Employment-At-Will doctrine

Employment-At-Will doctrine
Employment-At-Will doctrine

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Employment-At-Will doctrine

The at-will doctrine is rooted in American employment practice. It is worth mentioning that amongst the world’s developed countries, America is the one that is still using it. This paper provides a summary of the employment-at-will doctrine and evaluates three scenarios out of those described by specifying whether I can sack the worker legally, and the actions that I should take in order to limit liability and impact on business operations. Furthermore, California’s policy on employment-at-will is examined.

The employment-at-will doctrine is essentially the supposition that employment is for an indefinite time period and might be ended at any time either by the worker or the employer. Courts have taken this historical approach in their interpretation of employment relationships (Stone, 2011). This implies that an employer could sack a worker for no reason or for whichever reason.

Unless the employee has an employment contract which particularly spells out that he or she would be employed by the employer and work in that organization for a specific time period, or that the employee might only be sacked for good reason, then that worker is regarded an at-will employee (Stone, 2011). 

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Based on the employment-at-will doctrine and after evaluating 3 of the 6 scenarios, I have determined that I can legally fire John, Ellen and Bill. John would be sacked for posting a rant on a social media website where he criticized the most significant client for the company.

Ellen would be dismissed for starting a blog to protest the bonus of the company’s Chief Executive Officer, claiming that nobody below the director has been given a pay raise in 2 years and depicted her superiors as being out-of-touch and know-nothings. Bill would be fired because he used the BlackBerry issued to him by the company to run his own business on the side. I will fire them because the employment-at-will doctrine allows me to fire the at-will employees at any time, for no reason at all or for any reason.

To limit liability as well as impact on operations that are brought about by adverse employment decisions, the employer has to take a number of actions for instance making use of disclaimers when the company hires new workers. The contract for employment has to include the employment terms and length. Furthermore, an effective grievance procedure and discipline policy should be established in the firm. Prior to making major decisions with regard to workers, the employer should first review the issue in a careful manner and obtain legal guidance (McCulloch, 2014).

A company can be sued if it fires a worker who is protected by the exceptions of the at-will doctrine. The ethical theory which applies to this course of actions is the deontological ethics: people, including employees of a company, have to be treated as ends themselves but not as means to an end.

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My state is California. This state is an at-will employment state and abides by the Doctrine of Employment At-Will. The doctrine describes the most widespread employment relationship in which either party might mutually end the relationship with no fear of liability. As per this doctrine in California, any hiring by employers is assumed as being at will employment, and employers are free to dismiss the worker for no reason, for a bad reason, or for a good reason. The worker is also equally free to quit working at the company without any notice or with notice (Nassiri Law Group, 2014).

However, there are 3 main exceptions to this doctrine in California. These exceptions address terminations which, even though are theoretically compliant with this doctrine, the courts and legislature of California have concluded that they are intrinsically unfair.

These exceptions are as follows:

Implied contract exception – the courts in California would not apply the employment-at-will doctrine when the employee handbook requires good reason for job termination or guarantees the worker job tenure or when the employers make written or oral representations to their workers with regard to job security (McCulloch, 2014).

Therefore, a court in this state made a ruling that oral statements which say that the worker would remain on the job provided that her job performance is satisfactory could be interpreted as creating an implied contract that prevents at-will employment terminations.

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Against public policy – according to this exception, it is an illegal termination of employment if that termination is in violation of a well-established and explicit policy of California State. As such, an employer cannot discharge a worker when that employee files a worker’s compensation claim or when the worker refuses to violate the law at the employer’s instruction (McCulloch, 2014). For example, a secretary cannot be dismissed because of refusing to prepare falsified expenditure reports for her boss.

Covenant of good faith exception – in the state of California, certain circumstances for instance adequate service and long years of employment could create an implied covenant of fair dealing and good faith that may prevent a worker from being terminated at will by his or her employer (Simas & Associates Ltd, 2015). In addition, at-will workers have rights and their employers cannot discharge them for unlawful reasons like in retaliation for exercising employee rights or due to job discrimination.

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The following is a real-world example of a worker in California who used California’s employment-at-will doctrine in the year 2013. A previous power line employee won a wrongful termination court case and was granted in excess of one million dollars in the lawsuit. This worker had worked for the electric firm for roughly 8 years when the company asked him and his crew members to replace an electricity pole which was damaged.

The supervisor of this worker told the crew to conduct the repairs without shutting off the power to the line. Even though the employee and his crew finished the repair works satisfactorily, it was very dangerous. If the high-voltage wires had touched one another, a huge explosion would have occurred (Nassiri Law Group, 2014). About 30 days later, another electric crew was sent to perform repairs on the same power line but the company allowed them to shut the power off leaving roughly 107 of the firm’s clients with not electricity. 

The worker who had carried out the task with the live wires filed a safety complaint. In the claim, he stated that he felt unsafe in the place of work and that he suffered panic attacks, anxiety and even depression. He took a medical leave of absence and his supervisor sacked him through a voicemail message. The employee filed a wrongful termination lawsuit and the court ordered $1 million in damages.

The employer was also ordered to pay for the attorney fees of the worker (Nassiri Law Group, 2014). In California State, it is unlawful to fire a worker if the termination is in violation of the public policy of this state. Therefore, it was against the law for the employer to sack the power line worker for the wrong reasons.  

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To sum up, based upon the employment-at-will doctrine and after examining three of the 6 scenarios, I have concluded that I could lawfully dismiss John, Ellen and Bill. The employment-at-will doctrine permits the company to discharge at-will employees at any time, for no reason at all or for any reason. In my state of California, the exceptions to this doctrine include against public policy exception, covenant of good faith exception, and implied contract exception.


McCulloch, M. (2014). California employment law: What is employment at will? Marcarian Law Firm. Retrieved from http://www.marcarianlaw.com/california-employment-law-what-is-employment-at-will/

Nassiri Law Group. (2014). California worker wins wrongful termination lawsuit. Orange, CA: NLG.

Simas & Associates Ltd. (2015). Exceptions to at-will employment in California. Administrative, Health care & Employment Law. Retrieved from http://simasgovlaw.com/media/blog/exceptions-to-at-will-employment-in-california/

Stone, K.V. (2011). Revisiting the at-will employment doctrine: Imposed terms, implied terms, and the normative world of the workplace. Industrial Law Journal, 36(1), 84-101.

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Discrimination Issues Essay Paper

Discrimination Issues
Discrimination Issues

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Discrimination Issues


In this contemporary society, people have based the element of religious accommodation in making different decisions especially within work environments that have seen the employers either agreeing with the employees or having a different feeling in consideration of the differences in beliefs and discrimination issues. Today, it is more likely to find a Christian refusing to employ a Muslim because they have different beliefs and faiths.

The law therefore considers religious discrimination in different angles (Burmeister, 2014). These laws therefore address the issues that tend to be different from the other forms of employment discrimination. These laws have been constituted in a complex manner, a factor that has seen the reduction of religious discrimination and accommodation cases within the working environment. This paper therefore seeks to carry a study on discrimination issues as regarded by religion and accommodation.


Flips burger is a company that has fifteen employees with the company putting emphasis on adhering to its rules and regulations as defined by the EEOC. According to the case study, a plaintiff was fired for legitimately acknowledging her religious beliefs by putting on a Hijab to work during their Ramadhan celebration (Burmeister, 2014). It is however essential to note that the defendant had no valid reasons to prove the Plaintiffs breach of the working conditions.

It is essential to establish the fact that the employers always have the right to develop boundaries and policies in the manner in which employees dress. However, religious and accommodation issues are likely to come in between this aspect (Burmeister, 2014). It is in this case essential to stress that if the dressing code genuinely reflects the employee’s religious belief, there is need for the employer to accommodate these beliefs since failing to do this would create issues for the employers business.

Elements of the Cause of Action

In determining the elements that led to the cause of action, it is vital to understand that the defendant had the capacity and authority to set work place rules in governing the image of the company and in promoting the professional appearance of his employees as would be indicated in a court of law (Massengill, & Petersen, 2008). However, there is a need to grant opportunities with the aim of accommodating the employee’s genuine religious beliefs such as the wearing of Hijab to work. This therefore depicts the manner in which the employer discriminated the employees’ rights within the work environment.

Discrimination Issues

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Applicable Defenses for the Case

Even upon the placement of policies within the workplace, employees need to be on the look in considering and accommodating the religious beliefs of the employees as a way of avoiding litigation. In as much as the employer may have had no reasons of terminating the services of the employee, it is essential to consider that this is an act of discrimination that is also viewed as unethical (Massengill, & Petersen, 2008).

Considering the fact that the Plaintiff provided the employer with adequate notice about the religious even that was underway and the practices that follow these events, the employer still failed to accommodate this fact, a factor that proves that he is guilty of discrimination.

The Basis for the Judge’s Rule

It is essential to consider the fact that this case needs to be determined in different ways. First, the employer who is the defendant having been provided with adequate notice on the employees beliefs failed to accommodate the beliefs of the employee. This therefore denotes that fact that the employee’s religious rights were violated (Rabin-Margalioth, 2003). The judge would therefore consider the fact that the employee’s garments were worn for religious purposes and were not injurious to the public’s welfare.

However, two issues remain that need to be considered. The wearing of Hijab may be acceptable within a work environment. But the other Islamic clothing’s that cover the body and the faces of an individual such as the Niqabs and the burkhas may prove challenging to tolerate especially for the employees who serve within public places (Rabin-Margalioth, 2003). This would hinder the manner in which humans communicate especially when not seeing the face of someone serving you.

These are factors that employers therefore need to deliberate with employees in striking an agreement. It is therefore significant that the employer needed to ensure that the organization incorporated the element of inclusivity in accommodating the employees and their religious beliefs even when the company was concerned about its image in order to avoid the litigation.

Discrimination Issues

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This study confirms that fact that people have based the element of religious accommodation in making different decisions especially within work environments that have seen the employers either agreeing with the employees or having a different feeling in consideration of the differences in beliefs. The employers always have the right to develop boundaries and policies in the manner in which employees dress.

However, religious and accommodation issues are likely to come in between this aspect. It is therefore essential for employers to consider the religious beliefs and practices of their employees in order to protect the rights of the workers and avoid litigation.


Burmeister, B. (2014). What you should know about the Employment Equity Amendment Act. Finweek, 18-20

Massengill, D., & Petersen, D. J. (2008). Job Requirements and Religious Practices: Conflict and Accommodation. Labor Law Journal, 39(7), 402-410.

Rabin-Margalioth, S. (2003). Anti-Discrimination, Accommodation and Universal Mandates–Aren’t They All the Same? Berkeley Journal of Employment & Labor Law, 24(1), 111.

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Employability Skills Research Paper

Employability Skills
Employability Skills

Employability Skills


Effective career readiness for college students requires the acquisition of excellent skills in terms of academic knowledge, technical experience and a collection of set competencies, referred to as employability skills (US Department of Education 2016). Employability skills can be defined as work competencies, which can drive success across all levels of employment in the labor market.

The skills include the ability to assess personal responsibilities and evaluate your performance, ability to improve interpersonally, ability to understand the dynamics of work relationships, and the ability to develop effective strategies for solving work related problems. However, the question is about how one can acquire or develop effective employability skills. The objective of this paper is to discuss the most efficient strategies for developing employability skills.

1.1 How to determine own responsibility

As a Practice Educator in Gold View Hospital, my duties are planning objectives, and monitoring team performance. In addition, I am tasked with the role of coordinating various departments, organizing meetings, and providing an enabling environment for employees to work better. Generally, my duty is to enhance performance objective.

How to enhance performance objective

Performance objective can be enhanced by improving one’s capabilities such as communication skills, problem-solving skills, work and team management skills et cetera.

Effective Communication skills: As a practice educator, my strategy to effective communication involves good listening skills, use of verbal and non-verbal messages. In addition, I should be able to relate well with issues and know when to speak.                                

Problem solving techniques: The best approach of solving problems includes: problem definition, problem analysis, developing options for solving the problem, selecting the most suitable option, implementing the option, evaluating the outcome, and learning from the problem.

Decision making skills: Before making a decision, it is important to learn and develop your decision within the work requirements. This often calls for embracing intuition approach by applying experience and personal values. Furthermore, the process should encourage reasoning and comprehensiveness of ideas without attaching emotional aspects to decision.                                

Organizing work: The best approach to handling any given assignment is by writing down every detail needed as well as any related information that you think might be useful to you. Develop a time schedule to ensure that all tasks are prioritized and accomplished within the set timeframe. Consult your friends, tutor, or anyone who might provide important information regarding your assignment.

Embrace leadership skills: Observe good relationship with coreworkers and the institution at large. Make use of negotiation, influence, and persuasion techniques in the case of divergent views.

Team management skills: This is equally an important aspect of increasing performance objective. The skills include effective communication, establishing team virtues, effective decision-making approach, and developing suitable conflict resolution techniques.

Work Ethics: Virtues such as credibility, honesty, industriousness and respect for others are also important factors to developing performance objective.                                                            

However, the above-highlighted skills are to some extent  too general to bring out an efficient objective performance. Therefore, they can be effective or not depending on a person’s nature and state of mind. However, the efficiency of this skills can be enhanced by addressing several factors considered to be obstacles to their effectiveness.

For instance, to promote aspects of effective communication skills, one should develop effective stress management skills (Robinson, Segal &Smith 2016).  Stress and emotions can lead to misinterpretation of other people or project. According to Robinson, Segal &Smith (2016), to deal with stress while communicating one is required to:

  • Take a moment of calm before you decide whether to continue the conversation or postpone it.
  • Carry out stress managing activities such as taking some deep breaths, relaxing and clenching muscles, and recalling a sensory image, which is soothing and rich in your memory.
  • Using humor in the conversation to ease tension and release emotions
  • Be able to appreciate the concerns of others even though may not appear so big to you

On the other hand, problem-solving techniques can be made better by applying the psychological theory of problem-solving such as the Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Cooper 2014). Team management, building, and work ethics can be enhanced by introducing motivation and morale boosting factors.

According to Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory, it is believed a happy and motivated person is more productive as compared to an unsatisfied person. Some requirements such as incentives and rewards to recognize people’s efforts will motivate them to be more committed to their work.

1.2 How to monitor and evaluate performance objective

Mind Tools (2016) outlines that the best approach to monitoring and evaluating performance objective is by embracing the SMART technique, which is an acronym for:

S- Specific

M- Measurable


R- Relevant

T-time bound        

Specific: This describes a project or work regarding what should be done, how it should be done, and the project outcomes in the most observable manner.

Measurable: It describes the objectives of the project in terms of quantitative and qualitative measures, frequency, project costs, and timeframes among others. This is to ensure that the project meets the expectations.

Acceptable/achievable: The aspect of ‘achieving’ involves ensuring that the team is in a position to carry out the assignment, and has the necessary experience and technical skills. In addition, it evaluates whether the objective can be attained within the given timeframes, opportunities, and resources.

Relevant: The techniques applied in carrying out the assignment should be relevant to the objectives and the implementation plan.

Time-bound: This determines the way of achieving the objectives within the set timeframe. It evaluates the progress of the project at specific time intervals. More often than not, timeframes are put in place to create a sense of urgency to help the team to complete the work on time.

1.3 Recommendation

Dubinsky, Jennings & Brans (2010) states that to improve the performance quality in work environment, the following recommendations should be implemented:

Adoption of performance appraisal techniques: Appraisal techniques such as 360-degree performance appraisal should be adopted to help keep employees on track towards their assignments. It involves the process of gathering feedback on individual performance from a variety of sources. It includes self-appraisal, management, appraisal, subordinate appraisal, and peer appraisal.

Self-appraisal enables employees to evaluate their performance, strengths and weaknesses, and achievements. Management appraisal involves the rating of employees’ performance by the senior management. Subordinate appraisal involves the evaluation of employees’ communication and motivating skills, their ability to deliver desirable results, and their leadership qualities.

Salary increments and bonus: This is a motivational approach of getting employees committed to their work. It improves the relationship between the employees and management.

Promoting strengths and minimizing weaknesses: This can be done through a S.W.O.T analysis. It helps to explore new efforts or problem-solving techniques. In addition, it helps in identifying threats, which is a mechanism of minimizing weaknesses.

Developing training programs: Regular training will help to improve the skills of team members.

Rating responsibilities: This includes introducing different ranks and carrying out paired comparison. The aim is to motivate the employees to put in more efforts in order to attain a higher rank.

1.4 Quality improvement through motivational techniques

Motivational theories- Abrahams Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory

Hierarchy of need theory is essential in understanding motivational factors, human management, training programs, and employee development.  Maslow’s theory helps in creating a working environment, which encourages self-actualization (McLeod.  2014). The hierarchy is summarized below;

Fig 1: The Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory.Source: studyob.com

Motivational approaches

Developing a conductive work environment

This includes motivating employees by providing necessary tools and means of performing duties. In addition, management should encourage teamwork, sharing ideas and amicable problem-solving.

Setting Goals

Management should help the junior officers to establish and develop professional goals and objectives. The goals should be idealistic and attainable to prevent people from getting disillusioned.

Giving Incentives

Incentives motivate employees and make them appreciate the nature of their work. They include financial incentives such as cash prizes and rewards as well as non-financial incentives, which include vacation days, or choice of working offices and parking spots.

Achievement recognition

Employees’ achievements should be celebrated through issuing of awards such as employee-of-the-year awards. Achievements should be appreciated by issuing certificates of exemplary performance. Team accomplishment should be celebrated as well.

Sharing Profits

Motivate the team by providing bonus resulting from the accrued profits. This encourages a sense of ownership and pride.

2.1 Developing solutions to work-related problems in a health care environment

Hicks (2016) recommended the following steps of developing a suitable solution to work-related problems: identifying and defining the problem and appreciating the problem as an opportunity, and using a checklist to identify particular aspects of the problem. In addition, explore the root cause(s) of the problem -analyze the root facts of the problem to find out the most relevant information regarding the problem.

Develop options for solving the problem- create several options for problem-solving by being mindful and inclusive of other people’s ideas. Moreover, decide on the most suitable approach- evaluate options and decide on the most appropriate approach to statutory requirements. Implement the technique- follow the project management guidelines while keeping in mind the consequences of the outcome. Finally, evaluate the outcome and learn- evaluate the effectiveness of the solution and recommend which areas are in need of improvements

To effectively apply the above steps, one should develop and employ the following interpersonal skills:

  • Personal effectiveness- one should embrace leadership qualities such as being impartial, mindful of other people’s  ideas, nonjudgmental, influential et cetera
  • Team player- it is crucial in identifying unique characteristics of an individual. It is significant in choosing the kind of approach of handling work related problems.
  • Uses of negotiation skills- this involves engaging parties in a negotiation process. Dialogue should be embraced to reach an agreement. This is a win- win outcome for all parties.
  • Assertiveness – it involves being confident, aggressive and assured that you can effectively manage the problem.

2.2 Effective communication in a health care environment

Verbal and non-verbal communication-Verbal communication can be enhanced through the use of effective communication skills such listening skills, assertiveness, mindfulness, and responsiveness. Non-verbal communication involves the use of electronic means such as e-mails and the use written messages in a professional manner to convey the message (Robinson, Segal & Smith 2016). Using body language -It includes, posture, maintaining eye contact, body gestures, tonal variation, and facial expression to enhance effective means of conveying important messages.

Sending and receiving formal and non-formal feedback from colleagues- this will serve as a reminder to keep the team updated on the activities to be done. Use of ICT as an effective medium of communication – ICT is the most effective way of passing information to a large group of people within the shortest time possible. In a Hospital setting, use of informatics facilitates sharing data, ideas, and conveying important messages within the working environment.

 Organizing regular team meetings-Regular meetings provide a medium to discuss the emerging issues, evaluate work progress, and foster the unity of the team.

2.3 Employing Time management strategies

Prioritizing workload- prepare a working schedule of accomplishing duties. Apply the working schedule in a systematic manner.

Setting up work objectives- set up clear objectives to guide the team from straying away from the real issue. It creates a sense of focus by allowing team members to work towards the set goals; thus, reduce time wastage.

Developing appointment schedule- appointment schedules help reduce interference during working hours. Working in a steady as opposed to an erratic manner is essential.

Setting time for learning enables one to improve working skills; thus, improving the quality of work as well as reducing time as a result of uncertainties (Mind Tools, 2016). A reliable estimate of the project creates a sense of urgency and assists in keeping the team focused on accomplishing the assigned duties.

3.1 Working together through team and team building activities

Assigning specific roles to every team member- working together is an inclusive process requiring the active participation of every member.

Mixing skills and styles- this is the best opportunity to explore new skills and styles of developing quality work. In this case, members have an opportunity to showcase their skills.

Identifying roles for the team- team roles and objectives are emphasized to keep members focused.

Stages of team development such as loyalty, dedication, identity, common practices, and health assessment- these stages are essential in reminding members of the best protocol to follow in developing career skills;

  • Action planning- include time schedules for every activity
  • Monitoring and feedback- it involves team progress evaluation and results analysis
  • Exchanging constructive feedback- members give their views on how the process has been conducted

Successful teamwork calls for the development of leadership skills, which includes setting direction, setting the pace and standards, being influential, practicing effective communication, being a motivator, innovative, reliable and consistent. In a healthcare environment, effective leadership involves provision and justification of objectives and contribution; motivating teams and team members to exhibit exemplary commitment; and pay attention to developing quality system performance (Cooper2014).

Based on health-care, an effective leadership recommends:

  • Providing and justifying clear  aim and benefits
  • Motivating teams and individuals to work effectively
  • Concentrating on enhancing performance of the system

3.2 Team dynamics in Children wards

  • Communication barrier–   children are unable to express themselves. Embrace good listening skills to understand explanations by parents
  • Informal and formal setting- the children ward consists of both professionals and civilians. Interpersonal skills are encouraged to meet the objective
  • Objectives of teams and groups like long-term purposes/strategies
  • Problem-solving and temporary projects
  • Flexibility- must be willing to assist whenever called upon. Children need a lot of care which requires one to be flexible to handle them

3.3 Alternative ways of accomplishing tasks in a health care environment

According to Borrill, West & Dawson (1998), tasks in a healthcare environment can be accomplished by;

  • Setting clear objectives , active participation by individual team members, highlighting on quality patient service through innovation
  • Develop stress management techniques for team members
  • Embracing quality meetings,  effective integration and communication processes to develop improved service of patient care
  • Adopt clear leadership skills to enhance the relationship with patients
  • Observe work ethics

Good leadership skills include setting the course, standards, inspiring, innovative, response, open communication, trustworthy, and reliable (Messum, Wilkes & Jackson 2011).

4.1 Evaluate the tools and methods of developing solution to problem

According to Hicks (2016), the general problem-solving techniques include the following

  • Identity and define the problem- appreciate the problem as an opportunity. Use a checklist to identify particular aspects of the problem
  • Explore the root cause(s) of the problem-analyze, the root facts of the problem, to find out the most relevant information regarding the problem.
  • Develop options for solving the problem- create several options forproblem-solving by being mindful and inclusive of other people’s ideas
  • Decide on the most suitable approach- evaluate options and decide on the most appropriate approach to the statutory provisions
  • Implement the technique- follow the project management guidelines while keeping in mind the consequences of the outcome
  • Evaluate the outcome and learn- evaluate the effectiveness of the solution and recommend on which areas need improvements

4.2 Problem solving techniques apply to different scenarios.

Consider the following settings:

Scenario 1

A member of the team is involved in an accident and that causes him to take some time off for several months. How would the team react initially and how would they handle it as the months go by? As a team leader, I will take the responsibility of informing the team members about one of us getting involved in a road accident. I will organize a compassionate pay visit and encourage all members to participate. During the visit, I will find out doctor’s recommendations involving the anticipated date of recovery and communicate to the team on the expected date of return to work.

I will reassign some of his/ her responsibilities to a relevant group member. At first, the team members will feel remorseful and easily accept taking up of his/her responsibilities. However, as time goes by, the member assigned the duties might start feeling overburdened by the workload.  Therefore, I shall design makeshift roles to ensure that his or her responsibilities are shared out to several team members. For the duties that need his /her personal presence, I will reschedule until further notice. Upon recovery, I will lead the team to welcome back our member.

4.3 The potential impact of the problem on the business of Gold view hospital on the implementation of the strategy

The problem wills definitely affecting the quality of service provided. The interim team members will not be able to deliver the most desirable results for lack of enough experience in that particular work. Similarly, some services which require his/her physical presence will not be provided. Furthermore, the members selected to step in will have increased workload as well as less focus on their designated duties. I can say that the solution was partially solved and therefore recommend that we have more members of staff within one docket such that in the absence of one member, team operations are not affected.


Based on the issues outlined in the paper, it is evident that employability skills depend on determining an individual’s responsibility and ways of enhancing performance to meet the objectives.  To this effect, performance objective must be monitored in line with the SMART model, motivational methods such profit sharing and bonus et cetera.

In terms of developing solutions to work-based issues in health care setting, it is necessary to  define and identify the problem; establish the main causes of the problem; choose the appropriate alternative; implement the alternative; and assess the results. In the long run, communication can only be effective through the use of not only verbal and non-verbal techniques, but also through good listening, assertive, mindful and responsive skills.


Borrill. C, West, M & Dawson, J 1998. The Effectiveness of Health Care Teams in the National Health Service http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/jeanc/DOH-final-report.pdf

Cooper, B. 2014, Psychological Theories To Help You Communicate Better With Anyone. Available from:https://blog.bufferapp.com/3-psychological-theories-communication-insigh, [24th May 2016].

Dubinsky, I. Jennings, K &. Brans, B. 2010.  360-Degree Physician Performance Assessments for quality improvement Healthcare Quarterly Vol.13 No.2 2010 71

Hicks, T 2016, Seven Steps for Effective Problem Solving in the Workplace. Available from: http://www.mediate.com/articles/thicks.cfm, [24th May 2016].

 McLeod, S. 2014, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Simply Psychology. Available from http://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html, [24th May 2016].

Mind Tools 2016, Effective Scheduling Planning to Make the Best Use of Your Time. Available from: https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newHTE_07.html, [24th May 2016].

Messum, D., Wilkes, L. & Jackson, D.E., 2011. Employability skills: Essential requirements in health manager vacancy advertisements. Verified OK.

Mind Tools 2016, Golden Rules of Goal setting. Available from https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newHTE_90.htm, [24th May 2016].

Robinson, L., Segal, J., & Smith, M 2016, Effective Communication, Help Way Guide. Available from http://www.helpguide.org/articles/relationships/effective-communication.htm., [24th May 2016].

The U.S Department of Education 2016, College- and Career-Ready Standards. Available from <http://www.ed.gov/k-12reforms/standards>, [24th May 2016].

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