I Can’t Do It All Case Study

I Can't Do It All Case Study
I Can’t Do It All Case Study

I Can’t Do It All case 

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How would you describe the organizational culture of Healthdyne? Using Exhibit 11.1, identify specific forces and factors that Mr. Brice could manage to change the culture. 
NOTE: This case study must be submitted/attached in proper research paper format (template provided) as a Word document. Do not submit to the available text box associated with this assignment. 

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Just as it would be in any other organization, there is need to have mechanisms in place to aid in the management of a force. It would be naive to assume that in terms of organizational management, in the context of the forces, there is no need for management. This brief discussion paper aims to enumerate the different aspects of force management and discusses the different bases for the establishment of clear structure for force management. This paper is divided into four thematic areas. There shall be an attempt to ensure that there is synergy in the presentation.


As rightfully enumerated, force management entails, among other things development of organizational models, determination of organizational authorizations and document organizational authorizations. The three speak to different issues and needs in the superstructure of force management. For instance the development of organizational models comes first because it helps the management have a clear variety of models that can be adopted.

Secondly, the determination of authorization models ensures that there are clear hierarchical structures that can be exploited before an officer gets authorization to deal with a particular issue. This may be as serious as activities in the field of fire or simple administrative decisions at the camp. The last head among the three is the question of document organizational authorizations. There reaches a point where there is need for express and documented authorization for the carrying out of particular tasks.

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This part attempts to highlight the features of the paper on the foregoing. The Paper notes the evolving needs of the army and the USA at large and points out that the same must have an influence on how the United States treats and organizes its army. In a world where the interests of the states remain the same, there is an evolution in the form of the threats that the USA is facing.

This makes it a necessity to change the arrangement after reflection albeit the formation of the army in combat remains the same. The paper spells out the numbers that are already being scaled down be it those in the reserve or those in active combat.  Importantly, the report noted the constant state of the government of the United States which is in a constant state of deficit which is intricately tied to the foreign interests of the United States.

In light of the foregoing, turn to the question of which of the three processes is going to be most affected by the issues enumerated by the paper. The paper comes at a time that the force is retreating form war. This is after more than a decade of are in Iraq and we are having the nature of combat in Afghanistan slowly evolving. I submit that the factor that is going to be most has to be the organizational models that are to be adopted going forward. With less direct combat the models of the force are going to change substantially.

This explains the reason why there is an ongoing research according to General Odierno which aims to help the force understand some of the best models that will work going forward.[2] It is suggested by the general that there is a real possibility that going forward, the nature of the military shall take the form of an expeditionary force which will be leaner and more efficient in light of the needs of the time and the overall budget of the united states of America.

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There is definitely need to reform the force acquisition systems. The CRS Report discusses this extensively and specifically elucidates the issues surrounding question of accountability.  The Report notes that the bases for reform range from the increased complexity of the acquisition process, the fluidity of the process which constantly changes thanks to legislative process, the slowly changing landscape of the acquisition process and the persisting costs and low performance.

There have been successful effort of reform.  The Example given by Moshe is the Weapon Systems Acquisitions Reform Act of 2009. As noted, this Act did not bring in wide sweeping changes. It was pigeon holed to reform in the area of initial stages of acquisition and this explains why there was the creation of the portfolio of the Director of Cost Assessment and Project Evaluation, Director of Developmental Test and Evaluation, Director of Systems Engineering among others.

It is clear from a keen reading of the Act and its provisions that the intention of Congress was to insulate the government form faulty acquisitions of weapons which may fail after a lot of expenditure is incurred to purchase them.

However, a more important area of reform is what Moshe terms establishment of authority and accountability in the process of acquisition. In this area, we need to allow those persons with responsibility to be given the lee way to do what they are expected to do. For instance if a person is given the responsibility to deal with analyzing the potency of a particular product being purchased form a particular supplier, there should be a framework within which he is allowed to do so with little interference.

The problem we have currently is that ta large number of people can say no to the execution of diverse mandates regardless of how insignificant the said mandate is. In this case, we end up having bottlenecks on the form of bureaucracies. Ultimately, the process of acquisition is made slower and more costly. Suppliers would then rather deal with others or in more efficient markets and products.

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The lapse of a phase of war has necessitated the rearrangement of the outlook of the army to suit the changed times. The new model is based on the resource priority list which has, a priori, evolved with the times. As mentioned by General Ordieno, the budgetary constrictions require that the army strategizes on how it can continually have its presence felt effectively in the new era without drastically reducing its capacity and capabilities as one of the most lethal and well equipped armies in the whole world. A new outlook is being proposed.

According to the 2013 Army Strategic Planning Guidance, the aim is to sustain the capability of the army to meet its current and emerging combatant and commander requirements.  A keen analysis of the proposed changes show that there is a greater preference for an army that strikes a balance between its active and reserve troops in a model that can actively deploy the said armies rapidly and flexibly. This new model deals with the question of excess costs which are often not required in times when there is heightened sensitivity on issues of budgetary allocations.

The new model will consist of a mission force pool, a rotational force pool and an operational sustenance force pool. The mission force pool is a force that is ever ready and is properly trained for combat for instance the 20th Support Command which will be maintained at the highest readiness level. The second pool will be manned and be fully equipped. These units move through the Reset, Train/ Ready, and Available cycles in preparation for a rotation into a known deployment.[5]  The last category will not be fully equipped as those already deployed as the preceding two categories. They will be trained based on available training days.

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The challenge as noted by Odierno begins with proper financing of all these categories. Certainly, having a typology that only mans and equips according to need is efficient and sustainable only to the extent that there do not arise situations which overwhelm and require rapid deployment leading to an exhaustion of the standing and current combat battalions. An example is that troops such as the Calvary Regiment at the National Training Centre may end up being overwhelmed in case they are suddenly required for deployment.


I think that it is right for the army to reduce its reliance on contract support. As rightly pointed out by General Odierno, these are times when the overwhelming need for such contracts during the Iraqi and Afghan wars have reduced. The buildup in terms of orders that were put to the army reached unprecedented levels and it might be wise if the reliance on such contacts is cut down. The supply of goods and services on the basis of contracts cannot possibly be done away with entirely. However, to increase efficiency and cut down on expenditure it is a wise move to continue the reduction efforts.

Foremost, this will cut down on costs if the army personnel are properly equipped to deal with the issues of supply and demand themselves. This may take the form of equipping them with skills to maintain our systems. The officers better understand the needs of the army and in the event they are properly trained to deal, there will be a reduced rate of error and the civilians will be allowed to deal with civilian affairs. 

Secondly, over the period, it has been discovered that some of those tasks were inherently public functions and could be better performed by army civilians as opposed to private individuals. This saw the conversion of thousands of portfolios into state jobs which however the same period has cut down operation costs by over 13%.

Works Cited.

General Odierno, ” Feb. 24, 2012 – Gen. Odierno AUSA Winter Symposium,” US Department of the Army,  News Archives,  February 28, 2012. Transcript of speech given by General Odierno. (Accessed 6 June 2014.) http://www.army.mil/article/74650/Feb__24__2012___Gen__Odierno_AUSA_Winter_Symposium/

HQ, Department of the Army G8, Army Equipping Guidance 2013 through 2016 (Washington, DC: HQDA, 20 June 2013), 18-19

Statement of Moshe Schwartz Specialist in Defence Acquisition Before the Committee on Armed Services, Twenty-Five Years of Acquisition Reform: Where Do We Go from Here 29 October 2013.  (On file with author)

[1] General Odierno, ” Feb. 24, 2012 – Gen. Odierno AUSA Winter Symposium,” US Department of the Army,  News Archives,  February 28, 2012. Transcript of speech given by General Odierno. (Accessed 6 June 2014.) http://www.army.mil/article/74650/Feb__24__2012___Gen__Odierno_AUSA_Winter_Symposium/

[2] Odierno, Supra 2012

[3] See the Statement of Moshe Schwartz Specialist in Defence Acquisition Before the Committee on Armed Services, Twenty-Five Years of Acquisition Reform: Where Do We Go from Here 29 October 2013.  (On file with author)

[4] Moshe, Supra 2013 at 10.

[5] HQ, Department of the Army G8, Army Equipping Guidance 2013 through 2016 (Washington, DC: HQDA, 20 June 2013), 18-19.  

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Manchester United Football Club; Strategic Analysis

Manchester United Football Club
Manchester United Football Club

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Manchester United Football Club; Strategic Analysis

Executive summary

The main purpose of this report is to provide a critical analysis of Manchester United Football Club internal and external factors affecting its strategy formulation and implementation. PESTLE Analysis and SWOT analysis are some of the tools used to access the factors affecting strategic management and evaluation in the company. Finally, a recommendation is to be given for the best applicable strategy using Ansoff Matrix.

a. Corporate objective

One of Manchester United’s business objective is to increase revenue by expanding its businesses. The company’s strategies comprise of expansion of global portfolio sponsorship, development of the retail business, enhancement of broadcasting news and taking advantage of the digital technology. Additionally, Manchester obtains revenue from some businesses: broadcasting, sponsorships, retail, merchandising and licensing, mobile content, and match-day tickets (Manchester United, 2016).

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b. Macroeconomic analysis

PESTLE Analysis

Strategic decisions made by the company are highly affected by macro-economic factors such as taxes, governing laws and regulations, as well as demographic changes (Sue, 2013).

1. Political factors

These comprise of the laws and regulations that govern the way an organization carries out its activities. The government regulates a company’s activities through tariffs, taxes, and incentive provision. Since the company’s goal is to increase revenue in its existing business ventures, it is important to adhere to tax payments to ensure that its activities are not interrupted through legal claims. For example, the company had a case for failing to pay taxes as required.

It, therefore, calls for managers to ensure that the company liaises with the set regulations to ensure the business activities run smoothly. In many countries, there are stadiums that fans use to watch football matches (Aileron, 2013). Also, broadcasting corporations are charged for airing the football matches. The revenue collected by the governing authorities as a result of the football matches in connection with the company help in enhancing the stakeholder relationship leading to minimal regulations.

2. Economic factors

Inflation, living standards, and growth capacity of a set target market influence the strategies set in place. Since the company runs some businesses, it formulates specific plans for the different ventures. In the retail, merchandise, and mobile business, the company markets the products in new and emerging economies to increase its market share. More products are shipped in countries that are facing inflation since the value of the product rises against the local currencies. The company also manufactures products in varying degree of performance for different income earners to increase specific customer value and avoid market discrimination.

3. Social factors

Different countries exhibit varying social and cultural perceptions. To take advantage of the social issues, the company the company employs players from different social backgrounds to increase its global penetration. Since football is social, it provides room for the company to integrate different groups of people by the provision of uniformed merchandise.

The sale of t-shirts and shoes with the company’s logo keeps its fans united and, in essence, leads to increasing in revenue collected from the sale of tickets (Manchester United, 2016). The company’s fans are united through the United’s anthem and uniform products. The company’s strategic managers make use of the unity amongst its fans to diversify its product portfolio for increased revenue and profits.

4. Technological factors

The world has become a global community due to the improvised technological advancements. Digital technology is one of the major technological advancement that is used for business strategies. The majority of consumers watch football through the social sites. The company uses the sites such as Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter to market its match-day activities for ticket sale as well as its merchandise.

Fans are united through the sites and made aware of the company’s strategies as well as get their needs for an increase in customer value. The company was able to generate more than $10 million in revenue in the year 2015 through its mobile content activity. Through the website, followers are updated about the company’s activities and products making technology a vital element in its strategy formulation.

5. Environmental factors

The internal and external environment is another factor affecting strategic formulation and implementation by the company. Provision of conducive work conditions, as well as an exercise in corporate social responsibility, are some of the measures Manchester takes into consideration to make its strategies effective. The company outsources its operations and follows the set environmental protection standards to ensure it minimizes pollution and protects the environment.

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6. Legal factors

Legal standards and regulations should be followed to ensure that there are market sustainability and growth. Through its legal team, the company takes care of legal issues and ensures all departmental functions operate as required by the legal authorities to ensure there are no obstacles while carrying out its normal business operations.

c. Competitive analysis

SWOT analysis is another effective method used to assess the potential implications of a strategy (Ovidijus, 2013). In the case of Manchester United, one of its main strength is a wide base of fans and popularity. The company uses the loyalty from fans to market its different product portfolios for increased revenue. Still, the company has a strong financial strength. Hence, it’s able to finance its operations and satisfy all its stakeholders.

The company’s main weakness is its concentrated market making due to stringent rules of the European Football Clubs making it hard to diversify its product portfolio in other countries. However, the company has a great opportunity for increasing its market share since more people are getting attracted to football and associated products.

Being one of the best football clubs, the company uses the opportunity to strengthen its products and harness more fans through its uniform products. However, the company faces intense competition from other English clubs such as Manchester City that have an equal fan base making it hard to penetrate. To phase out the competition, the company maximizes its already popular name to increase its market share and to give out customized products (Manchester United, 2016).

d. Internal analysis strategic capabilities

Strategic capabilities consist of financial, human, and capital resources that an organization uses to formulate and design its strategies. To make a strategy effective, the different strategic capabilities must be integrated. Regarding resources, there are those that are basic and unique. The unique resources are the core competencies of an organization while the basic resources are those that must be present for a strategy to be implemented.

General workforce, finances, and infrastructure are the basic resources. Brand name, trademarked products, and expertise skills or differentiated product portfolios are some of the core competencies that a company takes advantage of in formulation of strategies. Manchester United’s core competencies are brand name and a wide fan base that makes it attract some of the best players as well as market its subsidiary products.

ManU’s business functions comprise of financing, purchasing and supplies, production, human resources, marketing and research and development. All these departments are integrated together to ensure that daily operational functions run smoothly (Mackenzie, 2015).

e. Basis of competitive strategy

1. Key market segments

Manchester FC has a line of business venture it operates. In line with the retail and merchandise, the company targets young adults for its branded t-shirts and other merchandise. Most fans are young adults and form the highest market. The middle-income earners mostly attend the live matches and form the market segment for the match-day business venture.

2. Business strategy

The increase in product portfolio is one of the company’s business strategies. Differentiation by using its trademark and logo is one of the methods the company has been using to ensure the products reach to its target market, and the consumer’s value is maximized (Ovidijus, 2013). Fans go for their company’s products, and it is through differentiation that Manchester has been able to retain and increase its market share. Since wide fan base is one of the organizations strengths, it uses it to increase its sale in merchandise and tickets.

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3. Strategic choice

New product development is the best strategy the company can use to increase its market share and revenue (MSG, 2011). Since the company already has a wide and increasing market share, increasing in product portfolio is likely to get a high customer recognition thus increasing its revenue. The existing products have a high market share and sales revenue, and the company is assured of market penetration of a new product since the existing fans will be the ones to purchase the new product. A new product will lead to increased revenue.

f. Strategy evaluation

Product development is the most suitable since the existing products have already attained high market share and market awareness. Since the company has many fans who are loyal, the new product will have high acceptance rate amongst the different stakeholders as it is feasible and has a high potential for generating returns.

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g. Conclusion and recommendations

Manchester United faces social, environmental, political, legal, and economic issues in its strategy formulation and implementation. All these factors influence the outcome of strategy, and the company takes them into consideration before formulating and implementing a strategy.

8.1. The company has been maximizing its strengths effectively since it takes advantage of the wide fan base to increase its product portfolio for increased market share and revenues.

8.2. The main weakness that the company has when compared to its major rivals is a concentration in the European market which has limited fan base compared to other regions where its competitors exist. Financial problems is another weakness the company faces due to the imminent player transfers that cost the company a lot of finances.

8.3. The main threat faced by Manchester FC is competitors. Since the company is operating profitably and has a high market capitalization, it can be said that it is managing its threats effectively. The company increases its fan value by designing custom made products at low prices making the fans remain loyal.

8.4. Manchester’s vision is to be one of the best clubs that provides the best returns to its shareholders and sponsors. The increase in product portfolio is one of the strategies the company uses to increase revenue. When there is high revenue, the returns are high thus the vision of the company is not different from its strategy since strategies are formulated in line with the vision of the company.


Airelon, 2013. Aligning your business with your vision [online] Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/aileron/2013/10/09/aligning-your-business-with-your-vision-part-1/#6a9b0a012b70

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Mackenzie, 2015. How to align your entire company with your strategies [online] Available at https://moz.com/blog/how-to-align-your-entire-company-with-your-marketing-strategy

Manchester United, 2016. Manchester United Charter [online] Available at http://www.manutd.com/~/media/Files/PDF/ClubCharter/2012/Manchester_United_Club_Charter.ashx

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Richard, 2015. Four steps to align your organization to its strategic plan [online] Available at: http://www.projecttimes.com/articles/four-steps-to-align-your-organization-to-its-strategic-plan.html

Ruth, 2010. Management of risk [online] Available at: https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=BcM-b4DTttcC&pg=PA88&dq=pestle+analysis&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=pestle%20analysis&f=false

Sue, 2011. Pestle Analysis [online] Available at: http://pestleanalysis.com/what-is-pestle-analysis/

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Models used in Decision Making

Models used in Decision Making
Models used in Decision Making

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Models used in Decision Making


This paper intends to examine models used in decision making. Models of decision making are terms used to refer to processes employed when formulating conclusions about decisions that an organization should follow through and the available alternatives to decisions. To achieve examination, the paper will look at organizational structures, which are viewed as vibrant.

Models used in decision-making

There are a number of models used in decision making within different organizations. However, this paper will focus on two models. Furthermore, the spotlight will be on the ability of two models in supporting the needs of IT in a business. The first model is rational-actor model, while the second model is organizational-process model. A rational-actor model is used when explaining decisions taken by large organizations which are centrally controlled (Kuwashima, 2014). The assumption of the model is that there is rationality in the business institution being considered (Courtney, 2013). Moreover, the model is used to show consistency within an organization and value maximization of specific constraints.

Therefore, the model shows how an organization makes rational choices. On the other hand, organizational-process model is used in examining the activities carried out by all departments of an organization. Moreover, organization-process model considers all activities an organization is involved in, as output from combined subsystems (Kuwashima, 2014). In a business there is a number of IT needs to be met.  Among the needs are email communication, software for accounting, storage of files, a system for telephone communication, a reliable internet connection, as well as, a system to be used by the support team.

Consequently, a rational-actor model may not efficiently support the needs of IT in a business. Notably, rational-actor model views actions taken by an organization, as influenced by choices made by a universal rational maker of decisions (Kuwashima, 2014). The assumption by rational-actor model fails to consider that, organizations are always made of subsystems which are loosely connected. In addition, all subsystems within an organization act independently.

However, an organizational-process model may competently support the needs of IT in a business. Notably, an organizational-process model considers operations which are routinely carried out within subsystems of an organization (Kuwashima, 2014). Moreover, organizational-process model looks at the interaction between all subsystems of an organization. An organizational-process model is, therefore, more capable of making appropriate decisions on the needs of IT in a business, compared to rational-actor model (Boulesnane, & Bouzidi, 2013).

Hire-Jordan-Smith model for making decisions

I work for an organization known as Hire-Jordan Smith. At Hire-Jordan-Smith the model of making decisions used is an organizational process. The process is initiated by, the use of strategic management. Every level of organization of Hire-Jordan-Smith has a separate operations system, which is aimed at enhancing the integrity and improving communication. All operations systems have their assigned goals, which are used in the evaluation of performance (Boulesnane, & Bouzidi, 2013). At all operations systems within Hire-Jordan-Smith are managers along with supervisors. Using trust and integrity managers along with supervisors make crucial decisions within their assigned operations systems. One of the operation systems of Hire-Jordan-Smith is IT (Huang & Hutchinson, 2013).

Hire-Jordan-Smith supports its needs for business by having managers along with supervisors being responsible for differentiated operations systems in different ways.  First, there is efficiency in system functionality. Communication flows well while all systems are able to integrate. Secondly, knowledge processes can be traced. Division of work enables employees to specialize and gain experience hence becomes more productive (Boulesnane, & Bouzidi, 2013).

Thirdly, there is more satisfaction of stakeholders such as suppliers of Hire-Jordan-Smith products, customers, as well as, employees and team of management. Fourth, the cost incurred by Hire-Jordan-Smith is lower. The cost that would be expected to be incurred to train employees to work in all systems is reduced with specialization.

Moreover, Hire-Jordan-Smith gets a competitive advantage globally from the use of separate operations system. First, there is efficiency in the management of relationships held with customers. It is easier for Hire-Jordan-Smith to understand its customers’ behavior. Secondly, the chain of supply of Hire-Jordan-Smith is proficiently managed. Thirdly, Hire-Jordan-Smith keeps a portal system which helps in educating and communicating with employees and customers. Fourth, due to the sufficiency of information from both customers of Hire-Jordan-Smith and its employees, it becomes easy for the management team in collaboration with supervisors to make reliable and productive decisions.

Theories of organizational structures

There are a number of theories developed for vibrant organizational structures. Two among the theories are systems theory and contingency theory (Sun, & Jeyaraj, 2013). For most IT organizations, systems theory is used to describe how various parts or divisions within an organization are interrelated.  However, systems theory is also used to manage any form of change experienced by the organization (Cricelli, Grimaldi, & Hanandi, 2014).

In systems theory, any change experienced by one department of the organization leads to changes within other departments of the organization. Notably, different systems of IT organizations are not sometimes linearly integrated. Therefore, if one part experiences a small change, then another part may be affected by large changes (Cricelli, Grimaldi, & Hanandi, 2014). In most cases, IT organizations experience changes in equilibrium due to the adaptation of the organizations to changes in the environment.

On the other hand, IT organizations may choose to employ contingency theory to manage changes within the organization. Contingency theory mainly addresses effective management of conflicts experienced by an organization (Conaldi, Lomi, & Tonellato, 2012). Through the use of software, organizations are able to address issues raised by changes from the environment. Effective adaptation and change depend on management’s team ability to come up with contingent decisions when the organization is facing changes.

Vibrant Organizational structure of Hire-Jordan Smith

At Hire-Jordan-Smith, the structure of the organization is divided into eight parts. The first division is the general manager. Parts two and three are the first project manager, along with, the second project manager (Boulesnane, & Bouzidi, 2013). Part four refers to research and development team. Part five refers to the quality control team. Part six, on the other hand, is made up of the engineering team.

Part seven refers to the analysis team. The last part refers to the marketing team. Integration and cooperation of the eight teams lead to constant growth and profit generation of Hire-Jordan Smith. In a situation where changes are experienced in technology, two project managers are responsible for initiating projects to be used in developing up to date technology within Hire-Jordan Smith.

The general manager is responsible for approving any projects presented by either of the two project managers. The research and development team is mandated with carrying out informed and updated research on how to improve the existing technology of Hire-Jordan Smith. The quality control team checks whether the product presented for sale by the research team meets all the standards of Hire-Jordan Smith. After approval by the quality control team, the engineering team starts developing the proposed product (Boulesnane, & Bouzidi, 2013).

The analysis team then examines the product presented to them by the engineering team after development. One’s the product is analyzed fully, the marketing team introduces the product in the market, and pushes its sales through different methods of advertising.

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Connection between Models used in decision making and Vibrant Organizational structures

Models used in decision making have a close relationship with vibrant organizational structures. For instance, the organizational-process model is employed in investigating actions taken by the entire organization (van der Meer, Kurth-Nelson, & Redish, 2012). On the other hand, vibrant organizational structures are divided into different parts all aimed at achieving the same goal (Huang & Hutchinson, 2013). All parts, however, are given different roles. Notably, changes in an organization influence, the choice made for a model to be used in decision-making.

For instance, changes in the type of technology used in an organization may result in a change of choice of method to be used in decision-making by an organization, from a rational-actor model to an organizational-process model. Such a change may be necessary due to considerations made by the organizational-process model, on routine services carried out within an organization.

However, an appropriate combination of models used in decision making, with vibrant organizational structures positively impacts on an organization’s competitive advantage within the global market. Having an appropriate combination enables evaluation of the level of satisfaction for all stakeholders (Kuwashima, 2014). In addition, the functionality of the organization’s system is improved with a high reduction of cost.

For instance, at Hire-Jordan Smith, the structure of the organization is divided into eight parts. All the eight parts have different roles but rely on each other. The model used by Hire-Jordan-Smith is in most cases, the organizational-process model (Kuwashima, 2014). Whenever Hire-Jordan-Smith wants to launch any product or software an analysis of all the parts and the roles they will be involved in is made. Consequently, costs of production are reduced and communication improved, which boosts sales of any newly introduced Hire-Jordan-Smith product.


Through an examination of a rational-actor model, and the organizational-process model, this essay has shown that a rational-actor model explains decisions made by organizations, while the organizational-process model examines all process that is run within an organization. To analyze the process of making decisions the paper has looked at the case of Hire-Jordan Smith. It has come out clearly that, the models used in decision making are closely related to vibrant organizational structures. They both define connections maintained within organizations as they run their activities.


Boulesnane, S. & Bouzidi, L. (2013). The mediating role of information technology in the decision‐making context. Journal Of Ent Info Management, 26(4), 387-399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/jeim-01-2012-0001

Cricelli, L., Grimaldi, M., & Hanandi, M. (2014). Decision making in choosing information systems. VINE, 44(2), 162-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/vine-04-2013-0022

Conaldi, G., Lomi, A., & Tonellato, M. (2012). Dynamic Models of Affiliation and the Network Structure of Problem Solving in an Open Source Software Project. Organizational Research Methods, 15(3), 385-412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1094428111430541       

Courtney, M. (2013). When worlds combine [information technology]. Engineering & Technology, 8(5), 80-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/et.2013.0513

Huang, Y. & Hutchinson, J. (2013). The roles of planning, learning, and mental models in repeated dynamic decision making. Organizational Behavior And Human Decision Processes, 122(2), 163-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2013.07.001

Kuwashima, K. (2014). How to Use Models of Organizational Decision Making?. ABAS, 13(4), 215-230. http://dx.doi.org/10.7880/abas.13.215

Sun, Y. & Jeyaraj, A. (2013). Information technology adoption and continuance: A longitudinal study of individuals’ behavioral intentions. Information & Management, 50(7), 457-465. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2013.07.005

Van der Meer, M., Kurth-Nelson, Z., & Redish, A. (2012). Information Processing in Decision-Making Systems. The Neuroscientist, 18(4), 342-359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073858411435128

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Alphabet Inc Leadership Model and Organizational Structure

Alphabet Inc Leadership Model and Organizational Structure
Alphabet Inc Leadership Model and Organizational Structure

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Leadership Model and Organizational Structure

Background Information

Organizations today have recognized that their success and competitive nature relies on the need to heavily depend on information technology (IT) in enhancing their management practices. This has resulted in a demand for qualified IT leaders and professionals who have the capacity to increase the performance of an organization; an aspect that confronts the element of boundary spanning that requires the collaborative efforts of different users in ensuring the success of projects.

Alphabet Inc is one of the multinational conglomerates in America that was founded in October 2015. The company is an affiliate of Google among several other entities that bases its portfolio on life sciences, technology, research, and investment capital (Eshaq et.al. 2015).

Alphabet Inc Leadership Model and Organizational Structure

Alphabet Inc has a cross-functional organizational structure that uses the element of function as an approach in grouping its employees. The company has a developed engineering and design team, sales operators, and project management teams.

On the other hand, Alphabet also uses products as a form of grouping its employees and achieves this by grouping its employees in developing Nexus products and devices (Eshaq et.al.2015). Lastly, the employees of the organization are also grouped on the bases of its fiber business, an aspect that depicts the flatness of the company’s structure. This clearly indicates that the employees, groups and teams of this company have the capacity to bypass the management team and directly report to the CEO.

Alphabet’s structure is developed to prosper through its strong leadership systems that give its management independence in conducting the functions of the organization (Vaccaro, et.al.2012). Generally, the company’s model is based on an approach that gives the CIO an opportunity to run the business of the company. The CEO is assisted by manager’s who are tasked with handling the company’s capital allocations. They also ensure that the business functions of the organization are executed.

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Comparison and Contrast of Two Leadership Theories

The transactional leadership approach as employed in Alphabet Inc is a style that primarily maintains a normal flow of functions within an organization. Transactional leaders within this organization keep shifts afloat by incorporating disciplinary powers and incentives in an approach aimed at motivating employees to achieve their goals.

Alternatively, the transformational leadership approach incorporates approaches aimed at crafting strategies directed towards improving the performance and success levels of an organization, an aspect that draws its strength from collaboration, motivation and team-building within employees (Vaccaro, et.al.2012). It is imperative to acknowledge that both the transactional and transformational leadership styles ensure that leaders set their goals and motivational approaches aimed at ensuring subordinates achieve their goals while ensuring that opportunities are available in advancing their personal growth.

On the other hand, transactional leaders are not driven towards guiding an organization to a market position of leadership since the leaders are primarily focused on ensuring an organization flows in a smooth way daily (Zhiqiang Liu, et.al.2012). However, transformational leaders apply the element of charisma as an approach of inspiring their subordinates to achieve goals. This aspect is inspired by the inclusion of ideals, values, and morals in the process.

Table 1: Transaction and transformational leadership styles

 Transformational LeadershipTransactional Leadership
1Encourages change and thinking outside the boxWorks to maintain things the same, tends to avoid change
2Private and public acknowledgment of accomplishments – higher-level needsPunishments and rewards – low-level needs
3Concerned with ideas over processesConcerned with processes over ideas
4Delegates tasks for members to act in small groupings or independentlyMicro-manages teams to make sure that the set standards are attained
5Inspires followersDoes not inspire followers. Improves productivity

It is essential to establish that these two leadership theories are applicable to IT management leadership since transactional leaders have the capacity to address small operational details efficiently. In this case, it is essential to ascertain that transactional leaders build strong reputations within a marketplace through their efforts of ensuring the employees are productive (Zhiqiang Liu, et.al.2012).

However, a transformational leadership approach remains effective in IT management since it aids an organization to achieve its goals through a well-developed strategy that incorporates the element of team-building within the functions of an organization.

Leadership Theory Used In Alphabet Inc

Alphabet Inc believes in the transactional leadership model, an aspect that results in its leaders basing their style on transactions with their subjects. In this case, the leaders of this organization view their human relations as transactions, and thus rewards, reciprocates, and punishes their subjects as a basis of this approach (Norshima&Vimala, 2015). This approach gives the leaders of this organization an opportunity to emphasize on the importance of meeting their short-term goals. The employees are consequently required to adhere to the procedures and standards that are set by the organization.

In addition to this, the leaders of Alphabet invest in efforts aimed at enhancing the employee’s creativity, an aspect that has enabled the organization to improve its productivity and cut its costs. This leadership model is evident in the company’s functions since it makes its followers empowered, satisfied, and self-motivated in achieving their goals more than what is contained in their job descriptions (Norshima&Vimala, 2015).

Comparison and Contrast of Two Organizational Structure Models

The organizational structure of Alphabet Inc influences the manner in which the company conducts its functions. In accordance to how the company is organized, the organization incorporates the functional and product structure in order to meet its goals. In this case, it is essential to establish that an organization that is developed around a functional structure delivers its tasks based on the aligned skills and training of team’s and employee’s (Clegg, Kornberger, Pitsis, 2011).  This structure remains simple to explain to employees, customers, and suppliers while incorporating effective approaches of communication and problem solving since knowledge is identified and shared.

Figure 2: Functional Organizational Structure

In comparison to the product structure model, companies are attracted by responsive changes that occur as a result of the new trends in technology. This aspect enables such organizations to group employees and groups on the basis of skills and expertise, and is additionally supported by infrastructures within a unit.

On the other hand, the functional structure helps in the development of leaders and functional leaders, superiors, and peers that can be accessed within the functions of an organization (Clegg, et.al.2011). In contrast to this, the product structure ensures that the aspect of skill expansion and diversification can be incorporated within an organization. However, this model has the capacity to initiate unnecessary competitions internally between particular product groups and business units, an aspect that may be detrimental to the functions of an organization, and an aspect that may inhibit a negative implication in the IT industry.

Figure 3: Product Organizational Structure

Alphabets organizational structure allows the interaction between employees and their leaders, an aspect that makes them feel free to share their opinions and ideas. Innovation remains the centre piece of Alphabet Inc, thus requiring every employee to contribute innovative ideologies towards the development of the company (Clegg, et.al.2011).  In this case, the company is structured in a manner that supports the element of excellence and innovation through an approach that enables the employees to share their capabilities and ideas within the organization.

Organizational Structure Model used in Alphabet Inc.

Alphabet Inc is developed on the foundations of a simple organizational structure that is comprised of hierarchical functions consisting of executive leaders who have the capacity to delegate authority and responsibilities down to the leaders within the organization (Strese, et.al. 2016). This approach is effectively implemented in the company and allows the founders of the organization (Google) to direct its operations to the leadership of the organization in regulating the manner in which the organization operates.

This approach ensures the initiation of tight compliance approaches that requires the leaders within the organization to adhere to procedures and policies. The structure remains effective in Alphabet since it coordinates activities through its line of authority and slowly reacts of external factors since information travels up the chain of command in the organization and instructions are expected to travel back down (Strese, et.al.2016). This critically impacts the manner in which decisions are processes and the application of an efficient leadership style that matches the structure of the company.

The Relationship between Leadership Style and Organizational Structure

Alphabet Inc builds its competitive advantage is critically seen in its approach to enhance and enlarge its functions through the company’s organizational structure.  In this case, it is important to note that Alphabets IT governance changes require that the company makes its decisions to organize its processes and efficiently define its organizational culture (Strese, et.al.2016).

The leadership style of Alphabet Inc influences the culture of the organization as detailed in its vision. On the other hand, the leadership element shapes the manner in which values and morals are instilled within the organization that defines the manner in which employees conduct themselves.Decisions within the company are made by the leaders who make consultations from teams, an aspect that is evident in the top down system in which decisions are made by the senior management and the implemented down (Strese, et.al.2016).

For instance, when the company undergoes some management problems, the leaders within the organization conduit a solution to such a problem and additionally acts as adapters to these factors. Once the decisions are arrived at, the company dispenses the solution to the bottom leaders who are expected to implement these solutions within the organization.


Clegg, S., Kornberger, M., Pitsis, T. (2011).Managing & Organizations: An Introduction to the Theory & Practice, 3rd Edition, London: Sage Publications Ltd Cunliffe. Retrived From: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=3985839&site=ehost-live

Eshaq M. Al Shaar, Shadi Ahmed Khattab, RaedNaserAlkaied, &Abdelkareem Q. Manna (2015). The Effect of Top Management Support on Innovation: the Mediating Role of Synergy between Organizational Structure and Information Technology. Leadership Quarterly.Retrived From:www.irmbrjournal.com

NorshimaHumaidi&VimalaBalakrishnan (2015): Leadership Styles and Information Security Compliance Behavior: The Mediator Effect of Information Security Awareness. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, Vol. 5, No. 4, April 2015

Strese, S., Meuer, M. W., Flatten, T. C., &Brettel, M. (2016). Organizational antecedents of cross-functional coopetition: The impact of leadership and organizational structure on cross-functional coopetition. Industrial Marketing Management, 5342-55. doi:10.1016/j.indmarman.2015.11.006. Retrived From: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=112743859&site=ehost-live

Vaccaro, I.G., Jansen, J.P., Van Den Bosch, F.A. J., and Volberda, H.W.(2012). Management innovationand leadership: the moderating role of organizational size. Journal of Management Studies, 49(1), 28-67

Zhiqiang Liu, ZhenyaoCai, Ji Li, Shengping Shi &Yongqing Fang (2012): Leadership style and employee turnover intentions: a social identity perspective. Retrived From: www.emeraldinsight.com/1362-0436.htm

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How Organizational Structures Support or Impede Innovation

Organizational Structures
Organizational Structures

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How Organizational Structures Support or Impede Innovation

Organizational structures acts as the main guideline of how to run activities like supervision, coordination and task allocation. Also, it defines the flow of information in diverse levels of management (Swan, 2007, P. 177). On the other hand, innovation entails changing the organization’s processes or coming up with new ideas to improve the company’s performance.

Therefore, for change to take place, the organizational structures should be active to avoid confusion. Moreover, the management should have a positive attitude to embrace changes which occur as a result of the transformation process. Innovation depends on the employee’s flexibility, adequate information and communication systems and proper project management.

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For change to be effective, people should have knowledge about various matters. According to the epistemology of possession, knowledge is a personal property of an individual, who interprets the meaning of data according to perceptions, experiences, and previous understanding. Various people with different past experiences are likely to draw different conclusions from the same information. Since knowledge is based on an person, what individuals agree on as true is driven by those in power since their justifications often have a lot of weight.

For instance, in western medicine, clinicians who claim about the best treatments, basing their knowledge on scientific research override the competing claims which come from less powerful groups applying alternate therapies (Newell et al., 2009, P. 15). The sales persons can use support innovation by sharing ideas from customers because they are in a position to understand the customers’ needs. These thoughts help the organization to come up with better products to suit the market’s needs.

Additionally, the firm tries hard to maintain a fairly flat organizational structures to avoid many rules and regulations. Moreover, the firm did not have a human resource department, and would employ its workers formally through the word of mouth. These features help in recruiting the most competent workers because recruitment considers a person’s ability to apply his knowledge in diverse areas. Moreover, the organization ensures that there are adequate resources for implementing in all technologies to facilitate project implementation.

Organizations use ICT to carry out knowledge work. However, the human agency, physical properties of some ICTs and institution within which the people make their work influence the effect of ICT on education. Research shows that technology determines the type of organizational structure.

The organizational structures have the ability to support or impede innovation in some ways. Change starts with the management of awareness that different people possess. If workers conduct the improvements appropriately, people will learn to embrace and apply the change correctly (Camison & Villar-Lopez,204, P. 100).


Camisón, C. and Villar-López, A., 2014. Organizational innovation as an enabler of technological innovation capabilities and firm performance. Journal of Business Research, 67(1), pp.2891-2902.

Swan, J., 2007. Managing knowledge for innovation. In Rethinking knowledge management (pp. 147-169). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

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Corporate Culture for Remote Workers

Corporate Culture for Remote Workers
Corporate Culture for Remote Workers

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Corporate Culture for Remote Workers


The global “workplace,” has resulted in a convergence of cultures that are diverse and integrate individuals from diverse backgrounds. However, even with diverse backgrounds, individuals should be able to integrate into teams so that there is a successful achievement of the organization’s objectives. According to Guiso, Sapienza and Zingales (2015), the leaders of corporate organizations have the responsibility of maintaining governance and a required corporate culture so as to achieve their objectives and profitability.

The employees are the representatives of an organization in their daily work and actions outside the organization. The image that the employees portray should be a reflection of the values and objectives of the organization.

Clients and other stakeholders should feel that the employees of the organization are committed to achieving the set goals and intended image that they would inspire them to work with the company. Before an organization establishes a corporate culture, it should ensure that its leaders are ethical and believe in the values of the organization. Leaders that believe in the objectives and mission of the company can easily pass those values to employees.

In addition to being motivated to remain ethical in their leadership practices, the senior managers and executives should possess integrity as one of their characters. When the leaders’ possess integrity, employees are likely to be motivated to follow their guidance and vision. Leaders with integrity are also likely to earn the required respect of the employees in the organization.

Importance of Corporate Culture

Organizations also have unique personalities that separate them from their competitors and other firms. Parameters such as procedures, policies, hierarchies, leadership styles, habits and shared values of the employees and stakeholders form the corporate culture of an organization.Usually, sales levels, financial performance, and planning, the corporate culture of a firm should be deliberately planned for, cultivated, and nurtured. The corporate culture acts as a factor in attracting clients and business partners for an organization.

The culture shows the “outside world” the values that are important for the organization, and therefore adhered to in attaining objectives and conducting business.The board of directors usually focus on controlling the spending of a firm so that shareholders get as much of their wealth maximized as possible. The board also focuses on the growth of the company in terms of revenue and market share.

A corporate culture cannot be monetized, but it contributes to the profitability or lack of it, to a company. Therefore, the corporate culture of an organization should be monitored regularly, and changed to fit the dynamics of the industry and technology. Corporate cultures have an impact on the employees that companies attract and retain, as well as the commodities, or services offered, and revenue earned.

Companies that take pride in, and promote their corporate cultures are attractive to their current and potential employees. The clients of such organizations also want to associate with the organizations because they want to find out more information on what makes the organizations tick and pursue their objectives and mission in delivering commodities or services to their clients.

Companies that have healthy corporate cultures are able to retain employees for a long duration. The employees also have a positive attitude in light of the company, which in turn goes to the creation of a desirable team spirit. If organizations have to hire new staff members, they would spend highly on recruiting and training which would cut back on the firms’ funds, time and manpower hours. Organizations should therefore target the cultivation of a healthy corporate culture so that they retain their current employees.

Healthy corporate cultures allow organizations to charge high values for the commodities they produce or services offered to clients. The corporate culture possessed by an organization acts as a reputation that precedes the organization in the market. A company that has a healthy corporate culture is aware of the high quality production of its commodities or services that they have to deliver. The corporate culture guides the employees to be aware of the qualities and standards that they should uphold in delivering what is expected to their customers. Therefore, they have to meet the set baseline so that clients can be satisfied, and guiding principles upheld.

A corporate culture also results in the maintenance of high productivity among the workforce. The employees have a high morale which directly impacts their productivity in a positive tone. The productivity in turn results in a positive impact on the financial health of the organization. Therefore, there is a positive circle of production and healthy corporate culture maintenance.

The foundation of success that is established through a positive and healthy corporate culture results in placing of the company highly in comparison to its competitors. The corporate culture can result in positive growth for all the organization’s departments, and hinder complacency. Individuals’ characters and personalities cannot be changed wholly, but their attitude and behaviour can be guided through the establishment and maintenance of a positive corporate culture. This research paper will cover how remotely working employees can be included in the corporate culture of an organization.

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Remote working is expected to grow in the coming years based on the increase in the level of cost cutting being conducted by organizations. A large number of companies are increasing outsourcing, or employing a higher number of employees remotely. The employees can either be on temporary or a permanent basis of employment. Remote employees are usually on the usual payroll just like normal employees that report to the office on a daily basis. Most individuals confuse remote employees with freelancers, virtual or outsourced personnel.

The only difference between employees that report physically to the office and remote employees is that the latter work from home. Complacency can fall into the schedule of remote employees if they feel like they are not getting the required feedback. The employees do not get daily feedback as opposed to employees that would be working on a cubicle in the office, and constantly in touch with their bosses or colleagues (Gareri, 2013: 1). The management should spell out the corporate culture that they expect from their employees, and constantly monitor and evaluate the level of cooperation, if any, given by the remote employees.

Through the quality, consistent and constant nature of the feedback given by the employees, the management would know whether the corporate culture was effective, or if it would have to be adjusted to fit the remote employees. Parameters such as communication, promptness in submission of work and adhering to deadlines would be determined by the corporate culture. The social media profiles of employees that work at the organization might fall into the spectrum of the organization’s corporate culture. Some business partners are sensitive about the image that is portrayed by organizations and their employees on social media.

Such organizations feel that the employees and executives of an organization are a reflection of the image and values of the organization. Therefore, the image that is portrayed on platforms such as social media would contribute to their value and image as well; through association and conducting business together. The remote employees should get clear communication on whether the corporate culture falls into the extremes of observing certain guidelines and rules in their work, or which side they lean towards.

The current generation of millennial individuals has grown up using technology for entertainment purposes, and doing their assignments. Previous generations had to go to the library and physically interact with their colleagues through discussion groups. Currently, millennial learners can attend online classes and graduate, without having met any of their colleagues. Therefore, there is a high proportion of the current generation of individuals that would prefer working remotely; away from the office.

According to Besner (2014: 1), remote employees should be guided on the level of feedback and acknowledgement between them, and their supervisors and colleagues. Consistent communication is required so as to ensure that there is progress and the work done complies with the required guidelines and standards. The remote employees should also be included and guided on the manner in which the processes of the organization should take place.

All departments in organizations have processes that should be adhered to, so that required tasks are accomplished within stipulated durations. Employees that report to physical offices usually have a timeline within which they report and finish all their assigned tasks. This timelines should also be established and communicated to the remote employees so that misunderstandings do not arise.

The turnaround on projects and workload should have stipulated submission deadlines. Even though the remoteemployees are away from the office, they should still maintain deadlines so that no individuals or departments are inconvenienced. Remote working employees might feel neglected if they are not included in the corporate culture.

 Most corporate organizations have serious corporate cultures that guide the behaviour of employees and stakeholders. The different departments in the organization should come up with guidelines that would clarify the manner in which their employees should act. There should be specifications about the manner in which remote working employees are expected to act in accordance to their tasks and organization mission and vision achievement.

The departments would also be expected to specify the durations during which the employees would be expected to report in the office for different events such as critical meetings, team building, and office parties. Therefore, the employees would still get some physical contact with some of their colleagues, and seek redress of any issues that they would be facing in relation to their remote working.

The remote employees should also be informed of any team building exercises and the timelines within which they would be required to attend. The team building exercises are usually meant to strengthen colleagues’ working relationships and therefore form strong teams. The remote employees should especially not miss attending the team building meetings because they would contribute to interacting with employees in the different departments.

The remote employees and those that work in the office might only have had interactions through online communications such as video chats and emails. The physical meeting can strengthen their team work and therefore contribute to higher productivity.

The remote employees should also physically attend some of the meetings that are held by departments or the organization as a whole. The meetings usually serve as a platform where the management communicates the continued objectives, mission, and values that make the organization unique and give it a competitive position.

Employees require awareness of these values, so that all their personal achievements as related to their work, reflects those values. The department heads could also interact with the remote working employees during such meetings and encourage them to align their personal goals to those of the organization.

Research question

How can remote working employees be included in the corporate culture?


To find out if employees would be willing to work from anywhere in the world

To find out how an organization can promote a sense of solidarity for a remote workforce.

To find out how can productivity be increased in the organization?

Primary research method

The research utilized interviews for research into the effect of a physical environment on corporate culture. The organization that was focused on is Elastic Recruitment Agency. The company recruits individuals from broad professionals for their clients. The company also hires a high number of professionals that work remotely. The number might increase with the trend in the workforce for organizations to cut back on costs for offices and health insurance based on the type of employment offered to employees (permanent or part time).

A contact employee in the human resources department, assisted in the distribution of the questions to the company’s employees who work remotely. The online questionnaires will be forwarded to the employees who work remotely, and requests made to fill in and return them within the week so that the results are compiled, analyzed and included in the research report by the second week.

The contact person was critical in introducing the questionnaires to the organization’s remote working employees. The employees of an organization are likely to be more cooperative in participating in a research study if it is “okayed” by a colleague. The contact person felt that the survey results would be useful in the field and would also contribute to guiding of business partners and clients in the near future.


Besner, G. 2015, Why Company Culture is more Important than Ever. Entrepreneur.


Gareri T, 2013, Roma Moulding: Why Company Culture is so Important. http://www.romamoulding.com/why-company-culture-is-so-important/

Guiso, L., Sapienza, P. &Zingales, L. 2015.The Value of Corporate Culture. NBER Conference on the Causes and Consequences of Corporate Culture, Journal of Financial Economics July 2015 117(1):60-76.

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Management style

Management style
Management style

Management style

A consideration of telecommuting from the perspective of managerial decisions means that, a lateral direction model of managerial decisions has to be adopted whereby the manager has to engage employees outside an organizational work place that is centralized (Sardeshmukh, Sharma & Golden, 2012). According to Matthews & Williams (2012), the management style has to change from classical management styles to Laissez-faire management style where most of employees work by telecommuting.

In this style of management, employees are motivated to work independently and allowed to nurture their creativity by getting a chance for their ideas to flourish. The management should then provide guidance when need and facilitate brainstorming in decision-making, which makes the manager to seem more of a mentor instead of a leader (Matthews & Williams, 2012). This makes it difficult to accomplish common objectives, which require frequent meetings to exchange ideas due to lack of trust and teamwork originating from the lack of frequent face-to-face contact (Sardeshmukh et al., 2012).

In this style, management takes a hands-off approach to leadership.

Staff is trusted to do their work without supervision, and they are left to control their decision making and problem-solving.

Management is present at the delegation and delivery stages of work, but otherwise steps back and gives staff the freedom to control their workflow and outcomes. Management is only involved during the process if the staff requests their assistance.


Matthews, H. S. & Williams, E. (2012). Telework Adoption and Energy Use in Building and Transport Sectors in the United States and Japan. Journal of Infrastructural Systems, 11(1), 21-30. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1076-0342(2005)11:1(21)

Sardeshmukh, S. R., Sharma, D., & Golden, T. (2012). Impact of Telework on exhaustion and job engagement: A job demands and resources model. New Technology, Work and Employment, 27(3), 193-207. doi:10.1111/j.1468-005X.2012.00284.x

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Operations Management: Case Analysis of Hilton Hotel UK

Operations Management
Operations Management

Operations Management

Case Analysis: Hilton Hotel UK


This paper intends to discuss operations management. Operations management is a term used to describe the supervision and organization of business practice as a way of creating a high level of efficiency in an organization (Brandon-Jones, Slack, Chambers, Johnston, and others 2016, p.8). 

Furthermore, operations management is also concerned with the conversion of materials along with labor into profitable goods and services for an organization (Hodari, and Sturman 2014, p. 434). Notably, in order to effectively discuss operations management, the paper will consider Hilton Hotel UK.

Task 1

General Model of Operations

The paper will look at the concern of Hilton Hotel UK towards the environment, how it retains and empowers employees, and how it addresses the needs of society. Moreover, the paper will also look at the relationship of Hilton Hotel UK with its suppliers, and the relationship and responsibility of Hilton Hotel UK towards investors.

In addition, the paper will also pay special attention to customers by analyzing the quality of products offered to customers by Hilton Hotel UK and assessing whether the products ensure customers receive the value for the price they pay for products. Furthermore, the paper will analyze if the management of the business addresses the needs of owners.

Task II

Operations Strategy

            Service Operations Concept

At Hilton Hotel UK, customers are allowed to make on line reservations through a website for Hilton Hotels http://www.hilton.com/en/hi/customersupport/index.jhtml that offers customer support (Bohdanowicz, Zientara, and Novotna 2011, p.797). However, Hilton Hotel UK also provides the option of making a reservation for a room, from a Hilton Hotel UK office desk, where customers present themselves physically.

Notably, when customers are already at Hilton Hotel UK, they are served with special meals from the restaurant section of the hotel, a children’s menu and beverages from the bar section (Gerritzen 2014). In addition, Hilton Hotel UK also provides a fitness center for its customers, as it aims at giving customers a homely feeling when they are far from home.

As customers check out from Hilton Hotel UK, lounge services are provided by the hotel to enhance on comfort to customers (Chen, Wang, and Chu 2011, p.213). Furthermore, Hilton Hotel UK also offers luggage hold, baggage storage and delivery services to its customers as they check from the hotel (Chon, and Yu, 2012).

Competitive Objectives Spider Diagram

In terms of competitive objectives, Hilton Hotel UK focus on increasing the efficiency of its services through increasing online platforms for service delivery, which impacts on the speed and efficiency of service delivery and also interconnecting of Hilton Hotels branches. Moreover, Hilton Hotel UK also observes the quality of services it offers.

For instance, the hotel provides a separate menu for children meals to make a visiting whole family comfortable (Boone, Veller, Nikolaeva, Keith, Kefgen, and Houran 2013, p.230). In addition, Hilton Hotel UK also observes the value of being dependable. For instance, the hotel offers services of foreign exchange to its customers.

Furthermore, Hilton Hotel UK observes flexibility in service delivery through attending to different types of customers with different needs, such as business men, families, and customers seeking comfort. The cost charged for getting services from Hilton Hotel UK depends on the services a customer requires. Therefore, there are a number of variations in costs charged to clients. For instance a client who requires Wi-Fi services will be charged more.

The four V’s Diagram

Hilton Hotel UK is a branch of a hotel that is believed to be the fifth largest globally. Therefore, Hilton Hotel UK is believed to serve a volume of more than 10 million customers every year (Brookes, and Roper 2012, p.580). Moreover, Hilton Hotel UK offers a variety of services, including recreational services, fitness services, comfort, relaxation and luxury services, along with business convenience services.

Therefore, Hilton Hotel UK enjoys variability in demand from customers who want to conduct business, customers who want to travel but still keep up with their routine for fitness, and also customers who want to enjoy quality family time Boone, Veller, Nikolaeva, Keith, Kefgen, and Houran 2013, p.230). Hilton Hotel UK also has visibility to end user, where its website is restrictive to only people who can form legal binding contracts (Alon, Ni, and Wang 2012, p.379). Moreover, the website also gives restrictions on the materials to be used by the website visitors.

Task III

Focused Analysis

Product/Service and Process Design: Hilton Hotel UK provides a number of products for its customers. However, the products are divided into various categories depending on the target group and requirements of the target group. The diagram below summarizes the two main target groups for Hilton Hotel UK, the products category of the products offered to the two main groups and their process.

Convenience to Business Men: Notably, Hilton Hotel UK offers business men with an appropriate environment for doing both their money generating activities, and their relaxation activities. First, Hilton Hotel UK provides rental services to business men for audio equipment and visual equipment (Brookes, and Roper 2012, p.580).

Therefore, business men can be able to conduct their meetings from Hilton Hotel UK. Secondly, Hilton Hotel UK has a special business center. Within the special business center, Hilton Hotel UK allows business men to have business phone services. Therefore, business men can still coordinate and control their firms and companies back at home, from Hilton Hotel UK.

 In addition, Hilton Hotel UK also provides and arranges for courier services to business men utilizing their services. Thus, business men cannot complain of their business reports, and personal messages not getting to them on time. Consequently, business men are able to have regular monitoring of their businesses even when they are physically available in their home offices (Eva M Smith 2015).

In case a business man wants to record a message through speech, which the business man intends to use later or on another day for transcription, then Hilton Hotel UK has a Dictaphone for attending to such a business man’s needs.  In another scenario, a business man may want to telephonically transmit materials that have been printed and scanned to his company back at home. To address such a need, Hilton Hotel UK has an available fax machine, which has been set aside for use by business men staying in Hilton Hotel UK rooms (Gerritzen 2014).

Markedly, Hilton Hotel UK has been receiving customers from around the world, who converge at Hilton Hotel UK with a sole aim of conducting a meeting, or a series of meetings. Therefore, Hilton Hotel UK has addressed the need by its clients by constructing and reserving a number of rooms as meeting rooms. Moreover, when a meeting is held, all members available in the meeting are issued with flyers, programs and agendas for the meeting to be held on that day. T

hus, Hilton Hotel UK identified that their customers require photo copying services, hence started providing business men with the service (Hanioglu, and Arditi 2013, p.370). In addition, Hilton Hotel UK also has a printer set aside for providing printing services to business men, who are utilizing services of Hilton Hotel UK. 

Outstandingly, Hilton Hotel UK is an international hotel therefore the customers seeking the services of Hilton Hotel UK are from different social classes in society. In several cases customers may be high profile personalities, and people holding influential positions in their companies (Tufts 2014, p.52).

Therefore, the work load mandated to such personalities is huge, which then implies that such people require assistance. Thus, Hilton Hotel UK has attended to this need by providing secretarial service. Hilton Hotel UK also identifies that some of its customers work through team work. Hence, there is need for communication between the business men and their home offices.

Thus, Hilton Hotel UK provides the service of video conferencing (Petrović, Jovičić, Marković, and Gagić 2013, p.76). Moreover, some business men value communicating with people when they can see their faces, thus Hilton Hotel UK has a video phone to cater for the need. In addition, most business men require the internet to efficiently conduct their business therefore Hilton Hotel UK has Wi-Fi available in the rooms.

Comfort and Luxury to Business Men: Hilton Hotel UK attends to the comfort needs of business men by providing exchange services for foreign currency, staff members that communicate in different languages, a deposit box for safety and also baggage storage (Ransley, and Ingram 2012). Moreover, Hilton Hotel UK also offers an executive lounge that business men can hire, gives laundry services, room services, elevators for getting to the private rooms, and also allows for visitors (Henderson 2013, p.452).

Comfort and Luxury to families: Hilton Hotel UK identifies that a large number of its customers are families who intend to get a special experience away from home together. Therefore, Hilton Hotel UK has a number of plans in its delivery of services that suit families perfectly. Among the plans is providing two menus. One of the menus is a children’s menu while the other one is an adults menu (Hoefakker 2014). 

The reason for having two menus is to ensure that, the family gets as much comfort as possible, while at the same time living a healthy lifestyle. In order, to comfortably fit and spend time together, Hilton Hotel UK provides cribs to accommodate families. In the cribs there are high chairs that add on to the comfort and uniqueness of the stay at Hilton Hotel UK (Jung, Ineson, and Green 2013, p.394).

In addition, Hilton Hotel UK offers families with tours, which are meant for sightseeing. Such tours impact on the feelings of family members, make them have a more close relationship and also turn the stay at Hilton Hotel UK to be a memorable one for the family (Kim, Palakurthi, and Hancer 2012, p.198). At Hilton Hotel UK, the management identifies that for any family, health is the number one priority. Therefore, all family members require achieving fitness for their bodies.

Thus, Hilton Hotel UK attends to the need by family members through providing a fitness room. Additionally, bathroom and bedroom doors are built with enough entrance space of 32 inches (Niewiadomski 2015, p.178). The aim of concentrating on the size of bedroom and bathroom doors is to make people feel at home despite their sizes, since some are plus sized, while others are slim and others medium sized.

Task IV


From the analysis of Hilton Hotel UK, it is evident that a number of areas need improvement. First, Hilton Hotel UK charges extreme high prices for clients using Wi-Fi services at the hotel. This problem is attributed to using Swisscom as their internet provider. Swisscom is globally known as unstable and outdated. The offering given by Swisscom is very complex while its reliability is extremely low. Moreover, customers are given restrictions on the number of megabytes that they can download (Jung, Ineson, and Green 2013, p.395).

Consequently, a customer is forced to purchase a number of vouchers if they intend to do video streaming. In addition, the network provided by Swisscom has regular changes occurring to the bandwidth, along with the speed of surfing. In some cases changes in speed of surfing may turn from great into poor and later to disconnect (Lee 2013, p.35). It is therefore recommended that Hilton Hotel UK makes changes to their internet network.

Moreover, it is also worth noting that, at Hilton Hotel UK phone reception may be a problem in some cases. This is due to poor network at the hotel rooms, since there are no signal boosters or stable routers for surfing network. Therefore, customers who work from indoors are inconvenienced and forced to seek better network connections in nearby areas such as malls and shops (Kim, Palakurthi, and Hancer 2012, p.198).

Furthermore, Hilton Hotel UK charges exaggerated prices for drinks taken from the Hotel’s mini-bars (Kasim, Gursoy, Okumus, and Wong 2014, p.1092). For instance, a bottle of Coke with a capacity of 0.2L is sold at 4.5 Euros, which further implies that if one is interested in buying a whole liter of Coke then he/she will be expected to part with 22.5 Euros. Notably, 22.5 Euros are further expensive compared to the prices charged for a wine bottle in Hilton Hotel UK (Chen, Wang, and Chu 2011, p.213).  

Additionally, though the bathrooms of Hilton Hotel UK are ok, it would be expected that the shower would be separate. However, that is not the case. It therefore becomes even more irritating that the shower is separated by a curtain. Hence, when a customer is in the bathtub, they might regularly feel the touch of the curtain on their skin (Kasim, Gursoy, Okumus, and Wong 2014, p.1098).

Management of allocation of rooms at Hilton Hotel UK is another important thing to review. Notably, customers who pay for rooms online have a higher likelihood of getting rooms that are lower in value that what they have paid for. Evidently a number of customers who paid online to book for rooms at Hilton Hotel UK have complained on the Hotel’s website. This is brought about by poor management of online platforms (Hodari, and Sturman 2014, p. 445).

In addition, since Hilton Hotel UK is located in a very busy place, it would be recommendable to provide cab services to customers. Cab services from Hilton Hotel UK would help in reducing the inconveniences Hilton Hotel UK customers undergo when trying to check in to Hilton Hotel UK or to check out of Hilton Hotel UK (Tufts 2014, p.52).

Furthermore, in order to improve on the convenience of customers travelling around UK it is important for Hilton Hotel UK to review the interconnection and interrelation policies of all Hilton Hotels UK, to enable customers move from one branch to another, by being allocated rooms of the same value they have paid for.

Hilton Hotel UK should also focus on holding regularly, team building activities for their employees and also increase the motivational activities held for employees. This is in a bid to improve on customer attendance services. Notably, when employees are in a good mood, and love their work, then they are likely going to offer high level services to customers, show concern and even try to form friendly relationships with customers (Kim, Palakurthi, and Hancer 2012, p.200).

For security of customers’ belongings, though Hilton Hotel UK offers a safety deposit box, it would be recommendable to construct large safes inside customers’ rooms, which can fit a laptop in. The safe should also be protected by electric cables.

Notably, Hilton Hotel UK uses key cards for getting access to the rooms. Sadly, key cards are known to have a tendency of getting mysteriously deactivated (Ransley, and Ingram 2012). Deactivation can be attributed to proximity of the key card to a customer’s mobile phone, but also it can be attributed to having misunderstandings over the time the customer is expected to check out from the room. Therefore, one issue that needs attending by Hilton Hotel UK is the efficiency of operation of key cards in accessing rooms.

Citing the need for controlling the temperatures of rooms at Hilton Hotel UK, the hotel has a system for climate control. Though the system works in a favorable way, it is recommendable for Hilton Hotel UK to upgrade the system into a system that produces minimal or no noise at all. Moreover, Hilton Hotel UK should consider issuing customers with earplugs when they issue toiletries (Henderson 2013, p.452).

The need for earplugs is to deal annoyance on customers when they have noisy neighbors or when there is construction going on. In addition, it is also important to construct hotel rooms with windows that all customers can comfortably reach and open when they feel the need for fresh air. Mostly, the hotel rooms at Hilton Hotel UK have raised windows that a majority of customers can barely reach to open (Gerritzen 2014). It would be important for Hilton Hotel UK management to address this issue when renovating the rooms.

Most customers of Hilton Hotel UK complain on the website of Hilton Hotel about the position of power outlets. In most rooms customers are expected to bend below the desk and plug in whatever they want to charge. It would be a thoughtful idea to move the power outlets to desk level or have power outlets stuck on the nightstand of every room.

Task V

Challenges and Conclusion


In the near future Hilton Hotel UK is likely to face two challenges. The first challenge will be an influx of customers to Hilton Hotel UK yet the number of employees at Hilton Hotel UK cannot be able to meet their demands. In addition, Hilton Hotel UK might also experience a shortage of rooms to accommodate the large number of customers visiting from different parts of the world.

The second challenge Hilton Hotel UK might be facing in the near future, is competition from upcoming hotels. Many investors have identified that there is great opportunity in the hotel industry, and the rewards from investing in the hotel industry are also attractive. Hence, many investors are turning to the hotel industry, where they are coming up with new hotels that offer latest facilities.


The paper above has discussed operations management by looking at the case of Hilton Hotel UK. Using a general model of operations the paper has analyzed the environment of Hilton Hotel UK, how Hilton Hotel UK relates with suppliers, owners, investors, society and the employees. The paper has gone ahead to discuss operations strategy at Hilton Hotel UK by looking at the service operations concept, the competitive objectives by the use of a spider diagram, and the four Vs diagram.

In addition, the paper has also provided a focused analysis of Hilton Hotel UK by looking at product and process design at Hilton Hotel UK. Furthermore, the paper has further given recommendations on improvements that Hilton Hotel UK might consider doing and also revealed possible challenges that Hilton Hotel UK may encounter in future.

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