Involuntary mental health treatment

Involuntary mental health treatment
Involuntary mental health treatment

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Involuntary mental health treatment

How is this assessment connected to the learning outcomes?

HLTH510: Assignment 1 relates to learning outcomes 1 and 5:

  1. critically analyse the theoretical, legal, ethical and policy frameworks for interprofessional mental health practice including evidence-based interventions for mental health and well-being;
  2. demonstrate the application of knowledge and skills to undertake a mental health assessment and employ common mental health assessment tools within a recovery framework;
  3. plan and execute collaborative mental health care that supports the rights of people and their carers to access and participate in their treatment and recovery across the lifespan in a variety of health and community settings;
  4. demonstrate the application of core skills for low intensity mental health and wellbeing within a recovery framework with high level personal autonomy and accountability; and
  5. demonstrate mastery of and reflect critically on evidence-based practice for common mental health presentations to demonstrate understanding of the impact of health breakdown, the psychosocial dimensions of the illness experience, and the effects on the family and significant others.

Involuntary mental health treatment

Essay topic

The prescriptive nature of Community Treatment Orders (CTO’s)  has led to  debate about the coercive nature of this legislative development.  This debate helps to show the interface between  ethics  and  the law  in mental health practice on what basis is it just to lawfully deprive a person of freedom(s)? Discuss.

Starting references to assist you:

Light, E.M., Kerridge, I.H., Ryan, C.J., & Robertson, M.D. (2012). Community treatment orders in Australia: Rates and patterns of use. Australasian Psychiatry, 20, 478-482.

Light, E.M., Kerridge, I.H., Ryan, C.J., & Robertson, M.D. (2012). Out of sight, out of mind: Making involuntary community treatment visible in the mental health system. Medical Journal of Australia, 196, 591-593.

Please note: you can follow the links provided or access the readings using the UNE library.

Involuntary mental health treatment


Each part of this assignment should be a well planned, well presented essay in its own right.

  • Provide an introduction for each Part that explains the purpose of the essay and how it is organized.
  • For a strong conclusion that summarizes the arguments presented at the end of each Part.
  • It is important to remember that the purpose of an introduction is to provide a road map for the reader. In contrast, the purpose of the conclusion is to summarize the main points and provide direction for how to proceed in the future.
  • You should write in complete sentences (i.e. do not use dot points). However, if you think a summary will enhance the contents of your essay you can insert the information usually included in dot point form in a Table. If you do insert a Table or Figure into your essay you will need to make sure the Table or Figure adheres to APA style.
  • The writing style in an essay is more formal than verbal speech. Make sure you do not write as you would speak.
  • The essay must be written in the third person. Please note: the word “I” is not used when writing in the third person.
  • Write your essay from the position of an expert. This means not starting a sentence with a reference and instead places the reference at the end of the sentence in brackets. A reference supports what you are saying, it should not be the main feature of a sentence. For example: “Higgs (2012) states that communication is very important to client safety” can be written as: “Communication is very important to client safety (Higgs, 2012).”
  • Pay attention to how you structure your sentences and paragraphs. A sentence contains one piece of information. Alternatively, a paragraph contains more than one sentence but deals with only one topic. Do not try to put too little or too much information into a paragraph because doing this is confusing for the reader.
  • Pay attention to spelling, grammar and punctuation.
  • Make sure you run the spell checker over you essay and then give it a last proof read before formally submitting for assessment.

Involuntary mental health treatment


You must use the APA referencing system. Follow the link at the top right of the page for information and examples of APA referencing.

How many references do I need to include?

You are expected to research each Part widely by using the UNE library online catalogue and journal databases to identify relevant books and peer reviewed journal articles. Please note: Personal experience, newspaper articles, Moodle notes and information obtained from websites, especially those that start with the prefix “wiki”, are not a valid source of information for this assignment.

HLTH510 students are expected to find 15+ peer reviewed sources (i.e. journal articles, books) in addition to your textbook(s), to support the statements in your essay.

In-text referencing

Every statement of fact in an essay must be supported by an in-text reference. Omitting in-text references is a form of “intellectual theft” and will not be tolerated. As a general rule in an empirical essay every paragraph should have at least one in-text reference.

For this unit page numbers are not required for in-text references unless providing a direct quote. For example: Communication is important to client safety (Higgs, 2012). “Communication is important to client safety” (Higgs, 2012, p.28).

Involuntary mental health treatment

Marking criteria

Download the HLTH310 Assignment 1 marking criteria or HLTH510 Assignment 1 marking criteria and submit with your completed assignment as a separate PDF file. Use the marking criteria for your year level as a guide when preparing your assignment.

*Word count

For advice on word count please see the Word/Time/Page limits section in the Assessment summary.

Below is a partial answer to the above homework questions by one of our writers. If you are interested in a custom non plagiarized top quality answer, click order now to place your order.

Involuntary mental health treatment


The issue of mental health is one that encompasses various spheres in life. It has an effect on the decisions being made by the individual as well as the choice of life he decides to take. It is therefore mostly looked at through the legal and medical lenses. When one is diagnosed with mental illness, there are various issues that arise such as the capacity of that person to make decisions for himself or for the others around him.

This invites the legal interpretation to try and help in the evaluation of their capacities to make decisions and specifically in terms of medical assistance for their mental incapability. The treatment of people with mental health issues should also be within the ethical and legal parameters. The introduction of the Community Treatment Orders has been welcomed with both enthusiasm as well as disdain. This is because of the mixed reaction that it receives from all quarters.

This is because of the nonconsensual nature and mode of treatment it allows the people with mental health issues to undergo. This is because in the administration of the treatment without the consent of the patient, a violation of their fundamental rights and freedoms is being perpetrated. This paper will look at the issues that have arisen due to the Community Treatment Orders as well as the consequent legal and repercussions.

The Community Treatment Orders and their effect

The Community Treatment Order is an order that permits medical personnel to administer treatments without the consent of the patients to those with mental health problems while they are living with the rest of the community (Mental Health Act, 2009). It allows for the compulsory outpatient treatment of people with mental issues. The main objective of the Act is the provision of treatment and care of people with severe mental illness while observing their fundamental rights and freedoms. This provision gives licensed medical practitioners the leeway in administering treatment to those with mental health issues while still within their communal settings (Light et al, 2012).

The diagnosis of mental health issues is in itself a challenge. This is because of the various manifestations of the characteristics. The high prevalence of the mental health illness in Australia, especially among the young population is alarming. A sizable number of the children and youth in Australia have mental health problems. Approximately a quarter of this population has access to health care that is suited for their specific needs (Sawyer et al, 2001). Such staggering statistics and the future of the country were therefore at risk due to the mental health problems ailing the nation.

The use of the Community Treatment Orders on the youthful population was also a way to ensure that they grow up in their communities for their chances at normal life to be increased. This shows the importance of tackling the mental health problems in a manner that is professional as well as pocket friendly. The Community Treatment Order was for the reduction of these cases as the lack of individual care was highly unlikely. The design of the mental health care system had to be revamped in order to adequately take care of the increasing number of mental health patients (McGorry, Bates and Birchwood, 2013).

In so doing the accessibility of health care for those with severe mental problems and were unable to access it for one reason or the other was statutorily provided for. This method was also meant to decongest the mental hospitals as well as provide the said patients with an opportunity to reintegrate back to the community. The Community Treatment order however comes with various conditions for the patient who risks readmission in to psychiatric facilities in case of non compliance with the set rules.  These are meant to reinforce the voluntariness of the patients into cooperating with the medical practitioners (Owens and Brophy, 2013).

Despite the noble intention to ensure the provision of mental health care to those unable to access it, there are various issues, legal, ethical, theoretical and policy related that have emerged due to this mode of treatment and are yet to be addressed. This has been made worse by the rise in the use of this method of treatment over the past few years. To begin with, the process of the administration of the treatment had very little development. This is especially with regards to the process of identification of the potential patients, the duration of the treatment and the termination of the same (Vine et al, 2016).

The lack of the due process to be followed in the same has created a system that is susceptible to abuse by the health care practitioners mandated to offer these treatment services. The vagaries of this wide berth of power have placed the mental health sector in a state of limbo. This is because of the different processes of treatments that can be administered hence lack of uniformity. The risk that the patients run in the quality of service they receive is also high (Robertson et al, 2013).

The risk that the community where the patient resides is also high as there are times when the mental patient becomes violent or does something that endangers their lives. The Community Treatment order is meant for those with severe mental issues and as such the predictability of their behavioral characteristics is close to nil. It therefore places the general public in danger should the patients lash out. This aspect of the welfare of the rest of the community was overlooked in the best interest of a few.

The observance of the fundamental rights and freedoms of the rest of the population in terms of their safety and peace of mind is thereby compromised. This is just one legal issue that faces the Community Treatment Order. The improvement of the quality of service as well as the establishment of policies and mechanisms to hold and improve the accountability of the Community Treatment order is prudent for these services to achieve their intended purpose. This is in addition to resourcing the medical branch of community health (Light et al, 2017)…..

Involuntary mental health treatment

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Case Study on Moral Status of the Fetus

Moral Status of the Fetus
Moral Status of the Fetus

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Case Study on Moral Status of the Fetus

            The “Fetal Abnormality” case study case involving a couple, Marco and Jessica in which the latter is found to be pregnant with identified abnormalities in the fetus. The news regarding the fetus brings about conflicting theories concerning the moral status of the fetus. Marco employs the conflict model theory, which is often used in decision making processes. Marco uses this theory when he is reluctant about his wife discovering the news since he believes that Jessica would undergo some level of stress and make the wrong decision in the process.

Maria, on the other hand, employs the dual-concern theory, which is evidenced by the fact that she thinks that the fetus has the moral right to live because it is part of God’s creation (Grand Canyon University, 2015). However, she prays for Jessica when she gets the news because she has already lost hope in the life of the fetus. This propels her to support Jessica and convince her to keep the child. 

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            Jessica is not sure about the best decision to make since she values life by indicating that, “all life is sacred” (Grand Canyon University, 2015). At this point, she uses the sentience theory by indicating that the child has the right to live. Nonetheless, she also has an obligation to the fetus as a mother, which highlights the use of the relationship theory. This aspect might change her decision due to their financial status.

Marco also uses the sentience theory by stating that he will support the decisions of his wife (Grand Canyon University, 2015). This means that his actions would indeed support the moral status of the fetus. Conversely, the doctor uses the virtue theory by convincing the couple to opt for an abortion since it helps in alienating the burden of raising an abnormal child and suffering from the involved costs. Based on all these theories, the virtue theory is the most effective since the couple has financial problems and an abnormal child would just add onto their challenges.


Grand Canyon University. (2015) Case Study: Fetal Abnormality. Arizona: Grand Canyon University.

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Abortion: Social, Political and Socio-cultural Factors

Abortion: Social, Political and Socio-cultural Factors
Abortion: Social, Political and Socio-cultural Factors

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Abortion: Social, Political and Socio-cultural Factors

Abortion is one of the issues that have been cited to affect women’s health. The issue of abortion has courted controversy and created a political, public as well as moral divide across the globe. Where as a section of the public are for the view that abortions should be legalized, another sect recommend that t should be restricted. The society on the other hand has often defined abortions from the perspective of when life truly begins and on what point during the gestation period that fetus acquires legal rights of a human being. A number of political, social, and socio-cultural issues surround abortions.

Social Factors

In most societies abortion is considered to be a taboo. Consequently, women have been forced to come up with alternative measures regarding their health. Incidents of women conducting abortions in hide outs are common in the society. Poverty has also played a major in promoting abortions in the society. This is because lack of funds to buy contraceptives forces some women to opt for abortions.

Cases have also been reported of women who prefer to abort due to their inability to raise children (Boyle et al., 2015). Lack of education, especially for the girl child has also led to cases of abortions. This is because a woman can prefer to do an abortion without sufficient knowledge on the consequences that are associated with the practice. Religions have also taken a strong stand against abortion arguing that no human being has the right to end the life of the other.   

Political Factors

According to Githens & Stetson (2013) the abortion issue is considered to be a question of personal privacy rights. Several government laws as well as decisions to have them have been based on two questions; whether it is right for a woman have an abortion and at what point are human rights accorded to the an unborn child. Some states have legalized abortion on medical grounds, that is, if the practice is aimed at safeguarding the health of the woman. Other states have enacted strict rules against abortion pointing out that it may encourage immorality.

Health care providers hold varying beliefs on abortion. A number of physicians may not provide the service due to the fear of the associated consequences whereas however others are ready to offer the service especially when it predisposes the woman to other health risks.

Socio-cultural Factors

Different communities have varied perspectives of sexual and reproductive behavior (Shrage, 2013). In most communities, abortion is termed as a taboo, and therefore, individuals who partake in it are considered to be rebels and hence rejected from by the community members.


Boyle, E. H., Kim, M., & Longhofer, W. (2015). Abortion Liberalization in World Society, 1960–20091. American Journal of Sociology121(3), 882-913.

Githens, M., & Stetson, D. M. (2013). Abortion politics: public policy in cross-cultural perspective. Routledge.

Shrage, L. (2013). Moral dilemmas of feminism: Prostitution, adultery, and abortion. Routledge.

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The Gender Selection Debate Essay Paper

Gender Selection
Gender Selection

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Gender Selection


For decades, sex selection has been a controversial issue. Choosing the sex of a child is often viewed as a justifiable act since there is no harm done to anyone. I believe that gender selection creates balance in a family and it is culturally viewed as a desirable practice that seeks to fulfill social norms. However, there are ethicists who believe that sex selection reinforces the idea of sexual discrimination within our societies (Caulfield & Brownsword, 2012).

This explains why there are renewed efforts from civil societies and government to analyze arguments presented by different authors who either support or oppose the idea of sex selection.

This essay analyzes the meaning of human dignity from two different perspectives. Furthermore, the essay examines how human dignity is defined by our expression of choices and as an inherent value of the society. Based on a case study, the essay describes the social attitudes, norms and circumstance that influence such choices, and their impact on our understanding of human dignity. The essay presents justifications of particular actions concerning sex selection and analyzes some of the features of human dignity that can be put at risk due to actions arising from these two perspectives mentioned therein above.

The concept of human dignity

Human dignity is defined based on the belief that dignity is inherent; hence, human beings posses specific capabilities that are not found in other creatures. It is these features that help to distinguish human beings from other creatures. However, choosing a child’s sex does not define the inherent dignity of human beings. Permitting gender selection is considered as discrimination against a specific gender making it less valuable (Chapman &Benn, 2013).

There are various social reasons for sex selection. Some of these reasons include having a family balance, replacing the deceased child, cultural reasons et cetera. However, these reasons do not define human dignity especially in situations where boys are preferred more than girls. (Kalfoglou et al, 2013).

Kalfoglou et al (2013) views sex selection as an idea that reinforces sexual discrimination. As a result, human dignity is viewed as a situation where a certain gender is prevented from existing and the action is perceived to be justifiable because most people have not been victims of this cruelty. Therefore, individuals created by choice have do not have a reason to complain.

In spite of the reasons that seek to justify sex selection, it is considered to undermine human dignity; thus, causing harm to the wider society. Sex selection has often led to gender disparities in many countries especially in Asian countries such as China and India. This trend has led to patriarchal societal agreements perceived to discriminate girls and women (Mudde, 2010).

The social attitudes, norms and circumstances that influence such perspective

Due to advanced technology, sex selection culture has become popular and this has had a negative impact on females. Parents who are able to access technology have the ability of controlling the sex of their children; hence, they are able to escape the societal stigma of failing to give birth to a son. Many parents avoid giving birth to girls since they are viewed as individuals not worth living .Parents perceive that sex selection gives them the ability to choose what type of children they want in terms of sex. However, this process equates children to products (Webb, 2014).

Sex selection can make parents not to accept some of their shortcomings; hence, lowering the child’s self esteem. Having a strong preference for a specific sex can cause harm for the unwanted sex including rejection and killings to avoid societal blames and eliminate shame. However, proponents of this idea argue that it is normal for such ideas to be rejected at the first instance especially when people are unfamiliar with the idea.

Those opposing the idea of sex selection argue that that having children is not a right that one can put conditions to as children should be viewed as gifts from God (De Melo-Martín, 2013). These arguments are based on our cultural beliefs.

According to Caulfield & Brownsword (2012), traditional patterns of giving gifts recommend that a gift should be taken without putting any condition to it. A gift is something should be accepted unconditionally and the same case applies to children. From a cultural perspective, sex selection promotes the idea of treating children as a commodity, which is more or less similar to buying and selling of children. Choosing some of the features one wants is acceptable only to products like cars or other commodities, but this concept does not apply to human beings. Therefore, sex selection is often used to discriminate a specific gender.

Justification of specific actions in relation to human dignity

Proponents of sex selection argue that everyone has the right to live his life as he pleases so as long as the person does not cause harm or infringe upon other peoples’ rights. The harm principle implies that individuals opposing sex selection need to prove that the action is going to cause harm to others.  In this case, sex selection does not cause harm to anybody. Proponents of sex selection argue that the practice is considered harmful based on sociological and psychological assumptions .They further argue that sex selection is an act that is contrary to religious or moral beliefs (Smolin, 2013).

A report by The Task Force on ethics and laws highlights the common objection arguments used to reject the idea of sex selection. The report indicates that sex selection is compared to mocking God. However, such arguments have been applied to all medical innovations. . It started by rejecting the use of chloroform to relieve pain associated with childbirth. This act was viewed as going against God’s will. Such arguments also applied to the use of inoculation (Li & Pantano, 2013).

Ironically, previous medical innovations viewed as going against God’s will have become part of acceptable medical practices; hence, such objections have not been taken seriously. In fact, such arguments are considered as religious claims .Proponents of sex selection argue that individuals should only refrain from the idea if it contravenes their religious beliefs, but laws should not be imposed on people based on other people’s religious views (Dondorp et al, 2013).

Human dignity that can be jeopardized by actions arising from this perspective

Defining human dignity based on our expression of choices affects public opinion about such ideas. If these perspectives are not comprehensively analyzed through research, public opinion will be flawed. The main concern is that people can use limited philosophical analysis to influence policy discussions .

The definition of human dignity should not be derived from the fact that it is an individual choice, but the practice should be viewed from both public and professional bioethical discussions as recommended by Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproduction (Medicine, 2015).

Human dignity as a societal inherent value

In the second perspective, it is worth noting that the society often values children’s inherent worth. This limits some of the parents’ choices regarding gender selection. Parents who consider gender selections are said not to uphold societal norms and values which is the societal description for human dignity. According to McGowan & Sharp (2013), parents who select their children’s sex because of non-medical reasons are considered to be immoral in the eyes of the society.

From this perspective, human dignity is viewed as pride in oneself or having the sense of self worth as a human being to live a meaningful life .Therefore, any situation that compromises or humiliates this position is considered as a threat to human dignity. Choosing a particular gender over the other for non-medical reasons places expectations on a specific child, and this fails to recognize the personhood of an individual.

Therefore, sex selection fails to adhere to individual inherent characteristics .Children are often viewed as their parent’s property yet they are their own person .Putting too much expectations on the selected children does not give them the respect they deserve; hence, making them not to be autonomous as human beings are supposed to be (Claassens et al., 2013).

Parents who select the sex of their children view their children as a different person instead of the individual the child is suppose to be. Wudarczyk et al (2013) argues that choosing the sex of a child is failing to respect the human intrinsic values of the individual child. In summary, children need to be valued based on their intrinsic worth as human beings. In other words, the values of children should not be attached to specific characteristics.

Social attitudes, norms and circumstances that influence such perspective

In western societies, there is no preferred sex, but selection of sex is based on creating gender balance in the family by having both boys and girls. These common occurrences are observed in Australia, Sweden, and the UK. Even though sex selection does not have negative effects in these countries, Asian countries like China, Korea and India are faced with challenges associated with sex selection due to cultural beliefs. These countries prefer boys to girls and this has led to  more than 10 million abortions within the last 20 years (Moskovian, 2013).

Activists in Asia are calling for the ban of sex selection. However, due to the different reasons parents in the UK and India have for choosing the sex of their children, banning sex selection which is a worldwide practice will not change the situation especially in India. So long as there are religious and economic incentives attached to boys, banning sex selection will not have any effect especially in Asian countries.

Given the fact that majority of UK population would still prefer their first children to be boys, sex selection technology will be misused to fulfill desires of these parents. In Asian countries, banning sex selection will not change the cultural norms being practiced in these regions (Dyal, 2014).

Justification of specific actions in relation to human dignity

There are claims doing rounds that sex selection does not promote the inherent human value, and this is considered as an intuitive reaction, but not a reasonable moral response. The fact that certain human actions are unnatural does not necessary make these actions morally wrong. For example, heart transplant is unnatural but it is meant to save human life (De Melo-Martin, 2013).

The fact that those opposed to the claims that selection of sex should be applicable for medical purposes are not considerate to the fact that medical technologies helps couples with sex-linked genetic disorder to bear a healthy child. This does not translate to misuse of technology to fulfill their personal desires. Furthermore, those in support of sex selection argue that this practice eliminates girls in a humane way as compared to other methods like abortion or neglect, meaning that girls whose birth can be avoided will not be exposed to oppression or discrimination (Tregenza-Parker, 2013).

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In the current health care systems, physicians provide services that do not have direct medical benefits, but add value to individuals who seek for such services like cosmetic surgeries and ultrasound. The same view is applicable when it comes to sex selection. Offering sex selection services is also viewed as misuse of limited medical resources, but offering other services like face-lifts is not considered as s misallocation of limited medical resources. According to WHO Press (2011), the idea of sex selection has been misrepresented in most cases.

The most common argument is that sex selection causes social imbalances of sexes in India and China. The concern whether sex ratio is a threat to the western societies is more of a intuitive reaction devoid of concrete evidence .The idea of calling sex selection a sexist sin is not justifiable because most parents who prefer choosing the sex of their children do so based on the fact that they are motivated by the idea of having children from both sexes. People who believe that raising a boy is different from a girl are those who base their thinking on cultural values of children whereby girls are considered to be different from boys (Cooley &Chesnokova,2011).

Human dignity that can be jeopardized by actions arising from this perspective

The facts that arguments against sex selection are more about their consequences, these arguments are based on assumptions; hence, it is not easy to prevent some of the consequences from happening. It is not essay to draw legal lines to permit some forms of sex selection while limiting others. The main worry in such a situation is how parents are likely to spend their money on technology to ensure that their children are born with the specifications they want.

This can often lead to misuse of technology. The other concern is that if sex selection is acceptable, it will make one sex preferable than the other. As a result, it will make it hard to promote anti-discriminatory measures in several countries (Lee, 2016).


It not surprising that sex selection is controversial. , Different people justify their reasons for gender selection viewing it as a desirable practice that seeks to fulfill societal norms. Others view sex selection as a practice that reinforces discrimination while at the same time it goes against the inherent nature of human value. These two perspectives can describe human dignity from different views.

The case study of sex selection helps us to understand some of the social attitudes, norms and circumstances that can influence our choices and how sex selection from these two perspectives can impact on our understanding of human dignity based on the justification presented in support of this action.

Some of the justifications presented in the essay are likely to influence the perception of individuals in understanding the meaning of human dignity; hence, influencing our actions. In conclusion, it is important to define human dignity from a multi-dimensional perspective as compared to defining it from isolated arguments to accurately establish its meaning.


Caulfield, T., & Brownsword, R. (2012). Human dignity: a guide to policy making in the Biotechnology era? Nature Reviews Genetics, 7(1), 72-76.

Chapman, A. R., & Benn, P. A. (2013). Noninvasive prenatal testing for early sex identification: A few benefits and many concerns. Perspectives in biology and medicine, 56(4), 530-547.

Claassens, J. et al (2013). Searching for Dignity: Conversations on human dignity, theology and disability. Toronto. Sun media.

De Melo-Martín, I. (2013). Sex selection and the procreative liberty framework. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 23(1), 1-18.

Dondorp, W., De Wert, G., Pennings, G., Shenfield, F., Devroey, P., Tarlatzis, B., & Diedrich,

K. (2013). ESHRE Task Force on ethics and Law 20: sex selection for non-medical reasons. Human Reproduction, 28(6), 1448-1454.

Cooley, D. & Chesnokova, I. (2011). Sex Selection Abortion in Kazakhstan: Understanding a Cultural Justification, Developing World Bioethics 11, (3). 159–60.

De Melo-Martin, I. (2013). The Ethics of Sex Selection. Ethics and Emerging Technologies, 90.

Dyal, M. (2014). Whether sex-selection for non-medical reasons, using pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, should be permitted in the UK. University of Birmingham.

Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2015). Use of Reproductive technology for sex selection for nonmedical reasons. Fertility and Sterility, 103(6), 1418-1422.

Kalfoglou, A. L. et al (2013). Ethical arguments for and against sperm sorting for non-medical sex selection: a review. Reproductive biomedicine online, 26(3), 231-239.

Lee, M. Y. K. (2016). From the case of sex discrimination to the ideas of equality and equal opportunities. In Ethical Dilemmas in Public Policy (pp. 111-127). Springer Singapore.

Li, Q., & Pantano, J. (2013). The Demographic Consequences of Gender Selection Technology. Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 95, (5): 1549–1561.

McGowan, M. L., & Sharp, R. R. (2013). Justice in the context of family balancing. Science, Technology & human values, 38(2), 271-293. Current opinion in psychiatry, 26(5), 474.

Tregenza-Parker, G. (2013). Sex Selection for Family Balancing? A Legal and Ethical Analysis.

Smolin, D. M. (2013). Sex Selection, the Missing Girls of China and India, and the Challenges of Technological Control of Procreation. Regent JL & Pub. Pol’y, 6, 49.

Moskovian, A. (2013). Bans on Sex-Selective Abortions: How Far is Too Far?. Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly, 40(2).

Mudde ,A. (2010).‘Before You Formed in the Womb I Knew You’: Sex Selection and Spaces of Ambiguity, Hypatia 25 (3).563–64.

Webb, D. C. (2014). The Sex Selection Debate: A Comparative Study of Sex Selection Laws in the United States and the United Kingdom. South Carolina Journal of International Law and Business, 10(1), 6.

WHO Press (2011). World Health Organization, Preventing Gender-based Sex Selection: An Interagency Statement OHCHR, UNFPA, UNICEF, UN Women and WHO. Geneva. WHO Press

Wudarczyk, O. al (2013). Could intranasal oxytocin be used to enhance relationships? Research imperatives, clinical policy, and ethical considerations.

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End of life conversations Essay

End of life conversations
End of life conversations

End of life conversations

End of life conversations are difficult to initiate to a point where health care practitioners start to actively avoid talking with individuals that are under palliative care. The thought of initiating the conversation fills a clinician with dismay. McRee & Reed (2016) advise that conversations about end of life should be initiated at the time of patient’s admission. Therefore, GPs should monitor the trajectory of patients’ conditions as soon as they have been admitted in hospital.

For instance, they can assess whether the patient is exhibiting a consistent decline instead of improvement or if the patient is complaining of fatigue with the treatment process of frequent hospitalization. These prompts then require a clinician to set up a place and time when those who should be involved can be present.

As a RN nurse, I can promote and support the process of end of life conversations by first asking for permission from the patient to talk about the topic. This is crucial as it assures the patient that I respect and honor his/ her wishes. I can start by a question such as, “I would like us to discuss about how you would like to be cared for in case you become really sick, is that okay with you?”

I will then determine the appropriate time and place where the conversation should be done. During the discussion, I will show empathy and give enough time to the patient and the loved ones for them to absorb what is being said. I will ensure that I am patient in that I do not focus on covering everything at once.

One of the challenges that makes nurses to shun away from end of life conversations is the fear of blame or causing emotional harm to the patient (McRee & Reed, 2016). Similarly, some clinicians spend months or even years with their patients such that they end up developing deeper relationships with the patients, and therefore, it becomes difficult for them to initiate talks about the patient’s death. They treat the patients as their close friends or loved ones, and honestly no one would like to discuss with a beloved one about their death. Dreadful!!! This is how most clinicians describe the thought of initiating the discussion.

Nurses play a central role when it comes to delivering end of life care. Their conversations about end of life should be patient led, honest, gentle, and should not proceed with the conversation in the event that the patient does not want to continue. Therefore, they should be equipped with the right skills, attitude, and knowledge on end of life for them to deliver quality care.


McRee, L., & Reed, P. G. (2016). Nurse Practitioners Knowledge, Skills, and Leadership for the End-of-Life Conversation in Intensive Care. Nursing Science Quarterly, 29(1), 78-81.

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