Europe on the Eve of World War 1

Europe on the Eve of World War 1
Europe on the Eve of World War 1

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Europe on the Eve of World War 1

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Week 1
Europe on the Eve of World War 1

There is a fairly common view of Europe as a “powder keg” on the eve of World War I, to which the assassination of the Grand Duke Ferdinand in Sarajevo merely provided a “spark.” Professor Merriman veers toward this point of view. For this first week’s discussion I would like you to take the role of an American diplomat who resides in the capital city of one of Europe’s great powers (London, Paris, Berlin, Vienna, Rome, or St. Petersburg) who is called upon to report on the situation there in May 1914. What issues are stoking fears of war and what factors are pointing toward preservation of peace? Please do not jump ahead to the Summer of 1914.

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Europe on the Eve of World War 1 Essay

The current situation reflects a world in which the desire for power is overwhelmingly discernible. Residents in Austria are worried about what could happen and many speculations linger regarding a potential war. Issues stocking fears of war include the current political atmosphere, given Europe’s willingness to defend its national interests even if it means going to war and the issue of balance of power in Europe. This can be explained by imperialism which has affected Europe’s balance of power and thus impacted on the system rendering it unworkable (Martin, 2017).

This means that in pursuit of power, competition is apparent and this could be a sign of a pending war. There exists a security dilemma in which nations must be prepared for war just in case it happens (Schroeder, 2000). With such kind of preparation characterized by the organization of troops, strategy development and investment in war weaponry, nations are effectively prepared to handle war and therefore more likely to engage in war unlike if they were not prepared. The existence of alliances is by far an indication that war is a possibility (Cornish, 2018).

It can be interpreted that each of the alliances is willing to protect its interests and that if this means war, this is what could result (Clark, 2013).  Territorial differences that were unresolved also present possibilities of war as each territory seeks to protect its interests. The alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary for example led to the creation of tension between Europe and Germany, following Germany’s development of a battle fleet that led to some kind of competition in naval arms development (Imperial War Museums, 2018).

Such relationship strains present vulnerabilities that may result in war if they are further provoked. Another example is the strain between Austria and Serbia, with Serbia being considered a threat to Austria in terms of multi-ethnic empire stability…..

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The Armenian Genocide

The Armenian Genocide
The Armenian Genocide

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The Armenian Genocide

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3. The Armenian Genocide
Please review the Week 2 Learning Resource “The Armenian Genocide” and discuss the extent to which this event resulted from long standing hostilities as opposed to the immediate circumstances of the war. Please note that the link for this resource opens a general summary of the events. You should also read the “Chronology” and perhaps some of the “Documents.”

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The Armenian Genocide Essay

Long standing hostilities to a significant extent perpetrated the Armenian genocide as opposed to the immediate war circumstances. A historical review of factors preceding the genocide reveals that there was a buildup of political, social, cultural and religious division that had existed for centuries between Armenians and the Turks. The Armenians despite being part of the Ottoman Empire were discriminated against and considered a threat to the Empire which was predominantly Muslim. The Armenians albeit being discriminated still managed to become successful both economically and socially, further leading to distrust by the Turks who were constantly frustrating their efforts (Hovannisian, 2016).

The Armenian genocide was planned long before World War I and this is an indication that the Young Turks had already envisioned the execution of the Armenians. The war only acted as a disguise and as noted by Genocide Museum (2016), the genocide was planned between 1911 and 1912 before the war began (Genocide Museum, 2016). The religious divide in the Ottoman Empire can be established as one of the major causes of tension between the Armenians and the Turks.

The Ottoman Empire was predominantly Islam and while the government claimed to provide equal opportunities for all, people from ‘inferior’ religions were subjected to various oppressive conditions including social and financial restrictions such as poll taxes in exchange for tolerance (Hovannisian, 2016). It was clear that the Armenian population was considerably discriminated based on their religious affiliation but despite this, the Armenians went on to prosper and this created wariness and resent among the Turkish neighbors (Safrastyan, 2015).

This created both social and political tension, more so when the Armenians sought equal to establish their own independence, self-assertion and protection in the midst of hostility from the Turkish government (Suny, 2009). The Turks were ravening to block the ascent of the Armenians and their lingering resentment for the Armenians led them to plan the genocide……

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The Pacific War

The Pacific War
The Pacific War

The Pacific War

For your Module III essay please answer the following question:

“8. Evaluate the alternative strategic courses of action open to the United States for terminating the Pacific War. Was there any better course of action to follow other than the one actually executed?”

Three pieces of advice:

1. The question is asking you to evaluate the strategic options available to the U.S., specifically with regard to how to terminate the conflict once Germany surrendered in May 1945. So be sure to provide thorough evaluations of at least two alternative strategic courses of action, and identify if you believe any of these alternatives would have been “better” than the strategy the US actually used.

2. Remember that strategies should be designed to achieve desired Policy Goals.

3. As a reminder, these essays are designed to be Critical Analyses, and as such you should only base your arguments on the information that the leadership/decision makers at THAT TIME had available to them. There should not be any “Monday-Morning Quarterback” information presented that has only been revealed/derived after the conflict ended.

In addition to the formatting and writing style information contained in Annex A, I have again attached a copy of the Writing Guide here because it is imperative that you read through it carefully and reference it during all stages of your essay development.

Be sure your essay meets all of the requirements outlined in Annex A and the Writing Guide, especially those listed below, and addresses any formatting and organizational detractors found in your Module II essay.

I also encourage all students to have someone completely unfamiliar with the essay/materials proofread the essay prior to submittal to make sure their essay/argument makes sense and is influential/effective.

1. The Thesis Paragraph “answers” the questions assigned. There should be no doubt in your readers’ minds exactly how you have chosen to answer the assigned question.

2. The Main Body of your essay develops your thesis paragraph in a logical and easy to follow manner and includes supporting information/facts/figures/ statements from the syllabus source materials.

3. The essay contains a Counter Argument in which you examine a feasible opinion/idea that is different than one or more of the ideas you present in your thesis.

4. The essay contains a Rebuttal in which you convincingly disavow the idea/opinion presented in your counterargument and further support one/more of your ideas contained in your thesis.

5. The essay contains the correct formatting as indicated in the Writing Guide/Annex A (cover page, page numbering, citations, margins, etc).

The Pacific War

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The Kulak Operation History Paper

The Kulak Operation
The Kulak Operation

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The Kulak Operation


Please read J. Arch Getty’s article, “‘Excesses are not permitted:’ Mass Terror and Stalinist Governance in the Late 1930s,”(Russian Review, January 2002, Vol. 61 Issue 1, pp. 113-138 – available via UMUC library resources) .

Getty is among the so-called “revisionist” historians who downplay Stalin’s personal role in the conduct of the Terror.

In a 4-5 page paper, please explain what was the “kulak operation” and evaluate how Getty characterizes Stalin’s impact on this operation.

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Other Instructions:
Citations of sources for quotations and borrowed ideas in your text should be indicated using endnotes in Chicago Manual-style. 

All of the page number instructions assume an 8.5″ by 11″ page, 1″ margins, double-spaced text, and 12-point font.

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The Four Freedoms

The Four Freedoms
The Four Freedoms

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The Four Freedoms


In 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt addressed the sitting at congress with the aim of moving the nation from the foreign policies of neutrality.  The president had seen the many in which anxiety was increasing as the European nations struggled and feel into Hitler’s fascist regime and was committed to having the publics support to for America to rake a stronger stance on this (Borgwardt & Elizabeth. pp. 12).

In the address that was directed to the 77th Congress, Roosevelt clearly depicts that there was a need for the development of actions and policies that would meet the foreign perils considering the fact that the domestic problems had turned out to be of greater emergency to the state of the nation.

Roosevelt therefore insisted that the people of the world should share the American entitlement for the development of four freedoms (Borgwardt & Elizabeth. pp. 12). These freedoms included that of speech and expression, the freedom from fear and freedom from want the freedom to worship God in their own ways. This paper therefore seeks to establish the manner in which these freedoms can be applied in the context of the book Give Me Liberty (V2) by Foner.

Application of the Four Freedoms

It is essential to establish the fact that Franklin Roosevelt was elected as the president for unprecedented term since during that period the world faced several challenges such as instabilities and uncertainties. Much of Europe according to Borgwardt & Elizabethhad typically fallen to the German Army that was advancing with Great Britain failing to hold its own.

The Americans therefore remained committed to isolationism with the belief that this nation should avoid wars(pp. 12). However, President Roosevelt had a clear understanding of the British need to gain support from America and tried to convince the Americans to consider the weight of the situation. 

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In weighing the FDR’s Four Freedoms in light of the book “Give me Liberty” it is essential to consider that the narrative developed by Eric Foner gives a picture of how events unfolded during this period by striking a balance between the social and political history thus drawing attention to the political powers that impacted social events (Erick Foner .pp. 479). The narrative therefore remains enriched through a theme that centralized on the American freedom, the change of meanings, its limits and promises including the efforts that were employed to achieve these freedoms.

Freedom therefore remains one of the basic elements that is echoed in the narrative and that stands at the core of the American history and that integrates the social and political histories. Each freedom therefore remains universalized and is followed by a common refrain. It is not only enough to have freedom at home considering the fact that freedoms of expression remain real and are morally needed to be enjoyed by everyone (Erick Foner .pp. 479). Roosevelts approach in this is therefore determined in developing a universal obligation that covers the human rights everywhere in the world.

On the other hand, the author also takes a closer look at the history of American religion by tracing the religious liberties and the boundaries between the government and religion and gives a depiction of the illuminate periods where religion intersected the broader historical events. In using the freedom of worship,

Roosevelt therefore advocates for faith, secular tradition, and spirituality that individuals belong to; and urges the need to motivate good deeds that is blended with tolerance for others (Erick Foner .pp. 479). This therefore gives a clear picture on the manner in which a reminiscent community could be built that champion the diversity of people and the diversity of their ideas.

It is therefore essential to consider the fact that the intellectual and spiritual freedoms are incorporated with material relief. The FDR’s freedom from want clearly indicates the need for economic security that is blended with a healthy peacetime. This is evident in the Fone’s narrative that saw the society fight against the global threats that were posted on the health of the society.

In using the freedom of want, it is therefore essential to show generosity to the others through different practices that helps in solving the social problems that the society is facing such as poverty (Rossiter & Clinton. pp. 243). Lastly, in understand the sources of fear, there is a need to focus on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that needs to be achieved in order to make the world a safe environment.


President Franklin D. Roosevelt addressed the sitting at congress with the aim of moving the nation from the foreign policies of neutrality.  Roosevelt therefore insisted that the people of the world should share the American entitlement for the development of four freedoms (Borgwardt & Elizabeth. pp. 12). These freedoms included that of speech and expression, the freedom from fear and freedom from want the freedom to worship God in their own ways.

Works Cited

Erick Foner. “Give me Liberty.” American Historical Review 116.5 (2011): 479-480. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.               

Rossiter, Clinton. “War, Depression, and the Presidency, 1933-50.” Social Research 82.1 (2015): 219-243. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.

Borgwardt, Elizabeth. “FDR’s Four Freedoms as a Human Rights Instrument.” OAH Magazine of History 22.2 (2008): 8-13. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.

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World War 1 (WW1) similarity to Warfare

World War 1 (WW1) similarity to Warfare
World War 1 (WW1) similarity to Warfare

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World War 1 (WW1) similarity to Warfare

World War 1 (WW1) is fundamentally similar to warfare as it is practiced today

The year 1914 witnessed the class of large armies that were armed with deadly new weaponry and military hardware which had been developed all through the 2nd industrial revolution of the late nineteenth century. Chief among these new weapons was the quick-firing artillery that was able to deluge enemy fighters with hails of lethal lead balls that cascaded from shrapnel shells. In the meantime, the bullets that were fired by machine guns and rifles had actually gained in accurateness and range and were able to cause terrible wounds. World War 1 (WW1) similarity to Warfare.

By the ending of the 1914, over 1 million European combatants had been killed. The armies were compelled to seek the relative safety of dugouts and trenches: a novel form of combat was born.[1] This argumentative essay supports the argument that the First World War is fundamentally similar to how warfare is currently being practiced.

The First World War introduced a number of advancements in science and technology into modern warfare as it is currently being practiced nowadays. These advancements transformed the nature of warfare including combat tactics and strategies. It is notable that on both sides, inventors and scientists worked all through the war to improve their technology so as to give their side an advantage during the battle.[2]

World War 1 (WW1) similarity to Warfare

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The initial years of WW1 could be described as a class of twentieth-century technology with nineteenth-century warfare in the form of ineffective combats that resulted in many casualties on both sides. In essence, it was really not until 1918, WW1’s concluding year, that the main armed forces started to make effective steps in transforming matters of tactics, control and command to adapt to the modern combat zone, and began harnessing the many new technologies to effectual military purposes.

Tactical organizations for instance changing the focus of command from one-hundred-man company to the ten-man squad went hand-in-hand with the first submachine guns, armoured vehicles, as well as automatic rifles which could be carried and utilized by a single soldier.[3] Likewise, in warfare as practiced today, major armies particularly the Allied forces including Americans, the French, Australians and the Brits have effectively harnessed a number of novel technologies to effective military purposes for instance the utilization of unmanned drones to spy on their enemies and even for dropping bombs on enemy targets.

World War 1 (WW1) similarity to Warfare

Tanks: tanks, which were highly armoured vehicles, were initially introduced during the First World War and were utilized in crossing No Man’s Land between trenches. Tanks had mounted cannon and machine guns.[4] Even though the first tanks were difficult to steer and were not dependable, they in fact became more effectual and efficient by the conclusion of WW1, and are highly advanced as used in warfare today.

War in the air: WW1 was actually the very first warfare in the history of wars in which airplanes were employed. At first, airplanes were utilized in observing the troops of the enemy. Nonetheless, by the ending of the warfare, airplanes were utilized in dropping bombs in enemy cities and on the enemy troops. In addition, airplanes were mounted with machine guns which were utilized in shooting down other airplanes.[5]

Changes in naval warfare: during the First World War, the most dangerous ships were referred to as dreadnoughts – they were basically big metal armoured warships. The dreadnoughts had long-range guns which were powerful that allowed these ships to attack other battleships as well as targets on land from a long distance. During this war, the main naval fighting was the essentially the Battle of Jutland.

Other than this fighting, naval battleships of the allied forces were utilized in blockading Germany to stop food and other supplies from reaching the nation. Moreover, at sea, submarines were used in attacking ships.[6] Battleships became more powerful and quicker than ever before and utilized newly invented radios in communicating effectively.

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Trench warfare: it is worth mentioning that much of the battle along the western front was fought with the use of trench warfare in which both sides of the combat dug extensive lines of trenches which helped in protecting the soldiers from artillery and gunfire. No Man’s Land was the term used in referring to the region between enemy trenches. For a number of years, trench warfare resulted in a stalemate between both sides. Both sides lost millions of fighters but neither side gained ground.[7] The popular image of WW1 is combatants in muddy dugouts and trenches living despondently until the subsequent assault.

New weapons: some of the new weapons included machine guns, artilleries, chemical weapons and flamethrowers. During WW1, the machine gun was improved considerably. The machine gun was made easier to move around and much lighter. Big guns commonly referred to as artilleries were improved throughout this battle including anti-airplane guns which were aimed at shooting down airplanes of the enemy. Most of the casualties during this battle were inflicted with the use of artillery and some big artillery guns were actually used in launching shells roughly eighty miles[8].

Moreover, WW1 introduced chemical weapons to the war. Chlorine gas was initially used by Germany for the purpose of poisoning unsuspecting troops of the Allied forces. Afterwards, mustard gas, which was more deadly, was developed and utilized by both the Allied forces and the German troops. By the ending of this warfare, troops on both sides of the conflict were equipped with gas masks and the chemical weapon actually became less effective.[9]    

The war came to an end on 11/11/1918, and modern war technology had altered the course of civilization. Millions of civilians and enemy soldiers had been starved, maimed, gassed or killed. Disease and famine continued raging through the central parts of Europe particularly in Germany and it took very many lives. Thanks to rapid advancements in technology in virtually every area, the nature of warfare had forever changed, affecting sailors, airmen, combatants and civilians similarly.

World War 1 (WW1) similarity to Warfare

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WW1 is essentially the same as warfare as practiced at the moment considering that just like during the First World War, warfare today is characterized by the use of tanks, machine guns, artilleries, battleships, and even airplanes – technologies that were invented and first used during the First World War. For instance, in the modern warfare going on in North Africa and the Middle East in which the United States and its Allies are fighting against terrorist groups including Al-Qaeda and the Islamic State, the use of machine guns, artilleries, cannons, and tanks are used extensively by both sides.

However, mechanized warfare, war airplane and tank technology initially developed in WW1 have become more and more sophisticated and fearsome military hardware in today’s warfare and have in fact made the trench outdated. 

In addition, just as warfare is being practiced at the moment, WW1was actually determined largely by fighting skills, tactics, industrial capacity and logistics. Also, major warfare today involves a number of different countries in different regions of the globe, and surveillance and communication are an essential aspect of warfare today.

Similarly, WW1 was the first main warfare which involved several countries in various parts of the globe and surveillance and communications were gradually more becoming a significant aspect of the fighting.[10] Equally important, the First World War was a combat of firsts – a multinational combat from traditional hand-to-hand fighting to high-tech, sophisticated military hardware – that is still the characteristic of armed combats today.

World War 1 (WW1) similarity to Warfare

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Furthermore, the consequences of warfare as practiced today are more or less the same as the consequences of war during WW1. In today’s warfare just as in WW1 warfare, most of the enemy soldiers and civilians in the countries where the war is being waged end up getting starved, killed or maimed. Modern warfare waged in Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Syria and other places today have similarly caused significant famine.

Malnutrition and starvation continued taking the lives of children and adults in Germany for several years following the end of the First World War in 1918.[11] Likewise today, malnutrition and starvation have taken the lives of many children and adults in Libya, Syria, Yemen, and Iraq thanks to the warfare going on in these countries. Years after these fighting end, malnutrition and starvation are also likely to continue taking the lives of people in these places.   


To sum up, the First World War is fundamentally the same as how warfare is currently being practiced. Just like during WW1, in warfare today, major armies have properly harnessed a several new technologies to effective military purposes for example the usage of unmanned drones for dropping bombs on enemy targets and spying on enemies. Just like WW1, warfare as practiced these days involves several countries. Equally important, surveillance and communication are extensively utilized in today’s warfare just as how it was used during WW1.

World War 1 (WW1) similarity to Warfare

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Clausewitz, Carl von. On War. Edited and translated by Michael Howard and Peter Paret. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976.

Knox, MacGregor, and Williamson Murray, eds. The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300-2050. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Paret, Peter, ed. Makers of Modern Strategy: from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986.

Parker, Geoffrey, ed. The Cambridge History of Warfare. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Parker, Geoffrey, ed. The Cambridge Illustrated History of Warfare. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

[1] MacGregor Knox and Williamson Murray, eds. The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300-2050. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 43.

[2] Geoffrey Parker, ed. The Cambridge History of Warfare. (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005), p. 17.

[4] Geoffrey Parker, ed. The Cambridge Illustrated History of Warfare. (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 22.

[7] Peter Paret, ed. Makers of Modern Strategy: from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986), p. 21.

[10] Carl von Clausewitz. On War. Edited and translated by Michael Howard and Peter Paret. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976), p. 11.

World War 1 (WW1) similarity to Warfare

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Critical Biography of John Calvin

John Calvin
John Calvin

Critical Biography of John Calvin


The protestant reformation movement was started as a way to repudiate some of the long-held beliefs that had been propagated by the Catholic Church. The growing sentiments against the tight control the papacy had over religious expression contributed to the eventual schism between the reformers and the Catholic Church. The Protestant Reformation had two critical components: Lutheran and English Reformation.

Luther is acknowledged as the father of reformation that led to the birth of the Protestant church while the Church of England is credited with leading the way in the later reformation. One of the early reformers who profoundly influenced Reformation was John Calvin.

Calvin was pivotal in moving forward the reform agenda but was also vilified by his detractors for some of his teachings such as predestination, weak personality, false spirituality and his participation in the Servetus execution. The following critical review is based on the literary work by Bernard Cottret, Calvin, A Biography: A Biography (2003).

Background History

John Calvin or Jean Cauvin according to French pronunciation was born on July 10th 1509 in France in Noyon Picardy and died at a relatively young age of 55 years in the year 1564. Calvin was born into a family of parents who came from the middle class, with his father being employed in the service of the local bishop[1]. The employment of his father affected his initial decision to send him to further his studies as a priest but later changed his mind and decided to enroll Calvin for training as a lawyer.

According to Cottret[2], Calvin was trained as a lawyer in Orleans and Bourges in the law schools that operated there. While studying, Calvin was profoundly impacted by the emerging ideas of Erasmus which centered on RenaissanceHumanism[3]. Renaissance Humanism aimed to reform the status quo of the church and society, and this laid the foundation for Calvin’s involvement later in the Reformation movement.

The Renaissance Humanism that emphasized salvation by grace and not good works inspired Calvin to undertake studies in Latin, Greek and Hebrew languages which were the primary languages of discourse in Christian antiquity. His studies eventually led him to write his first discourse on clemency based on the commentaries of Seneca in 1532. Bouwsma[4]

Posits that the growing lack of tolerance in Paris to the reform movement forced Calvin to relocate to Basel where his conversion grew stronger as he engaged in intensive studying of the scriptures and theology. This time that was spent in Basel resulted in the first writings of what would later constitute his masterwork publications- the Institutes. This paper in the Institute gave him prominence within the Protestant movement and led leaders of the movement to seek him out as an authority in the movement.

In 1536, Calvin was invited to extend his stay in Geneva where he was temporarily staying, to strengthen the Protestant movement in the town[5]. He later came back to Geneva in 1541 and contributed to the change of leadership of the town under his ordinances. The town efficiently was run under the concepts postulated by Calvin which included the enforcement of morality laws and the abolition of abortion.

Calvin instituted leadership and laws that were meant to make the town to be aligned to the laws of God. The measures initiated by Calvin were humanist in nature including setting up an Academy to train for positions of leadership that were secular based on humanist principles. He is criticized for this period of his life for leaning more on principles that espoused humanist beliefs rather than doctrinal teachings by his detractors.

Calvin was instrumental in making sure that there was continuity in the reformation movement by giving refuge to protestant refugees fleeing religious persecution. The refugees came from as far as England while others came from France. One such refugee who went back to change his country positively was John Knox from England who found refuge in Geneva under the control of Calvin. Many refugees who sought protection in Geneva were drawn to Calvin and to his teachings on reformation which they took back home with them[6].

The school of theology he founded in Geneva was outstanding in offering training for the refugees who went back home after receiving theological training. According to Treasure[7] Calvin was involved in sending back home to France more than 100 Reformed missionaries, and this was critical in strengthening the Reformed Church in the early years of the Reformation.


Personality- Calvin was a man whom many considered cold and impersonal when compared to Luther who was considered warm and approachable. His perspectives in life were considered as abstract rather than ideas that were practical for everyday Christian living. This writing was more his solace that portrayed him as a person who lived in his world, cut off from the ordinary laity.

His introvert character could have been caused by feelings of inadequacy about salvation, and these inner deficiencies made him a man of letters. His character of being cold and aloof could also have been contributed to his early upbringing in a class that was relatively privileged and cut off from the common people. The writings were only beneficial to a few within the circles of the Protestant movement much in the same as most liturgical readings in the Catholic Church.

The character of the man Calvin is seen today in Calvinists who today come across as being unemotional, cold and emphasize the ability to control oneself and the environment. This characterization of Calvinists has been an impediment to believers who may embrace the tenets of his philosophy but are put off by the practicality of the ideal Calvinist characterization.

The Institutes- The institutes that were written by Calvin is largely made up of logical and reasoned arguments which are designed to appeal to the academic mind. The writings are more of the personal beliefs of Calvin and which have played a significant role as the central theology of Calvinism. They point to God yet at the same time over emphasize on the frailties of man such as reprobation and depravity. The writings come across as being narrow regarding hermeneutics with the negative portrayal of humanity[8].

Calvin in his writings takes on a prescriptive view of discipleship that is based on instilling fear rather than love. His humanist beliefs are seen to exert influence in his writings where he posits that the middle order of human life is a utility. This emphasis on utility and practicality in Christianity is influenced by his conviction and early influences from Renaissance Humanism. Thus his writings are a strange mix of theology infused with thoughts from the school of humanism.

Calvin rejects some of the sacramental claims of the Catholic Church and retains two sacraments of baptism and the Lord’s Supper in his writings. The point of departure between Calvin and the Catholic Church seem to be superficial as he claims that sacraments are dependent on the faith of the recipient and not on the form of ritual for its sake. This is repudiated in his acceptance of infant baptism which negates the principle of faith by the recipient of the sacrament[9].

His approach to the Lord’s Supper is closer to the consubstantiation position of Luther while rejecting the transubstantiation position of the Catholic Church. His position on the sacrament of the Lord’s Table is thus theologically correct while his position on child baptism is faulty in the same measure.This, therefore, shows his selective rejection of some beliefs of the Catholic Church while holding on to others which question his sincerity as a reformer.

Theology One of the major criticisms about Calvin is in the theology that he espoused on predestination. According to Perry[10]Calvin posits that certain people were predestined by God to be the “elect” from the foundations of the world. This carries the implications that those who were not predestined were already condemned from the foundations of eternity and therefore no amount of preaching and evangelism can save them.

This presumption by Calvin states that people will be saved and serve God because God chose them and therefore man has no choice in salvation. This is the foundation of Calvinism that is represented by the acronym TULIP. This stands for Total- total inability of man to be good. U- Unconditional election of man. L-limited atonement meaning Christ paid for the few elect.

An i-irresistible meaning man has no choice. P-perseverance meaning that one is always saved if chosen to be among the elect few.The theology of Calvin is therefore unsound due to the shortcomings that are in contrast to the scriptures.

His theology negates the tenets of evangelism since God has already chosen the select fewhe predestined[11]. It negates prayer for family, friends and the sick. It implicitly implies that God is complicit in creating sin. The assumption that man is incapable of being good implies that man cannot be truly remorseful or to repent truly. If man cannot be truly good, he cannot be faulted for acts which are considered sin.

The eternal condemnation of the non-elect portrays God as an unjust God by the concept of double-predestination[12]. John 10:11 states that Christ died for all and not a few elect while James 5:19-20 warns against going back to the sinful ways of the world. This is contrary to Calvinist theology that once a person is saved, they will stay saved.

Protestant Work Ethic– Calvin is credited as being one of the founders of the philosophy known as the Protestant Work  Ethic. This philosophy postulates that work is a path to salvation or deliverance. This was from the earliest theology that was developing from the Protestant church, influenced by teaching of Lither on work as a calling or beruft. Calvin expounded on this early thoughts based on his Calvinist ideology that the elect should work daily to perfect their calling with regards to righteousness.

His time spent in Geneva contributed in shaping his thoughts on the work ethic from a Protestant view. While at Geneva, Calvin espoused teachings that work was more beneficial to God than the individual and thus disdained accumulation of wealth. The role of work was to serve God and his work (evangelism) and to serve one’s, neighbor. This is a false premise according to the scripture as seen in 3 John 1:2 which openly shows that it is the will of God for Christians to prosper.

The philosophical teachings of Calvin based on his ideology of Calvinism was contrary to the belief that self-improvement was a viable attainment of work.[13]This is based on his humanist philosophy rather than Scripture which declares that we are expected to be fruitful and to grow ( 2 Peter 1: 8,  Genesis 1:22).[14]The humanist philosophical ideals of Calvin which he institutionalized in literature distort the foundational constructs that are scriptural.

The Calvinist ideals that founded the false premise of the Protestant work ethic have a wrong foundation from that man was doomed to work after his fall. Work is not necessary to expiate humankind before a merciful God rather it is an extension of the divinity of God in his creation. This is because God is a worker having created the world in six days and rested on the seventh day ( Genesis 2:2)[15]

Prosperity comes with diligence and self-improvement which leads to the creation of wealth as seen from the scriptures in Proverbs (12:14, 27: 18-27).[16] Work for its sake as the center of moral life and as a measure of virtue and worth is less of scripture and more of Calvinist philosophy. The encouragement of labor as way to edify the Church laid the foundation for Capitalism as part of the Protestant work ethic. Capitalism brought sweeping beneficial changes to the society but also resulted in great inequalities in equal measure.

Spirituality- Calvin posits two metaphors for the Christian life that are found to be wanting from practical application in everyday Christian living. The first metaphor he posits is to compare the life of a Christian to that of a soldier who is called to live a life of rigorous discipline. The Christian soldier is called to bear arms in war against his wickedness in the flesh while learning from the punishments that are visited upon the wicked.

This can be traced to his stay at Geneva where he controlled the town and enforced his strict interpretations of morality according to scripture. The citizens of Geneva who resented his teachings were punished for their intransigence including hangings so that others could learn from such example[17]. The belief that other people suffer so that the elect can learn from their sufferings is false spirituality with no Biblical foundation.

The belief that the misfortune of other people especially the non-elect helps to purge the wickedness of the elect lacks merit in the scriptures. It, therefore, offers a hollow sense of spirituality to the believer. The suffering of the non-elect could be because of demonic oppression, sin or even for God to be glorified according to John 11:4 (NKJV)[18]. Thus the simplification of suffering of the non-elect to their shortcomings which draws the wrath of God is faulty.

The approach is taken to the Christian life as a perpetual conflict negates the rest that was promised to the body of Christ. The finished work of the cross is not complete without works in the flesh. The Christian is expected to suffer as part of the atonement each pays for sin. The suffering of the elect can thus be seen as a manifestation of inward sin that is not confessed that has drawn the ire of God, and thus the elect is punished with affliction.

Another metaphor Calvin draws is to compare the Christian walk with a journey that strenuously progresses in holiness. The journey in holiness involves progressive sanctification in on a daily basis. This presumption by Calvin is faulty from Scripture and offers a Christianity that becomes strenuous by human endeavor and effort. The scriptures declare that we receive the righteousness of God according to Romans 3:22 which are imputed to be by faith (NKJV). 

We cannot increase in righteousness but we can increase daily in faith: “For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith; as it is written, ‘The just shall by faith’” (NKJV Romans 1:17)[19]. The pursuit of progressive holiness and sanctification by Calvinists according to Calvin becomes their single-minded goal in their journey of Christianity. The pursuit of the superior virtues may sound spiritual but has no scriptural foundation and therefore sets the Calvinist adherent on a journey of false spirituality.

Apologist– In the tradition of the founding fathers of the Reformation who were apologists, Calvin comes across as a weak apologist. Calvin in his Institutes posits that faith is always reasonable even though it may appear at times as being reasonable. This is contrary to the leanings of other apologists like Luther who steadfastly faith is unchanging and central to understanding the workings of God in human affairs.

This is seen when Calvin wrote an epistle dedicated to King Francis who was purging the early reform movement in Paris. The dedicatory epistle sounds more like a letter of apology from an individual who seems to be undergoing internal struggles as to his beliefs. This epistle questions his true allegiance to the Reformation movement as it introduces some skepticism as regards his core theology.

This epistle can be interpreted as the surest sign that Calvin was still willing to make a rapprochement with the Catholic Church and thus not a true reformer. It could also be due to his belief that rulers and authorities could be instrumental in propagating the reform movement.[20]

Michael Servetus The role that Calvin played in the execution of Michael Servetus helped put a blemish on his beliefs which were compared to the Catholic Church from which he had broken way from. Servetus was of the same age as Calvin and equally learned in theology but was considered a heretic by both Catholics and Protestants[21].

While fleeing from certain death from Roman Catholic authorities; he entered by chance into a church where Calvin was preaching. Calvin ordered his arrest, and he was subsequently charged with heresy and blasphemy. This arrest of a non-citizen of Geneva has raised questions as to the legality of his arrest and subsequent execution by burning at the stake[22].

The Protestant Council that tried him condemned him to death at a time when Calvin was in charge of the city of Geneva. Calvin is accused of not being forthright for his role in the execution of Servetus especially for a movement that was based on reform.

The execution by the Protestant church under a leading reformer such as Calvin was no different from the practices that had estranged the movement from the Catholic Church. Burning at the stake was the common form of execution for heretics, some of whom were innocent. The expected reforms within this movement included the forms of punishment that were to be meted on heretics such as imprisonment.

The decision to follow in the traditional Catholic forms of punishment was blight on the record of the early reformers under the leadership of Calvin. The practice of burning at stake had been misused by the Catholic Church, and this execution of Servetus negatively impacted the gains that were being made by the Protestant Church[23]. Most reformers of this period rejected the verdict that was reached by the council under the leadership of Calvin as being anti-reformist.

Missionary Work– The perspective taken by Calvin on evangelism and missionary work is faulty and is a product of his humanistic philosophy combined with theology. Calvin believed that Christian rulers and magistrates could play a major role in spreading Christianity. This is seen from his belief that the ascension to the throne by Queen Elizabeth in 1558 could help propagate Christianity[24]

The lack of demarcation between Church and the State could also have been influenced from his time as the chief authority in the town of Geneva where he sought to join the Church and the civic authority. This is also seen from his correspondence with Jeanne d’Albret who was a woman from the French nobility to support the reformation in France[25].

His approach to missionary work was more from a theological perspective rather than from a practical approach. He believed more in sending literature to the mission fields rather than personally engaging on the ground. His academic approach to evangelism could partly have been influenced by his doctrinal beliefs in predestination.


John Calvin played an important role within the reformation movement that led to the growth of a strong and vibrant Protestant Church as it stands today[26]. His scholarly approach to interpreting Scripture made him write several Bible commentaries on the New and Old Testament. He is credited as being the founder of the Presbyterian system of church leadership which is widely used today by most churches.

The structure he founded on church government has remained largely unchanged to this day. The theological principles he posited laid the foundation of Calvinism and the modern day Calvinist Church. His influences can be seen in the Reformations that were impacted by his works in churches in Scotland, France, and Germany. His works also affected the Baptist Church tremendously as well as the churches that were planted in North America.

The influence of Calvin was not only limited to the church but also contributed to the aspects of Western civilization such as capitalism and Puritanism. His writings contributed to the development of the concept of the Protestant work ethic and capitalism. His writings on theology also contributed to the corporate body knowledge within Christianity[27].

His influence on leading reformers of his time impacted the reformation with his focus on his peculiar form of evangelism by writing letters. His writings and focus on distributing the Bible as well as his writings helped to propagate the gospel across Europe and the rest of the world. His thoughts on morality and ethics have contributed to the development of the philosophy of Humanism as well as Utilitarianism.

Despite his divergent views from some leading reformers such as Martin Luther, Calvin made significant contributions as an apologist for Reformation as well as a Bible expositor of his generation. He lived a life that was predestined to make an impact that is still felt in this generation.


The life of John Calvin was a life that was lived to the dedication of reforming the body of Christ. The pursuit of education in his formative years was instrumental in shaping his mental astuteness that would be pivotal in his theological studies. The early proponents of Renaissance Humanism inspired him on the journey to a deeper study of the scriptures and led him to begin his writings. The works of Calvin have both positive and negative aspects that are attached to them.

Critics of Calvin majorly criticize him on his theological perspectives on predestination. Some other shortcomings can be found in his beliefs on infant baptism. His detractors fault his participation in the execution of Michael Servetus. His personality is equally faulted as being a cold and unapproachable person. Despite the many negative aspects of his life and writings, Calvin is still acknowledged today as one of the most influential thinkers in the history of the church and therefore a church Statesman.


Boa, Kenneth D and Bowman, Robert D. “Faith has its Reasons” Retrieved from

Bouwsma, W., J. John Calvin, French Theologian. Encyclopedia Brittanica. (2017). Retrieved from

Cottret, B. Calvin, A Biography: A Biography. London: Continuum International Pub. Group.(2003). 

Gordon, B. John Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion: A biography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University.(2016). 

Goroncy, J. John Calvin: Servant of the Word. In Rae M., Matheson P., & Knowles B. (Eds.), Calvin The Man and the Legacy. ATF (Australia). (2013). (pp. 13-40). Retrieved from

Halfond, G. The History Teacher, 45(2), 313-314. (2012). Retrieved from

Haykin, M., A.G. “A Sacrifice Well Pleasing to God”; John Calvin and the Missionary Endeavor of the Church.pdf. (2015). Retrieved from

John. New King James Version. Bible Society. (2012).

Kim, S. Calvin’s Doctrine of Predestination. In Deus provide bit: Calvin, Schleiermacher, and Barth on the Providence of God. Augsburg Fortress. (2014). (pp. 25-86). Retrieved from

McKee, E. A Week in the Life of John Calvin. In Rae M., Matheson P., & Knowles B. (Eds.), Calvin The Man and the Legacy. ATF (Australia). (2013).(pp. 61-78). Retrieved from

Perry, B. Arguments against Calvinism and Predestination. (2017). Retrieved from

Romans. New King James Version. Bible Society.(2012).

Smith, Virgil O., and Yvonne S. Smith. “Bias, History, and the Protestant Work Ethic.” Journal of Management History 17, no. 3 (2011): 282-98,

Treasure, G. Calvin: THE WAY, THE TRUTH, AND THE LIFE. In The Huguenots. Yale University Press.(2013). (pp. 75-83). Retrieved from

[1]Bouwsma, W., J. John Calvin, French Theologian. Encyclopedia Brittanica. (2017). Retrieved from

[2]Cottret, B. Calvin, A Biography: A Biography. London: Continuum International Pub. Group.(2003). Pg. 53.

[3]Cottret, B. Calvin, A Biography: A Biography. London: Continuum International Pub. Group.(2003). Pg. 263.

[4]Bouwsma, W., J. John Calvin, French Theologian. Encyclopedia Brittanica. (2017). Retrieved from

[5] Ibid, pg. 110.

[6]Cottret, B. Calvin, A Biography: A Biography. London: Continuum International Pub. Group. (2003). Pg. 184.

[7]Treasure, G. Calvin: THE WAY, THE TRUTH, AND THE LIFE. In The Huguenots. Yale University Press. (2013). (pp. 78). Retrieved from

[8]Cottret, B. Calvin, A Biography: A Biography. London: Continuum International Pub. Group.(2003). Pg. 320.

[9]Goroncy, J. John Calvin: Servant of the Word. In Rae M., Matheson P., & Knowles B. (Eds.), Calvin The Man and the Legacy. ATF (Australia). (2013). (pp. 25). Retrieved from

[10]Perry, B. Arguments against Calvinism and Predestination. (2017). Retrieved from

[11]Kim, S. Calvin’s Doctrine of Predestination. In Deus provide bit: Calvin, Schleiermacher, and Barth on the Providence of God. (2014). (pp. 62). Augsburg Fortress. Retrieved from

[12]Perry, B. Arguments against Calvinism and Predestination. (2017). Retrieved from

[13] Smith, Virgil O., and Yvonne S. Smith. “Bias, History, and the Protestant Work Ethic.” Journal of Management History 17, no. 3 (2011): 282-98,

[14] 2Peter 1:8 New King James Version, Bible Society, 2012, Genesis 1:22 New King James Version, Bible Society, 2012.

[15] Genesis 2:2 New King James Version, Bible Society, 2012.

[16] Proverbs 12:14 New King James Version, Bible Society, Proverbs 27:18-27 New King James Version, Bible Society, 2012.

[17]Cottret, B. Calvin, A Biography: A Biography. London: Continuum International Pub. Group.(2003). Pg. 220.

[18]John. New King James Version. Bible Society. (2012).

[19]Romans. New King James Version. Bible Society.(2012).

[20] Boa, Kenneth D and Bowman, Robert D. “Faith has its Reasons” Retrieved from

[21]Gordon, B. John Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion: A biography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University.(2016). Pg. 25-29.

[22]Cottret, B. Calvin, A Biography: A Biography. London: Continuum International Pub. Group.(2003). Pg. 208.

[23]Ibid. Pp. 230.

[24]Haykin, M., A.G. “A Sacrifice Well Pleasing to God”; John Calvin and the Missionary Endeavor of the Church.pdf. (2015). Retrieved from

[25] Ibid.

[26]Halfond, G. The History Teacher, 45(2), (2012). 313-314. Retrieved from

[27]McKee, E. A Week in the Life of John Calvin. In Rae M., Matheson P., & Knowles B. (Eds.), Calvin The Man and the Legacy. ATF (Australia). (2013). (pp. 70). Retrieved from

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The IRA (Irish Republican Army)

The IRA (Irish Republican Army)
The IRA (Irish Republican Army)



This paper explores the Irish Republican Army (IRA) regarding its organizational structure and operations. The paper shows the determination and overwhelming support that the IRA had in its bid to unify Ireland and secure socialist independence from the British rule.

The IRA Operations

The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Provisional IRA) was an Irish republican paramilitary organization established with the purpose of rendering British rule in Ireland ineffective and securing socialist independence during the Troubles-era.

The IRA, known by different names including the Provisional IRA, the Provos, and PIRA among others aimed at unifying Ireland by all means. The Provisional IRA took over from the original IRA in 1969 after the republican movement split. From its inception, the group’s operations were independent of political influence.

The Troubles had begun in 1968 when the Royal Ulster Consabulary (RUC) and Ulster loyalists attacked a Catholic-constituted civil rights group (Cottrell, 2014). As a result of the violent attack on the peaceful campaigners, a riot ensued in August 1969 leading to the deployment of British troops.

Whereas the IRA’s initial campaign was defensive, the group resorted to an offensive campaign in 1971 aimed at forcing the British to withdraw from Northern Ireland. The IRA employed guerilla tactics against RUC and the British army in both urban and rural establishments. The group also ran a bombing campaign in England and Northern Ireland with the aim of achieving socialist independence.

Following the re-admission of the IRA’s political wing into the Northern Ireland peace talks, the group called a final ceasefire in July 1997. The IRA disarmed in 2005 under international supervision. Since the Provisional IRA ceasefire, there have been several groups that have emerged such as the Continuity IRA and the Real IRA. These splinter groups are still operating in the low-level nonconformist Irish Republican campaign.

Organizational Structure and Scope


According to Horgan and Taylor (2007), the IRA was one of the most sophisticated and highly organized paramilitary groups in the world. The IRA’s organization was structured hierarchically. The IRA Army Council was the top leadership of the organization, headed by the Chief of Staff.

The Chief of Staff appointed the General and the Quartermaster General, consisting of heads of departments for security, operations, publicity, intelligence, training, engineering, finance, and armory. The Council is responsible for the day-to-day running of the organization (Boyne, 1996).

The General Army Convention (GAC) was the supreme decision-making arm of the IRA and met on relatively rare occasions. The IRA Constitution provided for GAC meetings to be conducted once every two years but for exceptional circumstances which would call for a postponement of the meeting.

GACs met regularly before 1969, after which they have only met thrice in 1970, 1986 and 2005. The rarity of their meeting has been a result of the need to maintain secrecy for the large IRA group. The GAC thus elected an executive comprising of 12 members, who selected seven volunteers to the IRA Army Council.

Regional Command

The IRA comprised of the Northern Command operating in the nine Ulster counties and the Louth and Leitrim border counties, and a Northern Command which operated in the other parts of Ireland. Most of the IRA members came from Northern Ireland and the Border counties, while others come from Louth-Armagh border area, Donegal, Derry, and Belfast. Initially, the IRA’s leadership was based in Dublin, but in 1997, the Northern Command was granted the “war-zone” command parallel to the introduction of local cell structures (Kennedy-Pipe, 2014).


The IRA’s ordinary members were referred to as volunteers (Moran, 2016). They were organized into units according to conventional military structures. Volunteers based in one area established a company as part of a battalion or brigade. The brigades were organized in county lines although at times they were subdivided especially in major urban settings.

The Belfast Brigade comprised of three battalions in the east, north and west parts of the city. During the initial years of the Troubles, the Belfast Brigade expanded very fast from just 50 members in 1969 to 1,200 members at the end of 1971. The Belfast Brigade became large but loosely controlled.

In 1972, the Derry Battalion was upgraded to a brigade following a rapid increase in membership. The increased membership was due to the killing of 13 unarmed demonstrators at a civil rights march during the Bloody Sunday. The Derry Brigade further controlled the northeastern County Donegal and northern County Londonderry (Boyne, 1996).

County Armagh comprised of four battalions; with the two battalions in South Armagh being more active than the two units in North Armagh.  Particularly, Tyrone consisted of a large IRA presence with three Brigades operating in the east, mid and west. The notorious East Tyrone Brigade also commanded county Monaghan.

The IRA battalions and companies were structured similarly with each comprising of a commanding officer, quartermaster, intelligence officer, and explosives officer. Some battalions and companies further recruited a finance officer or training officer.

Active Service Units

The operational arm comprised of cells referred to as Active Service Units (ASUs). Each cell comprised of five to eight members (Boyne, 1996). From 1973, due to security vulnerability, the organization began to break the larger conventional military structure. Battalion structures were replaced by a system of two parallel types of unit within the brigades.

The company structures were reconstituted to deal with such tasks as hiding weapons, intelligence-gathering, and “policing” nationalist areas. Whereas the old “company” structures provided support services, ASUs were tasked with the bulk of actual tasks. For purposes of improving operational capacity and security of the IRA, ASUs were smaller, tight-knit cells. The brigade’s quartermaster controlled weapons in the unit cells.

Apart from the rest of brigades and battalions, the South Armagh Brigade retained its traditional hierarchical structure and deployed a relatively larger number of volunteers in its operations. The reason for the brigade’s smooth running of operations is because it did not have as many security problems as the other brigades.

The Southern Command comprised of a Southern Brigade and various ASUs in rural areas, which were responsible for importing and storing arms for the Northern units and mobilizing finances through robberies and other means.

It is not clear on the number of people that joined the IRA during the Troubles. In the late 1980s, the IRA’s membership in Northern Ireland was estimated at 300 in ASUs and about 450 in supporting roles. This did not account for the IRA units in the Republic of Ireland or Britain, and continental Europe. In 2005, the government recorded an approximation of 1,000 to 1,500 active IRA members.

Logistical and Operational Requirements

During the initial stages of the Troubles, the IRA was poorly armed. It used the traditional World War II weaponry such as Thompson submachine guns and M1 Garands. However, in the early 1970s, the IRA obtained sophisticated weapons from they’re the United States and Libya supporters and purchased more weapons from dealers in the Middle East, America, Europe and other parts of the world.

The support from the IRA’s allies was regarding sharing training techniques, weapons and funding (Gill et al., 2014). Whereas Libya’s donation of arms to the organization was prevalent in the 1980s, the IRA attracted massive support from its Irish-American allies who provided funding and guns. The IRA was well funded to the extent that they provided a stipend to its members and offered support to families of incarcerated members.

The IRA organized for fundraising in the Irish Republic, the United and across the continent to provide for the relief of the families of IRA prisoners. Sinn Fein, the IRA political wing, is reported to the richest political party in Ireland. Most of the funding for Sinn Feinn was from the United States (Taylor, 2014). The Irish Northern Aid Committee based in the United States is reported to have been the principal source of IRA funds.

Supporters of IRA in the United States raised funds directly and indirectly, at lectures, film shows, house parties, dinners and collections in clubs and bars. Cash was also raised through Sinn Fein’s commercial activities such as books, pamphlets, and Christmas cards.

The IRA supplemented imported weaponry by developing their own. The rationale behind the production of weapons was to avoid dependency on supply into Ireland by air or by the sea, which was not fully reliable. Thus, the IRA called on the services of experienced engineers to help in building weapons such as home-made mortars. The organization also engaged the use of university-educated computer experts to volunteer in the construction of sophisticated timing and remote-control mechanisms that were used in mortars and bombs.

Reports indicate that the IRA utilized the ceasefire period for upgrading these mechanisms and developing techniques for combating the ‘disruptive’ radio signals used by the British Army. In 1993, the Garda uncovered an IRA workshop, where a wide range of advanced electronic detonators was being produced (Gill & Horgan, 2013).

During the initial years of the conflict, the IRA majorly focused on the provision of support to nationalist rioters and defending of nationalist areas. As a result, the IRA obtained support for its activities due to their perceived efforts to defend the Irish nationalist and Catholics against aggression.

Between 1971 and 1994, the IRA engaged in offensive operations targeting the RUC, the Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR), the British army and Northern Ireland economic targets, while some IRA members attacked Protestant civilians. The IRA also targeted British government officials, the British Army in England, judges, and politicians.

During the Troubles era, IRA members became skilled in the production of explosives from substances such as fertilizers and nitrobenzene. These explosives were utilized in both small devices for throwing at the North’s security forces and large bombs for blowing up buildings.  The NRA also produced home-made weapons such as the drogue bomb and nail bomb. The IRA used the ceasefire period to produce the ‘Mark 17’ mortar, which to date is one of the most destructive weapons in the world (Gill, 2017).

The IRA decommissioned its weapons in 2005 under international supervision. The weapons decommissioned included; handguns, hand grenades, rocket-propelled grenade launchers, detonators, flamethrowers, surface-to-air missiles, heavy machine guns, tonnes of Semtex, and rifles.


While the public reacted to the IRA’s activities with love and criticism in equal measure, it is evident that the organization played a huge role in raising economic and political activism in Ireland and the development of modern warfare equipment. The organization stands out as one of the most properly structured paramilitary groups in the world.


Boyne, S. (1996). Uncovering the Irish Republican Army. Jane’s Intelligence Review. Retrieved from:

Cottrell, P. (2014). The Anglo-Irish War: The Troubles of 1913–1922. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Gill, P. (2017). Tactical Innovation and the Provisional Irish Republican Army. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism40(7), 573-585.

Gill, P., & Horgan, J. (2013). Who were the volunteers? 1 The shifting sociological and operational profile of 1240 provisional Irish Republican Army members. Terrorism and Political Violence25(3), 435-456.

Gill, P., Lee, J., Rethemeyer, K. R., Horgan, J., & Asal, V. (2014). Lethal connections: The determinants of network connections in the Provisional Irish Republican Army, 1970–1998. International Interactions40(1), 52-78.

Horgan, J., & Taylor, M. (1997). The provisional Irish Republican army: Command and functional structure. Terrorism and Political Violence9(3), 1-32.

Kennedy-Pipe, C. (2014). The origins of the present troubles in Northern Ireland. Routledge.

Moran, J. (2016). From Northern Ireland to Afghanistan: British military intelligence operations, ethics and human rights. Routledge.

Taylor, P. (2014). The Provos: The IRA and Sinn Fein. A&C Black.

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Summary of the Treaty of Versailles (Wilde, 2016)

Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles

Summary of the Treaty of Versailles (Wilde, 2016)

Blame: The clause 231 of the Treaty of Versailles blamed German for instigating he war and causing immense loss and damages.

Repartations:  Germans were forced to admit full responsibility for starting World War 1. In addition, they were to pay all the material damages amounting to £ 6,600 million until 1984

Army: The army was restricted to a total of 100, 000 personnel. The presence of any army was removed from the territory of Rhineland that Germany had. Additionally, the army in Germany was left with 6 battleships, no aeroplanes and submarines.

Territory: Germany lost 12% of their population as they were given independence and sovereignty with the setting of the boundaries. In addition, they lost their colonies in overseas territories. Moreover, their lost 10% of productive land that had coalfields, iron and steel industry.

Areas of strength/weakness in the original treaty

The treaty provided an opportunity for the creation of an international organization to maintain peace in Europe called the League of Nations. Secondly, the treaty provided the nations with sovereignty by instituting boundaries. Thirdly, the treaty resulted in de-militarization of Germany which ensured that there was peace and stability in the region. Lastly, the treaty provided Poland, Hungary and Czeschoslovakia independence and 45 countries participated in the treaty, hence enforcing its legality.

 On the other hand, the weakness in the treaty is that the League of Nations was incapacitated when it came to implementing their decisions. They lacked a military section that could help them enforce their authority in the member countries. Secondly, countries like Japan and Italy were against the treaty as they felt they did not get sufficient reward as Allies. Thirdly, the exclusion of USA, Russia and Germany from the treaty weakened the League of Nations. Lastly, the treaty weakened the Germans who felt that they were unfairly treated, hence resented the treaty.

Make a prediction of how the original treaty of Versailles could lead to future conflict in Europe

The treaty of Versailles infuriated the Germans and the disadvantaged parties. The Germans were loaded with debt and the unemployment situation in the country worsened. This provided a suitable environment for regrouping and formation of an army against the European nations. This lead to world war 2.


The aim of the treaty was to ensure peace and prevent the reoccurrence of another world war. In addition, the treaty was supposed to punish the guilty parties and decapitate them from ever rising. The treaty is being written to provide the world with a new era where the nations will be able to relate in a friendly manner to foster trade and peace.


  1. The payment of penalties amounting to £ 6,600 by the guilty parties after a period of one year of the signing of the contract and until 1990.
  2. The reallocation of the overseas territories that the instigators controlled fairly to the Allied nations
  3. Any nations that will form any form of alliance with respect to equipping their military will also be stripped of their overseas colonies.
  4. The provision of independence to the countries that wanted to defect from the instigators of the war. Boundaries will be set in place and support to strengthen their identity.
  5. Strict monitoring of their operations by setting up an international organization, League of Nations, to oversee the operations of the instigator.


The Treaty of Justice is focused to ensure that the peace was restored in the world and that the guilty parties were punished. The punishment is set in a manner that it will be fair to all the parties involved to reduce hostility. Moreover, the punishments are just to ensure that the instigators are able to support their economy and the innocent citizens. The violation of the treaty will result in the nations being stripped of their sovereignty. This will result in the nation being controlled and governed by the League of Nations the international organization mandate to maintain peace. 

Date: 28th July 1919

List of Signing countries/representatives


Wilde, R. (2016). The Treaty of Versailles- An Overview. About Education.

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