What is nursing theory? Essay Paper

nursing theory
nursing theory

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What is nursing theory?

1. What is nursing theory? What is the relationship and importance of nursing theory to the discipline of nursing?:

Nursing theory is the concept that aims to establish a creative and rigorous idea reconstruction to explain the theorem or phenomena being applied in health care. This is a routine concept that supports the ideas and reference of ideas that is pointing towards nursing practice in both clinical and community setting.

The relationship and importance of nursing theory towards nursing is about the systematic organization of knowledge and skills towards health care. This is applicable towards patient advocacy by being able to provide patient care, which seeks to promote relevant health care practice in both hospital and community setting.

2. Grant theory is the process wherein there is a sociological imagination that is similar with other concept to form an abstract theory. The difference is that it is conceptualizing about the probable outcome that can be associated with its planning activity. Middle range theory is an approach that is aiming to establish collaboration, which seeks to promote social construction of practices.

In nursing perspective, the difference is about the intervention applied when the nurse is now going to apply plan into action. As for the practice theories, this how social beings uses their diverse intentions in order to accomplish certain tasks. The difference is that they always take to create a critical analysis such as evaluating the outcome of each practice.

3. Dorothy Johnson’s theory is applied for the advocating of effective and efficient behavioral functioning, which is similar with other theories that utilize emotions. The difference is about the application of psychological issues that affects nursing practice. The theory of goal attainment aims to direct nurses with the efficient application of health care between nurses and patients. The difference is about the application on interaction, perception, and communication that seeks to improve growth and development.

Estrine Levine’s theory is about the process of conservation principles in nursing, in which nursing is a continuous practice of enhancing skills and knowledge to be progressive. The difference is the concept of keeping together, which means that nursing process should be always intact regardless of what situation that the nurse and client are currently experiencing.

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4. Jean Watson applies caring theory being applied in both clinical and community practice. In contrast, it is all about the science of caring theory focusing on humanitarian caring process. Leininger’s transcultural theory is about the application of interpersonal relationship. The difference is about the cultural aspect that the nurse applies when providing care. Boykin & Schoenhofer‘s grand caring theory is a major application of clinical practice that seeks to promote nursing skills by guiding nurses. The difference is about the application of framework in nursing practice to improve client patient relationship.

5. Newman’s theory of health as expanding consciousness is the chosen theory. This supports the view of nursing profession by indicating that nursing is a continuous process. Nursing values becomes competent when nursing practice will be supported by additional insights and applications. This can be processed through trainings and seminar workshops to transform nursing practice competitive and reliable.

6. As an understanding of SDS, this is about the concept that focuses on the evolution of stress due to environmental stimuli. As a scenario in clinical setting, patients in distress who are seeking for health care service are suffering from psychological and physiological stress. Applying this model can be applied during physical assessment procedure and intervention, which enables to assess the problems and then address patient’s health care problems to prevent further injury and promotes health as related by Chinn & Kramer (2010).


Chinn, Peggy &Kramer, Maeona (2010). Integrated Theory & Knowledge Development in Nursing (8 ed.). St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 0323077188.\

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Nursing Theory; The Needs Theory

The Needs Theory
The Needs Theory

Needs Theory


There has been a great evolution of the nursing profession by which has become an independent modality in its practice of nursing theory. The evolution has also enhanced distinct nursing interventions and also better nursing models.  The various nursing theorists have come up and developed the theories in the field which contribute positively to the nursing practice (Bluhm, 2014). A general focus regarding the design of the curriculum is provided by the nursing theories which generate new ideas and essential knowledge.

Virginia Henderson is of the nursing theorists that saw the importance for the needs theory. The needs theory was based on her education and practice. The needs theory focused on the promotion of the continued healing for patients even after leaving the hospitals through the emphasis on the increased independence of the patient (Bluhm, 2014). All the paradigms which include nursing, client, health and environment are focused on in the needs theory.

The basic human needs of the patients while receiving care is focused on while guidance and insight are provided as assistance for nurses on how to meet these needs. The selection of the needs theory is due to its deep insight on assessment, evaluation, and interventions in the nursing care. The needs theory has effectively provided guidance and direction essential in structuring professional research, education as well as nursing practice.

In this paper, the deeper insight of the theory would be explored by reviewing its theoretical structure, reflection which includes strengths and weakness while also looking at its application in the nursing field (Joly, 2016).

Description and Theoretical Structure

The nursing needs theory developed by Virginia outlines the functions and responsibilities of nurses in practice in contributing to improvements in the field.  The purpose of the theory is the identification of the basic needs of the patients as wells as suggesting to the nurses the major functions they can perform so as to assist the clients efficiently(Joly,2016). The theory focuses on the nurse activities that would contribute to better recovery, promotion of health or the peaceful death of individuals.

Virginia gave the definition of the needs nursing theory as part of her efforts and objectives involving regulation of the practices in nursing through licensure. The definition of the theory has a greater impact where it outlines basic nursing care components that guide their practices (Joly, 2016).The theoretical structure of the needs theory focuses on the major concepts considered during its development. Individual is the first component where the theory identifies the need for basic needs as vital components in achieving independence and better health.

In this case, individuals are defined as requiring the psychosocial needs and the best nursing care. The environment is a major concept in the needs theory where it is identified as a fundamental element which should be maintained well to be conducive for health operations. In this conducive environment, nurses would focus their activities on efficiently assisting those who cannot function independently.

Health is another major concept in developing the structure of the theory where it is identified as a major problem since poor health affects people of all cultural backgrounds or age (Ahthisham & Jacoline, 2015). In this case, nurses are identified in the theory as key contributors in the prevention of illnesses thus promoting health. Nursing is another major concept essential in developing the theoretical structure. The needs theory has described the nursing roles with the major one been full support of patients so as to meet their health needs and provide an environment that enhances their independence to perform activities.

Despite the major concepts which provide a deep insight into the theoretical structure of the needs theory, there are various components that form it. Through the components which also form its structure, a holistic approach to nursing is clearly explained. The needs theory is composed of the social,physiological,spiritual and psychological needs. All the 14 components of the needs theory are found in the above categories. When represented in a hierarchy or relationship stress, the needs are categorized into physiological, love and belongingness, safety and esteem (Ahtisham & Jacoline, 2015). 

There are major assumptions of the nursing needs theory as per Virginia Henderson. The desire by patients to have good health status is the first major assumption. The theory also assumes that nurses should provide quality care to patients until they become independent.  Another assumption is that a person’s body and mind are interrelated and inseparable thus all their needs should be focused on properly. The needs theory has a major assumption that the nurses are willing and ready to serve patients by fully devoting their services and effort during day and night times (Ahstisham & Jacoline, 2015).

Reflection on the Needs Nursing theory

 The nursing needs theory is based on education of the theorist as well as the nursing practices. The needs nursing theory has clearly identified its main purpose and components that are easily comprehensive to those who take interest to adopt it for implementation (Cypress, 2015). The definition of the needs theory and the provision of its components is logic in nature making its simple in nature.

The components are relatively simple which involve the basic activities by people. The nursing theory has components and theoretically structured in a way that it applies to people of all age brackets and cultural backgrounds. The needs theory has identified that poor health affects people of all ages and backgrounds thus generality is the main focus in its design and application. The wide acceptance of the needs theory and its incorporation into the nursing practice by many which prove its availability and accessibility by many.

The application of the nursing needs theory is essential for those in practice as it enhances adoption of most appropriate skills and functions that seek to improve the health status of many individuals. The needs theory is important in providing guidance to nurses on the performances and inform them on the best activities that would fulfill the patients’ needs effectively (Cypress, 2015). The wide acceptance of the concepts of the needs theory by many people all over the nursing practice is one of its major strengths.

The application of the needs theory made possible by its simple and logic components is also a major strength. Its strengths make it easy to be adopted by nurses in practice without major complications or challenges. The absence of a clear conceptual diagram interconnecting sub concepts and concepts of the theory is one of its weakness. Another weakness is the poor explanation of the roles and performance of the nurses to enhance a peaceful death of the patients (McCrae, 2012).

Application of the theory

Application of the needs theory is vital in the nursing field due to its massive benefits. The needs nursing theory would impact the project that I seek on regarding the nursing practice. The readmissions and long stays in the hospitals is one major problem experienced in the nursing field. Such issues are contributed to by the disparities in poor healthcare collaboration between the care providers and the patient thus most of the operations are not patient centered (McCrae, 2012).

The needs theory is applicable in such a problem where the nurses can use it to set goals of achieving the better interactions and patient-centered care based on the basic components of the theory. The theory applies to the topic since the nurse can adopt it to meet the set goals to ensure better performance towards care in the nursing field while also ensuring the patients receive the bests care to their satisfaction.

The needs theory is of interest in the nursing actions that aim at handling the problem of disparities in the healthcare sector. The fundamental concepts of the needs theory serve as the basis for research in the nursing practices which inform the best and evidenced based nursing actions that would help handle the problems in the healthcare sector effectively (Bluhm, 2014). In this case, application of research and nursing actions as informed by the needs theory results in positive impacts. 


The needs theory has effectively provided guidance and direction essential in structuring professional research, education as well as nursing practice. The theory focuses on the nurse activities that would contribute to better recovery, promotion of health or the peaceful death of individuals.

The needs theory is applicable in various projects that address problems in the nursing sector where the nurses can use it to set goals of achieving the better interactions and patient-centered care based on the basic components of the theory (Joly, 2016). Informing on the best practices through research initiatives based on the components of the needs theory is beneficial in impacting the practices for solving problems positively.


Ahtisham, Y., &Jacoline, S. (2015). Integrating Nursing Theory and Process into Practice; Virginia’s Henderson Need Theory. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 8(2).

Bluhm, R. L. (2014). The (dis)unity of nursing science. Nursing Philosophy, 15(4), 250-260. doi:10.1111/nup.12062

Cypress, B. S. (2015). Theories guiding nursing research and practice: making nursing knowledge development explicit. Nursing Philosophy, 16(3), 167-169. doi:10.1111/nup.12084

Joly, E. (2016). Integrating transition theory and bioecological theory: a theoretical perspective for nurses supporting the transition to adulthood for young people with medical complexity. Journal Of Advanced Nursing, 72(6), 1251-1262. doi:10.1111/jan.12939

McCrae, N. (2012). Whither Nursing Models? The value of nursing theory in the context of evidence-based practice and multidisciplinary health care. Journal Of Advanced Nursing, 68(1), 222-229. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05821.x

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Nursing theories

Nursing theories
Nursing theories

Nursing theories Question 1

Nursing is a field that has been changing rapidly over the years and along with its good transition is the coming up of various nursing theories (Cowen, 2014). These theories are what the advanced nursing practitioners keep in mind d use as a guide to either give them a sense of direction during work or help them understand and grasp most valuable lessons of nursing. Science based nursing theories specifically have been a backbone of clinical care.

Self-efficacy is a theory by Alberta Bandura that came about from the socio-cognitive approach (Maddux, 2013). This theory acclaims that there exist three aspects that affect self-efficacy, these are the environment, habits as well as personal factors. Schwarzer, (2014) states that self-efficacy theory is exceedingly important for advanced nursing practitioners in that, the goal of all healthcare providers is for people to manage their health (self-efficacy) particularly those patients with chronic illnesses such as diabetes, asthma or hypertension. T

his in a way goes in line with what Bandura concluded in his theory that motivation, performance, and feelings of frustration associated with repeated failures impact an individual’s perception of health.

Another important theory is the tidal model theory by Phil Barker, which emphasizes on helping people to reclaim the personal story of mental distress by recovering their voice. Barker here gives a philosophical approach to the discovery of mental health (Alligood, 2014). For nurses to start using this model in the engagement process, some requirements need to be agreed upon such as change is unavoidable, the patient, in the end, understands what it is best for him or her, and recovery is possible (Monteiro et al., 2015).

For this reason, the tidal model theory is useful for any nursing practitioner since it helps people recover from mental illness. Kurt Lewin born in 1890 came up with the change theory (Burnes, 2017). This theory has three main concepts: Main thrusts, controlling strengths and harmony. What makes or course change to occur are the main thrusts, they bring about the change since they push a patient to in the desired direction.

Controlling strengths are those that hinder the patient since they push the patient in the opposite direction (Monteiro et al., 2015). Harmony is a condition where the main thrust forces equal the controlling strengths forces, and thus no change occurs. This theory inspires nurses to push patients in the desired direction by all possible means.

Finally, The Helvie Energy theory addresses the notion of energy. In this theory, the person might be seen as an energy field influencing and being influenced by all other energy fields in the synthetic, physical, organic situations (Alligood, 2014). It has been noted here that the mentioned science-based nursing theories help advanced nursing practitioners positively in performing their work.

Nursing theories Question 2

To become a doctorate-prepared nurse, one needs to have enough clinical nursing experience and good memory of several nursing theories at hand (Hunt, 2013). It is critical to know what other scholars who are in the nursing field have done so as to avoid replication. Studying the several nursing theories can assist one to also come up with their science-based nursing theories.

Nursing everywhere has been committed to a rigorous scientific need that provides a significant set of knowledge to advance nursing practice (Blais, 2015). Many science-based theories have been documented over the past decade. Any Ph.D. in the nursing field is built upon doctoral programs including research methods, nursing theory, policy, and economics. Science-based nursing theories over time have aided many people in getting their doctoral degrees.

Madeleine Leininger came up with the Transcultural Nursing Theory, which emphasizes that nurses work on as per the patient’s social choices (Rav, 2016). It begins with the nurse assessing the patient while considering the patient’s cultural background after which a nursing care plan is also given according to the logical cultural assessment. In this theory, it is the responsibility of nurses to comprehend the part of the culture in a patient’s well-being.

Leininger used three nursing activities to accomplish culturally loving care for the patient, which are: Cultural maintenance, cultural negotiation, and social care patterning (Mallela, 2015). Madeleine is now a registered nurse with several degrees such as Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Human Sciences and Doctor of Science. She also is a certified transcultural nurse. All these achievements of Madeleine could not have come about if it were not for her coming up with the nursing mentioned above theory.

The Humanistic nursing theory by Paterson and Zderad integrates both humanity and existentialism to nursing theory. Butts & Rich, (2013) elaborate that humanism tries to understand people from the contexts of their experiences while existentialism, then again, is the acceptance that pondering begins with the acting, feeling and living person. In this theory, the nurse assists and cares for the patient. Any nurse applying for a doctorate needs to have such good values so as to achieve the doctorate.

All things considered, any nurse in practice slowly realizes that the work they do, the care they provide is all based on their theory of what is right for their area of nursing. Their philosophies for their jobs, work ethics, treatment of patients, and their behavior all fall in the realms of some nursing theorists whom they learned in school.


Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing theorists and their work. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Blais, K. (2015). Professional nursing practice: Concepts and perspectives. Pearson.

Burnes, B. (2017). Kurt Lewin: 1890–1947: The Practical Theorist. The Palgrave Handbook of Organizational Change Thinkers, 1-15.

Cowen, P. S., & Moorhead, S. (2014). Current issues in nursing. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Hunt, E. C., Sproat, S. B., & Kitzmiller, R. R. (2013). The nursing informatics implementation guide. Springer Science & Business Media.

Maddux, J. E. (Ed.). (2013). Self-efficacy, adaptation, and adjustment: Theory, research, and application. Springer Science & Business Media.


Monteiro, A. R. M., Martins, M. G. Q., Lobô, S. A., de Freitas, P. C. A., Barros, K. M., & de Fátima Tavares, S. (2015). Systematization of nursing care to children and adolescents in psychological distress. Revista de Pesquisa: Cuidado é Fundamental Online, 7(4), 3185-3196.

Ray, M. A. (2016). Transcultural Caring dynamics in nursing and health care. FA Davis.

Schwarzer, R. (2014). Self-efficacy: Thought control of action. Taylor & Francis.

Butts, J. B., & Rich, K. L. (2013). Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

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