Ethical Considerations in Law Enforcement
Ethical Considerations in Law Enforcement

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Ethical Considerations in Law Enforcement

Order Instructions:

TOPIC: When Does Law Enforcement Cross Boundaries Between Ethical And Unethical Behaviour Towards Citizens.

1: Include background, development of rationale and justification of the position on the topic.

2: Incorporate the definition of Integrity: (pledge to be honest, just and consistent in word and deed.)

3: in the References please include U.S. Authors and two Internet Research. 

4: Please make sure the cover page and the reference page is not part of the 7 page word count.

Ethical Considerations in Law Enforcement

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Ethical Considerations in Law Enforcement

When does law enforcement cross boundaries between ethical and unethical behavior towards citizens


The duty of the state is to ensure the safety and security of its citizens. This is done by the enforcement of the law through various means. In order to fulfill this mandate, the state has established several arms of the government to ensure that the detection, deterrence, rehabilitation and the correction of the said offenders are dealt with. Due to the delicate nature of ensuring that the laws of the land are adhered to, these agencies have strict codes of conduct that seek to guide and direct the manner in which their officers should conduct themselves.

The constitution, as the supreme law of the land sets out certain liberties that accrue to the citizens and which should not be violated at any given point for whatever reason by the government. These are found in the various amendments of the constitution. The case of the United States v Jones, 132S.Ct. 945 (2012) is one of the cases where the court had to step in to protect the rights of s citizen that were being violated in an effort to enforce the law (Iyengar, 2013).

In this case, the Supreme Court made a pronouncement to the effect that despite the zeal exhibited by the law enforcement agencies in the fulfillment of their mandate, the same should be done in such a way that the rights and freedoms of the ordinary citizens are preserved. It was found that the fourth amendment rights of privacy of the defendant had been violated by the installation of a Global Positioning System device in their motor vehicle. Although it was done in an effort to obtain information, the extension of the monitoring period ended up being construed as an intrusion in to the right of privacy of the defendant.

The importance of considering the ethical and unethical boundaries that have to be respected by law enforcement agencies in their quest to carry out their mandated task is that more often than not they infringe on the basic rights of the citizens they are supposed to be protecting. These officers are held in higher regard than the other professionals in the state because of the level of trust entrusted in them. As such their conduct both in the profession and in their lives are scrutinized to ensure that they are indeed capable of carrying out their duties to the satisfaction of the citizens.

Ethical considerations in law enforcement

In the determination of a balance between performing their task in law enforcement and respecting the principles that guide the same, law enforcement agencies are faced with an uphill task. This is due to various reasons, the main one being the resistance they face. In an effort to ensure that the law id adhered to, the non-cooperation of the citizens is normally a hindrance since the former view the latter as a group who are out to get them. In such a case, they employ certain tactics that tend to deter the law enforcement agents from carrying out their work.

A comparison is between the earlier mentioned case of United States v Jones with an earlier case of Katz v the United States where the right of privacy was held to have not been infringed because of an earlier consent that could be implied was proved. In the Jones case, the extension of the surveillance of the defendant was deemed as a violation of their rights to privacy despite the effort of the law enforcement agent to rid the streets of the alleged drug the defendant was smuggling.

During the training of law enforcement officers, certain values are sought to be instilled in them while still in the respective academies. Some of these values include the observance of the basic rights of the citizens. The understanding of the law is also part of the course they undergo as their mandate is to protect the same. However, more often than not, the officers are caught breaking the same laws in their zeal to ensure that their mandate is fully fulfilled. Instances include the conduct of arrest, mode of conducting investigations and the handling of the alleged law breakers.

This blurs the boundary between ethical and unethical behaviors towards citizens. Others also include the soliciting and acceptance of bribe as well as colluding with known criminal elements to aid them in their criminal endeavors. In their training, the officers are taught how to handle sensitive issues such as profiling in addition to being brought up to date with the latest technique in conducting their duties but without infringing on the rights of the citizens (Hess, Orthmann and LaDue, 2015).

Additionally the officers take oaths of honor before embarking on their profession is a requirement. This oath of honor pledges the observance of integrity and the honor to betray neither the badge nor the community trust. This symbolizes the officer’s commitment to ethical conduct during his service. However, there are cases where the said officers have been witnessed to use excessive force in discharging their mandate.

On such occasions, the levels of confidence in these agencies tend to be lower in the eyes of the public as their mandate was to protect the public and not brutalize them (Doherty, 2016). At such instances, the law enforcement agents cross the border between their ethical duty to protect and serve and instead become unethical by causing both physical and emotional harm to the citizens they vowed to protect.

The techniques employed by the law enforcement agencies in certain instances to contain situations sometimes surpass the reasonable force threshold and end up bringing violence instead of curing the same. It is at these instances when the officers cross the boundaries between ethical and unethical in their conduct towards citizens……

Ethical Considerations in Law Enforcement

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Police in the Society Essay Paper


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Question 1

Police officers have an important role to play in the society. They serve to protect all people from both internal and external attacks. The United States police are divided into different department across the United States. However, their role remains the form. The force was formed centuries ago and since then they have played an important role in the society. Nevertheless, their roles have differed considerably since the civil through the First and Second World War.

Question 2

            The United States joint policy has been used to determine its relation to other countries across the globe after the civil war. Its foreign policy has been known to directly affect countries which do not practice democratic process. Since the United States is a superpower, it has the ability to have an effect or influence on the other countries (Hook & Spanier,2015) directly. The United States is branded by its public war policy across the whole world.

Question 3
The first aspect involves the pancontinental railroad or manufacturing rebellion which distorted the United States as one of the biggest financial powers. The second aspect involves their promotions to see that Christianity has been implemented in different countries. Thirdly, the United States play a role in influencing European countries to implement their policies (Jervis, 2013).

Question 4

The policy has influenced the Vietnam war of 1964, the civil conflict in Somalia of the year 1991 and the Iraq combat that took place during the years 2003 to 2011 (Mead, 2013).
Question 5

The Vietnamese war was initiated by the failure of some countries to respect international treaties while the war in Iraq was influenced by war while elections influenced the conflict in Somalia.


Hook, S. W., & Spanier, J. (2015). American foreign policy since World War II. Cq Press.

Jervis, R. (2013). American foreign policy in a new era. Routledge.

Mead, W. R. (2013). Special Providence: American Foreign policy and how it changed the world.            Routledge.

Impact of changing nature of crime on criminology

changing nature of crime
changing nature of crime

Impact of changing nature of crime on criminology

The changing nature of crime has a significant impact on criminology, leading to more intriguing research on new aspects of crime.  As noted by Barlow & Kauzlarich, 2010: 18), criminology theories have established that the complexity of behaviors and criminal actions as explained in different criminological theories point to the fact that the nature of crime will continue to change.

The modern times are characterized by unique crimes including unusual cases of terrorism, larceny and cybercrime among others. Criminals have become more tactful and the advent of technology and crime-based films have further increased expertise in criminal activities. The need to address the changing nature of crime in a proactive manner is absolutely necessary and criminology must adjust to accommodate such developments.

Besides, there is need to investigate the impact of traditional forms of crime correction and punishment to establish its effectiveness in the wake of the changing nature of crime. Accordingly, criminology has been affected by the changing nature of crime and there is need to keep studying such crimes and ensure that they are amicably addressed. Criminology is tasked with the duty of studying crime and developing solutions; such that urgent research is required to address new aspects of crime.

The changing nature of crime could be a reflection that theories in criminology have been outdated and that new focus is needed in order to manage modern crime. New paradigms need to be explored in order to ensure enhanced crime management. In the case of terrorism for example, the field of criminology is tasked with determining the major motivations of crime and the possibility of preventing the attacks before they can happen.

Changing nature of crime: Terrorism

Recently, there has been a surge in the number of terrorist attacks in the form of lone shootings, an illustration that terrorism goes beyond the alleged question of religion where research has mostly been focused. The recent shootings in Las Vegas that left 59 people dead and nearly 500 injured on October 1, 2017 were perpetrated by a lone gunman whose motive of crime is yet to be identified.

Stephen Paddock as he has been identified planned the crime for a long time, purchasing guns and rounds of ammunition and booking hotel rooms that gave him a clear view of the venue (Yan & Karimi, 2017: 1). The attack raises questions on how such a crime could be executed under the tight security measures that the United States has taken against terrorism.

Paddock did not only purchase numerous guns and explosives but also managed to transport them in his car and into the hotel room without being flagged by security. It is possible if he managed to escape the scene as originally intended, he may have committed another crime such as a bombing, given the police found explosives in his car.

Paddock was mostly a private person and since no accomplice has been identified so far, finding the motive may require an investigation into his psychological health. Barlow & Kauzlarich (2010: 15) note that psychological causes have been linked to crime but its relation to terrorist attacks is still a new subject of study.

The changing nature of crime as far as terrorism is concerned needs to explore more theories than are currently being studied. This insinuates that criminology would have to change the direction of study towards investigating the impact of psychological issues and other factors as a trigger of terrorism (Corner, Gill & Mason, 2016; 561).


Barlow, H. D. & Kauzlarich, D. (2010). Explaining Crime: A Primer in Criminological Theory.

Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.

Corner, E., Gill, P. & Mason, O. (2015). Mental Health Disorders and the Terrorist: A Research

Note Probing Selection Effects and Disorder Prevalence. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 39(6), 560-568.

Yan, H. & Karimi, F. (2017). Las Vegas killer had more explosives, 1,600 rounds of ammo in

car. Retrieved from https//

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