Advise the President Essay

Advise the President Essay
Advise the President Essay

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Advise the President

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***Each answer to the question must be at least 200 words with 1 reference.

What would you advise the President of the US to do to help the countries you and your colleagues have discussed? Why?

Is the U.S. really taking on a heavier burden of the world’s needs? What does U.S. foreign aid accomplish and what would happen under the drastic cuts President Trump proposes? In recent work, Brookings experts have dispelled myths about foreign aid and explained why development assistance is important for recipient countries as well as for U.S. security

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Public Administrator Essay Paper

Public Administrator
Public Administrator

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Public Administrator

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Topic 1 Public Policy, Public Administration, and Governing

Elected vs. Appointed Officials

Directions: This assignment will be divided into two parts. You will identify an elected official and an appointed official in your area. As an example, you may choose the mayor of your city and an appointed position would be the city manager. Finally, you will synthesize the information by using the literature to support your claims. You should list all references used at the end of each part as well as, in-text citations when needed. All citations must be in APA format.

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Part One – List an individual, their position held, and explain the role of that person plays in policy making.

Elected Official:

Appointed Official:

Part Two In 250-500 words, discuss the similarities in the policy making process of the roles listed above. Compare the elected and appointed official. Consider how each gain the position, the role of each, and how they can affect policy.

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Cuban totalitarian regimen

Cuban totalitarian regimen
Cuban totalitarian regimen

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Cuban totalitarian regimen

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Aristotle defined tyranny as an illegitimate form of government by one individual that tightly controlled every part of life and government. Adolf Hitler is the most notorious tyrant. Using a totalitarian society from the past or present, discuss how the state and its leader attempt to impede citizens from exercising their rights. In your discussion, explain some components of an “ideal citizen,” consequences of voter apathy, and ways the state controls the citizen.

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Democracies Compared Essay Paper

Democracies Compared
Democracies Compared

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Week 3: Democracies Compared

I look forward to getting our discussion going this week. In political science, the study of democracy focuses on the definition of democracy, how democracy can be established/encouraged, what causes democracy, the types of democracy, the functioning of democracy, the quality of democracy, and more. These is really the meat and potatoes of political science, especially comparative politics. There are volumes of books and articles on this topic. Please be sure to provide a scholarly source for your definition of democracy.

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Democracy Essay Assignment


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Part 1

Democracy can be termed as one of the most critical elements of governance for any country across the world. Democracy can be well-defined as the government of the people, put in place by the people, and is meant for the people (Raveloson, 2008). It can be said to be the only kind of government in which the will of citizens is reflected in the administration.

Part 2

There are two primary forms of government that will be the main focus in this analysis. These include the unitary and federal forms of government. It is vital to acknowledge that each of these systems has their strengths and weaknesses. One of the advantages of the unitary system is that it has a single and decisive legislature. The second advantage of this system is that it is more efficient in the utilization of tax money. In this case, there are fewer people trying to secure some allocation.

The third advantage is that it does not have the sophisticated management of the economy and government. One of the disadvantages, on the other hand, is that this form of administration has a slow response by the government. For instance, in case of an emergency, there are no quick response teams, and troops have to be called upon in case of such cases. The second disadvantage is that this government easily loses track of the local matters. The third weakness is that this system is quite divisive since everybody is forced to compete for priority (Heywood, 2014).

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On the other hand, the federal system also has its strengths and weaknesses. One of the advantages is that each county or province has its unique political, social and economic setups. For instance, the state of California in the United States has its issues which only the county government can solve. The second advantage is that this government provides representation to different populations.

For example, each state in the United States has immigrant and native communities which are represented by the government in representation. The third strength is that through the sharing of work between the central and regional governments, there is the optimum use of resources. The final advantage, in this case, is that federalism provides room for innovation and experimentation. For instance, each state in the United States has its own political, judicial and social setups and policies.

One of the disadvantages is that the federal form of government is quite expensive to run since there are more representatives elected to various positions. This consequently leads to the overlapping of roles. The second weakness is that this government leads to unwarranted competition between multiple regions. The third shortcoming is that it promotes regional imbalances including industrialization, natural resources, and employment opportunities.


Heywood, A. (2014). Politics. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Raveloson, A., J., (2008) What is Democracy, 1(1), 1-23

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Effect of Chinese Government Policies

Effect of Chinese Government
Effect of Chinese Government

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Effect of Chinese Government Policies


The essay examines the effect of Chinese government policies when it comes to addressing long-term unemployment, wage inequality, gender discrimination; and inward and outward migration.

Long-term unemployment

Although the economy of China has increased about 2.5 million employment opportunities since the beginning of 2012, almost 4.8 million (3%) individuals were jobless for over 6 months since 2013. Prolonged job loss has become a major challenge for Chinese economy while creating considerable problems for employees, their families, and society. Minimizing long-term unemployment while assisting the affected people, families and communities are essential for policy makers irrespective of their levels.

A robust, healthy and dynamic economy is critical when it comes to addressing prolonged joblessness, however, policies that stimulate continuous growth to seem to be vague. In the case of absence rapid economic development, particular policies can be imperative in assisted that long-term jobless get job opportunities help their families with the effects of prolonging unemployment. Such policies are job training, employee development initiatives (Bidani and Goh, 2004)

A robust economic development can be an appropriate solution to minimizing prolonged joblessness. Long-term unemployment leads to adverse effects on the community. Currently, the majority of Chinese believe that it’s the government’s role to reduce the costs of preventing long-term unemployment (Qiu, 2006).

Effect of Chinese Government Policies

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Nevertheless, the aspect of government role when it comes to combating long-term unemployment presents sharp incongruity amongst economists. While economist activists support the government’s responsibility, non-activists believe that government policies must be avoided.  Such disagreements began more than five decades, which presents a vital backdrop for recognizing the enduring debate regarding the effects of government policies in addressing long-term unemployment.

Afterward, the massive and long-term joblessness coupled with industrialized market challenged the classical theory’s predictions. Depression was used to portray a worst recession. The Great Depression in 1929 and lived up to its name, when it started unemployment was about 3.2%, and four years later it rose to 25% while the real GDP reduced by over 25%. 

Apparently, classical theory demonstrates that unemployment can be moderate as well as short-term, which a direct inconsistency of reality, that is supply creates Nonetheless, the Keynesian model indicates that long-term employment is a result of demand and supply. Moreover, organizations highlight production decisions based on the degree of estimated demand or anticipated total spending (Galasso, Ravallion, & Salvia 2004).

The more people spend, the higher the output organizations will anticipate selling and manufacturing. Implicitly, supply/productivity act in response to demand- not the opposite, as demonstrated by classical theory. Of great importance is that Keynesian theory shows that the degree of total expenditure can be insufficient to provide job opportunities, and traditional model presents false information about modification of interest rates to combat long-term unemployment.

Effect of Chinese Government Policies

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Government Intervention in long-term unemployment

Because Keynesian theory fails to support the idea that market economics could be used use to prevent long term employment. Keynesian theory shows that the government can use various policies in a bid to leverage aggregate demand (AD) using demand and supply policies.

Demand related Policies

These policies are vital when there is recession leading to prolonged joblessness, for example, the after 1991 and 2008. Some of these policies include;

 Fiscal Policy

The Chinese government uses fiscal policy to reduce unemployment through increasing AD and the rate of economic growth.  However, this calls for pursuing expansionary monetary policy, which entails reducing taxes while increasing government expenditure. Reduced taxes lead to high disposable income and helps in enhancing consumption in turn contributing to a high AD. As such a high AD leads to increase in real GDP. 

If organizations produce more, it leads to greater demand for employees and this reduced demand-scarce joblessness. Moreover, with a high AD as well as a robust economic growth, fewer organizations will be insolvent implying less joblessness. In this regards, the federal government recognizes some of the challenges associated with prolonged job loss while enhancing available services such as boosting employment opportunities, address problems of housing bubbles especially those who prefer to move jobs and assist those that want to low paying jobs.

According to Keynesian theory, in particular during the recession, capital and labor are redundant, for that reason the government must get involved so as to create extra demand so as to minimize long-term unemployment (Galasso, Ravallion, & Salvia 2004).

Nonetheless, this mainly relies on various elements of aggregate demand such as if at all self-assurance is low, reducing taxes cannot lead to growth in client spending since individuals may choose to save. Again, individuals may not spend tax reductions if they are reversed immediately. Fiscal policies are associated with a time lag that attempts to increase government expenditure can take much time to impact changes in aggregate demand.  Assuming, that economy is almost full, an increase in aggregate demand can lead to inflation.

Expansionary fiscal policies may only minimize joblessness in the event of productivity gap; in turn it requires high regime borrowing. Eventually, monetary policies can result in crowding cut that is the government increases spending although they reduce spending and thus aggregate demand decreases. Nevertheless, Keynesian theory shows that crowding reduction cannot take place in a case of liquidity gap.

Effect of Chinese Government Policies

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Monetary Policy

With monetary policies, the government reduces the interest rates, which in turn minimizes borrowing costs while encouraging individuals to spend as well as invest. This raises aggregate demand and allows GDP to grow and minimize demand-scare joblessness.  Additionally reduced interest rates lead to a decrease in exchange rate making exports extra competitive.

Under certain conditions, low-interest rates can be unproductive in increasing demand.  However, monetary policy relies on other elements of aggregate demand. On the other hand, reduced interest rates cannot help increase spending, if financial institutions are not ready to give loans (Lund, 2002).

Supply Side Policies

Supply policies are associated with macroeconomic parameters. Much as supply policies do not increase the overall AD; they aim at overcoming the imperfections in job market and minimize long-term employment as a result of supply factors including structural, frictional and classical or real wage (Qiu, 2007)

On supply side policies, the government uses various policies;

  • Training and education programs. They purpose to assist the long-term jobless with new skills that allow them to get jobs in upcoming sectors. Nevertheless, in spite of providing training and education initiatives, the jobless can be either unable or not willing to learn new concepts. In any case, this is likely to take a long period to reduce joblessness (State Council PRC 2005).
  • Job subsidies. Organizations are given tax breaks/ grants due to prolonged unemployment. This is important particularly in giving them self-assurance as well as on job education. Nonetheless, it’s relatively costly while encouraging organizations to substitute existing employees with prolonged joblessness to gain from subsidies.

Effect of Chinese Government Policies

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Wage inequality

China experiences a remarkable growth in the income gap between urban and rural masses. This lies at the center of social unrest in the nation while leading to significant dangers for the leadership of Chinese Communist Party (CCP). While government economic policies have attempted to provide 30-year growth at 30% and improved the lives of more than 600 million from poverty, the frequency of crowd incidents has grown from 8,700 to 180,000 cases in 1993 to 2010 respectively. These disputes entail claims of corruption as well as illegal land seizures by local governments (Appleton et al., 2004).

Government policies

Increasing personal income

The Chinese government has doubled personal income from 2010-20. In addition, it has increased the minimum wage to 40%. Nevertheless, experts are not impressed by such policies since according to official statistics, averages income for migrant employees, a group the is expected to benefit from the wage increase are already enjoying about 50% of the average salary (Knight and Song, 2007).

Liberalizing Interest Rate

The government has liberalized interest rates so as to promote market-based rates and increase the floating range of deposits as well as loans. The objective is to increase payment of interests to savers while helping boost household incomes. This policy is essential particularly for effective regulation of the economy of China to consumption-driven development. In fact, interest rates on deposits have delayed inflation for several decades leading to negative returns for households (Xu and Ximing 2013; Sicular et al., 2008).

Effect of Chinese Government Policies

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Tax Reforms

The government initiated a number of tax reforms such as consumption taxes on luxury products and services (Zhao and Sai 2007).  However, it is not clear if the attempt when to negate inequality plan made two years ago.  The Chinese government has been slow in implementing a property tax, something that is likely to suitable for ensuring equitable distribution of income. For an extended period, Chinese administration has promised to impose taxes on properties however up to now it has managed to target luxury features in a number of cities. (Li, Chuliang and Sicular, 2013).

Government policies on gender discrimination

The constitution of China highlights the importance of equal treatment of all citizens regardless of their ethnicities, religious practices, gender among others. Furthermore, China has various laws as well as government policies that foster equality, particularly in workplaces. Nevertheless, workplace discrimination is not only pervasive but also extensively practiced by private and government organizations.

Policies that aim at combating gender discrimination are hindered by technical difficulties, ineffective enforcement and conflicting reforms and government policies that seem to foster instead of discouraging gender discrimination (Appleton et al., 2014).

In China discrimination among women is widespread and begins even before they join the labor market. Gender-based quotas and enrollment reforms in higher learning institutions are common, regularly leading to higher performance among women compared to men, in particular, majors such as military and police force. Much as China’s ministry of education defends such practices, they often extend to majors with less association with gender, such as sciences.

Upon graduation, women have a hard time compared to men in getting employment opportunities, particularly in technology and science fields (Brandt, Loren and Thomas 2008). Nonetheless, gender discrimination is rampant low-skilled professions. By and large, male are ideal for white-collar opportunities while sales and clerical jobs are preferred for female.

Effect of Chinese Government Policies

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According to Becker’s Discrimination Theory, there are various categories of employees including skilled, unskilled, men or women (Becker, 1971). It also involves individuals with undesirable traits and those without non-fiscal considerations on who to recruit. Organizations can reject to recruit from these categories since they wrongly undervalue their economic competence. Organization’s traits are discriminatory not based on their gender rather they are ignorant about their actual power (Wang et al., 2014).

Government reforms

Equal employment

The Chinese government has guaranteed for equal work for men and women. Employment is the foundation of individuals’ livelihood and essential resource that women depend on for subsistence. For many years, the government has encouraged women to start their own business and given them special treatment when it comes to employment training tax breaks.

In addition, the Chinese government has implemented favorable reforms for women including the creation of public-welfare opportunities, the introduction of employment centers, funding special recruitment practices and vocational courses, monitor gender discrimination against employed women and help those primarily laid off to find new opportunities (Wang, et al.,.2014).

Effect of Chinese Government Policies

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Laws and guidelines

While the constitution of China has various statues that highlight on gender equality, they are inadequate when it comes to preventing gender discrimination. Such vagueness and inadequate implementation of reforms mean that gender discrimination cases are not addressed.

Increasing concern and activism about gender discrimination particularly in workplaces in 2000 contributed to the implementation of various policies;

  • Law on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women that prohibits sexual harassment
  • Regulation of Employment for People with Disabilities of 2007 that requires firms to provide at 1.5% of employment positions to disabled people
  • Convention on Discrimination in Employment and Occupation that requires the administrating to implement broader policy frameworks against gender discrimination in workplaces

On the other hand, these policies continue to be wanting in efficiency, coverage, and management. For example, they depend on local employment centers that are not only overworked but also understaffed to monitor and rollout anti-discrimination policies. Also, because prospective workers are not real workers based on the law, cases of gender discrimination in places of work are never subjected to labor dispute negotiation structure, and the victims should use official court procedures that are expensive and time-consuming.

Employment Promotion Law was considered an important tool for addressing gender discrimination in workplaces; however in reality its impact has been muted. Apparently, gender discrimination is prevalent and implementing of anti-discrimination reforms is deficient, despite some development (Zhang et al., 2004).

Effect of Chinese Government Policies

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Nevertheless, the enforcement of laws coupled with activism like Yirenping and the Equity and Justice Initiative and  Act Together in Guangdong presents a basis for awareness concerning gender discriminatory practices and importance for additional reforms. The relevance of activism in promoting gender equality in China cannot be overlooked, especially in the application of laws to litigate as well as openly humiliate discriminating firms. In spite of progress further policies are necessary to fight gender discrimination including;

  • Increasing the coverage of ant-prejudice laws to involve general forms like sexuality, individual beliefs, age, and physical appearance.
  • Increasing fines charged on firms from 1,000 to 50,000 yuan per instance.
  • Establishing a government agency responsible for addressing gender discrimination in workplaces. Such a body will be in charge of executing anti-prejudice regulations and suitable structure for investigating and mediating issues related to gender biases.

Inward and outward migration

Migration presents opportunities as well as challenges. Much as well-managed migration can promote welfare in home and destination nations when mismanaged it can threaten social cohesion, safety, and autonomy.  Government policies on migration should focus on knowledge however such knowledge should be developed in a way that deals with policy priorities. Chinese internal migrants considerably contribute to the growth of China’s economy for the past three decades, particularly in the initial phase of economic liberalization.

For example, in the early stages, when the country opened to the world, it received about USD 9546.5 million FDI out of which USD 9254.6 million was from inward migrations while USD 292.34 million from the outward (Smart and Hsu, 2004). Simply put, inward migrations have been the primary source of Chinese inward FDI. On the other hand, inward migration is regarded as a vital when it comes to cross-border trade as well as commercial networks, which are in turn viewed as essential parameters for economic integration Zhuang and Wang, 2010

While China has witnessed tremendous growth due to inward and outward migration, demand and supply dynamics trigger to this development leading to urbanization trends. According to neoclassical theory, with inadequate supply and increasing demand for cheap workforce attract immigrants from a country with surplus labor. With regards to China, high demand for workforce in urban regions and other countries is due to to; a) increasing investments in manufacturing industries and b) elderly population coupled with declining rates of fertility.

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Government policies: 2012 law

The law involves combating “three illegal”- unlawful entry, residence or employment in China.  In addition, the law increased fines for all crimes related to migration. For example, expired visa from $800 to $10,000 while for detention for same crime increased from 3 to 10 days or 2 months for complicated cases (Zhang,  2003). Nonetheless, this law has not initiated strategies to manage the nation main problem; migrants trapped in China due to expired visas. While visa applications can be supported through housing registration, such registrations require valid travel credentials.


The essay was dedicated to reviewing the effect of Chinese government policies to address long-term unemployment, wage inequality, gender discrimination; and inward and outward migration.


Appleton, Simon, Lina Song, & Qingjie Xia.2014. “Understanding Urban Wage Inequality in China 1988 -2008: Evidence from Quantile Analysis.” World Development,  1-13.

Appleton S., Knight J., Song L., Xia Q. 2004. Contrasting Paradigms: Segmentation and Competitiveness in the Formation of the Chinese Labour Market. Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies;2(3):185-205.

Becker, Gary S. 1971.The Economics of Discrimination. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Bidani, B., & C. Goh, 2004. ‘Has Training Helped Employ Xingang in China?: A Tale from Two Cities’ Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Unit, East Asia and Pacific Region report, 436

Brandt, Loren, & Thomas G. Rawski. 2008. China’s Great Economic Transformation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Galasso, E., M. Ravallion, & A. Salvia 2004. ‘Assisting the Transition from Workfare to Work: A Randomized Experiment.’ Industrial and Labour Relations Review 58:128-142.

Knight J., Song L.2007. China’s Emerging Wage Structure, 1995–2002. In: Gustafsson B., Shi L., Sicular T., editors. Inequality and Public Policy in China. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 221-42.

Li S.,   `Chuliang L., Sicular T. 3013. Overview: Income Inequality and Poverty in China, 2002–2007. In: Shi L., Sato H.,&  Sicular T., editors. Rising Inequality in China: Challenge to the Harmonious Society. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press p. 24-59.

Lund, F 2002. ‘Social security and the changing labour market: Access for non-standard and informal workers in South Africa’ Social Dynamics 28:177-206.

Qiu, L. 2007. ‘Re-employment difficulties of urban poor households.’ Beijing Observation 10:pp26-27.

Qiu, Y. 2006.‘Discussion on Several Problems about Informal Employment Statistics’ Statistics & Information Forum, 21:52-55.

Sicular T., Ximing Y., Gustafsson B., Shi L.2008. The Urban-Rural Income Gap and Income Inequality in China. Review of Income and Wealth.53 (1):93-126.

Smart, A. & Hsu, J.Y. 2004. The Chinese Diaspora, Foreign Investment and Economic Development in China. The Review of International Affairs, 3, 544-566.

State Council PRC 2005.‘Decision on making great efforts to develop occupational training (guowuyuan guanyu dali fazhan zhiye jiaoyu de jueding)’State Council [2005]35,, access date: 27th Nov 2015.

Wang, Chen, Guanghua Wan, & Dan Yang.2014.  “Income Inequality in the People’s Republic of China: trens, determinants, and proposed remedies.” Journal of Economic Surveys, 686-708.

Xu J., & Ximing Y.2013. Redistributive Impacts of Personal Income Tax in Urban China. In: Shi L., Chuliang L., Sicular T., editors. Rising Inequality in China: Challenge to the Harmonious Society. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Zhang, Linxiu, Alan De Brauw, & Scott Rozelle. 2004.”China’s rural labor market development and its gender implications.” China Economic Review, 230-247.

Zhang,  G. 2003. Migration of Highly Skilled Chinese to Europe: Trends and Perspective. International Migration, 41, 73-97.

Zhao R., & Sai D.2007. The Distribution of Wealth in China. In: Gustafsson B., Shi L., Sicular T., editors. Inequality and Public Policy in China. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press; 2007. p. 118-44.

Zhuang, G. & Wang, W. 2010. Migration and Trade: The Role of Overseas Chinese in Economic Relations between China and Southeast Asia. International Journal of China Studies, 1, 174-193.

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Translating Military Power into Desired Political Outcomes

Military Power
Military Power

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Translating Military Power into Desired Political Outcomes

Three greatest challenges for United States in translating Military Power into Desired Political Outcomes or End States


United States today faces a number of challenges in effectively translating military power to the Country’s desired outcomes in politics. However, there are three greater challenges namely:

  • Unconventional weapons along with proliferation of technology
  • Proliferation of nuclear
  • Engaging in fights using asymmetric counterforce

This paper intends to analyze the great challenges that United States as a country face when it comes to translating military power to desired outcomes in politics. In addition, this paper will also look at how the three challenges have led to outcomes of selected conflicts in the United States.

Unconventional weapons along with proliferation of technology

Most countries that engage in war with the United States prefer not to employ the immense conservative armory used by the United States (Kaplan, 2013). Instead, such nations make use of unconventional weapons to attack the United States, since there is a higher likelihood of gaining advantage over United States. Unconventional weapons result from an intelligent use of proliferation of technology.

Such technologies may include: nuclear technology, devices for radiation dispersal, biological technology, cyber warfare use, chemical weapons use, high explosives utilization, an electromagnetic pulse, as well as directed energy. In some cases, when high explosives are used in an innovative way the resultant outcome causes more destruction compared to chemical weapons, biological technology, nuclear technology as well as radiological weapons (Katagiri, 2010). On the other hand, due to globalization in information technology, cyber warfare also has great potential of causing destruction.

Therefore, cyber warfare presents a great challenge to the United States due to the damage it has the potential of causing as well as the accessibility of the weapon. For single attacks, most enemies will prefer to use nuclear weapons. However, the most effective destructive form of weapon directed towards the United States would be biological attacks.

Most of the enemies of United States however, choose to make use of high explosives in attacking the United States which if correctly executed would result in tactical serious consequences as well as strategic consequences (Lake, 2009). To achieve execution of effective attacks on the United States, then rivals of United States may employ a number of techniques.

Rival countries may increase the sentiments of anti- America in different parts of the world. Sentiments of anti- America are spread through showing support to a team that seems dominant in a conflict between two groups. In order to spread the sentiments faster strategic communication is employed which then calls for utilization of the internet (Leffler, & Westad, 2010). This helps United States rivals to gain back up and develop a larger team to fight against the United States.

A clear example of this is the conflict known as Operation New Dawn. In this conflict, the United States engages in war with a group known as Al-Qaida as a war of reducing terror globally. However, Al-Qaida continues to grow its popularity and backing against the United States operations from countries that practice Islamic religion highly. In Arabic translation, Al- Qaida stands for the foundation.

To grow its backing the Al-Qaida group has been spreading its popularity by seeking training grounds through working with different governments globally. Moreover, Al-Qaida helps its host countries in efficiently achieving their broader objectives which in turn buys Al-Qaida more backing for their operations. For instance, the Taliban government established control over most Islamic groups that had been formed with the aim of performing terrorism (Mueller, & Stewart, 2012). Afghanistan provided a suitable ground for training the combined groups.

Recruits were taken from: the host country Afghanistan, neighboring country Pakistan, from Central Asia as well as from differentiated parts of the world including Africa. In addition, Al- Qaida started receiving active sponsorship from Iran. Iran provided support through involving the government ministries. All along Al-Qaida has been persuading Iraq to support them in their activities. Iraq was reluctant which at one point led to Iran supporting attacks on Iraq. However, things took a turn when Iraq was invaded by the United States.

At the time, Islamic groups initiated support on Iraq to fight against the United States. Al-Qaida used this opportunity to show its support to Iraq by fighting against the United States, and forming small sub groups such as Al-Mahdi Army among others (Mulloy, 2011). This act by Al-Qaida made its popularity grow. More countries were now willing to support its activities, which has led to the constant attacks experienced against the United States and its allies. 

Proliferation of nuclear

The United States faces a number of challenges in the environment of nuclear security. Most of these challenges develop from nuclear relations that exist between the major countries considered as nuclear powers (Leffler, & Westad, 2010). Among the countries are: Russia, Republic of China, Great Britain and France. However, United States is also considered as one of the nuclear powers.

In addition to the nuclear powers, challenges from nuclear technology directed towards the United States also develop due to establishment of new states for nuclear weapons. Moreover, some states which have no capacity of producing nuclear weapons also seek nuclear weapons and use them against the United States. For instance Iran is believed to advance its efforts in producing nuclear weapons. Iran being an influential country to most countries practicing Islamic religion has led to most of the countries initiating efforts to develop nuclear weapons.

Some of the countries include: Egypt, Saudi Arabia as well as Turkey. It is expected however that, more countries may feel the need to prove their superiority hence start developing nuclear weapons in future (Kaplan, 2013). One of such countries is Brazil. Effects of need for proving superiority may result in nuclear competition. With nuclear competition, the risk of attacks on United States and other European Countries becomes higher.

Notably, when the percentage of states armed with nuclear weapons goes up then states with no capacity of producing nuclear weapons will increase their purchase levels for nuclear weapons. For United States the challenge from proliferation of nuclear emerges from the need to create a military position that will insulate United States from the world of anarchy. The other challenge develops from United States feeling the need to initiate and execute punishment to their enemies who are armed with nuclear weapons.

Recently, China has been developing itself to a major super power in the world. China has achieved its superiority due to its high percentage of expertise with knowledge of advanced technology (Mueller, & Stewart, 2012). Moreover, China has the capacity and sufficiency of resources of developing new technology. In addition, the labor force employed in China is readily available due to China’s high population. China therefore stands at a very good position of producing destructive nuclear weapons. United States then considers China a threat for its security.

Therefore, cold rivalry has developed between China and United States due to the need to prove superiority. China is known to have been producing nuclear weapons. From the silent rivalry existing between United States and China, it is expected that if China was to go to war with Japan over Senkaku Island then United States would enter the war in support of Japan (Katagiri, 2010). Notably, if United States was to consider supporting Japan, then China would fire its nuclear weapons which are believed to have been produced a few years back, and are now placed directed to United States lands and waters.

Engaging in fights using asymmetric counterforce

In terms of asymmetric counterforce United States faces the challenge of forces being attacked directly. When United States forces are attacked the main focus is on command and execution of control. Moreover, support centers for logistics, reconnaissance assets as well as United States fields of intelligence along with the Surveillance fields are at risk (Leffler, & Westad, 2010). In most cases, a situation involving asymmetric counterforce is marred with interruption by United States enemies on logistic lines used by the United States for communication.

The aim of interruption is to cause interference in United States giving support to its forces that have been deployed in the enemies’ territory. Furthermore, various attack attempts are made on the United States waters and lands. Moreover, some enemies use intimidation on allies of the United States to make them withdraw the support they are offering to the United States (Mulloy, 2011).

When the United States forces are subject to attack in a foreign land, it becomes critically hard for the United States government to fully protect a base they consider as critical. In addition, it also becomes hard to project and also sustain United States forces in an environment that is distant and cannot be easily accessed. Most of the attacks directed towards United States make use of space. The challenging part for United States is to have awareness on how the space looks like in terms of security.

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Another challenge is the constant improvement witnessed for cyber crime. Networks are being developed very fast and information revealed and past in a rate that is hard to always monitor. Some of the United States government information gets corrupted by enemies through degrading of networks. United States faces these challenges due to a number of reasons.

Three among them include: first the United States depends on countries that have neither chemical attack protection, biological attack protection nor radiological attack protection for its operations in military (Kaplan, 2013). In such a situation the partners will be subjected to so much loss and suffering which will force them to withdraw unwillingly the support they are offering to the United States. The second reason is because the United States has executed very few changes on its forces since the time the cold war ended.

With lack of changes, the United States puts itself in a situation where getting support is a hard experience since most of the allies of United States will be considered as ineffective at combat. The third reason is because forces of the United States are vulnerable to nuclear attacks that are done in small scale. It is believed that just one nuclear weapon, that has been properly used can cause an entire United States force to surrender (Katagiri, 2010).

For instance, Al-Qaida had easily mastered the weakness of the United States government in 1998. Al-Qaida used interruption to reduce the support that United States was getting from neighboring countries. After causing a division Al- Qaida went ahead and utilized the United States space to carry on with a deadly attack, by bombing the United States embassy in Kenya (Metz, In Martin, & Army War College (U.S.), 2010). On the other hand, China’s has asymmetric counterforce against United States through drawing the support United States was getting from Asia into support for China.

China has achieved with large ensuring large production of products in qualities of high value, middle value and low value. With high production China has been able to raise its economy to a level that is threatening to the United States. Since China has a more stable and ever growing economy, its influence on both the allies and enemies of United States is at a considerable level (Katagiri, 2010). China has the ability of taking away one by one United States support from different countries around the globe.


In order to address these challenges, it is important for the United States to consider installing sensors in bases they would consider as high targets to help in detection of chemical agents or any form of biological weaponry. In addition, United States should consider purchasing and providing to its forces protective equipment for nuclear attacks. Moreover training should be offered on how to use the protective equipment.

In the time of any attack, then the United States government should ensure that it has appropriate equipment for sounding alarm to all people affected. Furthermore, potential victims and real victims should be identified in order to provide first aid services. In addition to this, a system should be established for disseminating information to the world, to help United States sell itself to the world for other nations to understand her and support the policies it has for national security.

It would also be important for United States to have a channel for analyzing public opinion of citizens from foreign countries. Information products should also be made available to all individuals, regardless of whether they are nationals of United States or other countries. In order to cub cyber attacks, the United States government should implement the utilization of websites on the internet for its services.

Information from the United States should be distributed to other nations through the United States embassy radio channel as well as TV. A platform should also be created for coordination of all military force groups of the United States. Therefore, the government of United States should make good use of methods of production utilized by commercial media.


From the paper it comes out clearly that the United States faces a challenge in trying to translate the power it has in military into the outcomes it may desire in politics. The most dangerous forms of challenge are unconventional weapons, proliferation of nuclear weapons and the use of asymmetric counterforce against the United States. Two outcomes have also been discussed that developed as a result of the three challenges.

The first outcome is attacks by the Al-Qaida group. The second outcome is a silent conflict between United States and The Republic of China. However, the paper has presented clearly an analysis showing that most of the enemies of the United States prefer the use of high explosives. In addition, it was also clear that the United States needs to prepare itself better for cyber attacks.


Fernando Lujan, “Light Footprints: The Future of American Military Intervention,” Center for New American Security. (ND)

Haley Stauss, “United States’ Strategy in Afghanistan from 2001 to Today,”, Pepperdine Policy Review. (ND)

Kaplan, F. M. (2013). The insurgents: David Petraeus and the plot to change the American way of war. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Katagiri, N. (2010). A Review of: “David H. Ucko. The New Counterinsurgency Era: Transforming the U.S. Military for Modern Wars .”. Terrorism And Political Violence, 22(2), 320-322.

Lake, D. (2009). The Limits of Coercive Airpower: NATO’s “Victory” in Kosovo Revisited. International Security, 34(1), 83-112.

Leffler, M. P., & Westad, O. A. (2010). The Cambridge history of the Cold War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

M. Taylor Fravel, “Power Shifts and Escalation: Explaining China’s Use of Forces in Territorial Disputes,” International Security. (ND)

Metz, S., In Martin, J. R., & Army War College (U.S.). (2010). Decision making in Operation Iraqi Freedom: Removing Saddam Hussein by force. Carlisle, PA : Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College.

Mueller, J. & Stewart, M. (2012). The Terrorism Delusion: America’s Overwrought Response to September 11. International Security, 37(1), 81-110.

Mulloy, D. (2011). A Review of: “Jeffrey Record. Wanting War: Why the Bush Administration Invaded Iraq. ”. Terrorism And Political Violence, 23(4), 674-675.

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Fragile states – Causes & Impact

Fragile States
Fragile States

Fragile states – Causes & Impact

           Fragile states can be characterized by an ineffective government which places its citizens in danger due to lack of security, services, and sound decision-making capabilities.  In addition, these fragile, or “failed” states experience economic disparity, corruption, and impending violence which threatens the safety of nationals within their borders, forcing many to flee as refugees to other parts of the world.

Examples of fragile states include South Sudan, Somalia, and the Central African Republic, all countries where governmental upheaval, economic uncertainty, and acts of violence endanger lives and global interests.

Weak Governments in Fragile States

            Weak national government institutions contribute to the perpetuation of fragile states.  In countries where governances provide structure and guidance for their citizens, in the form of balanced legal guidelines and stable leadership, fragility is not a major concern. However, in nations where national leadership is weak, transitional, or corrupt, fragile states can emerge.

Another major causes of fragile states is political fragmentation. This division between factions undermines the stability of the country, with national identity withered and governances dissolved. In a politically fragmented state, power most often rest with small insurgent groups which use violence and corruption to control nationals.  Also, the desire to control natural resources in a particular area can fuel fragile states. 

These resources, such as oil and water, are not in themselves the impetus for the creation of a failed state, but serve as an incentive for those in control to gain wealth, status, and power over others in the fragile state and surrounding areas.

            The impact of fragile states can be felt within the country of interest, as well as regionally and globally.  From the perspective of the fragile state itself, governmental instability can result in corrupt courts, biased property rights, lack of trust in national institutions, and decreased legitimacy with respect to other nations.  Of particular concern among fragile states is the impact this scenario has on poverty. The instability and ineffectiveness of failed state leadership falls short in terms of aid and social reform for their citizens, compounding the problem of poverty and malnutrition in these countries.

Regionally, the problems associated with fragile or failed states can seep over borders, causing unrest in neighboring countries. These negatives impacts to neighboring nations can include armed conflicts, limited resource accessibility, and impending governmental or political instability. In addition, neighboring countries may be inundated with refugees fleeing a fragile state, placing economic and social stability in the balance. The displacement of refugees from fragile or failed states is also a global concern. 

The recent global dispersion of Syrian refugees is a prime example of the international impact of fragile states. In addition, fragile and failed states are associated with the harboring of extremist and terrorist groups which threaten the global community.  Fragile states can also endanger global health by exacerbating the spread of disease through ineffective governmental control of social and economic conditions.

            Given the impact fragile states have on the global community as a whole, the rise of these states is of utmost importance to domestic and international governmental and military leadership. As such, it is necessary to recognize specific changes in at-risk countries which may point to development of a fragile or failed state. Warning signs may include an authoritative crisis, in which a country is unable to exert power or engage existing lawful structures to control their country, resulting in coups or civil wars which signal instability and national fragility.

In addition, a nation may fall short in its ability to adapt to changing social, economic, or political challenges, emerging through ineffective or nonexistent policies which fail to meet demand. Fragile states may also arise from national legitimacy issues, in which citizens distrust the government and organize an insurgency to control state affairs. These warning signs can exist in isolation, however, they most often work in concert to create a fragile or failed state.

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Failed states – U.S. Involvement

Failed states – U.S. Involvement

            When states fail, and U.S. intervention is called upon, a clear understanding of the scope of the failure should be the initial point of discussion.  As such, information must be gleaned in order to accurately assess the nature of the failed state, its level of permanence, and the conceived success rate of the operation.

U.S. military involvement within a fragile state can take on several roles, primarily in terms of repairing the fracture, impeding the conflict, and easing human suffering.  Operational commanders, therefore, must determine the extent to which these roles will be executed while planning to assist a fragile state.

U. S Commanders in Failed States

            One objective of U.S. commanders involved in failed states operations would be to “fix” the underlying issue creating the fracture. In terms of difficulty, this objective appears most lofty for several reasons. First, a complete fix of a fragile state requires intervention during the earliest stages of the crisis.  This may be inopportune.  Second, this intervention can be costly and time-consuming, requiring a lengthy military presence in the fragile country in order to fully accomplish the repair.

Third, the chances of sustaining a long-term remedy must be acutely considered before the commitment of time and manpower are allocated for this cause.  It is suggested that thorough intelligence capabilities be engaged to effectively assess the stage of fragility in a given state.  If, for example, the state is in such disrepair that U.S. efforts to establish a workable plan for governmental restructuring is improbably, then operational command decisions may warrant an alternative strategy for the region.

            If command determines that a failed states “fix” is not attainable, U.S. forces can be used in fragile states to impede further conflicts.  Although deterring conflict is an important objective in an insurgency operation and may not solve the issue immediately, it does lay the groundwork for potential repair of the failed states in terms of a peacekeeping effort during governmental restructuring efforts. The accurate assessment of strategic needs would aid command operations in choosing the appropriate combination of repair and defense objectives for the region in question. 

            Although repair objectives may be long term, defense and humanitarian objectives are considered limited objectives due to their stop-gap nature.  Providing aid to at-risk individuals in fragile states can ease human suffering and can facilitate transport of needed supplies to vulnerable individuals in the region.  Although these efforts are admirable and certainly in need, they are limited at best and will not resolve the situation in the long term. 

In fact, these interventions may be counterproductive in some instances. For example, in order to disperse these supplies, U.S. military forces may have to engage with failed states leadership which, in turn, may falsely represent their government as a legitimate regime.  In addition, U.S. aid may be used to the advantage of the insurgents as they intervene in the disbursement of food, water, and supplies to those they manipulate. 

This was seen most recently in Somalia, where Islamic insurgents refused to allow U.S. humanitarian aid to reach starving Somalians experiencing acute drought conditions. As a result, operational commanders must weigh the climate of the region in which humanitarian assistance is needed in order to effectively determine the appropriate strategy for proving relief in fragile and failed states.

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