Nature and substance of 4 selected distinct policies

Nature and substance of 4 selected distinct policies
Nature and substance of 4 selected distinct policies

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Nature and substance of 4 selected distinct policies


In a research paper, provide researched rationale for the nature and substance of your 4 selected, distinct policies. This paper is to be reflective of an academic research paper. The research paper must address the reasoning and/or rationale for the inclusion of the selected policy elements in a policy manual.

The selected policies must correctly address employment legislation pertinent to the stated size of the company (15–25 employees). In elaborating on the rationale, you may want to consider the following questions: Why should these elements be in a policy manual? What laws or principles mandate an organization follow these guidelines? What cases have established precedent for this issue to be addressed clearly in an organization’s employee policy manual?

Support your rationale with (at minimum) the 10 scholarly sources used in your annotated bibliography in addition to the textbook and the Bible. Remember, government websites and previous/current court cases are useful but will not be included in the scholarly reference requirement.

The paper must be at least 1,750 words, in addition to the cover page, the abstract, and the references page. It must be written in current APA format. Papers submitted with less than the minimum word count will not receive full credit in this area of the grading rubric. 

Following are some examples of HR policy topics. These are only examples. You may identify/select other topics that would be relevant and appropriate for a general employee policy manual/handbook.

  • Dress Code
  • Technology Use
  • Code of Conduct
  • Confidentiality
  • Harassment
  • Benefits (This can be more specific to areas such as paid time off, health care benefits, and so forth.)
  • Training Opportunities/Expectations

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Nature and substance of 4 selected distinct policies

Topic 1 – Dress code policies

Most organizations operate in a formal environment and have a given image they need to maintain. Therefore, the company requires a set of rules that act as guidelines for the mode of dressing for the members of staff. The application of such guidelines and their inclusion into the policy manual of the organization. While such policies apply to all employees in the organization, they are of utmost importance to the front line workers who interact with the customers and are a major representation of the image of the firm.

Rationale and reasoning behind the inclusion of dress code policies in the policy manual

Organizations implement dress code policies in their policy manuals for a number of varying reasons. Key among these is the need for uniformity at the firm (Karl, Peluchette, & Hall, 2016), the decision to portray a given image, and the need for efficiency within the firm (Raj, Khattar, & Nagpal, 2017). Research shows that there is a positive correlation between the mode of dressing and the performance at the workplace (Karl, Hall, & Peluchette, 2013; Raj, Khattar, & Nagpal, 2017). This is a major reason behind the implementation of dress code policies, where a dress code that is both formal and includes an allowance for a casual approach. Such a policy mainly addresses areas of work where comfort is crucial and improves the efficiency of work done.

Laws and principles that mandate the organization to follow the dress code principle

Various statutory requirements provide additional guidelines for the dress code at the workplace. A number of legal constraints may prevent the installation of certain rules in various jurisdictions. For example, the clear distinction between the dresses and roles for male and female employees may cause a problem within some jurisdictions. In areas where laws protecting the rights of the LGBT community are in place, the organization might have to reduce its stance on such differences (Yılmaz & Göçmen, 2016; Jones, 2013).

Matters of culture, race, and religion also play a role in the development of such policies within the workplace, such as the example of Muslim women rights and freedoms at work (Harrison, 2016). In such scenarios, the organization has the mandate to alter and precisely follow all guidelines that address the dress code in the workplace.

Cases that established precedence for the clear addressing of the issue in the policy manual

Various decisions by the courts have set precedence over some issues regarding dressing at the workplace. For instance, some courts have repelled the need for workers at casinos and various department stores to wear company insignias and other additional paraphernalia.

The courts in the ninth and sixth circuits banned various insignia on the uniforms assigned to workers based on four new rules as per Mitchell, Koen, and Darden (2014). In addition, Carroll v Talman Federal Savings and Loan Association of Chicago, and Lanigan v Bartlett and Co. Grain set precedence for issues of neutrality in dress code as regards to religion and gender (Mitchell, Koen, & Darden, 2014).

 Topic 2 – Code of conduct policies

The moral and ethical concerns of a given organization should be contained within the guiding framework of the code of conduct policy of the firm. These provide the rules and recommendations about the moral conduct of the staff, as well as the ethical guidelines limiting certain forms of activity within the firm. Different firms, depending on their industry and fields of operation make use of different models in the creation of their code of conduct policies within their policy manual.

Rationale and reasoning behind the inclusion of code of conduct policy in the policy manual

The manner in which the employees of an organization conduct themselves is a pointer to the ethical and moral standpoint of the firm. Therefore, an organization should have a set of code of conduct policies within their policy manual. These policies act as guidelines for the employees on how the organization expects them to conduct themselves since they are the main representatives of the firm.

Customers and other members of the public view the actions of the individual members of staff as part of the firm. In this light, various lawsuits against individuals have resulted to pulling the company in as part to the accusations. The inclusion of the code of conduct policy, however, is not only for the purposes of avoiding embarrassing scenarios and mitigating against litigation, but also for training, and improvement of performance within the organization (Manroop, Singh, & Ezzedeen, 2014).

Laws and principles that mandate the organization to follow the code of conduct principles

In order to curb the growing nuisance of managerial misconduct influenced by the lack of ethical standards, the implementation of the Sarbanes Oxley laws came into play at the beginning of the 21st century. The Sarbanes Oxley Act is among the main laws in the 21st century requiring a company to have in place ethical guidelines and code of conduct policies within their policy manuals. Organizations that intend to trade their shares either in the New York Stock Exchange or in the NASDAQ should have in place a set of business conduct and ethical guidelines as a basic requirement (Smith & Colvin, 2016).

Cases that established precedence for the clear addressing of the issue in the policy manual

In the case of Alistair Alford and Culture and Sport Glasgow, there was a ruling where the courts had to decide which was greater between privacy and accountability. In such a case, there were two elements within the policy manual for a firm that collided, and the courts needed to decide which would supersede the other. An appeal of the initial ruling made a case where upholding the code of conduct was paramount in the handling of the matter at hand. The courts found that issues of transparency held higher ethical standing than the protection of the individual’s data (Ferguson, Thornley, & Gibb, 2016)….

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Police in the Society Essay Paper


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Question 1

Police officers have an important role to play in the society. They serve to protect all people from both internal and external attacks. The United States police are divided into different department across the United States. However, their role remains the form. The force was formed centuries ago and since then they have played an important role in the society. Nevertheless, their roles have differed considerably since the civil through the First and Second World War.

Question 2

            The United States joint policy has been used to determine its relation to other countries across the globe after the civil war. Its foreign policy has been known to directly affect countries which do not practice democratic process. Since the United States is a superpower, it has the ability to have an effect or influence on the other countries (Hook & Spanier,2015) directly. The United States is branded by its public war policy across the whole world.

Question 3
The first aspect involves the pancontinental railroad or manufacturing rebellion which distorted the United States as one of the biggest financial powers. The second aspect involves their promotions to see that Christianity has been implemented in different countries. Thirdly, the United States play a role in influencing European countries to implement their policies (Jervis, 2013).

Question 4

The policy has influenced the Vietnam war of 1964, the civil conflict in Somalia of the year 1991 and the Iraq combat that took place during the years 2003 to 2011 (Mead, 2013).
Question 5

The Vietnamese war was initiated by the failure of some countries to respect international treaties while the war in Iraq was influenced by war while elections influenced the conflict in Somalia.


Hook, S. W., & Spanier, J. (2015). American foreign policy since World War II. Cq Press.

Jervis, R. (2013). American foreign policy in a new era. Routledge.

Mead, W. R. (2013). Special Providence: American Foreign policy and how it changed the world.            Routledge.

Health care Priority Policy Essay Paper

priority policy
priority policy

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Health care Priority Policy

The health care priority policy that I feel is the most important among the six is that of ensuring that each person and family takes part as partners of their delivery. This priority policy perceives individuals using health services as equal partners when it comes to planning, implementation, and development of care.

It is not just about providing patients with whatever they want but it is tailored towards meeting the patients’ desires, family situations, values, lifestyle, and social solutions. Through this priority policy, the physicians are expected to be compassionate and think about the patient’s point of view. It is exercised through sharing important clinical decisions with patients and their families as well as helping them in managing their health.

Saleh et al., (2014) report that in the past patients were required to fit with the practices and routines that health care providers felt were most appropriate. However, through prioritization of patients and their families in care delivery services become more flexible and meet the patient’s needs.  The practitioners work with patients and families to determine the most effective way of providing care. A one-on-one basis is put into play whereby patients and their families are allowed to engage make important decisions regarding their health.

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I believe that with the increasing demand for health services with limited resources, prioritization of patients and their families can be the best solution of improving patients’ health and minimize the burden of health care services. It is this fact that has led to implementation of health care policies that drift away from paternalistic model where practitioners ‘do things to’ patients. Moreover, the priority policy can encourage patients to lead a healthier lifestyle through eating a balanced diet or exercising since they have been educated about risk factors and etiology of chronic diseases.

This priority policy can also be used in prisons whereby lawyers engage in-mates and their families in court cases and obtain feedback from the in-mates about their desires and how they would like the court process to progress.


Saleh, S. S., Alameddine, M. S., & Natafgi, N. M. (2014). Beyond accreditation: a multi-track quality-enhancing strategy for primary health care in low-and middle-income countries. International Journal of Health Services, 44(2), 355-372.

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Agency Ethical Policies

Agency Ethical Policies
Agency Ethical Policies

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Agency Ethical Policies

Creating and Implementing and Agency Policy on Ethics

Any type of criminal justice agency needs to possess an elaborate set of ethical framework, policy and procedural standards that give a detailed description about how its ethical values are supposed to be formulated and implemented in the agency (Manroop & Harrison, 2016). It is through the policy framework and procedural standards that the agency is able to; effectively communicate to its employees and staff what it requires and expects from each and every one among them (Kaptein, 2015).

After the agency has put in place its ethical policies and procedures, it should further develop elaborate measures that are to be used to assess and evaluate whether its ethical policies and standards are being maintained, and also if those policies and standards are meeting its initial objectives or yielding the desired results in its functioning and operation (Hess, 2015). Below is a detailed description about how an agency should go about planning and implementing ethical policies.

Identify the Desired Values for the Agency

The agency would find it wise and advantageous to adopt a collective or inclusive approach, which should be used to identify a set of values that is clear and elaborate before it embarks on the development and implementation process of the ethical program (Kaptein, 2015).  This is so because it would help the employees develop the perception that; the ethical program is based on values rather than the achievement of mere compliance (Hess, 2015).

Furthermore, the inclusive approach would enhance the employee’s commitment in observing the ethical policies, and also in strengthening their will to achieve the agency’s objectives, which is simply because their input had been put to consideration in the planning and implementation process (Manroop & Harrison, 2016). In addition, the inclusive approach would make the employees feel more responsible, and as such, it should be done on a regular basis to renew and enhance the effectiveness of the policies and procedural standards, and to also make it flexible and adaptive to changes in the working environment.  

Consult Senior Managers and Secure Their Commitment

In order to develop and implement a successful ethics program, it is imperative to secure the commitment and support of senior managers in the process (Hess, 2015). For example, the senior managers could be encouraged to include aspects of ethical importance in the content of their communication, and to also make active participation and contribution in the planning and implementation process of ethical policies.

In addition, it is equally important to ensure that the senior managers behave and conduct themselves accordingly (Kaptein, 2015). This is important because it acts as a source of motivation to the employees, and also creates a sense of equal concern from all parties involved, especially if these senior managers are actively involved in the training of employees on how to implement the program.  

Engage Directors or the Board of Management

This could be easily achieved if an ethics committee is instituted in the agency, and the directors and managers made prominent members in it, and in such a way that they occupy active positions (Manroop & Harrison, 2016). This important because they will be able to include aspects of ethics during board meetings in their discussion, an aspect that could create more importance in the program once it is put in place. This could even be more effective if liability is placed on the board in cases of gross ethical transgression in the agency.

Formulate an Ethics Code of Conduct

A comprehensive code of conduct should be formulated, especially one that is aligned to the agency’s values and national laws. Furthermore, the codes should be able to equip employees with the appropriate knowledge about how to act in case they are caught up in a dilemma and where leeway could be the only solace (Ruiz et al., 2015). As such, the codes should be both flexible and adaptive in order to withstand changes in the environment, especially when new challenges emerge (Kaptein, 2015).

This would therefore necessitate regular updates to keep the codes as relevant as possible. However, rigid codes that are non-negotiable should be formulated, and where leeway is applicable, employees should be guided precisely on ways to act according to the agency’s expectations.

Integrate Ethics into the Agency’s Mission and Vision Statements

By formulating ethical codes, policies and procedural standards into the agency’s mission and vision statements, all employees and managers are constantly reminded of the importance of observing them, and that of exercising values in all their operations while working in the agency (Kaptein, 2015). New employees should also be trained about the necessity of operating within the ethical program, for instance, through orientation programs that are designed for new employees.

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Secure All Necessary Resources and Funding

In order to successfully plan and implement the ethical program, it is necessary to have adequate funding and the appropriate human resource in place to facilitate the process (Manroop & Harrison, 2016). All costs that will be incurred should be factored into the agency’s budget, which is in order to determine the sustainability of the program and to facilitate the necessary adjustments that should be put in place.

Encourage Autonomy while Exercising the Ethical Provisions

It is important that each and every employee is made to understand all ethical policies and procedural standards, and to also understand the agency’s values that support those policies and standards (Manroop & Harrison, 2016). This is necessary because the agency is prone to risks and challenges that emanate from the dynamic nature of the environment, which brings along new challenges every day that could compromise the employee’s ability to act within the stipulated guidelines (Kaptein, 2015).

In addition, encouraging autonomy and understanding of all aspects of the ethical program is important because of the fact that; no ethical codes or programs are able to envisage all possible situations and encounters the employees could find themselves in. It is therefore important that employees understand and embrace all values objectives of the agency.


It is also necessary to develop reinforcement practices to ensure that the ethical program is adhered to, and that all employees are constantly reminded of the program’s importance (Manroop & Harrison, 2016). For example; all employees should have a copy of the ethical policies in their work stations at all times; mechanisms that report ethical breaches should be put in place as a counter-breach measure (Kaptein, 2015).

However, manner in which the mechanism works should be confidential; include the ethical code as part of job contracts; identify employees who should be responsible for the evaluation and implementation process of the code; organize and avail a detailed report about the use and effectiveness of the ethical program on a regular basis (Ruiz et al., 2015); and most importantly, ensure that all senior employees are able to act and demonstrate compliance with the codes in all their undertakings.

If well planned and implemented, the ethical program could go a long way to ensure that the agency is able to achieve its objectives, which is by enhancing both the management’s and employee’s commitment and responsibility in work (Hess, 2015). As such, the planning and implementation process should be treated with all the importance and necessity that it deserves.


Hess, D. (2015). Ethical Infrastructures and Evidence-Based Corporate Compliance and   Ethics Programs: Policy Implications from the Empirical Evidence. New York University Journal of Law and Business, Forthcoming.

Kaptein, M. (2015). The effectiveness of ethics programs: The role of scope, composition, and sequence. Journal of Business Ethics, 132(2), 415-431.

Manroop, L., & Harrison, J. (2016). The Ethics Portfolio: Building and Promoting Ethical. Leadership and Personnel Management: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications, 1.

Ruiz, P., Martinez, R., Rodrigo, J., & Diaz, C. (2015). Level of coherence among ethics program components and its impact on ethical intent. Journal of Business Ethics, 128(4), 725-742.

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Healthcare Policy Change

Healthcare Policy Change
Healthcare Policy Change

Healthcare Policy Change in the USA


Indeed, quality healthcare provision remains one of the most fundamental rights of any citizens in a country. The success of better healthcare provision is based upon strong policies and legislations both at the state level and federal government. Currently, the expensive nature of healthcare in the United States is attributed to the devolved manner in which it is regulated where the federal government has ceded the primary responsibility of provision of care to state governments expect for the oversight of healthcare agencies that fall under the federal government.

It is these state departments that regulate several aspects of medical care for instance the licensing providers of healthcare, the approval of medical and pharmaceutical products (Blumenthal, 2012). The concern is whether healthcare which is at the heart of betterment of life in the society should be left to the individual states and their own autonomy or to the federal government which enjoys sufficient financial and oversight over a country’s general welfare.

Healthcare policy change

Federal government’s distinct control and oversight over national issues is one of the most important areas of concern, with healthcare at the forefront in the discussions that involve devolution. States are considered as laboratories and tinkerers that help to come up with ideas to find solutions for problems that face a country as a whole. Patel & Rushefsky, (2014) argue that they are more close to the people than the national government and are more attuned to the problems that face the citizens.

However, they are without doubt faced with a plethora of challenges in terms of controlling the healthcare system. In my opinion, one such challenge is insufficient staff and structures in place to take on the burden of exchanging new bills that help cover most citizens. States are often faced with powerful lobbyists, cartels and drug interest control groups that always want to benefit at the consumers expense.

This has led to corruption which impedes the provision of healthcare. Another challenge is the States lack control over privet insurers and autonomy from the federal laws (Obama, 2016). They face a challenge in navigating federal laws and benefit plans of employees hence lack the power to deal with healthcare insurance companies and employees (Groves et al., 2013). This has led to a problem in cost control and access to Medicare.

A transfer to a more controlled federal system that enjoys funding and is devoid of cartel control is critical to a better healthcare system. I therefore will introduce a federal reform policy that aims to seize the initiative from states when it comes to healthcare.

The bill: Transfer of healthcare to the Federal government Act

I will introduce this bill through a federal legislator who has been in the forefront in advocating for the transfer of healthcare to the federal government. The legislator is a member of my state who I voted for and has in the past associated himself with nursing organizations that work towards improving healthcare. The main champions for my bill are like minded legislators and civil society advocates from nursing organizations.

These champions are the backbone for both public awareness campaigns and education to citizens on importance of better healthcare. The first process in policy change is the formulation of the bill with the legislators and its adoption by those to champion for the bill especially lobbying during its legislation process. The lobbying will involve persuasive arguments on the benefits that outweigh the challenges. Once the legislation of the policy change has been passed it must be implemented.

Plans for implementation and next steps after passage

Once the bill is passed it must be implemented by the federal government by presidential ascent and the statute becomes law. Nursing organizations and federal agencies like Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality will help come up with procedures and standards for measuring compliance (Emanuel et al., 2012). Successful implementation of this bill will depend on compliance by states and coordination of stakeholders in healthcare. The final step in the bill taking effect is the process of evaluating how well my policy is implemented and is put into action. This is done by the federal government by assessing the cost benefit ratio of healthcare to citizens.


Transferring of healthcare from the State to Federal government as outlined in my bill, and its successful implementation require strong partnerships between the private sector, state and federal government. The primary role of this bill is delivery of high quality healthcare devoid of selfish interests; unfairness and inefficiency by states in the market that ensure affordable healthcare systems are easily accessible.


Blumenthal, D. (2012). Performance improvement in health care—seizing the moment. New England Journal of Medicine, 366(21), 1953-1955.

Emanuel, E., Tanden, N., Altman, S., Armstrong, S., Berwick, D., de Brantes, F., … & Daschle, T. (2012). A systemic approach to containing health care spending. New England Journal of Medicine, 367(10), 949-954.

Groves, P., Kayyali, B., Knott, D., & Van Kuiken, S. (2013). The ‘big data’revolution in healthcare. McKinsey Quarterly, 2.

Obama, B. (2016). United States health care reform: progress to date and next steps. Jama, 316(5), 525-532.

Patel, K., & Rushefsky, M. E. (2014). Healthcare Politics and Policy in America. Public Integrity, 17(1), 94-96.

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Development of a Health Care Policy

Development of a Health Care Policy
Development of a Health Care Policy

Development of a Health Care Policy


            Development of a health care policy is one of the ways through which developing nations can be influenced to take actions that promote public health and reduce mortality rates, especially in countries where health inequality is a common problem. The Nature of health policy developed largely depends on specific health care problems that exist in a country at any given time.

Furthermore, one has to consider various social determinants of health in a country before developing and implementing a health policy (Kumar and Preetha, 2012). According to Kumar and Preetha (2012), social factors such as demographic patterns, political and economic changes, cultural issues, and learning environments are believed to influence health situations of many countries around the world.

A health policy that is aimed at reducing health inequality can be effective in promoting public health, and can greatly be supported by a country whose health is negatively impacted by disparities in health care. This paper explores the concept of health policy development and implementation about health inequality while giving special consideration to Malawi.

Health Care Policy: Rationale for Selecting Malawi

            Malawi has been chosen for this case study because it is one of the world’s developing countries whose public health is negatively impacted by health inequality and lack of health policy to guide proper health care delivery. According to Daire and Khalil (2015), failure to access primary health care is one of the causes of high death rates among children aged below five years in Malawi.

Daire and Khalil (2015) further assert that health care for socio-economic barriers largely face Children in Malawi that policy makers in the health sector must address to promote positive child health in the country. Children who are born to low-income families in Malawi are highly likely to experience limited access to health care as compared to those who come from wealthy families. The main reason for the high infant mortality rates among low-income families in Malawi is a lack of primary health care policy.

According to Makaula, Bloch, and Muula et al., (2012) and Ustrup, Ngwira, and Fischer, et al., (2014), Malawi continues to experience low life expectancy because it currently lacks a primary health care policy to guide health care access among poor families with children aged below 5 years. Now, Malawi utilizes the Essential Health Package (EHP) program to implement primary health care.

This has impacted negatively on health care access among poor households and a significant reduction in life expectancy in the country. In this regard, Malawi is one of the developing countries that are experiencing high rates of infant deaths due to lack of primary health care policy and would; therefore, attract the attention of health policy makers (Daire and Khalil, 2015). 

Social Determinants of Health in Malawi and Why they should be Addressed

            There are two major social determinants of health in Malawi that need to be addressed. According to Kumar and Preetha, (2012), social determinants of health refer to factors in the social setting that influence the ability of a country’s population to obtain care at any given time. Examples of social determinants of health include socio-economic factors, family patterns, cultural beliefs and attitudes, learning environments, and demographic patterns.

In Malawi, the two social determinants of health that should concern policy makers are; economic affordability and geographic accessibility of health care facilities. These two social determinants are highly rampant among residents of rural Malawi. Rural populations in Malawi cannot access quality health care due to limited finances and high concentration of health care facilities in urban areas (Ustrup, Ngwira, and Fischer, et al., 2014).

            In a study conducted by Ustrup, Ngwira, and Fischer, et al., (2014), the researchers have found that health care facilities are mainly located in urban Malawi, and this makes households based in rural Malawi to travel to the urban areas to seek for care. Ideally, rural Malawi does not only lack adequate health care facilities, but it also has poor roads that make it difficult for occupants to reach urban areas.

The long travel time coupled with high costs of transport prevent children from low-income families from receiving quality care, hence the observed high infant mortality rates in the country (Makaula, Bloch, and Muula, et al., 2012).  Furthermore, variation in economic affordability among affluent and low-income families determines the nature of care that these two groups of populations can receive in Malawi.

Families in rural Malawi with either small or lack of basic income are faced with the challenge of obtaining care for their children as opposed to those in wealthy regions with high basic income. For this reason, limited economic affordability among residents of rural Malawi presents significant economic burden which prevents families from obtaining quality care for their children (Ustrup, Ngwira, and Fischer, et al., 2014; & Makaula, Bloch, and Muula, et al., 2012).

There is a great need to address social determinants of health about economic affordability and geographic accessibility of health care facilities to increase access to care for families in rural Malawi. As Daire and Khalil (2015) explain, one of the ways through which health inequality in Malawi can be solved is by addressing those factors that hinder citizens from accessing health care.

It is only by addressing these social determinants of health that Malawi will be able to reduce infant mortality and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Health care accessibility in Malawi will greatly be improved if the ability of low-income families to meet health care costs and to access health care facilities is enhanced (Daire and Khalil, 2015).

Potential Public Issues that might be encountered

Two major public issues may be faced in Malawi in an attempt to influence health policy development in the country. The possible general issues that may be encountered are related to the level of cultural awareness and health literacy among the country’s population. Health literacy refers to the ability of individuals to comprehend basic health information and their capacity to utilize it in decision-making.

High health literacy is directly related to improved health outcomes while limited health literacy is associated with poor public health. According to Smith-Greenway (2015), high infant mortality rates in Malawi are largely attributed to limited health literacy among low-income families in rural areas. Residents of rural Malawi rarely receive health education, and the public sector has not initiated any programs in those areas to keep citizens informed about health.

Also, the majority of households in rural Malawi can only speak their local language, and they do not understand any information presented to them in pure English (Smith-Greenway, 2015). Lack of public health education and proper communication of public health information are the primary causes of limited health literacy in Malawi. Consequently, limited health literacy may impede successful development and implementation of health policy in Malawi (Ustrup, Ngwira, and Fischer, et al., 2014).

The other public issue that may be encountered during health policy development and implementation in Malawi is the level of cultural awareness among the country’s population. According to Daire and Khalil (2015), cultural knowledge in a country determines the possibility with which a new policy can be developed and implemented. In this regard, it becomes difficult to implement a health policy that goes against the cultural beliefs and values of a country’s population.

As Reiney, Watkins, Ryman, Sandhu, Bo, and Benerjee, (2011) explain, low cultural awareness is a big problem in Malawi because it negatively affects health utilization among the country’s population. Specifically, cultural beliefs and values of the country’s population largely influence the patterns of health utilization in the country in the sense that, health underutilization is common in rural Malawi where occupants do not believe in care that is being offered by health care organizations. Ideally, low cultural awareness among rural populations in Malawi may prevent successful implementation of health policy in the country (Ustrup, Ngwira, and Fischer, et al., 2014).

Relationship Between Health Inequality and Life Expectancy in Malawi

There is an inverse relationship between health inequality and life expectancy in Malawi. In this regard, high disparities in health are associated with low life expectancy while low disparities in health are related to high life expectancy in Malawi. Life expectancy is low when infant mortality rate is high while life expectancy is high when infant mortality rate is low (Deurzen, Oorschot, and Ingen, 2014).

According to the World Health Organization report of 2017, health disparity in Malawi is significantly higher than that of Japan. Furthermore, an infant born in Malawi is highly likely to die at the age of 47 while a child born in Japan will probably die at the age of 87. Therefore, when health inequality is high in Malawi, life expectancy in the country is significantly low, especially among the rural populations (World Health Organization, 2012).

The inverse relationship between health inequality and life expectancy among poor populations is supported by research evidence. In a study conducted by Deurzen, Oorschot and Ingen (2014) the researchers have found that the rate of infant mortality is higher among the poor than among the rich populations. Therefore, a policy that can reduce health inequality will help to reduce infant mortality rate and eventually raise life expectancy (Deurzen, Oorschot, and Ingen, 2014).

Current Efforts in Malawi to Reduce Health Inequalities

            The government of Malawi has worked hard to reduce health inequalities in the country with the aim of reducing infant mortality rates that occur among its rural populations. These efforts are geared towards addressing two major social determinants of health: economic affordability and geographic accessibility of health care facilities. As Ustrup, Ngwira, and Fischer, et. al., (2014) explain, governments can increase geographic accessibility of health care facilities by constructing additional organizations in rural areas.

Between 2003 and 2010, the Government of Malawi constructed a total of 39 health centers in the rural areas. This has helped its rural populations to access health care and to save time and money that could have been spent in traveling to the urban areas to seek for health care.  Additionally, Malawi has taken appropriate actions to mitigate financial barrier among its rural populations by increasing their ability to meet health care cost.

In the year 2010, the Government of Malawi signed an agreement with facilities that operate under the Christian Health Association of Malawi (CHAM) to allow free health care services for mothers and children. With free access to child and maternal health care services, Malawi has been able to record a decrease in infant mortality rate with a slight increase in life expectancy (Ustrup, Ngwira, and Fischer, et. al., 2014).

Health Policy

            The best health policy to address health inequality in Malawi would be that which will get the support of the country’s population, considering the fact that residents of rural Malawi have limited health literacy and do not have trust in the care offered by health care organizations (Makaula, Bloch, and Muula, et al., 2012).

An example of a policy that might be developed to reduce health inequality in Malawi is the creation of a National Development and Social Fund to support programs that facilitate construction of health care facilities in the rural areas, while at the same time meeting the health care costs of mothers and children who reside in rural Malawi.

The Government of Malawi should set aside funds to facilitate implementation of this policy to ensure that both rural and urban populations have equal access to health care. Successful implementation of this policy will result in a reduction in infant mortality rates among the poor populations in Malawi, which will eventually translate into high life expectancy in the country (Ustrup, Ngwira, and Fischer, et. al., 2014; Dairen and Khalil, 2015).


Daire, J. & Khalil, D. (2015). Analysis of maternal and child health policies in Malawi: The methodological perspective. Malawi Medical Journal, 27(4): 135-139.

Deurzen, I. V., Oorschot, W. V. & Ingen, E. (2014). The link between inequality and population health in low and middle-income countries: Policy myth or social reality? PLoS ONE, 9(12): e115109.

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Domestic policy objectives Essay

Domestic policy objectives
Domestic policy objectives

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Domestic policy objectives 

The Theodore Roosevelt, a Republican, and Woodrow Wilson, a Democrat, both had the same domestic policy objectives in the first two decades of the 20th century. The program was called Progressivism and the ultimate goal was to clear up corruption in all phases of the economy and the government and to give the working man a better chance to advance.

Their methods and motivations, however, were different. Discuss the problems faced by the Progressives and the manner in which they attempted to rectify the problems. Compare these two presidents as far as their accomplishments. Make sure you include the following in your answer: Muckrakers, Northern Securities Case, Hepburn Act, Clayton Anti Trust Act, initiative, referendum, recall.

Domestic policy objectives 

Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilsons remain successful progressives even though they have been greatly criticized. Their commitment, struggles and efforts to ensure national reforms continue to be felt even today. The progressives believed that it was possible for man to improve his living conditions. They rejected the church as a solution to the social and economic problems of their era.

Their main goal was to have the government participate in ending corruption, public involvement in the political process and active involvement of the government in solving social and economic problems. They also aimed at take control of public utilities like the railroads, trusts and to pass legislation that would protect consumers, labor groups and the minorities.

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Domestic policy objectives 

In solving these problems, the ‘Muckrakers’ were of great influence in publicly exposing the social evils that had prevailed. These writers/journalists exposed the horrors of urban slums, poverty, poor working conditions, child labor, and other evils. This served as an eye-opener to the public to support the call for reforms by the progressives (Roark, Johnson, Cohen, Stage, & Lawson, 2000).

Problems in urban areas were addressed by establishment of settlement houses by social workers to protect the poor. The problem of child labor proved hard to solve as their efforts were thwarted by the courts. The labor regulation problem was solved when the progressives fought to ensure government’s role in workplace regulation. Since then, government oversight has expanded and accepted as part of American Industry.

Problems in food and drug industry were solved when the progressives pushed the government to create a legislation that would see all products meant for human consumption being tested. This saw the enaction of the pure food and drug act and meat inspection act. Since then Americans have left the role of ensuring quality and safety of products, verifying labeling and marketing information to the government (Roark et al., 2000).

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Domestic policy objectives 

A number of progressives called for direct democracy where citizens would be equally involved in legislation. Three citizen measures the initiative, referendum and recall were called for. The ‘initiative’ makes it possible for citizens to enact law, ‘referendum’ enables citizens to block and reject laws passed by the legislature while ‘recall’ gives citizens mandate to remove from office an official. The achievement of this helped bring reforms and control in the government and encouraged full participation of citizens in the process (Roark et al., 2000).

Meanwhile, the regulation of railroads was achieved through the passing of Elkins Act and Hepburn Act by Congress. Roosevelt accused various trusts under the Sherman Anti-trust Act and signed the Newlands Act, and sold lands in the north to fund irrigation.

The Clayton Anti-Trust Act was passed by Wilson as a replacement of the frail Sherman Act of 1890. He signed many other progressive bills into law. This helped stop monopolization in business, including the monopolistic Northern Securities Company which had not been prosecuted under the Sherman Act, even after being declared an illegal due to its monopolistic nature (Roark et al., 2000).

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Domestic policy objectives 

In conclusion, the progressive movement left a legacy in the American history. They believed in the role of government insight in solving social and economic problems. Although they did not solve all the problems, they changed their situation back then and because of them, the government started to play an active role in America’s economy, even today.

Domestic policy objectives 


Roark, J. L., Johnson, M. P., Cohen, P.C., Stage, S. & Lawson, A. (2000). The American  Promise: A History of the United States. (3rd ed).Vol.2 From 1865. Boston: St. Martin’s Press.

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