The Influence of Leadership Styles on Employee Satisfaction and Productivity
Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here
This study sought to identify the types of leadership styles exhibited by management, the impact of leadership styles on employee satisfaction, productivity and staff perception of leadership styles. The study will adopted a descriptive survey of non-experimental research design to investigate the influence of leadership style on employee satisfaction and productivity. The study will rely on simple random and purposive sampling techniques in selecting a total of 120 respondents for the study.
The study will also expose that leaders who exhibited democratic (participative), people-oriented or transformational leadership characteristics for that matter, enhanced staff productivity. Leadership is a process influence between leaders and subordinates where a leader attempts to influence the behavior of subordinates to achieve the organizational goals. Organizational success in achieving its goals and objectives depends on the leaders of the organization and their leadership styles. By adopting the appropriate leadership styles, leaders can affect employee job satisfaction, commitment and productivity.
Background to the study
In recent times, organizations are going through dramatic changes, including flatter and looser structures, downsizing, and horizontal approaches to information flow. On the one hand, these changes are due to rapid technological developments, global competition and changing nature of the workforce. On the other hand, these organizational transformations and innovations are triggered by interventions such as total quality management and business process re- engineering.
Leadership is regarded as a critical factor in the initiation and implementation of the transformations in the organizations. In the past, leaders were identified, selected and installed based on the trait approach. The trait theory argues that leaders have certain personalities, social and physical characteristics, known as traits, which influence whether the person acts as a leader. Proponents of this view assert that qualities such as intelligence, knowledge and expertise, dominance, self-confidence, high energy, tolerance for stress, integrity and maturity were inborn.
The approach thus, rests on the assumption that some people were born to lead due to the presence of these qualities in them while others are not. This approach has witnessed a lot of criticisms from researchers and practitioners as a result of certain inconsistencies associated with it.
Effective leadership and employee job satisfaction are two factors that have been regarded as fundamental for organizational success. A capable leader provides direction for the organization and lead followers towards achieving desired goals. In similar vein, employees with high job satisfaction are likely to exert more effort in their assigned tasks and pursue organizational interests. An organization that fosters high employee job satisfaction is also more capable of retaining and attracting employees with the skills that it needs (Mosadegh Rad & Yarmohammadian, 2006).
Several studies have also examined the relationship between the two factors and concurred that leadership has significant impacts on job satisfaction and organisational commitment (William & Hazer, 1986). High job satisfaction enhances employees’ psychological and physical wellbeing (Ilardi, Leone, Kansser, & Ryan, 1983) and positively affects employee performance (Vroom, 1964).
According to Mosadegh Rad and Yarmohammadian (2006), employee job satisfaction refers to the attitude of employees towards their jobs and the organization which employs them. In particular, leaders within organizations can adopt appropriate leadership styles to affect employee job satisfaction, commitment and productivity.
Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here
Previous studies have examined the relationship between employee job satisfaction and leadership behavior in various settings such as healthcare, military, education and business organizations (Chen & Silversthorne, 2005). Consistent with this, the present study intends to examine the relationship between leadership styles, job satisfaction and in the public sector. Two types of leadership styles will be examined, namely, transactional and transformational leadership.
The overall aim of the study is to investigate the influence of leadership style on employee satisfaction and productivity.
1. To determine the relationship between aspects of transactional leadership such as contingent reward, active management by exception and passive management by exception with job satisfaction among employees.
What is the relationship between aspects of transformational leadership such as idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, individual consideration and inspirational motivation with job satisfaction among employees?
What is the relationship between aspects of transformational leadership such as idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, individual consideration and inspirational motivation with job satisfaction among employees?
What is the type of leadership styles that exists in the chosen organization?
What is the impact of leadership styles on staff productivity?
What is the impact of leadership styles on employee satisfaction?
Significance of the study
The research will be of great value to firms that need to improve staff productivity and employee satisfaction The research will also be of benefit to the research community in by suggesting areas that scholars can venture into. Thus it will act as a background research for future studies.
This section will provide the process of collecting the, outline the research design and the population and sample of the study. Study parameters such as the study setting, the type of data to be collected, the time of conducting the study and the limitations of the study will discussed as well.
This study is quantitative in nature and descriptive research will be used incorporating the case study design in the study. A case study is concerned with investigating a given phenomenon in great detail. The main reason behind using this design is to establish the extent to which the variables under study influence of leadership styles on employee satisfaction, productivity and staff perception of leadership styles.
The study will adopted descriptive survey for the data collection in order to answer the research questions because the researchers did not control factors that might influence the behavior and performance of subjects under study thereby reporting the outcome as they are (Smith, 1975).This study adopted qualitative method to assess the effects of leadership styles on staff productivity and employee satisfaction.
The target population will involve the total number of all units from in the organization. This study will be conducted among the various units of the institution where selected heads and other members of staff of were sampled to obtain in-depth data on how leadership style affected staff productivity and employee satisfaction.
Sample Size Determination
The target population will indicate above as 515 and a sample of 120 will be drawn for the study. The research will considered this sample size as a representation of the total population. Nwana (1992) suggests that if the population is a few hundred, a 40% or more sample size will do, if several hundred a 20% or more sample size will be suitable, if a few thousands a 10% sample size will do. Based on this criterion, 23.3% of 515 will equal to 120 and hence the sample size drawn for the study.
Procedure for Data Collection
The research will begin the study with a visit to all the various units and departments and also interacted with a number of staff. With this, the researcher will get to know members of staff well and better understood the institution and its structures. The objectives of the study will be made known to the respondents and also assured them of treating their information with utmost confidentiality. Assurances from a researcher to respondents of confidentiality of information being sought will make the interviewees more relaxed and open in their responses.
Data Presentation and Analysis
Computer data analyses software such as the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17) and other relevant software such as Microsoft Excel were the main tools employed to analyze. The justification for the choice of these programs was that, these techniques facilitated word processing and data analysis very easy and accurate.
Adair, J. (1973) Action-Centred Leadership. New York,: McGraw-Hill.
Archer, F. K., Adentwi, K. I.and Sam, F. K. (2008) Educational Management and School Administration: Ebens Press.
House, R. (1976) „A 1976 theory of charismatic leadership‟, in J.Hunt and L. Larson (eds)
Howell, J.M., & Avolio, B.J.(1989). Transformational versus transactional leadership: How they impact innovation, risk-taking, organization structure and performance. Paper presented at the National Meeting of the Academy of Management, Washington, DC.
Kilpatrick, S. And Locke, E. (1991) „Leadership: Do Traits Matter?‟ Academy of Management Executive Vol. 5 , No. 2, pp. 48-60.
Lewin,K., LIippit, R. and White, R. K. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates. Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 271-301.
Müller, R., and Turner, J. R.(2005). Cultural differences in project owner-manager communication. In D. P. Slevin, D.
Yammarino, F.J. and Dubinsky, A.J. (1994). Transformational leadership theory: using levels of analysis to determisne boundary conditions. Personnel Psychology, 47 (4), p. 787.
Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here
Human Resource Management Strategies that SMEs Business Leaders use to Increase Employee Productivity
Background of the Problem
Profitability in many organizations is below envisaged levels due to a lack of knowledge about effective usage of human capital among their HR professionals (Lawler &Mohrman, 2013). In Thailand, organizations that fail to implement the necessary HR strategies by their recommended HR professionals often record the lowest profits or no profits and collapse within 2 to 4 years of their existence (Becker &Huselid, 2014). Zaugg and Thom (2013) asserted that employee productivity and the subsequent profitability of many organizations could be increased through the adoption of appropriate human resource management (HRM) strategies and adjust to the fast- changing labour market.
The company productivity is directly linked to the employee’s productivity. If the employees are motivated and are given the freedom to express themselves in a way that corresponds to the operations of the company’s efforts will result to improved company performance.
Inefficiency as far as HR departments are concerned leads to insolvency or financial distress of companies. Organizations have efficiently played a role in improving the nature and the operations that are undertaken by the human resource (HR) professionals. The HR professionals’ role is to ensure that the employees are effective in increasing the company profitability and productivity (Wright et al., 2014).
The creations of sustainable HR strategies are essential for improved employee productivity and continued profitability in organizations in Thailand (Pfeffer&Veiga, 2014). For instance, firms in Thailand have adopted HR strategies such as motivation and ranking of position. This strategy helps the employees to work excellently so that they can get the reward and at least get promoted to a certain position. In return, the employees’ productivity and the company’s profitability increase since the two are directly linked to one another.
More than 50% of small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) business leader in Thailand fails to utilize strategic human resource management (HRM) practices to manage employee productivity (Platonova et al., 2013). HRM practice accounts for over 80% of employee productivity in SMEs (Platonova, Hernandez & Moorehouse, 2013).
The general business problem is that lack of HRM strategies to manage employee productivity could affect SMEs profitability (Chahal, Jyoti, & Rani, 2016). The specific business problem is that some SMEs business leaders in Bangkok, Thailand lack HRM strategies to increase employee productivity.
The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study is to explore human resource management (HRM) strategies that small and medium-sized (SMEs) business leaders use to increase employee productivity. The target population consists of SMEs in Bangkok, Thailand. I will interview five business leaders from SMEs who are successful in implementing HRM strategies to increase employee productivity in their perspective organization.
The implication for social change stems from its design to help businesses to implement strategies to increase employee productivity. Employee productivity could increase business profitability, which could foster growth, resulting in employment opportunities for local communities.
What HRM strategies that SMEs business leaders use to increase employee productivity?
1. What HRM strategies you use to increase employee productivity?
2. What are the challenges you face while implementing HRM strategies?
3. How do you overcome such challenges?
4. How do you know that you are successful in implementing HRM strategies?
5. What else could you share that is pertinent to your HRM strategies that we have not covered for increasing employee productivity?
Nature of the Study
There are three types of research method: a) qualitative, b) quantitative, and c) mixed method (O’Brien et al., 2014). In a qualitative method, a researcher seeks to understand the event from the perspective of those who are experiencing the phenomenon (Vaismoradi et al., 2013). Quantitative researchers use statistical method that gives numerical results to provide additional data sets for analysis (Blau et al., 2013; Gherardi&Perrotta, 2014; Wolgemuth, 2014).
In this study, I will be interviewing participants to understand the particular occurrence from their perspective. There will be no statistical analysis of numerical data. Therefore, I chose qualitative method over quantitative method. Mixed method, researchers use both qualitative and quantitative methods (Yin, 2014). The mixed methodology is not suitable for this study since the quantitative method is not viable.
There are many designs to choose from under qualitative method. In ethnographic design, a researcher collects ideas, histories, insight, and assumptions in cultural settings (Symons & Maggio, 2014). In narrative design, a researcher collects data in a storytelling format to find the research outcome (Benson, 2014). The purpose of this study is to explore HRM strategies to increase employee productivity.
Both ethnographic and narrative design is not suitable for my research because I am not collecting data in a story telling from the participant’s point of view or in cultural settings. The phenomenological design is suitable for the study that plans to explore the lived experiences of the participants (Wagstaff& Williams, 2014). In this study, I do not plan to capture the lived experience of participants in a general setting, and for this reason, the phenomenological design is not appropriate.
I will use a multiple case study design for this study because it offers in-depth information about a particular matter that would not be likely to get from other designs. The case study is exploratory in nature that integrates multiple data collection techniques and helps to develop common factors inherent in the collected data (Gherardi&Perrotta, 2014; Yin, 2014). The multiple case studies will allow me to interview select SMEs business leaders from multiple companies to understand their perspective on the phenomenon under study.
The Ulrich model is the conceptual framework for this study. Ulrich and Yeung (1989) developed the Ulrich Model in 1989. The Ulrich Model views the human resource process in terms of talent acquisition, compensation and benefits, training and development, leadership, organizational design, and HR development (Brockbank et al., 2013). The model connects HR strategy, goals, objectives, and processes into an operating model (Brockbank et al., 2013).
The central objective of this model is to explain the relationship between the competency of HR professionals and the performance of the organization (Huselid et al., 2014). This framework is applicable to the study, as it will help me to understand how SMEs business leaders integrate HR strategies, HR goals and objectives, and HR process in their overall business strategy to increase employee productivity and business profitability.
Definition of Terms
The following defined terms are specific to the study topic. These definitions help the reader to understand the study as a whole.
Cognitive Orientation: Cognitive orientation describes the different ways an individual may go about the thinking process (Wolgemuth, 2014).
Competency Model: This is a set of expectations within organizations that are used to serve as benchmarks for exemplary performance and increased productivity (Wolgemuth, 2014).
Competency: Competency describes the ability someone’s to do something effectively or successfully (Huselid, Jackson & Schuler, 2014).
Effectiveness: It’s the potential of an organization to make use of its asset to generate cash inflow that exceeds its cash outflow (Yeung, Woolcock& Sullivan, 2013).
Human Capital: Human capital is the skills, knowledge, and experience possessed by an individual and includes education, experience, knowledge, and skills (Wright, Dunford& Snell 2014).
Management: It is the capability of a firm’s management to formulate and attain challenging objectives, take change and decisive practices, outdo the competitors and motivate other to execute efficiently (Weatherly, 2013).
Managerial Competencies: These are the motives, skills, as well as attitudes necessary for a job, including characteristics such as problem-solving, communication skills, the ability to work as a team, and customer focus (Weatherly, 2013).
Practices: Practices describes the ability to perform or carryout a particular method, custom, or activity regularly or habitually (Wright, McMahan & McWilliams, 2014).
Strategy: Strategy describes a policy or a plan of action designed to attain a major or overall aim of an organization (Yeung, Woolcock& Sullivan, 2013).
Sustainability: Sustainability is logical development based on the balance of economic, social, and environmental outcomes to provide benefits to multiple stakeholders (Huselid, Jackson & Schuler, 2014).
Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations
An assumption is acknowledged as accurate or confident to happen without having any proof, (Baranyi, Csapo, & Sallai, 2015). Making sure that the study is complete, there are several underlying assumptions. The first assumption is that during the interview process the researcher should obtain continuous feedback from the research participants. Secondly, during this study, women HR professionals are termed as considerate since they are looking for ways to increase the profitability of their organizations.
The third assumption is that the research participants would provide perspectives or ideas that would assist other HR professionals a not only focus on their industry and business alone but also think global and act the same time act local. This assumption made on the premise that the research participants will articulate how to use HR management strategies to increase organizations profitability.
A limitation is the limiting circumstances or rule and restrictions, (Souba, & Souba, 2016). There is a limit of the study by the selected location of study, and there is a possibility of research participants unwilling to share or holding back information. For the mitigation of this limitation particularly the lack of willingness to open up and memory, the interview questions focused on specific issues followed by probing questions to seek for clarifications to ensure that short answers but on point according to the research questions obtained. The five research participants are the other limitation of the study only focused on two medium sized businesses in Bangkok, Thailand.
Delimitation is the choices which the researcher makes for the research which is under the management of the researcher, (ZHANG, & ZHANG, 2013). The researcher must rationalize these delimitations in a research proposal. To mitigate the limitations of the study several delimitations established concerns the research participants, data, as well as the geographical area of the survey.
For instance, the study included participants from two HR organizations that seemed to help organizations to manage their employee’s productivity. The data collection included interviews with the SMES businesses, and the reviews documented. The geographical area provided a reasonable representation of areas in Bangkok, Thailand.
Significance of the Study
Contribution to business practice
The creation of sustainable human resource management strategies is necessary for the continued profitability of SMEs in Bangkok (Pfeffer&Veiga, 2014). The business profitability is dependent on employee productivity (Ahmad et al., 2015; Becker &Huselid, 2014). The human resource management strategies highlight HR activities within the organizations, both large and small to remain sustainable (Becker &Huselid, 2014; Yeung et al., 2013).
Organizations that integrate HRM strategies are efficient in utilizing its human capital and ultimately displaying high profits and growth (Huselid et al., 2014; Martina et al., 2013; Platonova et al., 2013). In essence, the findings of this study could contribute to effective business practice in three ways.
First, the study results will provide HR operational, procedural, and process strategies that successful SMEs use to increase employees productivities. Second, the study may help businesses to identify HRM software and other business intelligence tools that successful SMEs business leaders use to remain profitable. Lastly, the study findings may act as a precursor for future research in strategy formulation to increase business productivity.
Implication of social change
The study results will lead to HRM strategies that are effective in the workplace to increase employee productivity which could lead to business profitability. Effective HRM strategies would make employees satisfied with their job and hence, lower employee turnover for the company resulting in a reduced unemployment rate in the society (Gherardi&Perrotta, 2014; Wolgemuth, 2014). (Wright et al., 2014). Moreover, employee productivity could increase business profitability. Profitability fosters business growth, which could result in employment opportunities for local communities.
A Review of the Professional and Academic Literature
The purpose of the qualitative is to explore human resource management (HRM) strategies that small and medium-sized (SMEs) business leaders use to increase employee productivity. To come up with comprehensive findings and results of the dissertations, various resources were used. They were arranged in the Zotero software. Seventy articles were researched as far as literature review is concerned, ninety seven percent of the articles were peer reviewed and ninety three percent are in accordance with limited time period required by the Walden University Chief Academic Officer (CAO) agreement.
I limited myself to case studies and peer review to acquire the necessary information that I needed to answer to the research questions formulated and more so get to review the into detail about the human resource management strategies that SMEs business leaders use to increase productivity.
The central research question of the study was as follows: What HRM strategies that SMEs business leaders use to increase employee productivity? In this section, the topic to discuss covers how organizations in Bangkok, Thailand uses or link the human resource management with employee’s productivity that yields to company’s productivity. The subsections include (a) human resource management, (b) human resource strategies, (c) employee productivity, and (d) company productivity.
Human resource management
The primary role of human resource management is to hire and fire employees. However, this changes as per the organizational environment and the nature of the firms operations. In an organization, the human resources play with the company’s operations and they tend to waste time even if they are working. To ensure productivity, the human resource management department imposes human resource strategies such as motivation of workers to ensure productivity.
Doing so, they must come up with various HR mechanisms and strategies that are flexible and easily adoptable by the employees, ((Yeung, Woolcock& Sullivan, 2013).It makes it easier for the human resource to comply with the strategies and yield efficient productivity n terms of company’s productivity. In return to this, the organization will increase on its core competencies, gain a competitive position in the market that is resulted by a bigger market share in the market arena as compared to the competitors. This makes the company profitable with a strong financial position.
Human resource strategies
The imposed plans of the human resource management tend to motivate the staffs to work a little bit harder to ensure efficiency and efficiency of the company’s operations. The strategies imposed should be flexible and adoptable to change depending with the nature of the business environment both internal and external. Also, the strategies must comply with the demand and supply of what is been produced by the employees and what is needed by the company from the human resources.
If the strategies imposed by the HR management department are not in accordance with the taste and preference of the employees, it is difficult to force them to comply. On the other hand, if they are in accordance with their demand, they will comply and changes will be identified in their productivity together with the company productivity, (Huselid, Jackson & Schuler, 2014). Some of the strategies that are imposed are motivations. Through motivations, the employees may compete fairly for the betterment of attaining the award set for the winner or the group of employees. The results of this are to increase the employee’s productivity.
If the strategies imposed by the HR management department are not in accordance with the taste and preference of the employees, it is difficult to force them to comply. On the other hand, if they are in accordance with their demand, they will comply and changes will be identified in their productivity together with the company productivity, (Huselid, Jackson & Schuler, 2014). It is with no doubt that employee’s productivity is directly related to the human resource strategies.
When a company fails to impose good human resource strategies, it means that the probability that the employee’s productivity will be high is less than 0.5 and vice versa. When employees are well catered for, it guaranteed that they would reciprocate by working in an effective and efficient manner for the development of the firm’s operations. When the employees work excellently, the company profitability will increase since the organization market share and the competitive position will gradually develop (Jakob et al., 2013).
When the HR mechanisms and strategies are flexible and easily adoptable by the employees, ((Yeung, Woolcock& Sullivan, 2013) It makes it easier for the human resource to comply with the strategies and yield efficient productivity n terms of company’s productivity. In return to this, the organization will increase on its core competencies, gain a competitive position in the market that is resulted by a bigger market share in the market arena as compared to the competitors. This makes the company profitable with a strong financial position.
Company productivity is a result of increased or improved employee’s productivity. When the staffs work increases, they develop the organization’s competences at a minimum hurdle rate. With this, it means that the company operation cost is less hence huge profits. Furthermore, improved employee’s productivity creates opportunities for the firm to operate globally and this increases the firm’s competitive position and financial position.
Transition and Summary
The central research of this study is What HRM strategies that SMEs business leaders use to increase employee productivity? The section covered some key elements in the studyand thoseare the Problem Statement, Purpose Statement, Nature of the Study, Research Question, Conceptual Framework, Significance of the Study, and Literature Review sections.
Human capital shows a significant proportion of expenses in organizations that subsequently reduce their profits (Platonova et al., 2013). Research shows a lack of profitability strategies that are unique to the utilization of human capital (Platonova et al., 2013). Organizations perform better when their human capital is aligned to their needs (Becker &Huselid, 2014).
The review of the literature on the practices of HR professionals and organizations’ profitability has shown that in order for effective management of the human resources there is need for organizations to ensure implementation. It entails the implementation of innovative human resources management practices that are angered in the efficiency, competencies, and willingness of the HR professionals (Ahmad, Kausar & Azhar, 2015).
The organizations which are in forefront at implementing such practices with commitment and dedication, attains competitive advantage over their competitors. it is because such practices influence other variables such as financial performance, job satisfaction, employee turnover, employee commitment, among others positively.
Therefore, lead to overall organizations’ performance, productivity subsequently resulting in increased profitability (Platonova, Hernandez & Moorehouse, 2013). The findings from the study could provide HR professionals with a better understanding of the strategies that are effective to increase the employee productivity.
The knowledge could facilitate HR professionals to enhance the profitability potential in their organizations. The literature review provided an understanding of the processes, social constructs, and motivations that are unique to human resource management.
In Section 2, there is a description of a qualitative method research approach, including the populations and sampling, data collection, data analysis, and reliability and validity. The information in Section 3 presents the doctoral study findings, including applications to professional practice, implications for social change, and recommendations for future research.
Ahmad, A., Kausar, A. R., &Azhar, S. M. (2015). HR professionals’ effectiveness and competencies: A perceptual study in the banking sector of Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Society, 16, 201-220.doi:10.10843/985206306293668
Becker, B. E., &Huselid, M. A. (2014). High performance work systems and firm performance: A synthesis of research and managerial implications. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 16(3), 53-101.doi:10.1177/0149206306293668
Benson, P. (2014). Narrative inquiry in applied linguistics research. Annual Review
Blau, D., Bach, L., Scott, M., & Rubin, S. (2013). Clark Moustakas (1923–2012): Scholar, teacher, colleague and friend. The Humanistic Psychologist,41(6), 97–99. doi:10.1080/08873267.2013.752695
Brockbank, W., Ulrich, D., & Beatty, R. (2013). The professional development: Creating the future creators at the University of Michigan Business School. Human Resource Management, 38, 111-118.doi:10.4236/jssm.2008.13029.
Brockbank, W., Ulrich, D., & James, C. (2014).Trends in human resource competencies. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan School of Business.
Chahal, H., Jyoti, J., & Rani, A. (2016). The effect of perceived high-performance human resource practices on business Performance: Role of organizational learning. Global Business Review, 17, 107-132.doi:10.1177/0972150916631193
Gherardi, S., &Perrotta, M. (2014).Gender, ethnicity and social entrepreneurship: Qualitative approaches to the study of entrepreneuring. In E. Chell& M. Karata-Özkan (Eds.), Handbook of research on small business and entrepreneurship.130–135.
Huselid, M. A., Jackson, S. E., & Schuler, R. S. (2014). Technical and strategic human resource management effectiveness as determinants of firm performance.Academy of Management Journal, 40, 171–188.doi:10.2307/257025
Lawler, E., &Mohrman, S. (2013). HR as a strategic partner: What does it take to make it happen? Human Resource Planning,26(3), 15-30.doi:18.1077/653920630793668
Martina, K., Hana, U., & Jiri, F. (2013). Identification of managerial competencies in knowledge-based organization.Journal of Competitiveness, 4(1), 129-142.doi:10.1465/813206306293668
Mohrman, S., Lawler, E., & McMahon, G. (2014).New directions for the human resources organization. Los Angeles: University of Southern California.
Pfeffer, J. (2013). The human equation: Building profits by putting people first. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Pfeffer, J., &Veiga, J. F. (2014). Putting people first for organizational success. Academy of Management Executive, 13(2), 37–48. doi:10.1097/5369206306293668
Platonova, E. A., Hernandez, S. R., &Moorehouse, R. B. (2013). Innovative human resource Practices in U.S. hospitals: An empirical study. Journal of Healthcare Management, 58(4), 290-303.doi:10.1108/JKM-08-2013-0300.
Ramlall, S. (2013). Measuring human resource management’s effectiveness in improving performance. Human Resource Planning,26(1), 51-63.doi:10.1177/7149206306293875
Ulrich, D., & Beatty, D. (2015). From partners to players: Extending the HR playing field. Human Resource Management, 40(4), 293-308.doi:10.1095/9879206306293987
Vaismoradi, M., Turunen, H., &Bondas, T. (2013). Content analysis and thematic
analysis: Implications for conducting a qualitative descriptive study. Nursing and Health Sciences, 15, 398-405.doi:10.1111/nhs.12048
Wagstaff, C., & Williams, B. (2014). Specific design features of an interpretative phenomenological analysis study. Nurse Researcher, 21(3), 8-12. doi:10.7748/nr2014.01.21.3.8.e1226
Wolgemuth, J. R. (2014). Analyzing for critical resistance in narrative research. Qualitative Research, 14(2), 586–602. doi:10.1177/1468794113501685
Wright, P., Gary McMahan, McCormick, B., & Sherman, S. (2014). Strategy, core competence, and HR involvement as determinants of HR effectiveness and refinery.Human Resource Management,37(37), 17-31.doi:10.1113/9749206306293986
Wright, P., McMahan, G., & McWilliams, A. (2014). Human resources and sustained competitive advantage: A resource-based perspective. International Journal of Human Resource Management,5(2), 301-326.doi:10.1080/09585199400000020
Wright, P., McMahan, G., Snell, S., &Gerhart, B. (2015). Comparing line and HR executives’ perceptions of HR effectiveness: Services, roles, and contributions. Human Resource Management, 40(2), 111-123.doi:10.1177/8769206306293991
Wright, P. M., Dunford, B., & Snell, S. (2014). Human resources and the resource-based view of the firm.Journal of Management,27(3), 701-721.doi:10.1177/014920630102700607
Yeung, A., Woolcock, P., & Sullivan, J. (2013). Identifying and developing competencies for the future.Human Resource Planning,19(4), 48-58.doi:10.1180/98920630629986
Zaugg, R., & Thom, N. (2013). Excellence through implicit competencies: Human resource management organizational development knowledge creation. Journal of Change Management, 3(3), 199-212.doi:10.1177/1169206306293753
Want help to write your Essay or Assignments? Click here
In this present era with various leadership approaches available, Leadership is an important individual trait that helps the people to become successful, personally and professionally. Development of the effective leadership abilities and skills assist the individuals in enhancing positive individual growth in the personal life as well as professional life. Effective adoption of justified and appropriate leadership style can build effective decision-making capabilities within an individual, which will help to become a successful leader shortly.
This is a vital fact to state that the consideration of the leadership capabilities can add effective value in the personal life of an individual. It will enhance an effective life experience, which can assist the particular individual to implement the experience and skills in near future in the decision making process. It is a process of development of successful and skilled leaders.
Most importantly, every individual needs to adopt adequate leadership skills to become successful in the professional career as adequate leadership approaches can help to get effective social recognition. Moreover, the implication of the appropriate leadership styles can also assist an individual to attract the followers within the society. This essay will provide an in-detailed discussion on how the course in leadership can add value to the life experience of the individuals as preparation for leadership.
Leadership and ethics are directly related to each other. All the future professionals and present job seekers want to become a successful professional in the individual life. In this particular process, all the individuals need to adopt some particular leadership styles and approaches. It is acceptable that the adoption and application of the leadership approach always depend upon the behavioral traits and personality of the individuals.
It is true that the behavioral traits and personality of people used to differ from an individual to another individual (Long, 2016). However, the individuals can adopt different types of leadership styles, such as transformational leadership style, transactional leadership style, autocratic leadership style, laissez-faire leadership style, visionary leadership style, charismatic leadership style, democratic leadership style, etc.
This usually depends upon the personality traits of people. Every positive behavioral study indicates that the appropriate application of these leadership approaches actually can enhance positive organizational ethics and strong business ethics (Sekerka et al., 2014). Strong business ethics is important for the companies in this contemporary era to grow profitability and the leaders need to follow the ethical pathway to enhance sustainable career growth. Therefore, ethics is important for all the leaders and future job seekers.
Leadership Approaches: Case Study
The completion of course in leadership acts as a value added skill development process, which helps in the enhancement of adequate leadership approaches and outcome. An example of the leadership approach adopted by PepsiCo can be considered. The management of PepsiCo has adopted the transformational leadership approach in which the company management has maintained strong ethics across all the organizational departments (Ubah, 2016).
The coursework in leadership will help the future professionals to understand the value of the transformational leadership approach in maintaining ethics and will also help to become a successful professional. Overall, it is acceptable that the development of effective knowledge about leadership styles will assist in maintaining strong business and corporate ethics shortly.
Job Satisfaction and motivation of the employees also can be regarded as an important responsibility of the organizational leaders. A professional leadership course can assist the future professionals and job seekers to add value to the personal life experience. Hence, the development of knowledge regarding the characteristics and implications of the leadership approaches can assist the organizational management of the company to ensure positive sales growth of the organizations.
For example, the employees are the vital growth drivers of any company and the high-performance level of the employees helps the firms to improve the profitability and business growth. Therefore, the leaders of the organizational departments need to take care of the job satisfaction and motivation level, which will encourage the employees to do well within the organizational set-up.
Transformational leadership approach is an employee friendly approach, and the leaders of the contemporary era should try to implicate this particular leadership approach for the better workplace environment (Bayram & Dinc, 2015).
This transformational leadership style has a strong impact on the business growth and performance of a company. Hence, the professional course in the leadership management process can assist in the establishment of the effective knowledge level regarding leadership, which will help the individuals to become a successful leader (Oehlrich, 2016).
Knowledge management is also considered to be the vital element for the individuals to get success in the professional life. There are five important traits of an effective knowledge management process, such as seniority, enthusiasm, understanding, expertise, and approachability. These five important traits of the knowledge management process need to be developed by the individuals in this present era to become a successful professional. On the other hand, strategic leadership and knowledge management processes are strongly related to each other.
The effective leadership style application process can enhance the adequate knowledge management process (Snell, 2010). Value and respect for seniority helps in the development of the strong knowledge level. On the other hand, the level of understanding always enhances adequate knowledge management process. Moreover, the consideration of the enthusiasm regarding learning and development process enhances the knowledge management process.
The leaders in this contemporary era should also go for the approachability trait to present some strategies and ideas to important stakeholders of a company. This particular approach is also regarded as an essential part of the knowledge management approaches (Beaumont, 2010). Lastly, development of expertise and competency always assist an individual in enhancing the strong knowledge level.
Overall, the above mentioned five traits can be acquired by a future professional through the application of the appropriate leadership style. Also, this is also important to accept that the professional course in the leadership management activities will always help an individual to become a professional and successful leader shortly (Lussier, 2014).
It is also important to accept that leadership is an evolutionary approach. It has been identified since the old ages that the consideration of the different leadership approaches assists the individuals to deal with the challenges basis on the demand of the situations. This is an important aspect to state that the organizational leader in this contemporary era focuses on the application of the structural leadership approaches or the situational leadership approaches (Ardichvii & Yoon, 2014).
The consideration of the structural leadership approach is a traditional leadership approach, which helps the bureaucratic organizations to adopt the classical approach to follow a particular developed system. On the other hand, some of the companies in this contemporary era are also focused on the implementation of the situational leadership approaches. This situational leadership approach application process depends upon the demand of the specific situations.
Moreover, the organizational management used to adopt this leadership style in the crisis to overcome some particular challenges faced by the companies (Beugelsdijk, 2010). However, the application of all of these leadership styles, such as structural leadership and situational leadership approaches require practical knowledge and skills. Therefore, the future professionals need to go through the professional leadership course works to strengthen the value-added leadership skills and capabilities (Vugt et al., 2008).
However, the environmental factors are constantly changing for the leaders throughout the historical ages. In this contemporary era, the definition, characteristics, and traits of the leadership approaches have evolved significantly. This is an important aspect to state that the contemporary leaders are facing different types of the changes in the development process.
The current professionals are finding it highly difficult to develop the appropriate description, definition and theoretical approaches in the establishment of the leader development theory (O’Connell, 2014). Practicing and learning of the leadership approaches in this modern era should focus on the integration of increasing capacity for the behavioral and cognitive approaches.
This specific aspect needs to be learned and practiced by the contemporary and future professionals. Hence, the professional leadership course works can assist the future professionals to identify and overcome the dilemmas in the leader development theory (Rowley, 2010).
The application of the management and organizational theory can be considered here. According to the theoretical aspects of the management theory, the contemporary organizations are responsible for the maintenance of the effective workplace environment. Besides, the organizational leaders are also responsible for the meeting or achievement of the management objectives, which can enhance strong business ethics and sustainability (Keely, 2011).
Also, the contemporary leaders are also responsible for the implication of the organizational theory as it helps the organizational leaders to identify and assess the organizational culture as well as structure. The organizational leaders assess these aspects for a better implication of the strategies shortly.
It is acceptable that the contemporary job seekers should join the professional leadership management course to acquire the knowledge regarding the management and organizational theory, which will assist in the development of the high quality and conflict free workplace environment. Also, this is also essential for the modern day teachers to develop effective leadership approaches in the education service providing approaches (Morton, 2012).
It is acceptable that the modern day teachers need to adopt some important styles of leadership approaches, which will be different from each other concerning nature and characteristics. The educators need to adopt four important types of leadership styles, such as delegating, selling, telling and participating (Oyetunji, 2011).
The implication of these specific leadership styles will significantly depend upon the demand of the situation and behavioral as well as personality traits of the individuals. Overall, it is acceptable that the future professionals within the education industry need to adopt these types of leadership capabilities to become a successful professional.
Also, effective training and knowledge acquirement process regarding these leadership approaches is also important for the future professionals (Harzing, 2014). It is important to acknowledge that the motivational traits are changing within the society from a particular generation to another generation (Chen & Huang, 2011). Most importantly, the employees of professionals of the younger generation can believe in some specific traits.
On the other hand, the people of the elder generations within a particular society or an organizational institution used to believe in some other motivational traits. These traits can be different, and orientation of gender can be the major reason behind the differentiation (Harris, 2010).
Overall, this will be important to accept that the organizational leaders in this contemporary era should understand the gender gap and possible implemented traits to overcome the workplace conflicts to maintain a strong collaboration between the employees of different age group. Hence, the leaders need to go through professional leadership courses for the better value addition to personal experience to become a successful leader shortly (Murray, 2011).
It is identified from the discussion that the future professionals and the job seekers in this contemporary era needs to develop strong competency and knowledge level regarding the application of different types of leadership styles. There are different types of leadership styles, which can be applied by the leaders based on the demand of the situation and personality traits of leaders.
Overall, this is acceptable that the application of the justified leadership approaches can help a leader to strengthen organization ethics, improve workplace performance, ensure good knowledge management and enhance profitability. The professionals need to understand the value of the leadership, as leadership is responsible for the mentioned organizational benefits.
Ardichvii, A., & Yoon, W. S. (2014). “Designing Integrative Knowledge Management Systems: Theoretical Considerations and Practical Applications.” Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11(3), 307-320.
Bayram, H., & Dinc, S. (2015). Role of Transformational Leadership on Employee’s Job Satisfaction: the Case of Private Universities in Bosnia and Herzegovina. European Researchers, 93(4), 270-281.
Beaumont, J. (2010). Knowledge management in a regional law firm: A worthwhile investment or time wasted? Business Information Review, 27(4), 227-232.
Beugelsdijk, S. (2010). “Strategic Human Resource Practices and Product Innovation.” Organization Studies, 29(8), 820-847.
Chen, C., & Huang, J. (2011). “Strategic human resource practices and innovation performance-The mediating role of knowledge management capacity.” 62(1), 104-114.
Harris, H. (2010). International HRM: Contemporary Issues. Stamford: Cengage Learning.
Harzing, A. Q. (2014). International HRM. London: Cambridge University Press.
Keely, T. (2011). HRM Practices. London: Kogan Page.
Long, J. (2016). Process Modelling Style. New York: Springer.
Lussier, N. R. (2014). Management Fundamentals. New York: Springer.
Morton, B. (2012). The Global HR Manager. London: Routledge.
Murray, A. (2011). Mind the gap: technology, millennial leadership, and the cross-generational workforce. The Australian Library Journal, 60(1), 54-64.
O’Connell, K. P. (2013). A simplified framework for 21st-century leader development. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(1), 183-203.
Oehlrich, M. (2016). Organisation and Restructuring. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Oyetunji, O. C. (2011). Reorienting leadership styles for sustainable education. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, 13(2), 59-69.
Rowley, C. (2010). Human Resource and Operation Management. New York: Springer.
Sekerka, E. L., Comer, R. D., and Godwin, N. L. (2014). Positive Organizational Ethics: Cultivating and Sustaining Moral Performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 119(1), 435-444.
Snell, S. (2010). Managing Human Resources. New Jersey: Pearson.
Ubah, M. (2016). The Alphabet of Leadership. New Jersey: Pearson.