Quality Management: Session Long Project

Quality Management
Quality Management

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Quality Management

Session Long Project

Using the fictitious company from the previous SLPs, continue to develop the company profile and operating information. This is a very open-ended SLP, and it will give you an opportunity to expand your knowledge and use creativity in providing the solution to the challenges.

Identify how your company uses quality management.

Categorize the quality problems in your company, and identify different areas for quality measurement and management.

What types of quality tools and techniques are the best to be employed, process control, quality tools, employee involvement?

Consider quality management programs such as TQM, Six Sigma, ISO9000, etc.

How might these be employed, and which of these do you think are best for your company?

• First discuss a recap of your company and provide any additional information about it that will be necessary and/or an interesting background to a discussion of quality and quality management.

• Identify at least three areas of types of quality focus (e.g., product quality, etc.). Discuss these areas and explain why quality is important.

• What are some quality tools and techniques that can be used to chart, diagnose, and improve quality in these three areas?

• Discuss the types of quality programs and recommend what you think is the best program or programs for your company to use and explain why.

Quality Management (TQM) is the organization-wide management of quality that includes facilities, equipment, labor, suppliers, customers, policies, and procedures. TQM promotes the view that quality improvement never ends, quality provides a strategic advantage to the organization, and zero defects is the quality goal that will minimize total quality costs. While this special topic on TQM is not a comprehensive discussion of all aspects of TQM, several key concepts will be discussed.An important basis for justifying TQM practice is understanding its impact on total quality costs.

TQM is rooted in the belief that preventing defects is cheaper than dealing with the costs of quality failures. In other words, total quality costs are minimized when managers strive to reach zero defects in the organization. The four major types of quality costs are prevention, appraisal, internal failure, and external failure.

Prevention costs are the costs created from the effort to reduce poor quality. Examples are designing the products so that they will be durable, training employees so they do a good job, certifying suppliers to ensure that suppliers provide quality in products and services, conducting preventive maintenance on equipment, and documenting quality procedures and improvements.

In a traditional organization that does not practice TQM, prevention costs typically comprise the smallest percentage of total quality costs.A good example of good product design occurs in all Honda products. Honda produces a wide variety of items, including automobiles, ATVs, engines, generators, motorcycles, outboard motors, snow blowers, lawn and garden equipment, etc. To say the least, Honda engines last a long time. For example, Honda Accords typically run for well over 200,000 miles.

Employee training is also a very important prevention cost. For instance, employees in a vegetable/fruit packaging warehouse need to know what a bad vegetable/fruit looks like, since customers will not want to find spoiled produce in the store. Lifeguards at a swimming pool must know proper procedures for keeping swimmers safe. In many circumstances in both manufacturing and service businesses, the training of employees can make an enormous difference in preventing defects.

Supplier selection and certification are critical prevention activities. A product or service is only as good as the suppliers who partner with an organization to provide the raw materials, parts and components, and supporting services that make up the final products and services that the end customers receive. For example, a home furnishings store might use an outside subcontractor to install carpeting, but if the subcontractor fails to show up on time, tracks mud into the customer’s home, or behaves in a rude manner, the store’s reputation will suffer. Similarly, a car manufacturer who purchases defective tires from a supplier risks incurring high costs of recalls and lawsuits when the defects are discovered.

Preventive maintenance is necessary for preventing equipment breakdowns. Many manufacturing companies use sophisticated software to track machine usage, and determine optimal schedules for regular machine maintenance, overhauls, and replacement.

Documenting quality is a necessary prevention cost because it helps the organization track quality performance, identify quality problems, collect data, and specify procedures that contribute to the pursuit of zero defects. Documentation is important to communicating good quality practice to all employees and suppliers.

Appraisal costs are a second major type of quality cost. Appraisal costs include the inspection and testing of raw materials, work-in-process, and finished goods. In addition, quality audits, sampling, and statistical process control also fall under the umbrella of appraisal costs.Inspection and testing of raw materials is very important, since substandard raw materials lead to substandard products. Raw materials used for a bridge determine the strength of the bridge. For example, soft steel will erode away faster than hardened steel. Moreover, the concrete bridge decking needs to be solid, as concrete with air pockets will erode and crumble faster, creating an unsafe bridge.

Finished goods and work-in-process inventory also need inspecting and testing. For example, worker error is quite common in the home construction industry, and this is why inspections occur frequently on newly constructed homes during and after the construction process is complete. Building inspectors ensure that the house has the proper framing, electrical, plumbing, heating, and so forth.

Quality audits and sampling are also important appraisal costs. Quality audits are checks of quality procedures to ensure that employees and suppliers are following proper quality practices. With sampling, a company can ensure with confidence that a batch of products is fit for use. For example, a wooden baseball bat manufacturer may test 10 out of every 100 bats to check that they meet strength standards. One weak bat can signal that quality problems are present.

Statistical process control (SPC) is the final type of appraisal cost. SPC tracks on-going processes in manufacturing or service environments to make sure that they are producing the desired performance. For example, a restaurant might statistically track customer survey results to make sure that customer satisfaction is maintained over time. In manufacturing windshields for automobiles, SPC might be used to track the number of microscopic air bubbles in the glass to make sure the process is performing to standard.

Internal failure costs are the third category of quality costs. This cost occurs when quality defects are discovered before they reach the customer. Examples of internal failure costs include scrapping a product, reworking the product, and lost productivity due to machine breakdowns or labor errors. Internal failure costs are typically more expensive than both prevention and appraisal costs because a great deal of material and labor often has been invested prior to the discovery of the defect. If a book publisher prints 10,000 books, then discovers that one of the chapters is missing from every copy, the cost of reworking or scrapping the books represents a major loss to the company. It would have been much cheaper to have procedures in place to prevent such a mistake from happening in the first place.

In the case of internal failure cost due to machine failures, FedEx and other courier services cannot keep up with demand when a conveyor belt breaks down in the package distribution center. Major delays and costs occur when such incidents occur. Other examples include a road construction company having a road grader break down, a tool and die shop having a CNC machine break down, and a farmer having a combine break down during harvest time.

External failure costs are the fourth major cost of quality. External failure costs occurs when the defect is discovered after it has reached the customer. This is the most expensive category of quality costs. Examples include product returns, repairs, warranty claims, lost reputation, and lost business. One spectacular example of external failure cost was when the Hubbell telescope was launched into space with mirrors that were ground improperly. When the telescope was turned on, instead of a magnificent view of stars, planets, and galaxies, the scientists could see only blurred images. The price of correcting the problem was over USD 1 billion.

External failure costs also occur when the wrong meal is delivered to a restaurant customer, when a computer breaks down shortly after it was purchased, when the wrong kidney is removed from a patient, and when a poorly designed automobile causes the death of drivers and passengers. Because of the enormous costs of internal and external failures, all companies should strive for zero defects. Successful TQM practice dictates that pursuing zero defects will result in the minimization of total quality costs by spending more on prevention and appraisal activities in order to reduce the much higher costs of internal and external failure.


Required Reading

Optional Reading

Below is a partial answer to the above homework questions by one of our writers. If you are interested in a custom non plagiarized top quality answer, click order now to place your order.

Quality Management

The management of quality in an organization is becoming increasingly important. In order to assess this importance, this project determines an organization whose quality management, control, planning, and analysis will be assessed. This paper looks into the areas of quality focus, various tools and techniques used, and a number of program recommendations for the chosen organization.

Recap of the chosen company

The choice company is Better Medical Hospital, a health care facility with a bed capacity of 200 and approximately 2500 employees. The firm offers a number of services to local, state, and out of state patients. These include diagnosis, treatment, palliative care, medication, and end of life care services. The organization’s key operational processes are diagnosis, medication, documentation, and patient flow processes. The use of various approaches in the field of quality management could help to improve the operational processes within the organization. This would help in the increase of efficiency and productivity for Better Medical Hospital.

Areas and types of quality focus

A focus on quality by a company is important, as it is one of the key cornerstones of a business. The main importance of quality is the loyalty it creates in the fan base of the business (Loureiro & González, 2008). There exists a number of areas and types of quality where an organization should focus. Bearing in mind the chosen firm, some of these are outlined below.

Product quality

A key focus area for any business should be the quality of the products and services offered to the consumer. Several definitions exist for product quality. Given the nature of services provided by Better Medical Hospital, the preferred definition is the user-based approach, where the quality of the product is judged based on its ability to satisfy the varying needs of the various consumers (Garvin, What Does “Product Quality” Really Mean?, 1984).

Customer focus

The second area of quality focus is the focus on the customer. In order to determine the best forms of managerial, operational and production practices, a firm should base such decisions on the experience of their customers. In using this focus area type, the views of the consumers are held in high regard in terms of what the company does. An institution such as Better Medical Hospital should have a customer-centric approach to its operations as this will lead to better performance metrics for management (Garvin, 1987).

Employee engagement

A firm that seeks to deliver on its mission and vision should focus on the quality of personnel at its disposal. Such a company seeks to optimize the skills and interactions of its members of staff. Once the employees of the organization are empowered, they provide the needed services which lead to satisfied customers. In the case of the healthcare facility, the availability of engaged employees makes a big difference in the attitude of the customers. This is because the employees have a direct engagement with the customers that are usually at a personal level….

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Four managerial tasks of FES personnel

Four managerial tasks of FES personnel
Four managerial tasks of FES personnel

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Four managerial tasks of FES personnel

Do the four managerial tasks of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling develop a cooperative relationship with fire and emergency services (FES) personnel as well as other agencies and the community?

Why do many of the FES personnel believe that more experience and intuition in decision-making is valuable in an emergency?

What is the importance of chain of command and unity of command during this situation?

What are the ideal characteristics of a guiding coalition in this scenario?

Four managerial tasks of FES personnel

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What techniques can be used to communicate a vision of change?

Were there any roadblocks that could defeat efforts to accomplish a good working relationship with public officials, other agencies, and the community?

Section II

You will write a one-page standard operating procedure (SOP) to address the use of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) on any incident in which more than one resource is used. You will only be writing the purpose statement and procedure. Most SOPs will have more areas than these two sections. Click here to access an example of an SOP for engine company operations, which may be helpful if you have never written or seen an SOP.

In addition, click here to access a blank format for you to complete Section II of this assignment. The purpose statement is an overview of a routine or repetitive activity followed by an organization. The procedure will be the technical and fundamental programmatic operational elements of an organization to ensure compliance of SOPs by all intended users.

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Nando’s HR Essay Paper

Nando's HR
Nando’s HR

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Nando’s HR 

Order Instructions:

Description of Assessment Requirements

As a Human Resource Management Consultant, you have been invited by a NANDOS (refer tohttps://secuforum.com/free-essays/human-resource-management-nandos-case-study-237 for a case study on Nandos but you are expected to do your own research) to advise them on the possibility of taking their HR practices to the next level in order to compete more effectively in the marketplace.

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In particular the Board of Directors would like you to address the following:

Task 1

Drawing on relevant models, analyse the approach of the company to the management of its human resources.

Task 2

Critically discuss its recruitment and selection in relation to strategic human resource initiatives.Make relevant recommendations as to how it could improve this process.

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Task 3

Discuss its approach to HRD and explain how this could be improved.

Task 4

Critically evaluate the classical theories of motivation and from your discussion of these theories propose a hybrid theory which may combine the most meaningful characteristics from a range of these theories and which you believe will have practical value in this organisation.

Task 5

In your advice to the company discuss the characteristics of effective leaders. Draw on relevant models to justify your analysis.

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Design Management and Entrepreneurship Essay Paper

Design Management and Entrepreneurship
Design Management and Entrepreneurship

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Design Management and Entrepreneurship


This project is designed to assess your ability to:

–  Investigate, evaluate and present arguments using advanced level of critical writing skills with in-depth research that is compliant with academic convention;

–  Strategically analyse how creative design process can facilitate business corporations in achieving design innovation and innovation management.

–  Apply transferable business and marketing skills needed for professional work within a commercial context.

– Make use of entrepreneurial and critical thinking skills to make better business decisions.

Design Management and Entrepreneurship

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Entrepreneurship is the process of designing a new business, i.e. a startup company offering a product, process or service. The entrepreneur perceives a new business opportunity and often exhibits biases in their perception and subsequent decision to exploit the opportunity. The exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities may include design actions such as to develop a business plan, acquire the human, financial and other required resources, and to be responsible for its success or failure.

Design management encompasses the ongoing processes, business decisions, and strategies that enable innovation and create effectively-designed products, services, communications, environments, and brands that enhance our quality of life and provide organizational success. The discipline of design management overlaps with marketing management, operations management and strategic management. It plays three integrative key roles in the interface of design, organization and market.

The purpose of the critical review essay is to develop a solid understanding of and position on a particular topic as well as to provide a comparative analysis and evaluation of the work of several authors currently writing on this issue. It enables you to evaluate a concentration of readings that offer various perspectives on a topic of particular interest to you.

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You should build the essay in the usual manner, with a beginning (introduction), a middle (the primary argument and evidence) and an end (the conclusion). In order to properly contextualize and assess the papers under review, you are required to do some library research.

Design Management and Entrepreneurship


This assignment allows you to demonstrate your ability to critically review on the given journal papers in the field of design management and entrepreneurship. Credit will be given to those with good analysis and constructive comments.

In this assignment you will be required to:

  1. Individual work;
  2. Your review  should be properly footnoted with a complete bibliography in MLA format. Please write your essay in single line space, 12-point font size using Times New Roman.
  3. Submit the original article, summary of the article, comments, evaluation and critically review on the findings in terms of its application.
  4. Prepare and make sure the supporting evidence or necessary contextual information is also properly cited.
  5. Write your argument and analysis in an appropriate way to the audience.

Design Management and Entrepreneurship

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Management and leadership for Healthcare and social services UK

Management and leadership
Management and leadership

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NVQ level 5 for Management and leadership for Healthcare and social services UK

Order Instructions:

Essay Number 1:

4.1 The student should write an essay in which they describe ethical dilemmas that may arise in their own area of responsibility when balancing individual rights and duty of care.

Word count: 300 minimum

Essay number 2:

4.2 Explain the principle of informed choice

4.3 Explain how issues of individual capacity may affect informed choice

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4.2 – 4.3 The student should write an essay in which they explain the principle of informed choice and how issues of individual capacity may affect informed choice.

Word count: 300 minimum

Essay number 3:

4.4 Propose a strategy to manage risks when balancing individual rights and duty of care in own area of responsibility

4.4 The student should write a reflective piece in which they propose a strategy to manage risks when balancing individual rights and duty of care in their own area of responsibility.

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Product Innovation and Management

Product Innovation and Management
Product Innovation and Management

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Product Innovation and Management

Product and target market

In this report, we have three classes of products for review: telecommunication services, phone devices, and accessories. Each of these broad product categories has its own characteristics and individual trends within each age group and target market. The target demographic for these products is the baby boomers age group. The baby boomers demographic refer to the people born between the years 1945 and 1960.

This is a ready target market for such products since they have the disposable income to afford such commodities, they are present in social media, tech savvy, make purchases to improve their lives, they buy goods for both themselves and others, and are responsive to hipster advertising approaches (Patel, 2017). As such they are a perfect market for the products of choice and can conveniently respond to marketing and make purchases.

Markets – what does the competitive landscape for your product look like?

Main product segments

The main product segments for this analysis are telecommunications services, phone devices, and phone accessories. For further analysis, the focus of this report shall be the various features, competition, and trends in the three market segments identified above.

The main reason for this selection of these segments is that they have a great potential for growth in the target market of baby boomers (Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Australia Ltd, 2014). In this regard, therefore, the expected growth, as well as the habits and characteristics of the baby boomers present a great combination for the product of telephone devices.

Product Innovation and Management

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The target market for the chosen products is baby boomers. It is among the most attractive consumer segments for the choice product of telephone devices. The demographics of the chosen market allow for the potential consumers to purchase the products often. For instance, baby boomers are known to love technology and they will invest in the products repeatedly (Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Australia Ltd, 2014, p. 6).

Additionally, the baby boomers will invest in not only themselves but also others. The main beneficiaries of their investments are the generations X, Y, and Z, who are mainly their children and grandchildren through the gifting of mobile phones (Patel, 2017; Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Australia Ltd, 2014, p. 7).

The trend in the telephone market in Australia has been one depicting a dwindling use of feature phones and telephone booths. The decline of such telephone devices has, however, resulted in the sharp increase in the uptake of smartphones (Market Line Advantage, 2017). Such trends have led to spectacular growth records, where the value of the mobile industry was at $3,405.9 million in 2016.

However, after the explosive growth over the past few years, the industry is expected to grow at a decreasing rate. Industry estimates place the growth rate at -1.9% for 2021 (Market Line Advantage, 2017). However, customer desires and expectations that directly target the baby boomers could shift this trend. A growth of features and innovations that the baby boomers find helpful could offshoot the expected decline in growth trend in a different direction.

Product Innovation and Management

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Major competitors and their products

Within the mobile smartphone and other related devices segment, there is a notion of an increased competition. However, trends and market data show that there are four major competitors in the mobile devices industry: Apple, Sony, Microsoft, and Samsung (Market Line Advantage, 2017). However, for the target market of baby boomers, they are more inclined towards the use of Samsung products as opposed to the preference for Apple phones as in the case for the millennials (Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Australia Ltd, 2014).

Trends in the types of products being developed and launched

Trends in the phone devices segment. Over the years, trends in the mobile devices industry are coming together to prove a unified theme for the mobile devices in the industry. For the most part, for example, there is an increase in the screen size as well as the processing power and memory capacity of the mobile devices. As such, there is an increase in the efficiency of such devices across the market.

With the increase in efficiency, performance, and computing power of the smartphones, there is a trend to take over jobs previously held by other devices. The target market of baby boomers is identified as being responsive to products that make their lives easier (Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Australia Ltd, 2014, pp. 8 – 9). As such, these trends of the developing devices should help in marketing the products to the target market.

Product Innovation and Management

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Trends in the telecommunication services segment

The telecommunications services segment of the industry is comprised of both the wireless and the fixed line telecommunications market. As such, the industry volume, operations, and trends are determined by the combination of subscribers to both the fixed line telephones and mobile telephone services (Market Line Advantage Australia, 2017). Various trends are observed in both the fixed line and wireless product variants, as well as in the telecommunications services industry segment.

Among the key trends includes the changeover between the two main products. In this regard, there is a noticeable change, where the number of subscribers to the fixed line telecommunications services has been dwindling over the years. Concurrently, the number of users subscribed to the wireless mobile networks have been increasing over the same period (Market Line Advantage Australia, 2017).

Another observable trend in the telecommunications services is the increase in the quality of services. Over the years, there has been a significant increase in the efficiency and capabilities of the telecommunications sector in the country and globe as well. The milestones achieved by the telecoms companies are mainly attributed to the growth in technology that supports their operations and service delivery to the increasing number of subscribers (el-Darwiche, Péladeau, Rupp, & Groene, 2017).

The growth in the service delivery is as a result of modernization of infrastructure and the improvement of technical skills among staff. In addition, the involvement of multiple firms in the business has increased the competition in the industry. As a result, the involved companies have to stay on top of their game to ensure they have a competitive edge over the other players.

Product Innovation and Management

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Looking into the future, experts place continued competition, and involvement in related industries as among the key trends to be observed in 2018 onwards. PWC Australia predicts the intensification of the competition by the telecoms companies operating in the country. In addition, there is supposed to be an improvement in the technology to enable better access to services such as a broadband network.

There is also an expectation to see the involvement in various sectors such as e-commerce and government to citizen services (PricewaterhouseCoopers Consulting (Australia) Pty Limited, 2018). Given these predicted trends, the telecommunications sector is expected to experience exponential growth in the foreseeable future, unlike the other comparable products and segments.

Trends in the phone accessories segment

The exponential growth of the mobile phone accessories market is directly related to the rise and growth of the usage of mobile phones. In this regard, most of the trends in the phone accessories are directly related to the growth in the mobile phone market, as well as the growth in technology. A case in point is the growth in the demand for quality headphones to accessorize the capability of modern smartphones as music players (Allied Market Research, 2016).

Such demand led to shifts in the manufacturing processes, where most mobile phone companies bundle earphones together with the phones. However, some consumers require more superior services to accessorize the music and instead purchase alternative headphones by more prominent companies with established products.

Product Innovation and Management

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Another mobile phone accessory case where  the trend is connected with the trends in the mobile telephone industry is the mobile phone cases industry. In the recent past, there have been numerous companies that have been established, whose sole concentration is on the research and development of mobile phone cases.

Such companies are using the latest technology in a bid to improve both the design and functionality of the cases (Allied Market Research, 2016; Market Line Advantage, 2017). In this regard, the business of the mobile phone cases is one that is expected to grow, either in tandem with the mobile phones or by a greater margin given the high demand for multiple smartphone cases by numerous individual users.


Allied Market Research. (2016, October 3). Mobile Phone Accessories Market to Reach $107.3 Billion by 2022, Globally. Retrieved from PR News Wire: https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/mobile-phone-accessories-market-to-reach-1073-billion-by-2022-globally—allied-market-research-595639141.html

Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Australia Ltd. (2014). Mobile Consumer Survey 2014: The Australian Cut – Revolution and Evolution. Retrieved from Deloitte Australia Ltd: http://landing.deloitte.com.au/rs/deloitteaus/images/Deloitte_Mobile_Consumer_Survey_2014.pdf

el-Darwiche, B., Péladeau, P., Rupp, C., & Groene, F. (2017). 2017 Telecommunications Trends: Aspiring to digital simplicity and clarity in strategic identity. Retrieved from PWC Strategy&: https://www.strategyand.pwc.com/media/file/2017-Telecommunications-Trends.pdf

Market Line Advantage. (2017, March 28). Australia – Mobile Phones. Retrieved from Market Line Advantage: http://advantage.marketline.com.ezproxy.lib.rmit.edu.au/Product?ptype=Industries&pid=MLIP2324-0002

Market Line Advantage Australia. (2017, July 19). MarketLine Industry Profile: Telecommunication Services in Australia. Retrieved from Market Line Advantage Australia: http://advantage.marketline.com.ezproxy.lib.rmit.edu.au/Product?pid=MLIP2416-

Patel, N. (2017, April 26). Forget Millennials. 7 Reasons Why Baby Boomers Are the Ideal Target Market. Retrieved from Quick Sprout: https://www.quicksprout.com/2017/04/26/forget-millennials-7-reasons-why-baby-boomers-are-the-ideal-target-market/

PricewaterhouseCoopers Consulting (Australia) Pty Limited. (2018, February). Five trends for Australian telecoms in 2018. Retrieved from PricewaterhouseCoopers Consulting (Australia) Pty Limited: https://www.pwc.com.au/publications/pdf/five-trends-australian-telecoms-2018.pdf

Product Innovation and Management

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Management, Innovation and Organisation Performance

Management, Innovation and Organisation Performance
Management, Innovation and Organisation Performance

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Management, Innovation and Organisation Performance


Innovation is a process that involves bringing of new products in a more modern way to impress the customers and capture the market accordingly. The people who benefit from this process tend to benefit a lot and it is in such a situation that design thinking is embraced by customers. Innovation in an organisation will tend to focus on the needs of the existing and new customers in place as well as encourage amendmends of the organisation structures.

Analysis of innovation process

Building of change

In designing of organisations that are bound to change, managing of talents is embraced accordingly. Poor fit for any organisation gives the job description that will be bound to update from time to time. In most cases, an organisation that is geared to make more innovations will employ individuals who are quick learners and interested in matters of change. These individuals will work to ensure that the organisation innovation activities are attained accordingly due to their interest in acquiring new changes in their working environments (Ernst, Chrobot-Mason, 2011).

Paying their workers well will make them participate in the change process that will bring innovations in the organisation and make it more competitive in the market (Day, 2006). Also, organisations that advocates for a work environment with the allocation of best task to an individual will facilitate change and innovation to take place in their premises effectively.  Allocation of tasks in accordance with individual capability is a better approach to acquiring innovations in the market accordingly (Ernst and Chrobot-Mason, 2011).

The right skills and knowledge ought to be employed for use under operations of the best talent to facilitate innovations to take place accordingly. Rewarding workers for their good job that they have done makes them be more creative towards advocating for change in their workplaces (Edmondson, 2011). The performance will be improved and change, innovation in the company will be very effected in such situations. Any bad behaviour from the employees that could have interfered with the change process will be terminated immediately; since, they are not ready and willing to temper with their jobs that give them means of survival (Hoehl & Parboteeah, 2006).

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The organisation structure of a company that wants to be more innovative must be checked and rectified where possible to avoid any interference in the innovation process. The structure of the organisation ought to be close to the market and define all the competitive activities that are taking place in conjunction with their innovation activities (Worley & Lawler, 2006). The organisational structure must connect its employees with the outside world to ensure that they learn more innovative methods to be used in the company.

The employees ought to be connected with the external environment for a smoother working and encourage more innovations to take place for the benefit of the organisation (Nonaka, 2007). Any organisational structure that is ready and willing to connect its employees to the outside world must bring all the critical information’s about trends taking place, encourage opportunities and issues of concern accordingly to their workers.

They ought to ensure that their workers don’t get tired with their roles that they are doing and also make it possible for them to connect with regulators across the globe (Andreeva & Kianto, 2011). Once they succed in connecting their employees with the external market, they will acquire more customers and make more progress under a well-planned innovations (Ciabuschi, Forsgren & Martín, 2011).

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Leaders and information

Information as well as decision process has to be well sought to ensure that all activities are well conducted. All the information given has to be transparent to ensure that activities transacted are transparent as well to the benefit of the company. Its profits govern business units that it has incurred or any loss experienced over a given time. Shared leadership is advantageous, implying that there is the best distribution of hierarchical duties, and they can be done more effectively.

The organisation will tend to respond to all information given whenever; there is shared knowledge that comes as a result of shared leadership in the organisation. Leaders in an organisation are attributed with the role of getting everyone moving in a new and a better direction that will be to the benefit of all (Corniani, 2012). Leaders also have to share the knowledge that they have for the benefit of the organisation and get their workers more informed on how they should handle their customers.

The building of talents in an organisation will be facilitated under a reputable leadership that is also shared among many people (Giedraityte & Raipa, 2012). Leaders, will be able to nurture their skills and each one’s talent will be improved. Improving of leadership talents guarantees better innovations in the organisation because; they are focused on making their functionalities better. Leadership talents include; making good decisions under all circumstances to make sure that all persons benefit from the decisions made.

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The views of the workers should be sought under innovations process management as a way of making them feel recognised and appreciated for who they are and for what they do. Shared leadership also calls for shared ideas of the company and ways of making innovations is of greater benefit to the organisation. Leaders working together with all the stakeholders of the organisation make a good decision related to their customers and how they can better their services and products.

Understanding both the internal capabilities and external environment is very useful under shared leaderships since; it helps in matters of corporate change (Hennala, Parjanen, & Uotila, 2011). Change is what contributes to organisations becoming more innovative and productive in its operations and will work better under shared leadership. Leaders who are focused on getting to higher heights will advocate for continuous change in their operations as a way of becoming more innovative and matching the customer’s needs (Kong, 2010).

The customer will tend to be associated with a business that are more innovate and focused on bettering their service. Innovations that come as a result of continuous change mean that customers will get impressed with them and want to buy their product and services. It is clear to state that services and products from the innovative organisation will be liked by many and their products will be improved accordingly (Schuurman, De Marez & Ballon, 2013).

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Aligning operations with the market                    

Most of the companies are pulling their organisational strategy to align it with the market for the sake of responding to the competitive pressure and become more innovative to get new customers. Teaming makes an individual be more innovative; since, they can share knowledge and help one another with different ideas that they know and in whatever they do rather than when one is working alone.

Their knowledge becomes broader and more applicable for use in the innovation process which is very useful in the company progress. Good interpersonal skills are also bound to be developed and this is also good in encouraging better networking in the innovation process. There are serious challenges that are evolving from teamwork and if not well managed can cause a lot of chaos and disorientate functionality of the group.

The embracing of several projects management helps employees in an organisation to learn how to carry several activities assigned to them. Networking comes as a result of better teaming in organisations members and for the stable teams that have learned to work together end up achieving their ultimate goal accordingly.

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Knowledge creation               

Knowledge creation is another innovation theory that had been employed for use to ensure that the best strategies are entertained to attain the required aim of the company. Making the personal knowledge available to others was a central activity that was employed for use in making sure that the best is attained in the innovation process. Knowledge availability takes place at all times in the company, and it means that knowledge creation is as much as ideal as it is about ideas.

There was the use of tacit to tacit knowledge, which is very personal and hard to personalise as well as difficult to communicate to others (Ernst, Chrobot-Mason, 2011). There is a limitation of knowledge creation that takes place when socialisation is in the process and this ouht to e limited very much. Use of knowledge model ensures that managers challenge their employees to take working seriously for the sake of making good and reputable innovations. Creation of actual model is a process in knowledge that can be used to guarantee good working and better results of innovation.   

Efforts of the group work

The group identified four practices that enable boundary spanning of leadership, buffering, mobilising others and transforming as well as the weaving of others as strategies of achieving its desired goal. The group ensured that interrelated strategies were included in the team working to attain the managing innovation process working. Various efforts were laid aside to attain the desired working of the group (Akhavan, Reza Zahedi & Hosein Hosein, 2014). Also, efforts were laid aside for the members to feel protected in the group to increase collaborations between boundaries.    

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The group work worked to have efforts in shared identity where all members could feel as part and parcel of the group. Having a typical objective was an exertion that the group needed to be encouraged in ensuring that they accomplish the achievement. The team worked to ensure that they had interdependence whereby; all the team members were active, and none of them was dormant.

Teamwork should always encourage personal interaction where people can share different ideas and views required in attaining their goal set aside. The group had endeavours to guarantee that there was a common impact among its individuals, and working was better and smoother. All the activities that are needed were listed down, and a grant chart of all activities that are bound to take place was included.

There were various efforts that had to be employed for use in making the team function as required to attain the set goal. The group had high efforts of advocating for the right person to lead the team in the desired direction (Akhavan & Zahedi, 2014). The act of choosing the right leader proved to be an effective one; since, he made those capable of any bad act to be accountable for their evil actions.

The group was saved from the danger that could have taken over and disorientate its functioning. The group had efforts of ensuring that the team leader attained more training session to improve his leadership skills and learn how to manage the group work to achieve its desired goals. Having the right team leaders was an effort from the team proving any person who know what is expected of his team members, will guide them in the right manner.   

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Lesson about team working

Novel insight can be generated from knowledge creation, and where there is a limitation of social capital, teamwork is bound to face a lot of challenges. There are many knowledge boundaries that interfere with knowledge sharing in a team and have to be avoided at any cost. Generation of the idea in teamwork can interfere with pressure from a very powerful leader. Any teamwork requires a lot of trusts to encourage knowledge sharing among each person in the group (Jafari, Rezaeenour, Mohammad & Hooshmandi, 2011).

It was prudent to learn that any successful teamwork does not require confrontation to one another, rather it requires an understanding of one another and listening to each other’s views. There is need of integrating which involves the synthesizing to create new possibilities of brainstorming where one can reason on their own. All the conflicts of the group and its failure have to be checked and worked upon accordingly to avoid any conflict that might disorganise the teamwork (Patton, 2007).

The team is required to think and understand different methods of reacting on the organisational roles that will contribute to their achievement in the innovation process. There was a need to capture, and access softer lessons for the team members to make learning smoother and facilitation of innovation process as reguired. Every one of the distinctions in a group must be settled in ensuring that working is better and more viable.

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            During group work, one could easily learn that choosing the right members to work with was the only way out to ensure that innovation management process was facilitated. Each of the group members has to be allocated responsibilities for them to know what is required and do it with the aim to attain the right goal. Team working will work better under good and reputable allocations of duties where each person knows what is expected of him and does it accordingly. Innovation processes are well managed by a team working where duties are well allocated to each and every group member on his capability.  

One could learn that there existed different knowledge in different individuals and embracing it could help facilitate a smooth working environment. Knowledge generation is very important in any team work, and this helps the team to think on management innovation matters of the organisation. Anyone in the team will learn that working under one goal is very crucial because; this will help all members to understand the aim of attaining an innovation.

One could learn that sacrifice was very prudent where each and every member was required to sacrifice all his personal views that could be of high help to the group towards achieving its goal (Strohmaier & Lindstaedt, 2007). Through doing this, the team working could be a more effective activity and managing innovation processes could be made better. 

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Another lesson learnt from the teamwork was that commitment to a team is very crucial in achieving its success which is the ultimate goal. Any member who proves not to be committed to achieving success in managing innovation process, will be a great stumbling block to the team. Commitment encourages any team member to be devoted to attaining the set goal as well as make contributions that will help the team move ahead in its operations (Yun, Shin, Kim, & Lee, 2011).

From the new organisational forms that supported knowledge work in the group, one could learn that knowledge work in innovation matters is supported by different forms of organisation in existence. All the knowledge workers who manage innovation process were very distinctive and forms of control as well as the required rewards.

The knowledge work is very useful in managing innovation process; hence, rewards are necessary to be given to the leaders for developing useful competencies required for use in the future. Whenever organisation grow in large size, it becomes hard to sustain adhocracies and also hard to manage the innovation process taking place within their premises.


This paper gives an explanation of the analysis of innovation processes and how they were experienced under different activities. All the group efforts that were evident are also elaborated as well as the lessons learnt about teamwork.


(Group leaders) – He was determined in achieving a specific leadership, goal that was managing the innovation process of the team. The group leader was entitled to plan and control all the activities that were required by the team in making sure that all its activities towards managing the innovation process were attained accordingly.

Evans (group organiser) –    Evans was entitled to the role of organising the group meetings and time as well as venues where they could be taking place. He was additionally the one to start another task for the gathering to handle and also guaranteeing that every one of the ventures met the required due date. Evans was in charge of making sure that every group member knew his role and played it effectively.  

Mary (specialist) – Mary was in charge of ensuring that the product of the project was done in a more professional manner as required.

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Joseph (Peace Keeper) – Joseph was entitled to the role of keeping peace and making sure that all activities were taking place as required. Joseph ensured that once a conflict occurred, it was solved with an immediate effect to avoid disorientating the functionality of the group.

John (Editor) – All the work of the group members was edited by John and he ensured that there was no repetition that could make working slow and adamant. Everyone’s writing was made sufficient and in a more professional way under the guidance of John

Other members – The rest of the group members were entitled with the task of participating in the project, communicating, and submitting their assigned work upon deadlines. Group members are entitled with the role of ensuring that they do their duties as required to avoid failure of the groups.       


Akhavan, P. & Zahedi, M.R. 2014, “Critical Success Factors in Knowledge Management Among Project-Based Organizations: A Multi-Case Analysis”, IUP Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 20-38.

Akhavan, P., Reza Zahedi, M. & Hosein Hosein, S. 2014, “A conceptual framework to address barriers to knowledge management in project-based organizations”, Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 98.

Andreeva, T. & Kianto, A. 2011, “Knowledge processes, knowledge-intensity and innovation: a moderated mediation analysis“, Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1016-1034.

Ciabuschi, F., Forsgren, M. & Martín, O.M. 2011, “Rationality vs ignorance: The role of MNE headquarters in subsidiaries’ innovation processes”, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 958-970.

Corniani, M. 2012, “Innovation, Imitation and Competitive Value Analysis”, Symphonya, , no. 2, pp. 37-52.

Day, S. G. 2006. Aligning the Organization with the Market. MITSloan Management Review. VOL .48 NO.1

Edmondson, A. (2011). How to master the new art of teaming. Teamwork On the Fly. ARTWORK Andy Gilmore, Hemicube digital drawing

Ernst, C. and Chrobot-Mason, C. (2011). Flat world, hard boundaries: How to lead across them MITSloan Management Review.

Ernst, C., Chrobot-Mason, D. 2011. Flat World, Hard Boundaries-How To Lead Across Them. MITSloan Management Review.

Giedraityte, V. & Raipa, A. 2012, “Risk Management in the Public Sector Innovation Processes”, Viesoji Politika ir Administravimas, vol. 11, no. 4.

Hennala, L., Parjanen, S. & Uotila, T. 2011, “Challenges of multi-actor involvement in the public sector front-end innovation processes”, European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 364-387.

Hoehl, M., & Parboteeah, P. 2006.Autonomy and Teamwork in Innovative Project. Human Resource Management, Vol. 45, No. 1, Pp. 67–79

Jafari, M., Rezaeenour, J., Mohammad, M.M. & Hooshmandi, A. 2011, “Development and evaluation of a knowledge risk management model for project-based organizations”, Management Decision, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 309-329.

Kong, E. 2010, “Innovation processes in social enterprises: an IC perspective”, Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 158-178.

Kosala, M. 2015, “Innovation Processes as a Stimulant of Internationalisation Process of Firms”, Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 65-84.

Nonaka, I. 2007.The Knowledge-Creating Company. Harvard Business Review

Patton, J.R. 2007, “Metrics for Knowledge-Based Project Organizations”, S.A.M.Advanced Management Journal, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 33-43,2.

Schuurman, D., De Marez, L. & Ballon, P. 2013, “Open Innovation Processes in Living Lab Innovation Systems: Insights from the LeYLab”, Technology Innovation Management Review, vol. 3, no. 11, pp. 28-36.

Strohmaier, M. & Lindstaedt, S. 2007, “Rapid knowledge work visualization for organizations”, Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 97-111.

Worley, C., & Lawler, E. 2006. Designing Organizations That Are Built to Change. Mit Sloan Management Review

Yun, G., Shin, D., Kim, H. & Lee, S. 2011, “Knowledge-mapping model for construction project organizations”, Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 528-548.

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People, Management, & Organizations

People, Management, & Organizations

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People, Management, & Organisations


Human resource management (HRM) is one of the most important departments in the operations of an organization. Different entities as well share HRM responsibilities differently depending on the size, situation/context, and the goals of the organization among other functions. HRM in overall aims at improving the performance of the business by extracting maximum value from the capabilities, knowledge and skills and efforts of employees in the most cost effective manner as possible.

To achieve this value, organizations share various responsibilities through shared service centres, HRM department, and outsourcing or through line managers. The paper therefore, focuses on the different ways of sharing responsibilities using the case of Vodafone Company. The paper further deliberates on how this work and ways to improve the same putting into consideration the drivers of trends in service delivery.

People, Management, & Organizations

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Case study

Vodafone is one of the leading multinational corporations in the area of telecommunication companies operating in India. The company ranks second after Airtel in terms of mobile network coverage. The company offers an array of services including services that relates to voice, mobile phones, and internet services such as 3G and many others. The company dominates the mobile telephony market because of the quality of services it renders to its customers. The company has as well managed to grow because of the competitive personnel it has.

The nature of HRM delivery the company uses is both outsourcing and HRM department. The company has a HRM department that deals with the affairs of its employees. It as well on various occasions uses outsourcing services to supplement its HRM department functions. Various drivers or trends in service delivery exist such as technological advancement/change, competitive pressures, and globalization and are critical in the operations of HRM systems. These drivers as well have played a key role in the operations and HRM responsibilities of the company.

For instance, competitive pressures have contributed to the innovations and creativity experienced in the company. The company has managed to come up with competitive products and services that have contributed to its success. Globalization has also contributed to the adoption of the HRM strategy in the company. The company has as well adopted best practices embraced by different companies across the world to be competitive.

People, Management, & Organizations

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Advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing of HR mode of delivery the company has adopted

 Outsourcing of HR activities is one of the HR service delivery the company uses. Various HR practice areas such as training and development and recruitment, and payroll, and general administration are sourced from various HR specialists. This however, does not mean the company has poor systems, but some of the personnel’s to be recruited requires vigorous scrutiny (Torrington, Hall &Taylor, 2008). Recruitment agencies for instance, possess greater skills and experience concerning suitable caliber of candidates to recruit.

Furthermore, outsourcing reduces costs of operation, especially in the short run because it can be expensive to maintain or retain internal staffs due to employment cost such as holiday pay, office accommodation, and pension pays. Outsourcing removes, potential rigidities as they are not covered (Bresnen & Marchington, 2014). Outsourcing has advantages because it allows the company to buy in external expertise not available in house. It is also useful and appropriate in change programmes, and is cheaper in the long run.

However, using outsourcing as a method of delivery have potential problems that the organization put into consideration to ensure that they does not derail smooth operations and functioning of the organization. This includes loss of internal synergy in the Human resource functions in the company. It also limits the company when it comes to application of best practices and there may cause interference in the process of reaching amicable solutions (Torrington, Hall &Taylor, 2008).

Furthermore, the company faces threat of experiencing additional costs because of monitoring and definition of performance that must be undertaken even after the outsourced experts or specialists leaves the organization (Bresnen & Marchington, 2014).

People, Management, & Organizations

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Advantages and disadvantages of HRM department mode of delivery the company has adopted

HRM department is cheaper to administer and to run because personnel’s are familiar with the internal process of the organization (Torrington, Hall &Taylor, 2008). However, some of the challenges or problems that this company experience using this mode of service delivery is   when it comes to policy implementation and implementation of programmes due to long processes created in the organization structure.

 These delivery methods as indicated from the discussion are appropriate and help the organization to gain value. The company does not incur huge costs operating on these delivery methods. Furthermore, returns in terms of value are higher.

Outsourcing has contributed to recruitment of skilled and knowledgeable staffs that have contributed to achievement of the objectives and goals of the organization. Furthermore, it has contributed to smooth operations because; the right people that have the requisite skills are employed to help champion the issues of the organization forward.

Other modes of HR service deliver

Advantages and disadvantage of front-line managers

Even though, the company uses outsourcing and HRM department, Purcell & Hutchinson (2007) argues that using other modes such as front line managers and shared service centers (SSC) can as well add value to an entity. According to  Bresnen & Marchington (2014),  the potential advantages of using  front line managers is that  is easy to intervene in any  HR issues as they are closer to issues that the department of HR perform.

Furthermore, line managers have higher understanding of the business and they own ideas that help them to engage with others (Purcell & Hutchinson, 2007). However, they have some drawbacks such as may not be familiar with the goals of the organization, may lack skills and competencies, may experience work overload that may derail their smooth operations and may as well face inconsistencies when it comes to application of HR rules.

People, Management, & Organizations

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Advantages and disadvantage shared service centers HRM service delivery mode

 On the other hand, shared services centres are also becoming popular in entities. This involves a small group of HR professionals that drive the strategic vision of an organization at the same time a call center exists that provides advice to line managers as well as administrators and individual workers (Marchington & Wilkinson, 2011).

Some benefits of this include higher customer satisfaction, efficient processes, and economies of scale, transparency of costs, among others. Potential problems using this kind of delivery mode is increased workload to line manager that may affect service delivery, higher than expected costs and staffs may experience IT problems among many others.

Wider theoretical perspectives

  Various theories provide wider perspectives on the functioning of different organization. Resource based view is one of the theories that explains how the key drivers of HRM and organization performance are shaped (Bresnen & Marchington, 2014). In Vodafone, the primary forces that impacts on its performance is based on the inside out approach. The internal capabilities including the skills of employees and processes as well as employment relation play a critical role in its success (Lepak & Snell, 2007).

The organization therefore has used different individuals in different areas they cause greater impacts. Practices or goals that are ascertained to be are, valuable, not easy to copy, and not easy to substitute are given preferential treatment. Therefore, HRM architecture has as well been of greater value in the functioning of HRM as the modes of delivery is based on centrality to the mission of the company (Bresnen & Marchington, 2014).

People, Management, & Organizations

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Ways of improving delivery and alternative HRM service delivery modes recommendations

 Based on the literature and discussion, delivery can still be improved to ensure that the organization achieves higher performance. One way of improving delivery is applying various models of delivery that suit the company and which help achieve the goals and visions of the organization (Lepak & Snell, 2007).

It is also important to select the mode of delivery that is cost effective, ensure that problems are solved and those that ensure adoption of best practices in the functioning of the organization. It is also important to utilize resource based view theories by incorporating internal capabilities that can add value to the organization. I recommend use of HR departments and outsourcing of HR in circumstances where an organization wants to save costs and to attract talented individuals.


Human resource management is critical in the operation of   the organization. It is prudent that organizations adopt suitable service delivery modes that can help them meet their goals. Organization such as Vodafone uses HR department and outsourcing and this has contributed to its success. In dealing with various problems entities encounter, it becomes prudent to adapt to most suitable and appropriate modes of service delivery.

People, Management, & Organizations

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Other modes that entities can use include front-line managers and Shared Service centers. It is also important to consider the drivers of factors of service delivery such as globalisation, technological changes, and competitive pressures in deciding the appropriate service delivery mode to use. Theoretical views such as resource based and architectural modes are important to consider in service delivery.

Using inside approach by considering internal capabilities of individuals can go extra miles in ensuring that an entity remains competitive. It is therefore recommended that organizations make appropriate decisions on the modes they want to use by weighing their benefits against drawbacks and putting into consideration the context or the situation they are operating in.


Bresnen, M, & Marchington, M 2014, People, Management & Organisations, study guide; The University of Manchester; Manchester.

Lepak, D, & Snell, S 2007, ‘Employment subsystems and the ‘HR architecture’, in Boxall, P.,Purcell, J. and Wright, P. (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Human Resource Management, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Marchington, M, & Wilkinson, A 2011, Human Resource Management at Work (4th Edition), London: CIPD.

Purcell, J, & Hutchinson, S 2007, ‘Front-line managers as agents in the HRM performance causal chain: theory, analysis and evidence,’ Human Resource Management Journal, 17(1), pp 3- 20.

Torrington, D, Hall, L, & Taylor, S 2008, Human Resource Management, 7th edition, FT Prentice Hall, London.

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Scientific Management Approaches

Scientific Management Approaches
Scientific Management Approaches

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Scientific Management Approaches

To what extent are the principles of scientific management applicable to the 21st century?

Fredrick Taylor is credited to have come up with Taylor’s management theories. These theories were later renamed scientific management theories due to how Taylor used scientific concepts to decode how organizations should be run. He came up with the concept of a scientific approach to management of organizations. While working at a steel company, Taylor had noted that the productivity of the labor force was inefficient. He attributed this inefficiency to the use of the rule of thumbs. Taylor’s management experiments were initiated on this fact.

He would conduct experiments on the workforce by coming up with ways to change or improve the rule of thumbs. His experiments were based on theories derived from science. He came up with a theory where he wanted to reduce the movement of workers while performing a single task in the industry. This move was to increase the productivity of the labor force. This theory is one of the few traditional theories by Taylor that are used in modern management even to date(Thomas 2007).

Scientific management approaches are still part of most organizations of this day and age. The widest concept adopted today is dividing the functions of the management and those of the staff. The replacement of the rule of thumbs with scientific facts has also led to the widespread application, adoption, and modification of Taylor’s theories. Most if not all modern organizations have a factual basis for their operations. As a result, they have structures for both the managerial and staff functions. The external and internal competition is managed by facts that have little to do with the scientific management approaches theories and principles (Thomas 2007).

Scientific Management Approaches

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The model of scientific management emphasizes on using one way in the overall management of organizations. It also advocates for the following of natural principles that guide human behavior and actions Ancona, D., et al. (2009). It is, however, not impossible to find organizations in the 21st century who operate using a different model or theory. The disparity in the 21st-century management can be seen in technology, infrastructures, and even the education system. The way the government is run and the family setting are also a clear example of how the management of organizations has changed in the 21st century.

The five principles of scientific management are a clear division of tasks and responsibilities for the staff. There is also the selection of the best person to perform a task that has been newly designed using scientific knowledge.Fredrick Taylor’s scientific management theory was an integral part of the understanding of how organizations in the traditional world were managed. At the same time, as the theory grew with time there were several critics who were opposed to some of its principles.

The result of the criticism was the decreased role the theory played in later management decisions of organizations. Today, there is only but traces of the theory in the management of these twenty-first organizations. Examples of the scientific management theory today are few and hard to come by. However, there are some industries that have strived to keep hold of the principles derived by Taylor on the management of organizations. The car industry is one such industry.

The computer manufacturing and healthcare industries also have traces of Taylor’s theory within their ranks. However, what is visible are similarities of the original theory rather than the actual adaptation of the theory itself. It is not known if there is any modern industry that used Fredrick Taylor’s theory in its original non-influenced theory(IAIN 2009).

Scientific Management Approaches

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Thirdly, the staff knows exactly what to do and when to do it. The use of scientific methods has been adopted to come up with how best an individual can perform an assigned task.Taylor had had vast experience in the Midvale Steel Company. Companies like McDonalds, which have their staff follow one standardized process to come up with the finished product, have adopted the technique.

The standardized process and the use of five scientific approach principles in combination have been successfully used by an organization to achieve maximum productivity. In the fast food industry, customers are usually assured to get their orders ready is a little as one minute after placing their orders. The success of the industry can be hugely attributed to the adoption of the Time and motion theory developed by Taylor.

Ensuring the workers are adequately trained for them to perform their assigned tasks is another management principle McDonalds and Google are two different but successful companies that use different scientific management approaches for their employees. Both are also in different market sectors, but one is required to be innovative and have creative skills. The other company, however, needs the hands and feet of their employees for efficient running. 

Taylor’s theories can, therefore, be said to be in use in the twenty-first century running of organizations. Google does not use a piece rate system and thus will not have that theory in their organizational management plans. Taylor’s best theories can also not be suitable for all the organization. For a modern company innovation and flexibility has to be part of the plan for there to be success in its operations (Richard 2011).

Scientific Management Approaches

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The fifth principle is to have a strict surveillance and supervision of the workers’ activities using a set hierarchy of power and authority in the organization (Thomas 2007). Every manager has their individual ways and styles of managing an organization. The managers, however, have to use principles and concept of management that can work for their particular organizations. The concepts have to blend with the culture of the organization and the nature of work there. Taylor’s theory was often criticized for not being dynamic as the employees did not want to perform their tasks differently.

For this reason, managers have to think critically and deeply on their intended principles. They also have to look for ways to make their management concepts flexible with the changing situations in the organization. Google, an internet giant, does not apply Taylor’s metaphor of the machine for its employees. It, however, uses the Hawthorne experiment that was developed by George Elton Mayo. The results of these experiments showed that workers should be regarded as assets to any organization.

The result was an increase in the motivation of the employees. The employees produced better and consequently the increase in the overall productivity of the organization. George’s work was distributed over some years and, therefore, had more data to analyze than had Taylor (Martins 2014). Google’s staff has the liberty to work at the time they feel fit. These employees also design the working environment. The organizational structure at Google ensures that the staff can work as a team on their various projects. Teamwork was seen by Mayo as a major booster to the efficiency of employees.

Scientific Management Approaches

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During Taylor’s times, charitable organizations had started to mushroom. This proves that he was wrong to think that money was the only factor to consider when managing an organization. It is, therefore, correct to say that charitable organizations that have emerged in great numbers today do not apply any of Taylor’s methods and theories in their daily operations.

However, special circumstances can lead to these organizations using one or more of Taylor’s best methods. The use of these theories can be in the assembly lines where they have to reach the needy in the shortest duration of time. This observation means that Taylor’s methods are being used even if not in their pure forms (Martins 2014).

Another scientific management theory is referred to as Fordism. The theory uses the theories of a moving assembly and the division of labor and piece rate theories by Taylor simultaneously. The result is the automation of jobs. The jobs can also be classified according to the level of skills of the employees. The flow of work in a continuous way means that there is work being done. This theory developed by Ford was used in the manufacture of his cars. However, this theory has similar discrepancies as Taylor’s.

This theory relies mainly on the division of labor for the mass production of goods to run efficiently. This process little freedom to the staff who end up being dissatisfied with their jobs (Nelson, 1980). Moreover, the machinery and infrastructure are taken to be more important than the works themselves. The only applicable element of this theory in the twenty-first century is the piece rate. The overall scientific system can be seen to be lacking in many aspects. The managers of the twenty-first century try to fill these gaps with other foreign elements like the Maslow and Herzberg theories.

Scientific Management Approaches

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Herzbergdeveloped a theory that can be seen as a deeper side of the scientific theories by Taylor. Herzberg built a basic framework for motivation after conducting many experiments and surveys. After a critical analysis of the data he had obtained, he concluded that the motivation of employees is influenced by factors he called motivators. Dissatisfaction aspects he called hygiene. When the hygiene factors are removed, one cannot know of the existence of absence of satisfaction on the employee.

He said that employee satisfaction and motivation is greatly attributed to the treatment the employee receives. To Herzberg, there exists a difference between facts on satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Managers may bring in the factor of eliminating bad factors, but this may also mean there is only peace achieved rather that motivation. The safest way to motivate employees, according to Herzberg is to give them attainable tasks and responsibilities (Armstrong 2009).

After many successful surveys, experiments and studies, Maslow developed the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. The theory can also be used to analyze the efficiency of the scientific management theory developed by Taylor. Maslow is thought to believe that human beings have a high belief and expectation of self-actualization. He had also postulated that the expectations of humans were in most cases inexplicable and undervalued. To Maslow, human beings have five goals in life. Love, safety, esteem, self-actualization and psychology are these goals.

The goals can also be said to be the basic needs of most human beings (Armstrong 2009). Maslow also said that both employees and their employers are also motivated to achieve all these goals one after the other. To him, man is a creature whose desires run to eternity and the achievement of all these goals is impossible. All individuals, therefore, have the partial satisfaction of the fulfillment of their desires. Maslow’s theory proves an important asset for the managers of organizations in the twenty-first century.

The theory advises these managers to motivate their staff by setting for them goals that lead to their personal satisfaction. Modern organizations also should start programs aimed at managing and monitoring the levels of stress among the employees.

Scientific Management Approaches

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Scientific management may seem to be an integral part of modern organizations management, but one cannot miss the defects that are part of the concept used in the twenty-first century. It can then be said that not all the modern concepts of management can be adopted in the management of organizations (Gould 2000).

Employees of organizations in the twenty-first century are seemingly very intelligent. They value themselves better compared to their counterparts in the days of Taylor and Ford. However, there is the fear of the employees being under-skilled due to the specialization and use of standardized procedures in most organizations. The employees are not given room to use their creativity to come up with the finished products offered by their employers. This phenomenon is most common in fast food outlets like McDonalds that use a standard process to make their delicacies.

The breakdown of tasks makes the work of the employees easier and manageable. The staff is converted to machine-like pieces of a large operational process in an organization. They become less satisfied with the jobs this has led to their low motivation. In modern organizations, however, there is an understanding that money and power are not the only aspects of the management of organizations.

By contributing to the social welfare of their employees, these organizations has become more flexible in the affairs of their staff. The organization is regarding their staff as assets to the organization. Workers now fight for promotion and financial gains rather than work as machine sin the operational processes of the organization(Soron 2013).

Scientific Management Approaches

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Most of the institutions are thought to work entirely on concept based on rational mindsets as observed by Dr. Brown (2014). There is, therefore, a movement that is based on four factors as Ritzer postulated in his 1983 book, The McDonaldization of society. Ritzer claimed that organizations are managed and affected by management decisions as a whole and thus are regulated by these four factors completely. A society that is full of individuals with a rational mind has a lot of efficiencies, sustainability and emphasis on human factors like technology and power.

The running of organizations at a such a society is therefore not based on uncertainty and regret. All these factors are common from a rational point of view. These changes have been so common that they can be said to have been as a result of a century-old management revolution. The major talking point is, however, how these modern management points of view for organizations are affecting the overall management of these organizations in the 21st century.

One can ask themselves whether these principles of are the way forward in the 21st-century management of organizations. Dr. Brown (2014) is quoted asking whether these principles are a better way to respond to traditional management and if technology is the best way to respond to these changes.

Social factors have now become a priority for most modern organizations. Employees’ initiatives and welfare is a major concern for these organizations. They are also growing focus on the on how the employees adapt to their operational processes and closely monitor their employees’ performance. The issue of employee loyalty is also an area that is being focused on modern organizations. The entire social responsibility of organizations differs with Taylor’s notion that staffs are concerned with financial matters solely. Today the idea that employees have to be controlled from above is not very welcome in many organization like Google, who have given their employees the liberty to choose their work schedules (James &Schwarzbach 2011).

Scientific Management Approaches

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The future of organizations may be influenced a lot by technology. Technology is already manifesting itself as a contributing factor in the management of these organizations. The advancement in technology has influenced key factors in an organization like competitiveness and efficiency. This has made it necessary the managers of organizations in the twenty-first century adapt quickly to these technologies for their survival in these changing times. With the growth of technology, most societies have had to respond to these fast technological changes with adaptability techniques.

Irvine et al. (2011) think that artificial intelligent units might be used to replace human altogether as the main workforce. Managers today and in the future have to adapt to the trends so as to keep up the pace of technological change. Just like the managerial revolution of the twenty-first century, there may be an impending change in management approaches in the future.

It is impossible to see the scientific theory in its purest form in today’s management of organizations. There are, however, traces of the most common elements of this theory. The elements are mixed and matched and thus become deeply embedded in the organizational structure of modern organizations. This phenomenon can be used to explain why management of organizations has taken such a drastic change in the twenty-first century. Pure forms of Taylor’s methods can still be found in developing countries.

The reason for this observation is that most developing countries managers put their interest to where there is an availability of a cheap and reliable labor force. In places like this, the workforce is mainly desperate for money putting Taylor’s original scientific management theory in practice entirely (IAIN 2009).

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In conclusion, we have to answer the question as to what extent are the principles of scientific management applicable to the 21st century. It can be observed that technical management based on a rational point of view is being widely used in today’s management options. It can also be proven that several other theories critically analyze Taylor’s theories. Examples from Herzberg, Maslow, Ford, McDonalds, Googleand other modern managers all can be used to analyzeTaylor’s theories.

By applying school of thought based on Taylor’s theories, there can be a challenge in the future on the use of technology. The scientific management approach is not the only applicable theory when managing modern organizations. However, great strengths can be drawn from the theory in the management of organizations in the twenty-first century. Adopting the use of a clear-cut procedure has been a definite success in the fast food industry as used at McDonalds. Other strengths are the piece rate operations theory that when combined with Ford’s automation can result in improved productivity.

The major talking point in the differences between the scientific approach and modern approaches is on employees values. Taylor saw employees as parts of an operational process that is aimed at improved productivity of the workforce. He viewed them to be only interested in being paid. However, today organizations are more interested in employee initiatives and welfare as a major concern for these organizations. They are also very much interested in understanding how the employees adapt to their operational processes and closely monitor their employees performance.

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The issue of employee loyalty is also an area that is being focused on modern organizations. The entire social responsibility of organizations differs with Taylor’s notion that staff are concerned with financial matters solely. Today the idea that employees have to be controlled from above is not very welcome in many organizations. Technology has also been seen as a major factor that is being used by the managers of organizations in the twenty-first century.


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