The death penalty and other issues concerning crime and punishment

The death penalty and other issues concerning crime and punishment
The death penalty and other issues concerning crime and punishment

The death penalty and other issues concerning crime and punishment

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The death penalty and other issues concerning crime and punishment, e.g. Prisoners rights’; torture

This assignment consists of building upon the reflective essays you have completed thus far, with the goal to help you expand your writing and critical thinking skills further. Choose one topic from the list below in which you must narrow down.

You are to write a research paper in which there is an investigation and inquiry into a question and/or thesis statement that is analytical, expository or argumentative, therefore answering it with detail and substantial supporting information.

You need to clearly indicate which platform you will be utilizing to express your topic.

You will be graded on the areas of critical thinking, information literacy, written communication, organization of paragraphs, use of supporting literature.

As the writer, you must formulate a persuasive arguments and/or counter-arguments to the reader (Professor Dawkins) providing your point of view on the topic. In your conclusion, be sure to discuss what led to your interest in the topic you have chosen.

Your paper is required to consist of 10 full pages of written content.

Finally, you are required to include an annotated bibliography for one your sources (Journal article) with your list of references. 

This paper must include references the least six or more references, scholarly articles and/or journals, books, no website or blogs.

Follow proper APA citation format in your paper and add a section on the references you used at the end of the paper with a heading “Bibliography”.

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The death penalty and other issues concerning crime and punishment


Crime and the general conduct that is considered criminal are frowned upon in every jurisdiction. Such behavior has always been viewed as conduct unbecoming, and those who have been involved or suspected to have been involved have had to pay for such conduct with their lives or freedom. They have also been victimized and shunned away by the other members of the society. In an effort to reduce and hopefully eradicate these antisocial behavioral mannerisms, the state has come up with various acts that are considered a crime in addition to prescribing the punishment for each act.

The punishments meted out are meant to be commensurate with the offensive conduct and are meant to have several effects on different groups of people. The most common measure is to be punitive for the deviant and to act as deterrence for the rest of the members of the society. These punitive measures have undergone a lot of changes with the advent of human rights and other movements that seek to promote forgiveness, understanding and embracing the deviants. There have also been a lot of changes in the way that conducts that were once frowned upon as deviant have been accepted and legalized.

Some of the conduct that was once viewed as unacceptable and punishable such as gay and other forms of queer mannerisms have been accepted and promoted in a bid to embrace the unique nature of every human. This, however, varies per jurisdiction. The involvement of human rights organisations and other movements have emerged to advocate for the rights of those regarded as criminals. These rights are applied at every stage of their lives, the arrest, and prosecution, their lives during committal and service of the sentence and finally their lives after serving time. 

This paper focuses on the general aspect of crime and punishment in different jurisdictions as they vary with religious and social beliefs, as do the treatment of persons from the point of investigations, arrest, trial and finally committal. The rights of the prisoners have long been neglected as they are considered pariahs in the society. This paper is analytical of the plight of prisoners and the sentences they face in addition to exposing the human rights issues that are to be addressed in the plights of prisoners’ rights.

Crime and punishment

Crime is defined as an act that infringes on the law and therefore punishable. This broad description covers the significant aspect of what crime entails although it is worth noting that some crimes are not against people per se. These actions or omissions result in the suffering of persons. As a general duty of the state and its agencies to guard and protect its citizens, any infringement of the same attracts certain penalties to the perpetrator. Such penalties are out in the criminal laws. These punishments are meant to ensure justice for the victims (Friedman and Percival, 2017). It is also for the maintenance of law and order.

The forms of punishment vary per jurisdiction. These forms are however general, ranging from the death penalty for the offenses considered capital to the payment of fines and community service for petty offences. Some offences are minor to the extent that the penalties given to them are contemptuous, such as offering an apology or even being let off with a warning (John, 2013). In pronouncing the penalties, several factors are usually given due consideration by the judicial officers, apart from the crime committed. Such factors include age, gender and the extenuating factors that led to the commission or omission of the said offence.

The general purpose of punishment has been a subject of research as many governments have dedicated resources to finding the best way to deal with this issue. New studies are being conducted and policies being formulated with the core purpose of finding a way to effectively prevent criminal conduct (Matthews and Young, 2013).  In this quest to find a balancing ground, several issues have been addressed such as the rights of the victims vis a vis those of the prisoners and the quest for justice to all. Although the rights of the prisoners have always taken a back stage since as the perpetrators or alleged perpetrators their absence in the society is most welcomed.

The inclusion of social mechanics of the society has had a great impact on the development of this area of practice of crime and punishment. The involvement of human rights organisations and the community as well as the introduction of acceptance in the forms of punishment. These changes have come up through various means, such as vide a court process, for the right of Muslim inmates to grow a beard to the right against torture, enshrined in the Convention against Torture and other forms of Degrading Treatment. These rights are accorded to the prisoners regardless of the magnitude of crimes they committed.

In a nutshell, the punishment prescribed for certain conduct is laid out in law. These are made to ensure that uniformity is achieved in the criminal justice system. In ensuring that justice is done, the prisoners are accorded some basic rights such as healthcare, the practice of their religious beliefs, visitation rights and much more. The treatment of prisoners and their respective rights have improved but still considered as degrading in certain instances.

Death penalty. Since time immemorial, the death penalty has been used as a form of punishment for those offences deemed capital. It was common to be sentenced to death when one kills or commits an abominable act. This practice is however lost its prominence as some jurisdictions have abolished the act and others; though have it as a punitive provision in their laws, rarely put it into practice (Garland, 2014). The uprising by some religious and human rights organisations in condemning this form punishment has yielded a lot of positive feedback. These organizations argue that life is sacrosanct and hence should be respected. They are against the practice of killing as a form of punishment for crimes that considered serious……

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Administrative Justice

Administrative Justice
Administrative Justice

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Administrative Justice 

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The United States Supreme Court has had a tremendous impact on the criminal procedure practiced in all three sub components of the American criminal justice system. Discuss the three most important(landmark) Supreme Court cases that have dramatically changed how the criminal procedure is conducted in one of the subsystems (i.e. police, courts, or corrections).

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Which subsystem you choose is your choice as is the three cases, but be sure and say why you chose those cases, what was the substantial change those cases made to that subsystem. Also, discuss whether that change was for the better or not, with reasons for your answer SCHOLARLY SOURCES ONLY

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The Best Evidence Rule Essay Paper

The Best Evidence Rule
The Best Evidence Rule

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The Best Evidence Rule

What is the best evidence rule? Explain in detail.

The best evidence rule in the US Constitution is associated with Article X of the Federal Rules of Evidence (1001-1008). The statute identifies the guiding principles that may require either the plaintiff or defendant to table as evidence the contents of a document, footage or photograph at trial in the absence of original documents.  However, secondary evidence can only be allowed, if either party can present tangible reasons for the missing original document.

The rule applies best in a circumstance where the party endeavors to substantiate contents of copy document presented as evidence at trial. Moreover, evidence to the original content can be adduced in the form of testimonies. Modern times have, however, necessitated the application of electronic, motionless and other copies as a substitute for the original (Miller, 2012). The general rule dictates that secondary evidence cannot be tabled at trial if the original document exists. 

Why was the best evidence rule implemented into the U.S. court system? Explain.

In the US for instance, the court system held the view that any secondary evidence was inadequate. As such, the judicial system would prefer original content or recorded evident as opposed to photocopies because the substantiation in these documents was reliable and of great significance in a court of law(Miller, 2012).  

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A case in point is where the Washington Post did a story based on a leakage which necessitated the fall of President Richard Nixon of the United States in 1972. Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein wrote the editorial piece that carried grave allegations.  The article highlighted a well-orchestrated ploy to rig President Nixon into the office for the second term.

Moreover, the information also led to the Watergate scandal. While the heated the article generated led to the President Nixon’s resignation from office, it also paved the way for the imprisonment of several top officers in the Nixon’s government (Amaya, 2008).The best evidence rule as enfolded in the Federal Rules of Evidence demands the application of original content, footage and photographic material or paintings. The precision of evidence it presents underscores the reason the statute was implemented in the United States court system.

What is the rationale behind its application?

The motivation for applying the best evidence rule can only be comprehended from the circumstances in which it emerges. The 18th Century, for instance, a situation arose where handmade evidence was tabled as evidence at trial. This set precedence for theassumption that in the absence of original content, there was every reason not to rely on the copy adduced as evidence (Miller, 2012).

Two viewpoints underlie the basis of the best evidence rule:

Fraud Deterrence:

The rule safeguards against false evidence. There is a presumption that an original document is less susceptible to falsified exploitation than a verbal testimony about the write-up. By admitting original content, the best evidence rule thwarts fraudulent orchestrations. Regardless of where the best evidence rule applies, it may be irrelevant to foil fraud in a bid to weaken the fraud rationale.

However, advents of photographic and scanning technology have made it probable to forge documents. While the best evidence rule may help to curtail fraud, it does not mean that all original documents tabled as evidence for trial are necessarily genuine (Allen and Stein, 2013).

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CurtailingMisconception of Writings

The justification presented is that the rule was formulated to curtail any likelihood of a deceitful imprint of the writings by demanding for the provision of original documents if they exist. Precluding misconceptions is a critical element; however, modern developments of the discovery weaken this to justify the best evidence rule model(Miller, 2012). The rationale that the judges can examine original documents implies that they can also determine the impreciseness before trial as opposed to unraveling the same problems using the best evidence rule.

Review the following cases concerning wiretapping:

Olmstead v. the United States

Olmstead’s office and the home area were tapped in a stealth mode by the federal agents. It is this evidence from that wiretaps that was used against him in court.  The judgment was anchored on a wire-tapped discussion in which Olmstead insinuated a ploy to violate the National Prohibition Act through the importation and selling of illicit beer(Anderson, Schum and Twining, 2009).

The pronouncements to employ wiretapped discussions as implicating evidence did not violate their Fifth Amendment safety against self-incrimination as the conversationwas not illegitimately executed but were volunteered between the two parties. Independently, the party’s 4th Amendments rights were contravened because the whole issue of wiretapping does not entail a search and appropriation the sole impression of the 4th Amendment.  Moreover, for ethical reasons, the jury ruled that wiretapping could be immoral, but no court can exclude such evidence.

Nardone v. the United States

In the case of Nardone v. the US, it’s challenging to understand the information used in the investigation the purpose as a result of security alert, a significant amount of data was recorded. In the identification of data that breaches privacy, lawmakers should be in a position to realize, hear and comprehend information, which is not relevant to the primary goal of the investigation. It is also intricate how a regime uses words spoken by an individual to convict them. In such a government, an individual can choose to speak or keep quiet while wiretapping fulfills the credentials for use in the court of law (Miller, 2012).

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Goldman v. the United States

In this case, the court ruled that dictaphones did not breach the Fourth Amendment. The dictaphone was placed on the office wall to record private discussion. Such a ruling the court reported that there was no physical violation of the intercepted discussion(Miller, 2012).  It is evident that the Fourth Amendment protected the individuals in this case as well as areas from unwarranted search and seizure.

Berger v. New York

In the Berger v. New York case, Mr. Berger was charged with the crime of bribing the Chairman of Liquor Authority of New York State. It began when Ralph Pansini complained to the District Attorney regarding the state of New York agents raiding his bar and seizing accounting records. Pansini alleges that the raid was due to his refusal to pay the license fee. As such, he uses are cording device to interview and record the views of workers about the actual license fee.

Katz v. the United States

In this case, Katz purchased a public phone booth and used it in transferring illegal betting wagers. Unfortunately, the FBI was monitoring his conversations using electronic eavesdropping tool fixed on the booth. Katz appealed to the court but, the pleas were rejected since there was no physical violation to booth regardless of various constitutional issues that were brought into perspective.

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Summarize the current status of wiretapping restrictions according to the reviewed cases above.

Based on the above situations, they have different views regarding the legitimacy to use wiretapping in the court. In Goldman and Olmstead cases were diluted by their views. However, the main issue is that whether the seizures and searches are constitutional and meet the required standards as stipulated by law. The government’s decision to not only listen but also record electronic data of petitioners is against their right to use the phone booth.

Alleging that electronic tools used in recording information did not violate the booth is not constitutional(Anderson, Schum and Twining, 2009). The administration is adamant stating that the officers acted in that manner as defensive approach while the investigationwas initiated after the suspect was confirmed to be using the alleged phone booth to disseminate betting content to individuals in Boston, Miami, and Los Angeles, which is a breach of the federal laws. In these cases, wiretapping used by government officers is solely used for security reasons and also restricted to data that violates federal laws.

How must evidence derived from wiretapping be packaged and preserved? Explain.

Evidence collected from wiretapping is relevant in the above cases. As such, it should package and preserve in large containers. But for crime related cases such as stained clothes, the evidence should be stored in plastic bags to prevent proof from being interfered with because it is likely to compromise with original proof. With regards to ammunition cases, evidence must preserve in dry areas so avoid rusting such as plastic equipment. Another important fact to put into account is the use of safes and access should be done by certain individuals (Miller, 2012).

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How does wiretapping evidence relate to the “fruit of the poisonous tree” doctrine? Explain.

Wiretapping involves the use of electronic tools are secretly fixed to record theconversation of unsuspecting individuals, which is used later as proof in the court(Miller, 2012). On the other hand, “fruit of the poisonoustree” doctrine evidence is not employed if obtained in a way that calls for pervasive searches. The “fruit of the poisonoustree” doctrine was instigated to avoid law enforcers from breaching the rights of people through unnecessary searches as well as seizures.

What is the likely outcome of your case in court if the originals are not located? Explain.

This may lead to the dismissal of such a case sincethe judicial system allows for the recording of any case as adequate proof. Moreover, the parties may not agree on the data that its originality is not located. In the court of law, the accused attorney determine the proof against their clients and in instances where the evidenceis not validated, they (attorney) can easily win the case (Anderson, Schum and Twining, 2009).


Allen, R. and A. Stein, (2013). “Evidence, Probability and the Burden of Proof”, Arizona Law Review, 55: 557–602.

Amaya, A., (2008). “Justification, Coherence, and Epistemic Responsibility in Legal Fact-finding”,Episteme, 5: 306–319.

Anderson, T., D. Schum and W. Twining, (2009).Analysis of Evidence, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 3rd edition.

Miller, .C. (2012). Evidence: Best Evidence Rule. John Marshall Law School, Chicago

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Testimonial and non-testimonial statements: Case Study

Testimonial and non-testimonial statements
Testimonial and non-testimonial statements

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Testimonial and non-testimonial statements

Testimonial and non-testimonial statements: While the appellant did not attend the trial, she was able to transmit a photograph and some text, which in any case does not warrant to be used as evidence against the defendant. However, it was presented as evidence of the linkages between the appellant and her ex-husband.  The scripture states that one person cannot be used as sufficient evidence to criminalize a person’s wrongdoing. Instead, Deuteronomy 19:15 asserts that at least two witnesses can provide sufficient evidence against a case in a court of law (Jonakait, 2005).

 The defendant can dismiss the litigant’s claim asserting that presenting a photograph and text without affording him the opportunity to cross-examine the defendant violates his Sixth Amendment right to challenge the plaintiff as defined by the U.S. Supreme Court in Adrian Martell Davis v. Washington.  In this circumstance, the court can dismiss the case arguing that the photograph and text cannot be used as testimony.

In short, the Confrontation Clause of the 6th Amendment does not approve non-testimonial statements and does not therefore qualify to be used as evidence at trial. The photograph and the text provided to 911 were intended to help the police determine an ongoing emergency, as opposed to being used as testimony to a past crime (Lininger, 2005).

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The bench can, therefore, uphold the view that under this backdrop, the content cannot act as testimony.  While her not appearing at trial was warranted by the Sixth Amendment, the content was insufficient to prosecute the defendant because the motives may be crooked. The photograph and text were prohibited. The Adrian Martell Davis v. Washington altered hostility analysis. Its existing effect was immediate and substantial in the justice system on the evidence termed as irrelevant (Raeder, 2007).


Lininger, T. (2005). Prosecuting Batterers After Crawford. Virginia Law Review, 747-822.

Jonakait, R. N. (2005). ‘Witnesses’ in the Confrontation Clause: Crawford v. Washington, Noah   Webster, and Compulsory Process. NYLS Legal Studies Research Paper, (05/06), 2.

Raeder, M. S. (2007). Domestic Violence Cases After Davis: Is the Glass Half Empty or Half Full. JL & Pol’y, 15, 759.

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Reliability of Evidence

Reliability of Evidence

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Reliability of Evidence

Question one

In legality terms, reliability has been used in evidence. The reliable evidence used is that one a lawyer or a judge find it to be credible to depend on upon when making an informed decision.

In terms of consistency, reliability is used evaluate or analyze the notch that various assessment on items do review same concept yield similar items. It is used to determine the correlation coefficient of similar items.

In terms of export testimony, reliability is used in a specialized way of wisdom that help the trier the fact to comprehend the evidence given in order to define a fact in subjects. In this context, the witness is the expert who has the knowledge, skill, well trained, experienced, and education may testify in form of an opinion freely, (Jardine, & Tsang, pg. 87, 2013).

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Question two

Countermeasure are non-violent acts which are often seemed illegal but when executed by one person to another, they become legal. One of the countermeasure is polygraph. Polygraph countermeasure are said to be ineffective since they are usually detected. The polygraph countermeasures are used because the proclaims that when used in closed doors, it becomes difficult for the polygraph to be detected easily, (Nelson, pg. 54, 2015).

Question three Bogus pipeline is a performance used by the social psychologists that help to minimize wrong answers when trying to assemble self-report information. The bogus pipeline is fake because it gets to convince the respondents that they are been witnessed and whatever they say will be questioned. They therefore proceeds by telling the truth about themselves, (Brunell,  & Fisher, pg, 39, 2014).

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Jardine, A. K., & Tsang, A. H. (2013). Maintenance, replacement, and reliability: theory and applications. CRC press.

Nelson, R. (2015). Scientific Basis for Polygraph Testing. Polygraph, 44(1), 28-61.

Brunell, A. B., & Fisher, T. D. (2014). Using the bogus pipeline to investigate grandiose narcissism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 55, 37-42.

Palmatier, J. J., & Rovner, L. (2015). Credibility assessment: Preliminary Process Theory, the polygraph process, and construct validity. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 95(1), 3-13.

Robinson, C. (2012). Brake check technology: real time, all the time: electronic monitoring addresses the CVSA inspection standard. Bus Ride, 48(12).

De Ayala, R. J. (2013). The theory and practice of item response theory. Guilford Publications.

Moshagen, M., Musch, J., & Erdfelder, E. (2012). A stochastic lie detector. Behavior Research Methods, 44(1), 222-231.

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Human Dignity And Capital Punishment: Case Study

Human Dignity And Capital Punishment
Human Dignity And Capital Punishment

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Case Study: Human Dignity And Capital Punishment


 Case study 2 describes human capital punishment for two Australian Citizens caught smuggling Heroin to Indonesia. Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumar were executed after receiving death sentence from an Indonesian court. 

Dignity refers to worth or value, therefore; human dignity refers to human worth and value.  There are various approaches of human dignity which are classified by Kirchhoffer into two categories. Category 1 refers to the understanding of human dignity that is based in belief that human value is high because they are human or they possess certain capacities that are absent in other creatures. In Category 2, human dignity understanding is based on their belief that dignity is acquired or lost through the individual own feelings or specific dignity bestowing behaviour (Dhai, 2013). This paper describes the dignity of Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumaran in relation to their execution based on Kirchhoffer classification.

            Human dignity claims are mainly used to support or oppose death penalty. It has been argued that some acts such as homicide, death penalty are justified based on retributive punishment framework. Retribution involves respect for human autonomy and the decisions people make. It is also argued that death penalty is effective as it allows the relatives and friends of the victims find closure, facilitate emotional healing as they carry on with their lives (Jones, 2012).  However, is there a possibility that some victims are unfairly executed?  The main issue of significance in this case study 2 is that human life is sacred. It has inalienable dignity. In this regard, this paper explores the concepts of human dignity.  It aims at evaluating if human dignity lie in human life, in the capacity of the decisions made by human or in the societal judgement of their past behaviour (Roche, 2011).

Perspective 1A: “Human has Dignity Simply because they are Human Species”

 According to this perspective, human life is sacred. Most of the religious arguments fall into this perspective because they believe that human beings were created in the image of God.  Non-religious proponents argue that is natural to fight for survival of one’s species, thus; it human species have special value against any intrinsic value or instrumental values possessed by the other species. This indicates that human beings have inherent worth because they belong to human species (Rydberg & Pizarro, 2014).

Based on this perspective, the execution of Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumar in Indonesia devalued the aspects human dignity. This is because the value of human dignity is inherent is their lives and not their actions. According to religious arguments, people’s actions do not necessarily define their dignity.  It is not what people do or fail to which gives them dignity. It is the purpose of God, creator of the heaven and earth.  People’s action is shaped by circumstances they face (Zylberman, 2016).

Perspective IB “Human Beings have Inherent worth Due to their Distinctive and Special Abilities”

            This perspective interrelates with perspective IA in that all human are equal and possess inherent dignity. This perspective argues that human dignity arises from the fact that they have special distinctive attributes and special abilities. This is supported by German philosopher Immanuel Kant that human beings value is intrinsic in all members of the society (Trojan & Salfati, 2010).

This implies that humans are to live a life as predefined by the societal morals and self-consciousness. This perspective is used to promulgate the aspect of moral values in the society, failure to which the person is punished according the punishment equivalent to the value violated.  Similar to perspective IA, it argues that due to the high capacities and specific attributes possessed by human beings, then they can be rehabilitated through proper treatment and training.  This perspective is supported by the case study as Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumar has reformed completely; which indicates that their execution was unjustified (Muftic & Hunt, 2012).

2 A “dignity can be acquired or lost through sense of self-worth”

This perspective understands the concepts of human dignity as some type of pride in one self and conscious sense of an individual’s worth as human being, which enables them to live a meaningful life.  The way a person view themselves impacts on their life experiences. People who lack self-worth   tend to struggle to find happiness and success.  This makes them engage in activities that deviate from the society norms, affecting their relationship with the other people.  It leads to further misery and struggle.  However, this does not reduce their human dignity because it is innate (Kirchengast, 2010).

This implies that it was important for the Indonesian society to challenge their thinking.  For example, what criteria were it used to reach to an agreement that Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumar were harmful people in the society? Did they have evidence on their past actions that indicated that they are extremely violent and threat to the society?  The negative attitude accorded to these Australian citizens did not make sense because their verdict was made with an assumption that these individuals cannot transform, and that they will always be in their worst behaviours which is erroneous (McCormick, 2015).

2B “Dignity can be acquired or lost through Moral or Immoral Behaviour.

This perspective focuses much on the way the society judge’s one based on their past behaviour and not by their self-worth. Some people are the society’s hero because they lived selfless lives and lived their lives in pursuit of high ideals and exemplary conduct. These include people such as Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr., and Mother Teresa. Others may be judged as to have lost their dignity due to their violent criminal acts (Cssidy, 2012). In this case Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumar were engaged in criminal activities of trafficking heroin. According to the Indonesian society, substance abuse is done by people who have an intent of becoming violent and harming others. The society has negative attitudes towards these two people as they perceive them as threat. For instance, the Indonesian government to surround Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumar with military security style during transfer indicated that they perceived these people’s character as extremely dangerous which is not true (Kirchhoffer, 2011).

It can be argued that the death sentence is a form of punishment that removes bad/evil people in the society; which aims at increasing survival of good species; the outcomes of this practice are futile.  An effective form of punishment should have a purpose to treat and restoration of the desired behaviour and not to kill. On the other hand, Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumar determination to die  with dignity so as to prevent their parent unnecessary distress indicates that they had gained sense of self-worth, and passionate enough to ensure that their relatives reach in closure  and vindication (Mattson & Clark, 2011).

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Social Norms, Attitudes, and Other Circumstances Impact On the Aspects of Human Dignity

Proponents of death sentence argue that this practice protects the society from evil people, who inflict harm and distract the society harmony. According the social attitudes; it is the role of each and every government to protect its society from violent and heinous acts that would erode the society moral behaviour. 

All people have the right to live in a safe environment, without the fear that their children will become drug addicts or die of addiction. Removing these people from the society is a measure to maintain public safety. Additionally, seeing people get executed, it deter other youths from practicing such acts (Ryan, 2016).

            Additionally, the society ethics is embedded on the beliefs and ideas if what is wrong or right, good and bad. Human dignity is embedded in the social relationships satisfaction and attitudes held by the society. In addition, it is embedded on the patterns of behaviour that are believed by the society as they bring in harmony and cooperation, fairness and justice.  The beliefs and ideas of human dignity are analysed, articulated and interpreted according to the moral thinkers of the society.

Most of the westernized society are characterised by organized functioning human communities. The ethical systems have undoubtedly evolved their values, values and principles that regulate human behaviour (Kirchhoffer & Dierickx, 2011). Based on the Indonesian society values and believes, then Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumar punishment was justified.

The main argument for the ruling by the Indonesian court is that it aimed at deterring such actions from happening again. In my perspective, death penalty does not seem to deter people from committing violent crimes. It only deters the likelihood of other criminals being caught and punished.  There lacks a scientific proof that the death penalty resulted to greater deterrent effect than other forms of punishment (Kirchhoffer & Dierickx, 2012).

Therefore, the execution of these two prisoners was harsh punishment on the individuals but not on crime.  The impact underlying societal expectation and values cannot be overlooked. This has resulted in education frameworks that ignore the fundamental values of human dignity but focuses more on wealth acquisition.  For this reason, the society has failed to value life and to cherish human beings above their possessions, power, desires and pleasures (Wierenga, 2011).

Human Dignity is Multidimensional

Humans possess multidimensional qualities including the emotional, physical, social, spiritual, symbolic and interpersonal qualities.  According to Macquarrie, humanity is unfinished product that is moving into possibilities that are still unfolded.  Therefore, during these developments and concepts, human dignity concepts tend to conflict each other.  Human dignity is multidimensional.  It can be described in four different ways, which sometimes they conflict to one another. Human dignity is something that human already have and also something that they strive to acquire (Lee, 2014).

Based on International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), all people that have limited liberty must be treated with liberty and respect (1 A). This affirms the argument in that dignity lie in human.  This ideology acknowledges the complexity of being human and the multidimensional aspects involved. Therefore, human beings are not to be reduced to one type of level of functioning (Vanhaelemeesch & Vander Beken, 2014).

Where a deviation occurs, it is important to understand that all humans are equal. It is important to also acknowledge that dignity as an aspect that can be acquired or lost through sense of self-worth (2A).   Therefore, it is likely that Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumar past actions were due to loss of self-worth, but through rehabilitative processes, their self-worth would have been restored. However, their loss of sense of dignity cannot be equated to their actual possession of dignity (Strelan & Prooijen, 2013).

The quadrant 1B argues that Human beings have inherent worth due to their distinctive and special abilities.Perspective 2B states that dignity can be acquired or lost through moral or immoral behaviour which according to my perspective, they do not support death penalty as human beings have unique capacity of being rehabilitated and become reformed. Therefore, it is rather obvious to state that if human life is complex than on single dimension, then it is unfair to just the person’s dignity based on one dimension.  Although it is important to acknowledge that a person’s moral action indicates their dignity orientation, it is also important to recognize that there is chance for change, growth, compassion, forgiveness and reconciliation (Matthews, 2014).


            The criminal justice system should maintain law and order in the society by punishing the offenders. However, harsh and unjustified punishments will not restore the victim’s behaviours. In my perspective, capital punishment must be eradicated and replaced with rehabilitative services that challenge, encourage and reward the offenders for their transformed attitudes and behaviours.

Most of the offenders engage in criminal activities to seek means of survival. Empowering them with skills will help them get employment, and live by example in the society. In this case, the execution of Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumar was unjustified as their human dignity was not protected. I believe these past experiences have facilitated change in such policies that devalue the dignity of human.


Cassidy, J. (2012). Hollow Avowals of Human Rights Protection – Time for an Australian Federal Bill Of Rights? Deakin Law Review, 13(2), 131-176.

Dhai, A. (2013). Human Dignity in Contemporary Ethics by David G Kirchhoffer. S Afr J BL, 6(2), 74.,

JONES, D. (2012). HUMAN DIGNITY IN BIOETHICS AND LAW by Charles Foster. New Blackfriars, 94(1049), 114-116.

Kirchengast, T. (2010). The Landscape of Victim Rights in Australian Homicide Cases–Lessons from the International Experience. Oxford Journal Of Legal Studies, 31(1), 133-163.

Kirchhoffer, D. (2011). Bioethics and the Demise of the Concept of Human Dignity. Human Reproduction & Genetic Ethics, 17(2), 141-154.

Kirchhoffer, D. & Dierickx, K. (2011). Human dignity and human tissue: a meaningful ethical relationship?. Journal Of Medical Ethics, 37(9), 552-556.

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Domestic Violence: Article Review

Domestic violence
Domestic Violence

Domestic Violence

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Surveillance as Casework: Supervising Domestic Violence Defendants with GPS Technology

Ibarra, P. R., Gur, O. M., & Erez, E. (2014). Surveillance as casework: Supervising domestic violence defendants with GPS technology. Crime, Law and Social Change, 62(4), 417-444. doi:

The author’s topic is directed towards establishing domestic violence defendants through the use of the GPS technology. According to the author, there has been a continued effort that ignored the relevance of traditional approaches directed towards supervising humans, an aspect that critically intrigues the need of a surveillance approach embedded in the judicial system casework. The author therefore makes an effort to conduct a comparative analysis with the aim of illustrating the manner in which the problem population differs across different segmented community correction agencies in the implementation of the surveillance regime.

The author therefore conducts a study to establish the manner in which surveillance styles reflect the capacity of agencies that are directed towards curbing crime and managing risks, an aspect that provides assistance and treatment through an observed process. According to the author, the programmatic element of these systems expresses the manner in which officers relate with offenders in their cases, as aspect that contrasts to the ambient approach of monitoring populations and the environment through the inclusion of data bank technology thus highlighting the essence of the surveillance style in caseworks.

The methods depicted by the author in this material detail how the systems are utilized in collecting personal information that are accessed through the data banks that are needed by government and market based actors. These efforts reflect a digitalized form of data that is conducted routinely and silently, an aspect that entails the visiting of websites, the acquisition of telephone dials, swiping of ID cards on entering a secured entity and using the images that are captured from a closed-circuit television (CCTV). The primary theoretic basis of the study lies on the use of surveillance as an object of inquiry, an aspect that achieves the objective of applying technology within the criminal justice systems.

The study provides no theoretical framework and extensively reviews existing literature in validating the views of the author. The author clearly communicates the need to examine the styles of surveillance among different community correction officers through the use of an EM through a comparative analysis that establishes the studies objectives through a review of several literatures, an aspect that uses and builds on the existing literature in establishing the study’s goal.

On the other hand, the material provides a research method that is not fully appropriate since it only details the data collection method and does not detail the research methodology used in the collection and analysis of data. The sample size detailed in this study involves the inclusion of three jurisdictions-West, Midwest and the South criminal justice workforce that are involved in the dispensation of GPS in DV caseworks either directly or indirectly.

The sample size is therefore appropriate since these agencies have distinct approaches in the operation of GPS in DV programs, an aspect that enables the study to conduct a comparative analysis of the surveillance systems and its application.  Considering the several biases noted in the research, the study does not provide adequate control measures in addressing some of the research biases noted. This depicts the fact that the study did not consider using a paradigm solution in eliminating the biases, an aspect that intrigues the need for s strategy that handles validity of the study.

This study may therefore be replicable considering the fact that technology evolves and different surveillance systems are bound to change with time. The limitations of this study are evident in its inefficiency in establishing the difference between interactive and ambient systems, an aspect that effaces the responsibility and roles of human labor in the use of surveillance systems.

This clearly makes the studies objective obscure, thus giving the study a different interpretation. Lastly, the study’s conclusions are justifiable, in consideration of the fact that the surveillance regime is quickly gaining prominence within the judicial system. However, the author does not take into account the different cultural and social contexts since the study is only based on single research demography.

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This source is primarily different in structure as compared to other studies; since it details the legitimacy of different approaches of interactive surveillance an aspect that denotes the varying philosophies and approaches of community corrections. To clarify this, the author addresses the manner in which supervision is conceptualized in the literature review on using EM technology an aspect that is affirmed by an examination of the surveillance systems in three U.S based programs. This source therefore informs my future research since it creates a gap in addressing the roles of human labor in the use of surveillance systems a gap that the material fails to fill in the study.

The application of these methods within my project will be centered on an effort to enhance security within my work environment considering the constant threats that the society is currently experiencing from terroristic activities. On the other hand, the study would be applied in establishing some of the erroneous activities of different individuals who commit to upheaval activities in the community by detecting their missions and curbing them before they turn harmful.  The article may not be considered universal since the context of the study varies.

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A personal Perspective on Leadership and Organization Justice

Leadership and Organization Justice
Leadership and Organization Justice

Leadership and Organizational Justice


It is no longer news that diversity is an inherent part of modern societies. With the diversity, it means different needs and competing interests. Such diverse needs are more pronounced when it comes to the area of educational. To address the competing interests and diverse needs in education, organizational justice is paramount. In this regard, it is incumbent upon educational leadership to ensure that they adopt the best practices to promote organizational justice and fairness in matters of education.

A personal Perspective on Leadership and Organization Justice


Considering the rise in globalization, diversity is an inherent part of virtually all organizations. The implication of such diversity is that the needs of all the stakeholders must be addressed. To address the issues generated by diversity, leadership and organization justice becomes at the core. This essay offers my personal perspective on leadership and organization justice based on the interview for a job advertised by the US department of Education.

How Will I Prepare For the Interview

In preparation for the interview, the first step will be to research the organization. Under research, I will establish the location, the mission and values, and the size of the organization. Understanding the organization is critical because a person cannot deliver effectively for organizations that they do not know about (Marilou, 2016). The second measure I will embrace while preparing for the interview will be making comparisons of my skills and qualifications to the requirements of the job.

This step is vital granted that it will ensure that I convince the interviewers with my skills, knowledge, and experience in relation to the position in question (Marilou, 2016). In the next step, I will create potential responses that I may use during the interviews. The process of generating responses is important because it puts the mind ready for the interview. Lastly, I will decide on what to wear and what documents to bring during the interview.

Developing a Set of Notes to Use in My Interview that Address the Following

What I would need to know about the job in order to prepare

Regarding the job, the first aspect I would need to know regards qualifications. About qualification, I would determine the level of certification, the years of experience needed for the job, and other added skills or advantages that may be preferred for the job. Secondly, I would also need to know about the responsibilities associated with the job.

Knowing responsibilities will help me determine my capability based on my experiences (Marilou, 2016). Another aspect I would know about the job in order to prepare is the objective of the position. Determining the objective of the position is critical to matching skills and qualifications to the vacancies offered.

My Qualifications as an Educational Leader from Ethical Perspective Based On the Courses I Have Taken In the PhD Program and Especially Leadership and Organizational Justice

Based on the courses I have taken in the Ph.D. program and especially the course in leadership and organizational justice, my qualifications as an educational leader from an ethical perspective emerges from two areas. The first area is that the courses in the Ph.D. program and leadership and organizational justice have provided me with insights on what ethical leadership in organization entails.

The second area that demonstrates my qualifications as an educational leader from an ethical perspective because of the Ph.D. program and the course of organizational justice concerns the view that passing the courses in the program is an indication that I have grasped the concepts of the ethics and leadership.

Capacity, capability and sustainability from an organizational justice perspective

For me, organizational justice is having the virtue of fairness in the organization conducts and operations. Capacity from an organizational justice perspective entails the development of mission-fuelled efforts geared towards ethical management and transparency in organizations (Jeffry & Elizabeth, 2016). For example, ensuring that the education departments and institutions have vision and mission statements that tie with the element of justice will show capacity to uphold organizational justice.

Capability from an organizational justice perspective implies the ability of the organization to have systems that facilitate justice and fairness in the affairs of the organization (Zhang et al.2013). For example, having a code of ethics and conducting evaluations to ensure that the employees in the education sector adhere to the code of ethics will be a demonstration of capability from an organizational justice perspective.

Lastly, sustainability from an organizational justice perspective means the ability of the organization to uphold fairness and justice not in an episodic manner but rather in a continuum way where justice is the norm in every aspect and operation (Ibrahim, 2016). For example, the application of code of ethics to all employees in the education sector regardless of the positions or stature will be an indication of sustainability from an organizational justice perspective.

How I as The Equal Opportunity Specialist in The Department Of Education, Office for Civil Rights will apply My Passion Toward Educational Reform, Organizational Justice And Social Change

As an equal opportunity specialist in the department of education, Office for Civil Rights, I will apply my passion towards educational reform, organizational justice, and social change in a variety of ways. Regarding education reforms, I will participate in education policymaking processes that are aimed at promoting equality and access in the area of education (Jacobs et al. 2014).

I will also participate in the formulation and implementation of the education programs directed towards minority in the societies. For example, I will formulate policies on programs targeting children with disability. Moreover, I will also embrace the advocacy role regarding the need for equality and fairness in the sector of education. When it comes to organizational justice, I will ensure that the codes of ethics become supreme when discharging duties.

In the same vein, I will also act as a whistleblower whenever I spot any injustice or activity that is contrary to the established and expected mores of the organization (Demirtas, 2013). Being a leader in the educational sector, I recognize that I assume a societal responsibility that comes with obligations. As an agent of social change, I will offer advices on different affairs of the society.

Through my department and collaboration with other organizations, I will formulate programs and policies that act as catalyst for change in the educational system. I will also be an advocate regarding different societal issues pertinent to the education. As an example, I will speak against child labor and respond appropriately whenever I will encounter such incidences. In this sense, I will be improving the society by speaking against injustices done to the children.

What It Means to Be a Leader for Sustaining Organizational justice and My Philosophy of Organizational Justice

To be a leader for sustaining organizational justice in an organization, it means that one has to be authentic and lead from the front. In this sense, the leader has to demonstrate that he or she professes fairness and justice through practice. My philosophy of organization justice is to be guided by the laid down regulations and embrace fairness while making all decisions related to the organization.

Examples and Support of Future Goals in Education Leadership

One example of future goal in education leadership is for the education leadership to have an understanding of the legal and moral consequences of decision making in education departments. The support for this goal stems from the observation that such an understanding will enable education leaders facilitate social justice in all aspects of education.

Another example of future goals in education leadership is that education leaders should develop professional and personal qualities and skills that are able to address diversity challenges. The rationale for this goal is that the educational needs have changed and continue to change and such skills are required to address the changes.


In essence, the world is changing at a rapid speed and one of the areas where such changes are reflected is the education sector. With increasing diversity in societies, the educational needs are also becoming more divergent. To address each of the unique and divergent needs, organizational justice at the education departments is a sine qua non. It is through ethical leadership and organizational justice that the various educational needs will be addressed.


Demirtas, O. (2013). Ethical Leadership Influence at Organizations: Evidence from the Field. Journal of Business Ethics, 126(2), 273-284. doi:10.1007/s10551-013-1950-5.Retrieved 2016 from

Jacobs, J., Beck, B., & Crowell, L. (2014). Teacher leaders as equity-centered change agents: Exploring the conditions that influence navigating change to promote educational equity. Professional Development in Education, 40(4), 576-596. doi:10.1080/19415257.2014.896272. Retrieved 2016 from

Ibrahim, M. (2016). Professional leadership practices and diversity issues in the US. Higher education system: a research synthesis. Education, 136(4), 405-412. Retrieved 2016, from

Jeffry, B., & Elizabeth, M. (2016). Heroic Leadership Redefined in the United States Border Context: Cases Studies of Successful Principals in Arizona and Texas. . International Studies in Educational Administration (Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration & Management (CCEAM)), 44(1), 5-23. Retrieved 2016, from

Marilou, R. (2016). Preparing for your Next Leadership Position. Leadership, 45(4), 30-35. Retrieved 2016, from

Zhang, Y., Lepine, J. A., Buckman, B. R., & Wei, F. (2013). It’s Not Fair … Or Is It? The Role of Justice and Leadership in Explaining Work Stressor-Job Performance Relationships. Academy of Management Journal, 57(3), 675-697. doi:10.5465/amj.2011.1110. Retrieved 2016 from

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Juvenile justice correctional facilities
Juvenile justice correctional facilities

Juvenile justice correctional facilities

Draft Survey

Research Question: What are the optimal types of programs, implemented in the juvenile justice correctional facilities that would resolve the problem of juvenile delinquency?

Spatial definition of the subject of research (area of research): This case study will discuss juvenile justice correctional facilities in the United States

Time frame of the subject of research: The period from year 1990 to year 2017

Target group: Minors

Methods: comparative method, historical method, qualitative method, description, method of proof

Techniques: data collection, including: interview, surveys, content analysis

Key words: minors, juvenile, correction facilities, program, crime, reintegration, society, substance abuse, recidivism

Results: The main purpose of undertaking any research process is coming to new and undiscovered solutions about the specific topic, as well as coming to those findings which may help the profession and the community itself.  This research study aims to prove that a well implemented program can lead to the reintegration of minors in the society and can therefore have an impact both on social security, improvement of the life of specific minors and at the same time help the government budget.

Terms and definitions:

Minorunder the legal age of full responsibility (this age varies in different countries); the term which legally demarcates childhood from adulthood.


Correctional facility – any residential facility with construction fixtures or staffing models designed to restrict the movements and activities of those placed in the facility. It is used for the placement of any juvenile adjudicated of having committed an offense, or, when applicable, of any other individual convicted of a criminal offense (

Program – a plan of action aimed at accomplishing a clear objective, with details on what work is to be done, by whom, when, and what means or resources will be used (

Reintegration – restoration to a unified state; to integrate again into an entity; restore to unity (

Society – an organized group of persons associated together for religious, benevolent, cultural, scientific, political, patriotic, or other purposes


Recidivism – a tendency to relapse into a previous condition or mode of behavior; especially: relapse into criminal behavior (

1. Introduction on Intervention Problem

The subject and the intervention problem of this case study is determined by the chosen theme – Juvenile Justice Correctional Facilities. The structure of this case study will be handled by presenting the theoretical basis of the research subject and then the practical basis of the research subject.

The theoretical basis of the object of research will include the research of this topic in the existing literature – Juvenile Justice Correctional Facilities and minor behavior / juvenile delinquency as perceived in the theory, their classification and purpose; the practical part of this case study will include the application of scientific knowledge in practice – finding and implementing the optimal program in selected juvenile justice facilities and the track of its implementation in practice. 

Foundations of this research paper are based on the research and therefore identification of the optimal type of program that would resolve the problem of juvenile delinquency. This case study has the pretension to explain this aspect from various points of view; primarily from the legal, security and criminological point of view.

Why is it important to identify and implement the best program of juvenile justice correctional facilities? In simple terms – juvenile offenders, due to their young age, must be, after leaving the juvenile facility, reintegrated as equal members of the society. 

One other question that arises in this aspect is the following: how can the state ensure the implementation of the given program (program that would lead to the reintegration of the minor) along with the necessary human or material resources needed in order to do so? States are already spending enormous amounts of money in this sector.

Costs and resources needed to obtain juveniles in correctional facilities are quite big. On report given by The Justice Policy Institute in 2009 said that it costs on average of $240.99 per day for one juvenile to obtain juveniles in correctional facilities founded by the state. This is approximately $88,000 per year.


But although the spending, this approach does not contribute to improving the problem of minor delinquency. Therefore and due to the budget constraints, many states are rethinking their steps in this area. Implementing a program which would reduce the number of juvenile offenders and contribute to general security is certainly a step in the right direction.

2. Program to Resolve the Problem

 This part of the case study will provide the answer to the previously stated research question: what is the optimal program / are the optimal types of programs, implemented in the juvenile justice correctional facilities that would resolve the problem of juvenile delinquency?

The program that would be optimal for the problem identified in this case study is a program that would contribute both to the deterrence of the existing juvenile offenders from committing criminal offenses while at the same time combating crime rates among this population in general. This is according to Gendreau and Goggin (1996) the main principle of effective correctional programming.

The program that will be presented in this case study represents a program that will be a result of research and discussion between different focus groups and created primly in order to contribute to reducing the number of juvenile offenders. The program provides direct work with minors and individuals employed in selected juvenile facilities as well as other professionals working on its implementation.

The analysis showed that there is a need to introduce effective mechanisms for preventing and combating juvenile delinquency; the need of a program that would be effective in combating crime among minors, lead to less drug and alcohol abuse among this population, educate the minors and would in the long run lead to lower state costs for this particular subject. (Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative)

The purpose of the adoption of the program is to sensitize professionals, parents, children and young people as well as the entire society to the problem of juvenile delinquency and increase their level of awareness of the existence of this problem, the establishment of systems solutions and mechanisms of action for the prevention of its occurrence and to alleviate its consequences.

For this purpose, the program is designed as a series of practical steps in the area of ​​prevention juvenile delinquency. This program aims to promote various forms of communication in order to create a healthy and stimulating environment for the targeted group: the minors, and all of this by using different scientific methods and techniques that will be described further on.

Also, special attention is paid to the mechanism of introducing new interactive methods in the existing education system, both in schools as well as while the minor is incarcerated in the juvenile correctional facilities.  Educational background aims to build better grounds providing a healthy environment in which juvenile delinquency is minimized. As it can see, the backbone of this program is education.

2.1. Duties and principles on which the program is based

The main tasks of the Program are as following:

  • to create a positive attitude towards respect for basic human values;
  • to mobilize social resources in promoting the prevention of juvenile delinquency;
  • to teach the culture of peace, tolerance, communication skills and mediation;
  • to develop the skills of critical thinking, analysis and non-violent conflict resolution.

The main principles on which the program will be based are:

  • equality,
  • pluralism of opinion,
  • dialogue,
  • priority of educational tasks,
  • unity of experts from different areas of expertise,
  • creative organization of educational activities,
  • connection with other programs (eg. Program against drug addiction and the like.),
  • maximum involvement of minors in practical activities,
  • involvement of family or community as a source of information and an active participant in the process,
  • implementation of interactive educational forms and methods.

This program does not aim to completely abolish juvenile violence nor has any country done this so far; this program aims to reduce the rate of juvenile delinquency and to put it under social control. Accordingly, in addition to the above, this program is expected to do the following:

  • increase the overall level of knowledge of all participants in the educational process about the problem and the consequences of juvenile delinquency as well as other socially unacceptable behavior (drug and alcohol abuse among others);
  • encourage civil / parental initiatives, initiatives by nongovernmental organizations, as well as initiatives for children and young people in different states and areas;
  • reduce the rates of juvenile delinquency on other types of behavior to a reasonable, socially acceptable level.

2.2. Main aspects of the program – implementation of the program

The initial steps in this program will include the following activities:

  • introduction to the program;
  • mobilization of teams to support the program;
  • training for different professionals;
  • finding the juvenile justice correction facilities which will implement the program;
  • linking with other governmental and nongovernmental institutions;
  • lobbing support for changes in laws and regulations;
  • support of NGOs dealing with the protection of children’s and minors rights, drug and substance abuse and other similar aspects;
  • implementation of the program in specific juvenile facilities on specific individuals –juveniles;
  • track and measurement of the results of the program.

Introduction to the program – the society will be properly introduced with the program and its main elements and purposes. This will be done by promoting the program in the media, different institutions, schools and other relevant aspects of the society.

Mobilization of teams to support the program – prior to the implementation of the program, team of specialized professionals from different fields of expertise will be recruited. These trained professionals will work on different aspects of the program, from its start to the final steps leading to its finalization and implementation.

Training for different professionals – upon their recruitment, professionals will be trained in order to provide their best skills and knowledge in the implementation process.

Finding the juvenile justice correction facilities which will implement the program – various juvenile justice correction facilities in different part of the United States will be approached to participate and take part in this program. Those juvenile facilities that fulfil the set conditions will be made part of the implementation process. It is important that these facilities are based in different part of the US in order that economic, social, cultural and other factors can be taken into consideration when analyzing the results.

Linking with other governmental and nongovernmental institutions – the implementer of the program, will make an effort to link the program with relevant governmental and nongovernmental subjects.

Lobbing support for changes in laws and regulations – the team members will make an active effort lobbing support for changes within the legal framework (introduce the program to relevant policymakers).

Support of NGOs dealing with the protection of children’s and minors rights, drug and substance abuse and other similar aspects – within the entire process, the program shall make an effort to be linked and supported by nongovernmental organizations dealing with similar topic and implement certain strategies together with these organizations.

Implementation of the program in specific juvenile facilities on specific individuals –juveniles – the implementation is the crucial step of the program. The program will be implemented on individuals incarcerated in juvenile facilities, not taking into consideration the following subjective aspects:

  • the gender of the minor;
  • the age of the minor;
  • crime (type of the crime) committed by the minor;
  • number of previously committed felonies,
  • his or hers economic or social background;
  • his or hers national, ethnic or religious background;
  • his or hers family status;
  • his or hers educational level;
  • or any other subjective aspect of the person of the minor.

This will provide transparency, an equal and objective approach as well as the diversity of the given results.

This program will be implemented in at least six different juvenile justice correctional facilities, in different parts of the United States as previously stated.

In this aspect the juvenile justice correctional facilities play a huge role: if these facilities are established in a way that the juveniles exit them “transformed”, this has a significant value for the entire society. (Snyder, H, 1999)

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