Sexual Harassment Essay Paper

Sexual Harassment
Sexual Harassment

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Sexual Harassment

There are various harassments that people go through. One of the most prominent ones is sexual harassment. Over the years, sexual harassment has been a significant issue for most businesses, organizations, and companies across the world. Many women have been subject to this unethical issue.

According to Hersch (2015), sexual harassment can be defined as any uninvited or unwelcome sexual advance, appeal for sexual favor, verbal or physical conduct or sign of sexual nature which may be anticipated or believed to cause wrongdoing or humiliation to another person. Sexual harassment may include several acts such as rude jokes, belittling comments, and other acts of physical assault.

According to the Australian Human Rights Commission (2017), it was discovered that one-third of women have been sexually harassed in the workplace. Some of them have undergone this since the age of fifteen. It is vital to note that the effects of harassment in the workplace have far-reaching consequences. These effects can be categorized under social, economic and psychological impact (World Health Organization, n.d).

These include post-traumatic stress disorders, wearing off of support network at the workplace, reduction or loss of productivity, reduced morale at the workplace, loss of goodwill of the individual and the organization. The Marxist feminists indicate that the capitalist urge for profits is one that is responsible for putting women as second-class citizens.

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Marxist Feminism

Over the years, philosophers have come up with different theories when it comes to the issue of feminism in the society (Lorber n.d). Through these notions, modern societies are informed of the shortcomings that emerge from the imbalances practiced in modern day society. According to Stefano (2014), Marxists feminism is a kind of feminist theory and politics that obtains its theoretical foundations from Marxism. 

Most notably from the indictment of capitalism as a collection of structures, practices, institutions, inducements, and sensibilities that advocate for the exploration of labor, the isolation of humans, and the degradation of freedom.

For the Marxists feminists, enablement and equality for women cannot be obtained within the framework of capitalism. Marxist feminism is slow in trying to treat women as a stand-alone group with parallel interests and aspirations. Furthermore, Marxists feminism indicates that economic imbalance, dependability, political confusion and unhealthy social connections between men and women can be said to be the primary cause of oppression of women in the modern day societal context.

 It is important to note that Marxist criticism that feminism is focused on feelings and attitudes can be said to be founded on what happens in reality (Mackinnon, 1982).  Therefore, it can be said that Marxist feminism is one that illustrates that the subordination and suppression of women are aspects that do not take place naturally but are made to seem so to facilitate patriarchy.

Therefore, it is true to state that indeed, an imbalance in the society is one aspect that has led women to be sexually assaulted. This has been fueled by the fact that most women in society have not been accorded support or given the necessary facilities and chances to empower them.

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Consequently, when women seek employment, they are seen as objects and are not seen as valuable entities to organizations or companies. Due to being looked down upon, they become subjected continuously to sexual harassment and this only demotivates them in their work and makes them less objective and focused on their area of work (Mackinnon, 1982). The Marxist theory of feminism seeks to correct this mistake by pushing for the equal allocation of resources and chances to both men and women. Through this, there would be more competition and improved productivity.

Radical feminism

According to (Pasque and Wimmer, n.d), radical feminism can be termed as the second most notable form of feminism. Also, they stipulate that radical feminists hold the thought that liberal feminist perspectives are not radical enough to address the vast array of personal, institutional, and general oppression that have emerged. They further indicate that radical feminism can be broken down into radical libertarian feminism and radical cultural feminism.

In this case, the libertarian radical feminism is based on personal freedom of expression and cultural radical feminism states that the main cause of feminism is the decreased value that men attach to feminine qualities. Miller (2014) stipulates that radical feminism emerged from the repercussion of the 1960’s concentration on liberal and Marxist feminism. The concept of radical feminism tends to concentrate on male oppression directed towards females both privately and politically.

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Those who support radical feminism set a claim that the main problem is the subordination of women by men primarily in private and political scopes. This subordination is further demonstrated by the rhetoric that surrounds rape and blame on victims. In the period preceding, and during the 1970s, radical feminists were of the idea that rape was not a biological susceptibility among men but the socialization of men that painted women as objects (Miller, 2014).

On the other hand, during the 1970s and 1980s, radical feminists changed the state of rape in all states to illustrate the feeling that rape was not only an offense against those who were victims but also against all women. Radical feminism concentrates on the denunciation of the male-controlled thought that the private scope (for women) focuses on bearing of children, marriage, and housekeeping.

Therefore, indeed, it is true that the oppression of women is something that has been in existence for a long time. Due to the subordination of women, they do not get the respect that they deserve. When in the workplace, most male workers view women as sexual objects and not colleagues.  

Such thoughts have led to the increase in sexual harassment cases in the workplace not only in Australia but also in other parts of the world. The theory of radical feminism is one that seeks to dismantle the thought that women should only be subjected to childbearing, marriage and upkeep of the household. For such elements to be overcome, it is critical for stakeholders to work together and eliminate sexual harassment.

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Australian Human Rights Commission, (2017) Violence against women in Australia 2017, 1(1), pp.1-21

Gibbons, M. T., Coole, D. H., Ellis, E., & Ferguson, K. (2015). The encyclopedia of political thought. 1st ed. Malden, Wiley Blackwell, p.4360

Hersch, J., (2015) Sexual Harrassment in the Workplace, 1(1), pp.1-10

Lorber, J (n.d) The variety of feminisms and their contribution to gender equality, 1(1), pp. 8-43

MacKinnon, C., (1982). Feminism, Marxism, Method, and State: An agenda for theory 7(3), pp.515-544

Miller, J. (2014) The encyclopedia of theoretical criminology, 1 st ed. West Sussex, Uk, Wiley Blackwell, p.1048

Pasque, P., & Wimmer B. (n.d) An Introduction: Feminist Perspectives, 1(1), pp.1-32

World Health Organization, (n.d) Sexual violence, 1(1), pp. 149-181

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Gender Frustration Essay Paper

Gender Frustration
Gender Frustration

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Gender Frustration

Culture is a fundamental aspect of conflict and its determination. It impacts how people formulate and interpret perceptions, about themselves, others and events. It is also necessary to recall that cultures are dynamic and relate to the figurative element of life. The metaphorical dimension is the place where we are constantly making meaning and enhancing our distinctiveness.

While cultures are powerful, they are usually unconscious, influencing conflict and attempting to resolve it in ways that are not visible. In short, cultures impact the ways we label and castigate others and how we solve social impasses. A person with a Confucius upbringing, for instance, looks at life through the lenses of peace and harmony.

Consequently, someone that grew up in a Jihadist background and fundamentalism holds the view that violent killing is the shortest route to heaven. All these extreme perceptions are the byproduct of culture. However, the slanted view that men are required to fix everything as opposed to crying is not a reflection of the reality by whatever standards. This paper will discuss frustrations that come with expectations imposed by society on the men.

Gender Frustration

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            There’s this warped notion that the corporation demands of men are that aspect of being physically strong.  While being physically strong seems absurd to comment, it remains the commonest of anticipation of men to be strong, muscular, perhaps more powerful than the engine and one that can leap all tall structures in a single bound.  The reality is that much of these expectations are anchored on competitiveness.                 

Furthermore, the society looks at men based on the depth of their wallet. Currently, women income is increasing while men are required to be rich and sole providers of their families. Failure to meet such standards makes them girly. In the society, women must be beautiful, and men should be wealthy. The society requires that a man should have money as well as material possession. The amount of money a man earns should be higher that his girlfriend or wife. Whether men are wealthy company managers or middle-level managers, earning less than their wives, makes the society question their masculinity.                                                                                   

Another misconception that is intense is the pressure on male to be winners. For acceptable masculine, the male should be passionate about their position. Also, men that are not interested in sports are regularly seen as derision.  The society looks at men based on hierarchy, those at top stronger and better among others. Nevertheless, men ego is accountable for roughly 90% of the conflicts in human history. In fact, men have limited prospects. Being the winner and at the top is a definitive issue of men culture.

Again, the society does not recognize all male who dominate and the small alpha-male subcategory. As a matter of fact, 99% of women and 95% men are primarily subservient to about 2-3% of the population. Unless one is an autonomous professional or CEO in a firm, he can spend much of his career taking orders from somebody that can quickly end his career while forcing your family into bankruptcy at any time without justification.

Gender Frustration

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The society requires that men should know how to fix a flat tire, computer or broken door. Culturally, men are expected to have some innate ability to fix any broken physical object. Some men learn from a tender age that for them to be considered as men, means being able to fix things, particularly mechanical ones. This brings into perspective fascinating self-satisfying prophecies.

From a tender age, boys are required to think about mechanical things- in fact, they are taught the way of doing it by their fathers or elder brothers, or other males who are good at fixing and tinkers. Because they are taught how to fix objects, they have a higher chance to learn how to perform it.  Since they know the fixing, they are the one women turn to for help.

These highlights the belief that males are better than females while reinforcing the expectations of men that they are better and do not want others to think that they are sissies. Even gay men, who on the whole seem to feel a lot more free of these gender expectations than straight men, have a pre-determined tendency to buy into the strong man myth, for self and their objects of desire.                                                                                                           

In the end, while it is largely beneath the surface, cultures are ever-changing points of departure that situate us in certain ways and away from other directions. We all belong to diverse cultures that give us messages concerning what is standard, appropriate, and anticipated. Our cultural differences tend to surface when we become unable to meet our expectations. Moreover, the disparities between others can be faulted for bad faith or lack of judgment on the part of others, not indicating that common sense is cultural. In this respect, whatever is shared in one group might look weird, or unethical to another.

Gender Frustration

Works cited

Hampden-Turner, Charles M., and Fons Trompenaars. Building cross-cultural competence: How to create wealth from conflicting values. Yale University Press, 2008.

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Feminism According to Simone Beauvoir


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Feminism: Simone Beauvoir

Question one

According to Simone Beauvoir, feminism has already been tainted to an extent that there seems no hope of talking about the subject. Though a lot has been said about feminism, little improvement has been seen in women and they are still subject to men. A woman no longer exists as a fellow man, but lives in the shadow of a man. Though a woman is just a fellow human being like a man, society has made her less significant such that there are no definite characteristics relating to a woman as it is for a man (Simone, 1949). The author wondered whether women still existed, if they are supposed to exist, and if they existed, what place would the society place them.

In her introduction, Simone Beauvoir develops her thesis by claiming that women are a lost course and tries to give different characteristics given to a man to show that there is no definite place for a woman in the society. Though women make half of the human population, they are normally encouraged to be and behave like women, and men are often viewed as superior human beings. It is often said that a woman  cannot exist without a man though a man can exist on his own.

The author gives definitions of a woman depending on how the society perceives her. One of the definitions is that a woman is characterized by a womb. However, some scholars oppose the definition by claiming that although some women have a womb, they cannot be referred to as women. The very parts that make a woman are the same parts that happen to imprison her. Ovaries, uterus, and glands make women seem weak to a man to an extent that Aristotle claimed that a woman is a human being that has certain physical defects. Men view themselves as having an original connection with the world and rule over it albeit the fact that they also have glands and other physical features as a woman. Although both men and women are categorized as human beings, a woman is treated as inferior.

The author admits that women also fail to recognize their importance by making men superior such that they exist under the shadow of a man. A wife is named after her husband and the society always considers a woman to be autonomous to a man. A woman cannot live or think without a man, but a man can exist and think without a woman (Simone, 1949). It is not possible to hear of a man who is named after a woman, but a woman is referenced with a man. To a man, a woman is just a sexual being and nothing else. Therefore, man is the superior and absolute human being while a woman is just the another human being.

In addition, the author continues to describe a woman as just another human being by saying that relationship of two sexes is not like electrical poles. Electrical poles are in an equal measure and size, but in the case of a relationship between a man and a woman, the two are separate and unique individuals. A man is the overall designator of a human being and represents both the positive and neutral sides. On the other hand, a woman is only defined by the negative side as she is deemed to lack some components as compared to a man. Whenever there is a discussion, women are viewed as weak by men and if a woman takes a certain side, it is said she did so just because she is a woman. A man is the only one supposed to be right and if he sides with a woman, it is not because she is right but because she is just a woman. It is right to be a man, but it is considered wrong to be a woman. A man is the only rightful human being, but a woman exists as an incomplete individual.

For consciousness to exist, the self must be present. Therefore, the other is as original as the one who in this case is the man. The implication of otherness is just a human thought that is not defined by ancient things and situations. Having a self and the other, is not supposed to divide human beings to different sexes but it’s something that has been formulated by society. For this reason, it implies that a man and a woman are a dual that depend on each other for survival and existence. A man is born off a woman and he cannot exist without the former. Although a woman is defined as the other, she is in the likeness of a man and shares same privileges as a man.

The author also noted that for a group to set itself as the one, it has to be against the other. If one group considers itself privileged, it is because it views the other group as inferior. Consequently, the reason why a woman is defined as the other is because a man has set himself against her for he does not want to be equal to a woman.

Question two

Kimberley Crenshaw used inter-sectionality theory to show how gender and racial discrimination was experienced by black women. Intersectionality is a theory that studies overlapping discrimination. In her study, the author noted that black women faced gender and race-based discrimination, especially in the work place. If black women had a lawsuit resulting from race discrimination, they were not favored since it would be ruled that other blacks were not discriminated. In addition, gender discrimination would be ruled out since not all women were discriminated. Thus, the American Black women faced discrimination due to their gender and race. Facing both types of discrimination is what Kimberley Crenshaw coined as intersectionality notion.

Legal concepts could not defend Black women since it was either race discrimination or gender discrimination, but not both. Also, feminist activists only explored discrimination experienced by only the white privileged women who co-existed with powerful men; thus, it was not possible to know the issues faced by other women. The women activists preferred having privileges given to them by white men at the expense of the needs of women of color; hence, making discrimination to the latter intersectional as described by Kimberle (1989).

Bell Hooks is another writer that talked about intersectionality discrimination. According to the writer, privileged white women were selfish in their activism as they only sought to advocate for their needs since they wanted to enjoy the same privileges as men. For instance, the white women advocated for abortion but did not advocate against involuntary sterilization of women of color, a vice that was becoming wide spread. The women considered as essential to be in male dominated roles as opposed to taking their roles as wives and daughters and fighting for the rights of women and feminism for all women.

Also, discrimination is faced by women of color on the basis that they are overworked in workplaces while the white women fail to advocate for their rights, but instead try to outdo men in the workplace. Since white women were busy during the day and had chores to take care of after work, they instead took in the women of color and made them their domestic workers. Eventually, women of color faced discrimination due to their race and gender. Having no right over reproduction as well as the lack of advancement in the workplace is a form of discrimination faced by women of color since it is based on the fact that they are black and female (Bell, 2000).

Audre Lorde noted that having social privileges is one of the reasons why feminists and activists join the oppressors into oppressing the underprivileged. The feminists are assured by the antagonists that they will share power, and instead of helping the minority, they end up being used to deprive them of their rights. The author suggested that feminists should take it upon themselves to understand unrelated connections that women have due to oppression so that they can liberate all the oppressed. According to the writer, it is not possible to liberate one group and leave another; hence, intersectionality can help to reveal the unrelated experiences that women of color have as a result of oppression.

Combahee River Collective talked about how black women were not included in liberation movements due to their color and gender. The movements did not address all the issues faced by black women, but just highlighted a few. A black woman’s identity was in terms of her color, race, and sex and not who she was. Intersectionality came to exist in the States when black women tried to take up social and political positions. Also, the concept came to being when they were excluded from liberation movements. Women had to fight for their identity since they were treated based on their race and color instead of integrating all the identities that characterized an individual (Jayme, 2015). Combahee River Collective was formed to help liberate black women so that they can be respected similar to fellow human beings.

Adrianne Rich noted that white women who were in a position to liberate and advocate for women of color did not do so as they were busy struggling to fit in the shoes of their male counterparts. Lesbians, white women, and women of color started liberation movements on behalf of women, but the white women were deceptive as witnessed in the US and Canada (Ana, 2008). Instead of the three groups working together, the white upper-class women still liaised with men and neglected their duties as wives so as to belong in powerful positions. The upper-class white women chose their careers and powerful positions at the expense of their fellow white women, lesbians, and women of color; thus, the voices of the minority were not heard and they continued to be discriminated against.

Simone, Adrianne, Combahee River, Bell, and Crenshaw wrote about women and are some of the popular feminists that advocated for the rights of women. All of these women claim that a woman is as powerful as a man and should be given equal rights and privileges. As per the intersectionality theory, black women and other women belonging to minority groups such as lesbians are often victims of overlapping discrimination and there seems to be no law that protects them from it. Therefore, the writers advocated for the rights of women so that they would not be discriminated against with regards to race, sexual orientation, or gender.


Anna Carastathis (2008). Intersectionality and feminism. Retrieved from 

Audre Lorde (1980). The uses of anger. Women responding to racism.

Bell Hooks (2000). Feminism is for everybody. Cambridge: South Press.

Jayme Nicole (2015). Combahee River Collective: Exploration of intersectionality. Retrieved from 

Kimberle Crenshaw (1989). Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex. Chicago: University of Chicago. Simone Beauvoir (1949). Introduction: Woman as other. Retrieved from

Women in American Journalism

Women in American Journalism
Women in American Journalism

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Women in American Journalism: A New History by Whitt, Jan

Book Review

Title of the book, author, publishing company, city, date.

  1. Give some background information on the author.
  2. Give an introduction to the book: time period, circumstances, and the individuals
  3. In relation to history, how did the individual, individuals, or event mold that period
    in history? What contributions did that individual, individuals, or event have on
    history, or change the course of it?
  4. Type of book:
    A. Biography Discuss how the individual prepared in order to make such an
    important contribution to history. What problem or problems did he/she
    encounter. How did he/she resolve them?

B. Book that Deals with a Particular Event What circumstances occurred prior to that event in order for it to occur? Who were the leaders involved in precipitating the events? What problems did the encounter and why did they succeed or fail?

C. If Your Book Covered a Wide Time Span – Select one time period of history and explain why you thought this time period was more important than the others included in the book your read. What occurred during this time period that brought changes whether they were wanted or not? How did it shape that time period?

  1. Type of book:
    A. Biography Discuss some of the other individuals that contributed to the development of the main character of your book, at least two. How did they help him/her.

B. Book that Deals with a Particular Event Why were the individuals involved in the cause so strongly motivated to bring about the event?

C. If Your Book Covered a Wide Time Span Briefly discuss two other time periods included in your book and why you thought they were interesting/outstanding.

  1. What did you thing of the book? Would you recommend it to anyone else? Explain. Was the author bias? Did he/she present a clear interpretation of the facts, individual/ individuals, or events or did he seem to favor one particular viewpoint?

Women in American Journalism: A New History by Whitt, Jan
Book Review

Women in American Journalism: A New History, Jan Whitt, University of Illinois Press (Jul 2008). Jan Whitt, currently an Associate professor in the school of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Colorado, started her profession as a newspaper reporter and editor in Texas. Her academic credentials include a BA in Journalism and English(1977),a master’s degree in English(1980)and a PhD in English(1985).


In her manuscript, Whitt embarks in portraying women contribution in journalism, a subject previously ignored. She draws to the efforts of such women journalists as Ida Minerva Tarbell whose other fields included teaching and writing. For Whitt, most marvels have, through out history, been yelled at the men such as William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer, leaving women achievers uncelebrated.

How event molded that period in history

She revels how, in history, women got great things in journalism moving. For instance, Ida Tarbell’s book; The History of the Standard Oil Company was ranked number five by New York University in 1999. Another female figure who left permanent marks in journalism was Ida Bell Wells-Barnett who stood the ground for civil rights, as an activist for women rights .Being an African American, she was against the maltreatment of blacks in America. She tirelessly wrote about it as she was a journalist and a newspaper editor too.

Whitt also touches on the literary works of various women writers. She explores the lives of women reporters who achieved significant historical recognition, such as Ida Tarbell and Ida Wells-Barnett, as well as literary authors such as Joan Didion, Susan Orlean, Willa Cather, and Eudora Welty, whose work blends influences from both journalism and literature .she further explains how numerous women broadened the editorial scope of newspapers and journals and She is also for the idea that their journalistic activities broadened their thinking hence great invention, ideally out of their touring various places and interacting with vast sorts of cultures .

Such women include Willer Cather, Katherine Anne and Eudora Welty. Thus, Whitt suggests that the line between journalism and literature is very thin, almost negligible since there is little or no much difference.

Lastly, she mentions the alternative press, whose existence she proves through the lesbian press. Women like Caroline Churchill are mentioned as early fight on how numerous women broadened the editorial scope of newspapers and journals are in feminist press.

More about the book

Classified as a feminist text, the book would be a perfect tool to fight for the recognition of the role of women in journalism in America and elsewhere. Otherwise, it would be too biased, favoring women over men. Whitt only develops women figures.

Anyway, it’s a good text and anyone, male or female would enjoy Whitt’s style of writing, especially the way she vividly describes individuals. The writer of the book also recognizes those women of power who broadened the editorial scope of newspapers and journals which is an inspiring move. She also focuses on the performance of men like Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst hence dint favor a particular viewpoint.

Whitt, J. Women in American Journalism: A New History. University of Illinois Press; 1st edition (August 4, 2008)

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