Student Intern Engagement Research Paper

Student Intern Engagement
Student Intern Engagement

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Student Intern Engagement

3.1. Introduction

In issues revolving the professional practice, the internship concept is not a new term. The internship is the process by which a student put into practice the theoretical ideas from school. Most companies have been using the internship as a means of increasing innovations and developments. On the other hand, the students see the opportunity for personal devolvement when engaging in the internship.

Universities and colleges engage in the rare finding of attachment opportunities for their students. In the event the school/institution fails to find an internship opportunity for a student intern, the student looks for the opportunity individually. Those students who successfully secure a chance to work with an individual company inform of an internship can either work as part-time intern.

Daly, Perkins, Kumar, Roberts & Moore (2013, p.900) argue that a student intern can also work as a temporary worker. In simpler terms, there are those student interns who join an organization to work as an intern but secure a job position at the same firm after the internship period expires. On the other hand, there are those student interns who leave the organization immediately their stay at the respective organization expires Sobral & Islam (2015, p.505). Internship engagement can also be mirrored through the mirrors of the specialization of the student intern.

This is apparent because different students with different specialization levels engage in the internship. There are senior workers such as senior managers who may wish to engage in the internship to increase their work experience. On the other hand, a typical worker may also wish to engage in the internship to increase the experience too. Saunders & Ash (2013, p.496) argue that the level of student intern engagement can be mirrored through the mirror that gives the distinction between the paid and unpaid student interns.

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Both paid and unpaid interns have the significant impacts on the organization. Not only does unpaid and paid intern have the pertinent effect on an organization, but the unspecialized and specialized interns also have the important impacts on the organization’s operations. Dare, Fancourt, Robinson, Wilkinson, & Bagg (2009, p.345) admit that temporal and permanent student interns should not be left behind in this discussion since they still have pertinent impacts on the operation of an organization.

Therefore, this literature review engages in a thorough exploration of research articles to give a comprehensive analysis on how different level of intern student engagement affects an organization. In addition, the review will provide insights to some of the various types of works and their effects on intern student engagement. By the end of the literature review, an understating of the effects of the varied level of intern student participation in the operations of an organization would be drawn.

3.2. The influence of the different type of employee on student intern engagement

LaNasa, Cabrera & Trangsrud (2009, p.332) introduce that different type of employees influences student intern engagement. Those who engage in part-time or temporary work have varied impact on an organization. This is because their job descriptions are different depending on the time or duration of attending job at an organization. A part-time intern has been defined by Griffing (2010, p.111) as the type of an intern who attends the job through irregular activities.

These workers are called to resume duties each time an organization sees the need for it. This concept of part-time internship has been elaborated by Stansbie, Nash & Jack (2013, p.156) who argue that the intern involved in this type of internship has no control over the hours or the duration on when to attend a job. Nosbisch (2011, p.6) adds that part-time interns are taken to accomplish duties that were unable to be finished by the other workforce.

Temporal interns, on the other hand, are very different from part-time ones. This is because they resemble the permanent workers only that they work on a contract (Feast, Collyer-Braham & Bretag 2011, p.239). Once the contract expires, the intern leaves the organization immediately, unless the contract is renewed. From the definition of the part-time and temporal intern, it can be deducted that they can have the different influence on the organization.

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Taking part-time student interns in context it can be said that their engagement can have minimal benefits to the organization. This is because their involvement with the organization is only to finish the little-left duties by the permanent and temporal workers. Stansbie, Nash & Jack (2013, p.157) argue that part-time student interns lack the opportunity to engage in the decision-making process. The part-time interns are just there to finalize to what have been set by the temporal and permanent workers.

Furthermore, Daly, Perkins, Kumar, Roberts & Moore (2013, p.906) added that part-time interns have the fear of their stay at the organization being terminated immediately a disappointing thing happens in an organization. This is because an organization cannot risk containing the part-time interns at the expense of the temporary workers. Therefore, at this point, it can be said that part-time student interns have an insignificant contribution to an organization, as their engagement is not secured.

However, the above statements are contradicted by Griffing (2011, p.111) who argued that part-time interns could have considerable influence on the organization than the temporary interns. This is because the intern works hard to the bone to ensure that he or she is promoted to the position of the secular intern. This is because the part-time interns finish the remaining last critical phases of projects of the day Sweitzer & King (2013, p.91).

Therefore, once the projects are completed successfully, the respective intern is promised to secure temporary job at the organization. Therefore, the influence of the part-time student intern engagement can be said to have the exponential impact on the organization.

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Temporary student interns, on the other hand, survive on the description of the contract. They have equal contributions as those accorded to the permanent workers (Chen, Sheu, O’Sullivan, Cate & Teherani 2014, p.136). The importance of the temporary interns is seen as the incumbent workforce absorbs them and become a part of the force. With the little time, the temporary intern becomes a part of the workforce such that he or she becomes a part of the decision-making process at the organization.

These types of student interns have centrifuged engagement with an organization such that productivity increases in an organization. Fresh ideas brought by the interns are easily absorbed and put into practice. The temporary student interns are dutiful. The dutifulness is brought by the fact that the organization will second them to be hired permanently in the organization.

Sidhu, Weller & Mitchell (2015, p.743) argue that the contribution of the temporary student interns is great since they seek renewal of their contracts. Therefore, they end up working down-to-earth to appease their supervisors. Once the superiors become appeased, they will approve for the second renewal of the expiring contracts.

The other level of the student interns is the one that has paid and unpaid student interns. A study done by O’Bryan, Daston & Riehle (2014, p.54) concluded that the organization that does not pay their interns records high unproductive operations. The reason behind this statement is that there is little student intern engagement. The students are demoralized despite the fact that they are gaining experience in the interning Webber, Nelson Laird & BrckaLorenz (2013, p.330).

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Most factories in the London region take the advantage of the notion that the experience gained by the interns is not commensurable to the input they give during the internship. Therefore, they do not deserve to be paid. Unfortunately, the saving on the wages is met with decreased employee productivity due to minimized student intern engagement. Tucker & Abbasi (2015, p.405) argue that a demotivated student intern is a frustrated employee. This is because the social aspect of the intern is not satisfied.

The net implication of the dissatisfaction is that there is the ultimate slower accomplishment of the company’s objectives. The other observable effect of the unpaid internship is that there is the disconnection between the intern and the organization. This statement is seconded by Ward & Yates (2013, p.206) who argued that the student intern lacks the purpose of engaging in the internship. The conscious of gaining experience in the internship is disturbed by the fact that there are no incentives at the end of the day.

Therefore, at the end of the internship, the student intern ought to have gained nothing from the internship. Croft, Duah & Loch (2013, p.1054) emerge to argue that paid internship is the best form of an internship. This is because they make the student intern psychologically, emotionally, and physically engage productively in the operations of the organization.

The Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Model gives that meeting the social needs of an employee ensures that there is the motivation of the respective employees for the early realization of the set objectives. Therefore, as Ward & Yates (2013, p.207) argue, giving the student interns a small pay inform of supporting their traveling expenses can be the best of reward to ensure that they work down to earth to give back to the organization giving them the job experience.

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3.3. The influence of the various type of work highly on student intern engagement

Any organization has job categories that have some professional aspects. Middleton, Abrams & Seaman (2011, p.67) admit that there are those type of employees in an organization that have much expertise than the other. Therefore, these variations in skills affect the intern student engagement largely. Some of these professional categories include the senior managers and other workers. Once a student intern joins an organization, the environment created by the above classes of workers determines their engagement.

It is observed by Oktay, Jacobson & Fisher (2013, p.209) that the productivity of a student intern increases when presented with an environment with professional workers such as superiors and senior managers. This is because the senior managers act as role models and mentors. The senior managers are always available to give advice to the new interns on how to put their theoretical understanding of concepts into practice.

By observing the textile industry in London, Stansbie, Nash & Jack (2013, p.155) observed that the productivity of the student interns increased when they worked correlatively with their supervisors. The author noticed that those interns presented to the other workers who had little expertise had difficulties with addressing problems. Therefore, the productivity of the interns presented to these groups of employees was minimal. This statement approves the indication of Lee, Chao & Chen (2015, p.8) who argued that various type of work significantly influence intern student engagement.

The authors gave that there existed skilled, semi-skilled, and non-skilled in the companies in the UK economy. Any working setting presented with these groups of workers is promised to give various feedbacks to the newcomers such as student interns. Stansbie, Nash & Jack (2013, p.159) record that an internship is a form of learning that is designed to accomplish one’s needs and interest.

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The author adds that the learning amalgamates learning how to become an independent learner and how to help, assist, and guide others in the place of work. Just as Snavely (2012, p.112) argued, an internship is guided by a vision, in which the theoretical textbooks and models are replaced by competency and measures of education. Associating internship with a leading figure is indispensable in ensuring that it is realistic. Most of the organizations in the London region ensure that a student intern is paired with mentoring supervisors where they are interning.

Cooperatively, the supervisor collaborates mutually with the student intern, carefully inspects their work, counsels, coaches, and assesses their progression (Chen, Sheu, O’Sullivan, Cate & Teherani 2014, p.137). Since the mentors or supervisors are part of the support system in assisting and nurturing the student interns, there is a positive engagement of the respective student interns. The clear implication of such activities ensures that there is the smooth functioning of the workforce since the interns are systemically integrated to the existing labor force. The general workforce is said to assist the student in learning productively.

Cord, Bowrey & Clements (2010, p.47) argue that when a student intern is, most of the time, presented to the supervisors, he or she lacks the freedom to express his or her opinions. Tyssen, Vaglum, Gr∅nvold & Ekeberg (2005, p.725) argued that such situation makes a student intern limits the level of engagement in the internship. This is because most supervisors appear to coerce than to encourage the interns. Based on a research conducted on the fear created by superiors on students in polytechnics in London, Ward & Yates (2013, p.209) found that student interns prefer to work in a work environment absent of superiors and other senior managers.

This is apparent because most senior managers and supervisors in the region appear to underestimate the interns. The rules given to the trainees were harsher than to the other employees. The reason behind such frustration as given by Beenen (2014, p.104) is that organizations think that they have to maximize to the full potential of the student interns. Most organizations give that the student employees do not deserve to be paid because the experience they give to the interns is great. Therefore, the superiors give fear to the trainees to make them productive during the few months they will be in the organization.

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3.4. How do difference levels of student intern engagement influence the organization operation?

Irrespective of the level of the intern student engagement, a business offering internship programs gains a variety of benefits. One of the distinct importance is heavily placed on the operations. It is argued by Ward & Yates (2013, p.217) that the interns are fresh, innovative, and diverse students who have ideas for urgency. This urgency is what is required to ensure that the operations of an organization achieves the targeted outcomes within the shortest time possible (Academy Of Marketing Science, Wilson, Black & Capello 2015, p.91).

For example, the part-time student interns do their best to make their place in the organization noticed and appreciated. However, the operations done by the part-time interns seem to move faster than with the temporary interns. This proposition is because the part-time interns have the highest possibility of losing their job than the temporary interns (Helyer & Lee 2014, p.349). This is because the duties done by the part-time interns can be submerged to the ones done by the other temporary interns.

The other reason behind the fastness in operations with the part-time interns is that they are irregular. Thus, they usually have free minds when attending their duties since they have less monotony. On the other hand, the temporary interns have a higher monotony rate than the part-time interns (Chen, Sheu, O’Sullivan, Cate & Teherani 2014, p.139). They work together with the permanent or hired employee. Since they become integrated into the organization’s workforce, they tend to be faster in the first stages.

However, with time, the respective interns slow down to equilibrium to adjust to the working pace of the existing workforce. Still on the aspect of the organizational operations, an intern student engagement is limited if it is continuously exposed to seniors. This is because the interns feel inferior to accomplish objectives as the existing workforce does. Therefore, the operations of the student interns working with superiors and superiors, most of the time, are disturbed. This is unlike a student interns who work with the general workforce.

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This is apparent because they adapt quickly to the corporate culture of the organization to ensure they rhyme with the rest of the force (Academy Of Marketing Science, Wilson, Black & Capello 2015, p.95). In the end, the operations of the organization move swiftly and faster when the student interns work with the general workforce than with the superiors and supervisors who keep on shouting orders to them.

The operation of an organization is predicted by Chen, Sheu, O’Sullivan, Cate & Teherani (2014, p.143) to be faster and productive with paid student interns than with unpaid student interns. This statement is seconded by Dotson & Dotson-Blake (2015, p.54) who attested that a paid student intern is a motivated personnel. In simpler terms, a workforce with a composition of paid student interns is seen to reduce workloads. The professional staff (senior manager) gets the freedom to pursue creative and more developed initiatives. Barnett (2012, p.279) argues that most of the organizations that pay the student interns retains more of them.

This is because the interns are motivated to make use of their theoretical concepts. Therefore, innovative projects are nurtured and developed such that some of the pioneered mechanisms by the interns are left behind to be used by the left workforce once the interns leave the organization. Burbidge (2015, p.162) argues that student internship enables the leaders in an organization replenish their leadership skills. Any supervisor working with any level of student interns is promised to have the opportunity to increase his or her leadership skills due to the continuous coaching and mentoring of the trainees.

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3.4. Conclusion of the literature review

The report has analyzed different levels of student internship on the engagement of the interns in an organization. Concurrently, the survey has found that paid student interns have remarkable effects on the organization’s operations. In addition, the review has correlatively found that student interns working with superiors can have retarded growth than those working with the general workforce.

Various authors have argued that temporary student interns have little engagement than the part-time student interns. This is apparent because part-time student interns wish to become a part of the workforce. Therefore, this group of student interns cooperates with other to ensure that the superiors approve their contributions. However, the temporary student interns can have faster running of the organization’s operation, but not as compared to the part-time student interns (Chen, Sheu, O’Sullivan, Cate & Teherani 2014, p.145).

Therefore, from the above assessment, it becomes visible that there is a need to have a research that will investigate further, how the different types of student intern engagement influence the organization.

Reference list

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Professionalism in Corrective Institution

Professionalism in Corrective Institution
Professionalism in Corrective Institution

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Professionalism in Corrective Institution

            When discussing Professionalism in Corrective Institution, Professionalism is a phrase widely used in correctional facilities to denote an individual who adheres to the stipulated guidelines while performing his /her duties well (Seiter, 2012). Therefore, for a correctional officer, professionalism involves performing the duties efficiently. In addition, it implies not only safety but also control are attained besides a broad range of positive results for managing correctional facilities. Individuals work in teams while feeling good regarding the job. Sadly, a small number about less than 5% of correctional officers show unprofessional character.

Improper conduct has been evident in almost all prisons. In most cases for instance, when an inmate brings about a succession of offensive and perilous incidences to the personnel tasked with managing the detainee. As a rejoinder, the officer may get aggressive towards the inmate, regardless of their stature.  While the majority may be agreeable with this line of attack, others do not support hitting back at an aggressive inmate, because this is more likely to worsen the situation.                 

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If this occurs, nevertheless, the public lose the recognition that an individual’s conduct has an adverse impact on the institution, which leads to reduced safety as well as effective operation. Experience demonstrates that unprofessional conduct has an effect on the activities of correctional entities by directing employee attention away from the performance of the job (Seiter, 2012). However, the problem-solving mechanism should be pegged on the organizational culture of corrective centers.  Communication between inmates and officers should be self-correcting; this would help change problematic conduct positively.


Seiter, R. P. (2012). Correctional Administration: Integrating Theory and Practice Second Edition. Boston: Prentice Hall.

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Professional Ethics Essay Assignment

Professional Ethics
Professional Ethics

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Professional Ethics


The discipline of project management incorporates ethical aspects in fulfilling the desires of all stakeholders. The project leaders’ policies are well defined by their actions. According to Gido and Clements, incisive supervisors set good examples as role models through their ethical behavior as well as their personal interaction with the coworkers in the planning, implementation, and controlling processes (Gido and Clements, 2014). These leaders can reinforce the company’s values, expectations and build leadership, determination, and enthusiasm throughout the organization. this paper reviews professional ethics in project management.

Project management is a complex task that requires ethics to make judgments and interpretation of several aspects of the project. For instance, it is difficult to differentiate between intentional falsifications of estimates from indisputable mistakes or the intended inflation of project pay-offs from actual optimism. Moreover, it is problematic to determine if unfulfilled promises were purposeful deceptions or an effective response to the varying circumstances. Such cases call for the application of the Code of ethics to come up with effective solutions.

As a professional in project management, we are charged with the duty of promoting ethical practices at the workplace. The project managers should accept the responsibilities associated with their work activities. These managers are also responsible for making decisions about the activities of the project that may be linked to considerable ethical dimensions.

Professional Ethics

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The Project Management Institute (PMI) Code of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct outlines the ethical responsibilities for her members to uphold (Schwalbe, 2015). These code of ethics act as a guide in the course of project management and decision making especially when one is conversant with them, applies them regularly, and uses them appropriately. PMI members, as professionals in the project management field, pledge to support and abide by the following regulations;

  1. Sustain high standards of professional conduct and integrity,
  2. Admit responsibility of their own actions,
  3. Conduct their activities in an honest and fair manner,
  4. Continually find ways of enhancing their professional capabilities and
  5. Motivate their colleagues in the profession to behave in a manner that is ethical and professional.

Benefits of the PMI Code of Ethics in Project Management


One of the most important responsibilities of all project management professionals is to make sure that they exercise integrity in the project management process, their personal conduct, and the product. This can be achieved effectively by abiding by the PMI Code of Ethics and the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) project management processes. Research by Schwalbe proved clearly that situations occur frequently in the course of monitoring projects whereby an individual’s integrity is usually challenged (Schwalbe, 2015).

In such circumstances, one is forced to make difficult decisions. Indeed, individuals with high moral standards, high personal ethics, and with appropriate training in ethics manage to make better decisions (Gido and Clements, 2014). Moreover, PMI members should report to the customers, stakeholders, or others any circumstances or actions that can be construed as a conflict of interest.

Relationship with Clients, Customers, and Employers

Ethics are essential in offering customers, employees and clients honest, fair, accurate, and complete information regarding the preparation of estimates on the costs, services, and the expected results. The ethics also demand that members should disclose fully and accurately any business related or professional conflicts or even probable conflicts of interest in an amicable manner.

This is one of the most significant issues which project management professionals aim t improving.  Some institutions have a tendency of disclosing only good news and hide negatives of the business (Corey et al, 2014). This is unethical. However, when the codes of ethics are properly exercised, a culture is cultivated whereby the bearer of bad news is not punished.

Professional Ethics

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Confidentiality of Information

It is necessary for the confidentiality of privacy of the customers to be honored and maintained. Same treatment should be accorded on the clients’ identities, the assignments undertaken and any other information that may be acquired through the course of a professional relationship. However, there is an exception to this only when a customer grants permission. Ethics also emphasize that an organization should protect and respect other people’s intellectual property rights. The employees should also recognize and respect the intellectual, professional, and research contribution of their counterparts.

Ethics also encourage employees to acknowledge and differentiate between what is right and wrong. They strive consistently to serve as reference points for good conduct. In most business settings, being ethical translates to application of fairness and honest principles to the relationship between the customers and the coworkers. Ethical employees are committed to treat everyone in the workplace in the manner that they would also like to be treated.

Shapiro and Stefkovich reported that institutions that abide by the code of ethics and build more ethical corporate cultures are usually associated with benefits that flow as a result of building a reputation as an ethical organization (Shapiro and Stefkovich, 2016). Most employees have a preference of working for ethical organizations. The status of ethical business practices attracts job applicants that are better qualified and well motivated. It also promotes public relations and the moral standards of the workers.

Customers may let an organization take advantage of them once. However, they can realize that they were not treated in a fair manner just as they expected. For instance, they can be convinced to buy substandard goods or be overcharged. As a result, they cease being repeat customers of the organization. Corey et al enlightens that having a client base that is loyal is one of the most essential keys that promote long term success in business (Corey et al, 2014).

This is due to the fact that attending to a pre-existing customer does not entail marketing costs compared to getting a new customer. Therefore, an institution that maintains desirable ethical behavior succeeds in creating a more positive image in the market place. This attracts new clients. On the other hand, unethical behavior hinders the company’s opportunities to acquire new clients especially in this era of social networking whereby customers that are dissatisfied can easily spread information regarding the negative experiences they have been exposed to.

Professional Ethics

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Retain good employees

Competent and hardworking workers at all company levels expect to be rewarded and compensated appropriately for their determination (Shapiro and Stefkovich, 2016). They expect project managers to advance their careers within the company not on favoritism but on the basis of what they have delivered and achieved in the company. PMI requires that the management team should tell its workers the truth about what the company is doing, such as cases of reorganization and layoffs.

When companies adhere to PMI’s code of ethics, they become open and fair in their dealings and hence have a higher probability of maintaining the most competent workers. Workers stop being dedicated to their jobs the moment they find out that the company’s compensation methodology is not fair as they expect.   

Positive Working Environment

Employees, from the moment they have their first job interview, are expected to behave in an ethical manner. They are required to be frank with their previous experience and capabilities. Employees who exercise ethical behavior are not considered to be individuals just out on themselves but team players who have the interest of the company at heart. Such individuals will not stop at anything until they make sure that the objectives of the project they are undertaking have been met.

To do this, they develop positive relationships with their coworkers. The project managers trust such workers with information deemed to be confidential and as a result they end up being given more autonomy. Contrary, workers that are unethical and are caught in the lies by the project managers cut short their chances of advancement within the company. In most cases, they end up being fired.

A severe case of poor ethics is theft by the employees. Normally, theft in some industries costs the business huge sums of money. Take the example of a baking company where employees steal cakes and other ingredients from the freezer and storage locker respectively.

Professional Ethics

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Decision making

The PMI codes of ethics are necessary because they promote establishment of a culture whereby decisions are made based on ethics. When supervisors are having turbulent times running their projects, a strong ethical culture serves as a guide in managing any prevailing conflicts by making the right moves. The ethics are also significant as they can enhance change to be introduced successfully which at times is a challenge.

Avoid legal Problems

Occasionally, the project management team may be tempted to cut comers in a bid to acquire profits. For instance, they can ignore the safety hazards of the workers, fail to comply with labor laws or environmental regulations, or use substandard materials in their project. These activities attract severe penalties once one has been caught such as sanctions by government agencies, legal fees, and fines.

As a result, the organization develops long-ranger damage to its reputation that ends up being even more costly than the charged fines and legal fees. It is for this reason that companies are encouraged to maintain the highest ethical standards possible and take their time and ensure that all members of the company are well trained about the expected conduct.

Asset Protection

Businesses that have a strong ethical culture manage to safeguard their assets. Employees who adhere to the ethics of the workplace are in a better position of respecting the assets of the project. Such workers will not be found making personal long distance calls using business lines and neither will they use the company’s vehicles to run their personal errands.

Company property can be respected accordingly when workers are treated with respect and dignity by their supervisors. This makes them feel proud to be taking part in any project assigned to them. Therefore, it is the duty of supervisors to ensure that their team members are working in an environment that is fostered with integrity and strong ethics. It discourages employees from misusing the company’s property and increases their pride.

Professional Ethics

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Organizations are experiencing losses of millions and billions of dollars of the taxpayers’ money from time to time due to unethical behavior. Therefore, it is the responsibility of project management professionals to rise and take responsibility not only to strengthen a working environment with high ethical standards but also to serve as role models by upholding high ethics in the company. They can achieve this by promoting awareness of the significance of ethics in the institution in general.

Professional Ethics


Corey, G., Corey, M., Corey, C., & Callanan, P. (2014). Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions with 2014 ACA Codes. Nelson Education.

Gido, J., & Clements, J. (2014). Successful project management. Nelson Education.

Schwalbe, K. (2015). Information technology project management. Cengage Learning.

Shapiro, J. P., & Stefkovich, J. A. (2016). Ethical leadership and decision making in education: Applying theoretical perspectives to complex dilemmas. Routledge.

Professional Ethics

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