal depression and substance abuse remain the common factors.

Other factors include post natal depression, socioeconomic status, parasites and poisoning. Abuse of substance also has a great effect, for example, cocaine which leads to poor development of the child especially the mental development altering with the brain functioning. (Feldman, 2012, pg 56) Children who face malnutrition weigh lesser in terms of kilograms and are most times shorter in length .It is also believed that malnutrition poses a danger to one’s  intelligence quotient.

Certain ions also serve as important functions to the body and it is therefore important that one observes proper nutrition of a child. The socioeconomic status is based on income, academic or educational achievements and work. Poverty is seen   to affect so many children in the case of malnutrition and development also due to nutrition. The parents academic achievement may have an effect on the child’s too ,that is how he/she is to perform. This children are affected in class and perceived by many as daft and left behind by teachers.

Some parasites also result into greater effects preventing the development of most children .Obesity still remains a common problem to all with most children not following a proper diet as a result of exposure and sometimes the parents or themselves. Some factors also popular include abuse which could be physical .A child may also not reach his proper state of development due to non proper state of development due to no proper observance of the common factors as a  result of not receiving care. (In Edelman, In Mandle & In Kudzma, 2014, pg 418)

A child who has been neglected is identifiable even by practitioners .The developmental delay may be as a result of many factors and can never easily be ruled out on nurturing .It could be as a result of genetic disorder, disease, physical, sexual or emotional abuse or even a mixture of them at times.

In conclusion, child development is a very important stage in the human cycle therefore it is necessary for all relevant parties involved in this process to take all due duty of care to ensure that  the process is attained in the optimum possible favorable factors. 


Brainerd, C. J., & Pressley, M. (2012). Verbal Processes in Children: Progress in Cognitive Development Research. New York, NY: Springer New York.

Charlesworth, R. (2016). Understanding child development. Place of publication not identified: Cengage Learning.

Crowley, K. (2014). Child Development: A Practical Introduction

Demick, J., & Andreoletti, C. (2014). Handbook of adult development. New York: Springer

Feldman, R. S. (2012). Child development. Boston: Pearson

In Edelman, C., In Mandle, C. L., & In Kudzma, E. C. (2014). Health promotion throughout the life span.

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