Low Motivation and Engagement

Low Motivation and Engagement
Low Motivation and Engagement

Low Motivation and Engagement

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Assessment 1: Report Overview For this assessment, write a 1000 word report on the issues below:
Low Motivation and Engagement

Your report should be structured as follows:

1. Introduction (200 words): Define the issue and use Australian research and statistics to explain how common it is, and the likely impacts of this violence (for instance, mental or physical health impacts, number of hospitalisations, and other indications of impact).

2. Theoretical section (800 words): Select TWO theories from the following list, and apply them to the issue: Liberal feminism, Marxist/socialist feminism, radical feminism, critical masculinities theory. You need to pick the most appropriate theory to help you explain the issue. Think carefully about the theories you select.

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Write 400 words on EACH theory, in which you briefly define the theory, and then describe how that particular theory would explain the issue you have selected. For instance, if you select Marxist/socialist feminism for the issue of sexual assault, then your 400 word paragraph needs to explain what Marxist/socialist feminism is, and present a Marxist/socialist feminist explanation for sexual assault.
Your bibliography should contain no fewer than EIGHT academic sources. Any media sources are additional to this.

Marking Criteria

1. Accurate and clear presentation

2. Further research and comprehensive understanding (AT LEAST 8 ACADEMIC SOURCES)

3. Logical and clear structure

4. Quality of written expression

5. Correctly formatted citations and bibliography.

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Motivation and Performance Essay Paper

Motivation and Performance
Motivation and Performance

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Motivation and Performance

Motivation and performance are two vital concepts of productivity irrespective of the underlying factors that instigate them, whether in a service providing or a manufacturing environment. According to Robertson, Birch & Cooper (2012), motivation of any extent among employees or students in working or education settings respectively is undeniably the most imperative determinant of satisfaction and subsequently performance due to effective and efficient utilization of resources with minimal wastage and optimal efforts towards achieving the set outcomes.

As a result, considering the challenge of limited resources balancing between motivation and task satisfaction has become very essential (Robbins & Judge, 2013).              

Motivation and Performance

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Cooper (2013) noted that motivation is the desire to not only do but also actualize things, making it the most crucial element in setting and achieving goals which is to a greater extent influenced by self-control. Thus, motivation is usually what stimulates us to act and it involves the process of initiating, guiding, and maintaining behaviors that are goal-oriented (Brief & Weiss, 2012).

This is without any doubt the main reason why talent and ambition are not the sole predictors of whether someone will push until a certain goal is achieved or quit along the way. Hence, this validates the suggestion by Wade and Tavris that the source of someone’s motivation is a crucial factor to determine whether the set goal is achieved including the need to perform excellently in front of others or the satisfaction achieved from learning a task (Brief & Weiss, 2012).       

Motivation and Performance

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Schultz & Schultz (2014) emphasize that performance goals are vital in determining someone’s motivation as well as satisfaction irrespective of whether a task is performed personally or in front of others or assigned by someone else. A focus on this assertion makes it clear that anyone who has ever set a goal to achieve, has through motivation and envisaged satisfaction to urgently realize that by simply having the interest of accomplishing it is not enough (Brief & Weiss, 2012).

Cooper (2013) notes that achieving such performance goals require persistence through obstacles as well as endurance to keep pushing on irrespective of the difficulties which are faced along the process since the satisfaction expected from actualizing such a task is enough to motivate sustained action. Thus, with regards to performance goals, motivation is usually determined by three main components such as activation of the desire, persistence and intensity.

Mastery goals are undoubtedly the most important link between motivation and satisfaction (Cooper, 2013). This is attributable to the fact that, the motivation of performing well in front of others as well as learning a task due to satisfaction attained from it requires not only commitment, but also mastery of the task for satisfactory performance.

As a result, in order to ensure mastery goals with regards to a particular task are achieved someone should always endeavor to increase satisfaction in learning the task for improved motivation, subsequently leading to better performance and increased efficiency (Robbins & Judge, 2013).     

Motivation and Performance

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The effect of praise is also crucial in influencing the motivation to perform better in front of others and achieve satisfaction in learning a particular task. Hence, in order to sustain praise from others concentration must be focused on contentment, optimism, enthusiasm, and teamwork among colleagues in order to help the task flourish (Robertson, Birch & Cooper, 2012). Schultz & Schultz (2014) noted that the effect of praise is also strongly associated with the feelings of worth whereby someone’s motivation and satisfaction is driven by his/her mental outlook in believing that he/she is valuable or appreciated, which results to continued effort to maintain the praise. 

Expectations and self-efficacy are also naturally linked to motivation and satisfaction because optimism enables someone to hope for the best outcome, especially in challenging or difficult circumstances (Cooper, 2013). Furthermore, self-efficacy with regards to a task’s motivation and satisfaction refer to someone’s emotional condition and the driving force in pursuing and satisfying one’s needs in order to achieve contentment according to Maslow’s theory of needs (Brief & Weiss, 2012).                           


Brief, A. P., & Weiss, H. M. (2012). Organizational behavior: Affect in the workplace. Annual Review of Psychology53(3),279–307.

Cooper, J. O.(2013). Applied Behavior Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2013). Essentials of Organizational Behavior, (9th ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJPrentice Hall.

Robertson, I. T., Birch, A. J., & Cooper, C. L. (2012). Job and work attitudes, engagement and employee performance: Where does psychological well-being fit in? Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 33(3), 224–232.

Schultz, D. P., & Schultz, S. E. (2014). Psychology and work today: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology, (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

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Impact of Motivation on Productivity Bibliography

Impact of Motivation on Productivity
Impact of Motivation on Productivity

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Impact of Motivation on Productivity

Manzoor, Q (2014). The impact of employees’ motivation on organizational effectiveness. Retrieved from: European Journal of business management, 3. Retrieved from http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/EJBM/article/viewFile/265/150

The success of a business is influenced by the level of employee motivation. Productivity and profitability are the results of happy and hardworking workers. Motivation is dependent on individual employee since some may be motivated by money, others promotion and others are motivated by having equity in the business. The only way to motivate employees is finding out what each wants and making it available or assisting them to earn it. If all employees are motivated, the result will be high productivity and profitability.

Weldeyohannes, G 2015. Employee motivation and its impact on productivity in the case of National Alcohol and Liquor Factory. Journal of Poverty, Investment and Development, 15. Retrieved from http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JPID/article/viewFile/24894/25497

The author carried out the research to identify the existing motivational strategies in National Alcohol and Liquor Factory and assess their impacts on productivity. The quality of the motivating system, type of motivation, and roles played by the motivated employees are some of the items analyzed to address the issue of employee productivity. By carrying out the research, the company was able to identify gaps in its motivational system and focus on motivation since it affects the productivity of the organization.

Barg, J Ruparathna, R, Mendis, D & Hewage, K (2014). Motivating workers in construction. Journal of construction engineering, 11. Retrieved from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcen/2014/703084/

Construction industry lagged behind in productivity compared to other industries. Attitude, employee-employer relationship, and lack of communication are some of the main issues affecting motivation in the workplace.  Work climate, employee development, perceived equity, work objectivity, and organizational climate should be addressed with relation to employee motivation.

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Serchuk, D (2010). Shareholders win when employees are motivated. Forbes, 3.  Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/2009/08/23/employee-motivation-stocks-intelligent-investing-returns.html

An environment that fosters motivation makes employees feel that there is constant communication, have control over their work and are respected. According to the research, firms that had motivated employees had a subsequent increase in their stock prices resulting in high dividends for shareholders. Being less strict on internet use, measuring performance with set goals, and consistent measurement of performance are some of the ways the author indicates crucial in improving productivity.

Michael, J (2015). Increasing productivity of retained employees after a workforce reduction. Scholarly works: Walden. Retrieved from http://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3009&context=dissertations

The study was carried out in the United States telecommunication industries due to the increased downsizing of workers. Systems theory was used to assess the available strategies for managers to increase the motivation of the retained workers. Communication is the most crucial element in motivating the workers.

Willyerd, K (2014). What high performers want at work? Harvard Business School, 1. Retrieved from:  https://hbr.org/2014/11/what-high-performers-want-at-work

High performers are the most productive compared to average workers according to the research. High performers are few in the workplace yet they the most satisfied with their jobs. The best strategy should be to increase retention rates for the high performers. The study was conducted in 27 countries to determine the future expectations of the workforce. Base pay and bonuses are what satisfies most employees.

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McGregor, L & Doshi, N (2015). How company culture shapes employee motivation. Harvard Business School, 1. Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/2015/11/how-company-culture-shapes-employee-motivation

Culture is critical in an organization as it drives performance and affects business processes. A good culture encourages play, potential, and purpose while at the same time reducing economic and emotional pressure. The research was carried in 50 companies around the world.

Sullivan, J (2011). Increasing employee productivity: The strategic role the HR essentially ignores. ERE Media, 1. Retrieved from http://www.eremedia.com/ere/increasing-employee-productivity-the-strategic-role-that-hr-essentially-ignores/

According to the author, morale can be defined as an individual’s state of mind resulting from emotions and feelings. It is an elusive quality that determines the attitude towards other team members, workplace environment, and the overall organization. Job insecurity, excess outsourcing, perceived unfairness, and poor compensation lead to poor morale. Thus, employees focus on how to improve their careers instead of being productive. Managers are encouraged to build an organization culture that meets the needs of each employee to increase their motivation and productivity.

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Puwanenthiren, P (2011). The reward system and its impact on employee motivation in the commercial bank of Sri Lanka, PLC. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 11. Retrieved from https://globaljournals.org/GJMBR_Volume11/9-Reward-System-And-Its-Impact-On-Employee.pdf

Organizations are focusing on having an equitable balance between employee contribution to the firm and the firm’s contribution to the workers. Recognition, benefits and compensation are some of the rewards associated with the balance between the firm and the employees in the bank. Balance leads to motivation hence increase in productivity.

Williamson, F (2014). Enhancing strategies to improve workplace performance. Walden, 121. Retrieved from http://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1105&context=dissertations

The author applied Maslow hierarchy of needs to analyze motivation in relation to productivity. Strategies must be put in place to address the misunderstandings that happen when there are changes in organizations. Attitude, beliefs, and background can result in destructive or constructive acts that affect workplace performance.

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Leadership Styles, Employee Satisfaction and Productivity

Employee Satisfaction
Employee Satisfaction

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Leadership Styles, Employee Satisfaction and Productivity


This study sought to identify the types of leadership styles exhibited by management, the impact of leadership styles on employee satisfaction, productivity and staff perception of leadership styles. The study will adopted a descriptive survey of non-experimental research design to investigate the influence of leadership style on employee satisfaction and productivity. The study will rely on simple random and purposive sampling techniques in selecting a total of 120 respondents for the study.

The study will also expose that leaders who exhibited democratic (participative), people-oriented or transformational leadership characteristics for that matter, enhanced staff productivity. Leadership is a process influence between leaders and subordinates where a leader attempts to influence the behavior of subordinates to achieve the organizational goals. Organizational success in achieving its goals and objectives depends on the leaders of the organization and their leadership styles. By adopting the appropriate leadership styles, leaders can affect employee job satisfaction, commitment and productivity.

Background to the study

In recent times, organizations are going through dramatic changes, including flatter and looser structures, downsizing, and horizontal approaches to information flow. On the one hand, these changes are due to rapid technological developments, global competition and changing nature of the workforce. On the other hand, these organizational transformations and innovations are triggered by interventions such as total quality management and business process re- engineering.

Leadership is regarded as a critical factor in the initiation and implementation of the transformations in the organizations. In the past, leaders were identified, selected and installed based on the trait approach. The trait theory argues that leaders have certain personalities, social and physical characteristics, known as traits, which influence whether the person acts as a leader. Proponents of this view assert that qualities such as intelligence, knowledge and expertise, dominance, self-confidence, high energy, tolerance for stress, integrity and maturity were inborn.

The approach thus, rests on the assumption that some people were born to lead due to the presence of these qualities in them while others are not. This approach has witnessed a lot of criticisms from researchers and practitioners as a result of certain inconsistencies associated with it.

Effective leadership and employee job satisfaction are two factors that have been regarded as fundamental for organizational success. A capable leader provides direction for the organization and lead followers towards achieving desired goals. In similar vein, employees with high job satisfaction are likely to exert more effort in their assigned tasks and pursue organizational interests. An organization that fosters high employee job satisfaction is also more capable of retaining and attracting employees with the skills that it needs (Mosadegh Rad & Yarmohammadian, 2006).

Several studies have also examined the relationship between the two factors and concurred that leadership has significant impacts on job satisfaction and organisational commitment (William & Hazer, 1986). High job satisfaction enhances employees’ psychological and physical wellbeing (Ilardi, Leone, Kansser, & Ryan, 1983) and positively affects employee performance (Vroom, 1964).

According to Mosadegh Rad and Yarmohammadian (2006), employee job satisfaction refers to the attitude of employees towards their jobs and the organization which employs them. In particular, leaders within organizations can adopt appropriate leadership styles to affect employee job satisfaction, commitment and productivity.

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Previous studies have examined the relationship between employee job satisfaction and leadership behavior in various settings such as healthcare, military, education and business organizations (Chen & Silversthorne, 2005). Consistent with this, the present study intends to examine the relationship between leadership styles, job satisfaction and in the public sector. Two types of leadership styles will be examined, namely, transactional and transformational leadership.

General Objective

The overall aim of the study is to investigate the influence of leadership style on employee satisfaction and productivity.

Specific objectives:

  1. 1. To determine the relationship between aspects of transactional leadership such as contingent reward, active management by exception and passive management by exception with job satisfaction among employees.

Research Questions

  1. What is the relationship between aspects of transformational leadership such as idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, individual consideration and inspirational motivation with job satisfaction among employees?
  2. What is the relationship between aspects of transformational leadership such as idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, individual consideration and inspirational motivation with job satisfaction among employees?
  3. What is the type of leadership styles that exists in the chosen organization?
  4. What is the impact of leadership styles on staff productivity?
  5. What is the impact of leadership styles on employee satisfaction?

Significance of the study

The research will be of great value to firms that need to improve staff productivity and employee satisfaction The research will also be of benefit to the research community in by suggesting areas that scholars can venture into. Thus it will act as a background research for future studies.

Research methodology

This section will provide the process of collecting the, outline the research design and the population and sample of the study. Study parameters such as the study setting, the type of data to be collected, the time of conducting the study and the limitations of the study will discussed as well.

Research Design

This study is quantitative in nature and descriptive research will be used incorporating the case study design in the study. A case study is concerned with investigating a given phenomenon in great detail. The main reason behind using this design is to establish the extent to which the variables under study influence of leadership styles on employee satisfaction, productivity and staff perception of leadership styles.

The study will adopted descriptive survey for the data collection in order to answer the research questions because the researchers did not control factors that might influence the behavior and performance of subjects under study thereby reporting the outcome as they are (Smith, 1975).This study adopted qualitative method to assess the effects of leadership styles on staff productivity and employee satisfaction.

Target population

The target population will involve the total number of all units from in the organization. This study will be conducted among the various units of the institution where selected heads and other members of staff of were sampled to obtain in-depth data on how leadership style affected staff productivity and employee satisfaction.

Sample Size Determination

The target population will indicate above as 515 and a sample of 120 will be drawn for the study. The research will considered this sample size as a representation of the total population. Nwana (1992) suggests that if the population is a few hundred, a 40% or more sample size will do, if several hundred a 20% or more sample size will be suitable, if a few thousands a 10% sample size will do. Based on this criterion, 23.3% of 515 will equal to 120 and hence the sample size drawn for the study.

Procedure for Data Collection

The research will begin the study with a visit to all the various units and departments and also interacted with a number of staff. With this, the researcher will get to know members of staff well and better understood the institution and its structures. The objectives of the study will be made known to the respondents and also assured them of treating their information with utmost confidentiality. Assurances from a researcher to respondents of confidentiality of information being sought will make the interviewees more relaxed and open in their responses.

Data Presentation and Analysis

Computer data analyses software such as the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17) and other relevant software such as Microsoft Excel were the main tools employed to analyze. The justification for the choice of these programs was that, these techniques facilitated word processing and data analysis very easy and accurate.


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