Foundational Theories of Human Development

Foundational Theories of Human Development
Foundational Theories of Human Development

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Foundational Theories of Human Development

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Comparing Freud, Mahler, and Adler. Compare and contrast the developmental models of Freud and Mahler, and then contrast these two developmental theories with Adler’s theory. Be sure to also address the following:

A brief description of each theory. Which perspective appeals to you more, and why?

What are some ways the Adlerian approach can be applied to group counseling? What are some advantages of using a group format with this approach?

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What concepts from these psychoanalytic approaches do you see as being potentially useful in your work as a nurse psychotherapist?

Describe.Why should the nurse psychotherapist understand developmental theories for application in clinical practice?

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Psychopathology and Leadership in Clinical Practice


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Psychopathology and Leadership in Clinical Practice


In clinical practice, medical promptness is an essential element of any given organization. The use of methods that integrate cohesiveness, principles, promptness and good communication presents room for inclusive clinical practice. Also, leaders have the power of using different headship skills to help clinicians work synchronously within the organization. Leaders are also the main people in charge of supervising with the ability as well as skills for clinicians when required.

Again, leaders create their capabilities by incorporating the ideas, ethics, and support of their juniors. On the other hand, clinicians require good leaders to help them in decision making related to assessment, planning treatment, good communication and proper practice. Both Psychopathology and Pathophysiology are relevant to psychology. As such, they can be used to show the level of understanding and skills one should possess so as to facilitate efficient organization leadership.

Explain psychopathology and pathophysiology

Psychopathology involves the study of mental disorder and commonly used in describing mental ailments (College of Registered Nurses of Nova Scotia, 2008). On the other hand, Psychopathology can be called psychological illness. Assessing mental disorders based on the psychology or dysfunctional character provides delusional views. It encompasses the inability to effectively function, behaving normal or act by the set standards.

Dysfunction hinders individuals the ability to control their sentiments or even characters. For instance, being hysterically sad can lead to dysfunctional traits. Psychological ailments also entail dysfunctions that are used to demonstrate painful impairment, which hinders people ability to work normally.

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With regards to Pathophysiology, it is an uncharacteristic disordered physiological process associated with an ailment or damage. The pathophysiology involves assessing the progress of the illness in the body, which make the patient look for various treatment approaches.

Additionally, Pathophysiology is widely used by health practitioners to not only treat but also diagnose some ailments (College of Registered Nurses of Nova Scotia, 2008). The manner of carrying out interviews is rather individualized as such it purposes to facilitate the collection of data, engage and motivate patients when it comes to assessing and treating the condition.

Review how these terms relate to behavioral assessment, intervention, and implementation in an organizational setting

In clinical field, psychology is associated with behavior assessment, intervention, and execution within the organization by the nature of the study and the wider practice. Psychology is also a comprehensive are of scientific evaluation that is connected to individual issues and psychological principles involving assessment, hindrance, amelioration and convalescence of mental pain, infirmity, flawed personality while increasing psychosocial health.

Assessment, intervention, and implementation can be used in any given clinical institution, which promotes and practices the physical and psychological health of the larger public. For that reason, it is necessary to put into account particular clinical methods including Assessment involves developing behavior, interests, cognition, emotional and understanding. In this case, many approaches can be used to interrogate clients such as psychometric tests, interviews, and observations. As such, psychologists should be competent in so as to select the best approach (Ellis & Hartley, 2005).

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Diagnosis entails using the appropriate diagnostic method based on the client’s intellectual degree, cognitive capacity, psychological state, and behavior. DSM-IV-TR is a suitable tool to diagnose and assess clients with flawed characters.

Intervention: while many interventions can be applied across the organization, clinical experts need particular understanding to diagnose effectively, develop and executed treatment plan. Moreover, they need the knack to examine the correctness and entirety of planning, conceptualization and implementing the results of the intervention or treatment (Guyatt et al. 2008).

The original assessment allows clinicians to make the right diagnosis, provide relevant information on a treatment plan and assistance to patients and their families.

Discuss how an understanding of these concepts will help the clinical supervisor (leader) in the operation of the organization.

Clinical leaders should have a clear and comprehensive recognition regarding the basis and the manner in which the organization can operate routinely. Additionally, they should recognize the leadership concepts, operation, and facilitation.

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For instance, good managers are linked to significant medical supervision when it comes to satisfaction, commitment to the organization and retention. Excellent leadership has a perpetual impact on employees regarding curtailing the high turn-over. Frontline workers are critical to a firm, particularly in a medical facility. The management in tandem with receptionists, medical employees and administrators play a vital function in deducing and understanding the required leadership for sustainable reasons.

The medical manager should ensure the entire team recognizes their obligation and approach work-related tasks to the best of their abilities, towards enhancing the smooth running of the establishment. The leadership should engage its employees in establishing a working culture that is ethically sound in a healthcare environment (Ellis & Hartley, 2005). Moreover, these analytical models will help with upholding strong work standards within the organization.

Analyze the role of a leader when clinicians are involved in individual or group assessments.

The management should participate in frontline supervision for medical personnel working with individual and team assessments to leverage any discrepancies (Guyatt et al. 2008). The management has the solemn obligation; to be readily available in case of any eventuality. In addition, the leadership ought to ensure that medical personnel are executing their functions competently and for the benefit of their clients.

Medical practitioners are the mainstay of the operation within the healthcare facility, as such; the management should ensure clinicians observe work ethics and medical practices (Muir Gray, 1997). Being conscious of the transformation within an organization is rather critical for key leaders overseeing medical personnel in individual and group assessment settings.

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Again, the leadership can assist clinicians in the analysis phase of treatment to establish the attributes of a patient; remedial plans that are suitable for the patient and evaluating behavioral information of the patient. Ultimately, the appraisal and remedial planning should culminate to personalized treatment, appropriate patient treatment and ensuring the organization’s mission is realized through better service delivery (Guyatt et al. 2008).


The mental health workers have the responsibility to work relentless for clients and workmates, particularly if they hold leadership positions. Nonetheless, on many occasions, leaders have often been unable to realize the issue of effective communication. Having the understanding to assemble and keep the right team is dominant for consistency.

The leadership mindset towards their employees will depend on the outcome and nature of work (Ellis & Hartley, 2005). In a nutshell, the leader should be effective when it comes to guiding medical personnel within a health care facility to determine competent leadership skills such as servant, transformation and engaging leadership.


College of Registered Nurses of Nova Scotia. (2008). Problematic substance use in the workplace: A resource guide for registered nurses. Halifax: Author.

Ellis, J. R., & Hartley, C. L. (2005). Managing and coordinating nursing care, 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Guyatt, G., Rennie, D., Meade, M. O., & Cook, D. (2008). Users’ guides to the medical literature: Essentials of evidence-based clinical practice, 2nd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Muir Gray, J. A. (1997). Evidence-based medicine: How to make health policy and management decisions. London: Churchill Press.

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Forms of Personality: Personality Theories

Forms of Personality
Forms of Personality

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Personality Theories

Various psychologists have developed theories that explain certain forms of personality. One of most influential set of counseling theories originates from Sigmud Freud- an Australian neurologist. He was the first to propose the psychoanalysis theory; which collectively are referred to as psychodynamic theories.

Although there are different psychodynamic theories, all of them lay emphasis on unconscious desires and motives, and how childhood experiences shape an individual’s personality. In particular, I will explore on Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis and Jungian theory which belongs to the school of psychodynamic theories; and  theories from  school of humanistic theories including Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow (Thurn, 2015).

The main tenets

 Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis was developed by observing patients. Based on this theories, people’s personalities are established when they attempt to resolve conflicts between the societal demands, aggressive impulses and unconscious demands.  The main tenets of this theory are the three levels of consciousness.

These include;

a) consciousness which refers to what a person is thinking and or experiencing at a particular time. For example, the book Myre is reading, the objects that are near her sight, the sounds she can hear, and other experiences such as pain, thirst or hunger at that moment are her conscious;

b) pre-conscious which refers to what one can readily remember (call to consciousness). For example, Myre’s home address, make of her vehicle and other past experiences are in pre-conscious level; and

c) unconscious which refers to desires, thoughts as well as impulses that a person is not aware of.  These include desires, feelings and memories that influence each aspect of Myre’s life. For example, she could contain feelings of anger towards her classmate for a bullying incident that she may have experienced at age five (Tobin, 2011).

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According to Freud, the structure of personality comprises of 3 major systems namely Id, ego and super ego. Any action taken by a person or any problem they have arises from the degree of balance and interaction among these three systems. Id operates based on the pleasure principle. It is the primitive unconscious part of personality that is present at birth. It comprises of two instincts that compete. These include the life/sexual instincts and the aggressive instinct. Ego works according to the principle of reality.

It acts as a mediator between the id and superego (Davies, 2009). The superego comprises of conscience and moral ideas which are used to judge the id activities. The defense mechanism of Freud’s theory includes repression, denial, displacement and projection.  Repression occurs when one have a threatening idea or memory that makes their emotion blocked consciously or unconsciously.

Projection defense mechanism arises when the repressed feelings are associated with someone else. The displacement defense mechanism is directed towards other people or animals that are not real part of the emotion. Reaction formation occurs when a feeling of belief causes anxiety is transformed into the feeling of belief in an individual’s consciousness.  Denial is when a person refuses to admit that she has undergone unpleasant experience that provokes their anxiety (Ferrari, 2016).

 The other psychodynamic theory is Jungian theory also known as the analytical psychology.  This theory divides unconscious into two different parts. The first part is the personal unconscious which is a reservoir of individual’s information as well as memories that were at one point of life was conscious, but it has been forgotten or suppressed. Jungian theory states that personal unconscious theory is unique to each person. Collective unconscious refers to the deepest level of a person’s psyche which consists of the universal memories, experiences and symbols of humans.

It is the reservoir of experiences that are inherited that appear in stories, myths and dreams. According to this theory, personalities arise not only due to system conflicts but also by individuals future goals and desire to fulfill them. Basically, these psychodynamic theories share a general belief that one must explore the unconscious origins and dynamics. The main challenge of these theories is that it is not possible to disconfirm unconscious motives and they violate falsifiability principles (Steinberg, 2015).

 Unlike psychodynamic theories, humanistic theories focus on the goodness of a person and their needs to achieve their full potential. Carl Rogers’s personality theory focuses on the importance of self-actualization in shaping the personalities of a human being.  According to this theory, human react to stimuli subjective to their reality, and over a period of time, the person develops a self concept. 

He further divided self in to two categories namely the real self and the ideal self.  He stated that a patient experiences congruence when thoughts on ideal and real self are similar. Therefore, high congruence leads to greater sense of self concept and a productive life. Conversely, if there are any discrepancies between the ideal and actual selves, the patient experiences incongruence state which results into maladjustment (DeRobertis, 2015).

 Rogers’s theory also elevates the importance of unconditional positive regard which is determined by the environmental conditions.  Unlike Freud, Rogers described the life based on the principles instead of stage of development. Therefore, a healthy person continues to fulfill their potential and ends up having what is known as a good life. Such kind of people allows their personality and self concept to emanate from experience. Based on this theory, fully functioning person posses several traits including openness, existential lifestyle and have organismic trust. Such people have higher degree of freedom, creativity, and reliability which make their lives rich of experiences.

   Maslow’s humanistic theory of personality argues that people attain their full potential by moving their basic needs  to reach their self actualization.  The humanistic psychologist approached the concept of personality by evaluating on a patients subjective experiences, innate drive and free will towards self actualization.   The theory explores ways human needs transform throughout a person’s lifespan and the way they influence their personality development.

The tenets of this theory are his established hierarchy of needs which basically lists   human needs from the most basic needs to the most advanced needs of actualization which have been developed inform of a pyramid. Each layer of the pyramid must be attained and mastered before one can move up the pyramid. This process is continuous throughout a person’s lifespan (Himelstein, 2011).


DeRobertis, E. (2015). Philosophical-anthropological considerations for an existential-humanistic ecopsychology. The Humanistic Psychologist, 43(4), 323-337.

Davies, J. (2009). Psychoanalytic practice and state regulation. Psychodynamic Practice, 15(3), 311-313. Retrieved from

Himelstein, S. (2011). Engaging the moment with incarcerated youth: An existential–humanistic approach. The Humanistic Psychologist, 39(3), 206-221.

Ferrari, G. (2016). Sexualities: contemporary psychoanalytic perspectives. Psychodynamic Practice, 1-4. Retrieved from

Pinto-Duschinsky, S. (2010). Spontaneity: a psychoanalytic inquiry. Psychodynamic Practice, 16(2), 247-248. Retrieved from

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Ratner, J. (2015). Rollo May and the Search for Being: Implications of May’s Thought for Contemporary Existential-Humanistic Psychotherapy. Journal Of Humanistic Psychology.

Spurling, L. (2011). Off the couch: Contemporary psychoanalytic approaches. Psychodynamic Practice, 17(1), 99-100. Retrieved from

Steinberg, P. (2015). Psychoanalytic filiations: mapping the psychoanalytic movement. Psychodynamic Practice, 22(1), 78-82.

Thurn, D. (2015). A review ofClinical Implications of the Psychoanalyst’s Life Experience: When the Personal Becomes Professional. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 51(3), 562-571.  Retrieved from

Tobin, R. (2011). Fixing Freud: The Oedipus Complex in Early Twenty-First Century US American Novels. Psychoanalysis & History, 13(2), 245-264. Retrieved from

Tribe, R., & Morrissey, J. (Eds.). (2015). Handbook of professional and ethical practice for psychologists, counsellors and psychotherapists. Routledge.

Welfel, E. R. (2015). Ethics in counseling & psychotherapy. Cengage Learning.

Parahoo, K. (2014). Nursing research: principles, process and issues. Palgrave Macmillan.

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How does psychotherapy help people

How does psychotherapy help people
How does psychotherapy help people

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How does psychotherapy help people? 

How do psychologists define a psychological disorder? What are the 3 terms used to identify a disorder?

 Explain the ideas of the medical model and the biopsychosocial approach. How do they each help our understanding of mental illness?

Explain 2 ways to treat psychological disorders. For what type of disorders would each treatment be used?


How does psychotherapy help people? How does Psychotherapy help People?

There are three main ways that psychotherapy helps people. These are the provision of hope for people who are demoralized. The second way is the provision of an alternative perspective for people whose lives have been negatively affected by a psychological disorder. Psychotherapy also provides mental patients with an opportunity to develop empathetic, trusting and also caring relationships (Myers, 363).

Many people who have experienced psychological challenges tend to me demoralized about life and this gives them a negative outlook towards different matters in life. With psychotherapy, the hope that these people have can be renewed leading them to have a second chance at different matters in life. This then empowers them to take on different challenges head on (Myers, 363).

Another benefit of psychotherapy is that it helps individuals to alter the perspectives they have towards life from a negative one to a more positive one. This is done through encouraging these individuals to look at the positive aspects of their lives and situations (Myers, 363).

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Last but not least, psychotherapy is beneficial to people with psychological disorders because it offers them a chance to form empathetic, trusting and caring relationships with other people. The treatment procedures that are covered in psychotherapy gradually prepare these individuals to readjust into a society that had probably shunned them due to antisocial acts they may have been involved in at one time or another during their mental disorder.

By forming these relationships, people can recover faster since the people in their lives have a better understanding of what challenges the patients are going through (Myers, 363). 

Psychotherapy is therefore important since it strives to improve the quality of life people who have previously suffered mental disorders thus giving them a new lease of life (Myers, 363). 

Works Cited

Myers, D (n.d.) Psychology in Everyday Life. Second Edition

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