Strategic Marketing Critical Analysis

Strategic Marketing Critical Analysis
Strategic Marketing Critical Analysis

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Strategic Marketing Critical Analysis

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CRITICALLY EVALUATE an organization on how it has approached entering international markets from a strategic marketing and a marketing mix perspective. How they adopt into marketing mix and what can they do next and is it worth doing it?

Use only academic journal for reference, 2 or 3 book reference are allowed.

Strategic Marketing Critical Analysis

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Strategic Marketing Critical Analysis

Introduction

            The generation of strategic marketing tactics by a business entity is critical towards their performance in the market. This is even more critical for a company operating, or willing to operate in the global and international market. Such a firm may require higher and additional marketing strategies not only to enter the market but also to continue successful operations. This paper focuses on the evaluation of various marketing strategies used by a company entering the international market, as viewed from a strategic marketing and marketing mix perspective.

Organisation of choice

            To evaluate the best approach to international marketing, it is necessary to select a firm that has had measurable success in their global marketing strategies. The firm of choice for this paper is The Coca Cola Company. The company has, arguably, the most widespread global reach of any company known. While tasked with having a first mover advantage over other firms, in the beginning, this advantage was largely unintentional since the product was radically different from what is manufactured today (Golder & Tellis, 1993, pp. 166 – 167).

The company has changed their marketing strategies over the years and one of the changes has been the intentional first mover advantage on various markets, as well as directed efforts towards being the major and in some instances the only market dominator.

Entering international markets

            Over the years of operation, The Coca Cola Company has entered into various international markets over different periods. The firm has used different tactics and market entry strategies for entry into each new market. The tactics used by the firm may be viewed from two broad perspectives: strategic marketing and marketing mix. Below is a discussion of these two viewpoints.

Strategic marketing perspective

            From a strategic marketing perspective, the Coca Cola Company has used a number of different tactics to achieve the immense growth levels. Among the most widespread and arguably the most profitable of these is the use of the strong brand presence held by the company. Coca Cola has grown their brand to be among the most recognizable identities globally. This extensive public knowledge of the brand and associated products has been instrumental in pushing for an additional market share in international markets as well as the uptake of the other lesser known and newer products offered by the company.

Brand loyalty to the firm has seen the company through entry of new markets leading to gaining of sizeable market share for its major products (Slater, 2001). The company strategically uses the presently available strengths to penetrate international markets as a tactical move over its competitors. This is a prime example of strategic marketing efforts by the multinational.

            Localization is yet another strategy employed by the Coca Cola Company as a tactic to penetrate international markets. Several researchers have identified the effective use of localization by the firm (Boisot & Child, 1999; Arnold & Quelch, 1998; Vonhonacker, 1997). A case in point was the firm’s strategy of market entry into China. Owing to tight control over international business operations by the Chinese government, Coca Cola decided to collaborate with local companies.

This move maintained good relationships between the firm and the government and fostered the growth of the smaller companies. For the Coca Cola Company, while timing and firm size and resource availability were central to the success in these emerging markets, a successful market entry strategy was vital to their success (Johnson & Tellis, 2008, pp. 3 – 5).

            The Coca Cola Company uses strategic advantage to market its products in a bid to gain market entry in various regions. A case in point is in China, where before the entry of Coca Cola through their beverage and bottling divisions, the firm was operating as a partner in concrete manufacture and distribution (Vonhonacker, 1997). Once the firm decided to enter the bottling and beverage distribution market in the region, Coca Cola used the existing leverage they had in terms of networks and invested resources to help market their products.

In addition, they understood the market, albeit from a different perspective. Such a strategy allowed for better-integrated marketing that responded to supply-driven considerations and consumer preferences (Schuiling & Kapferer, 2004, pp. 98 – 99)…..

Strategic Marketing Critical Analysis

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Critical thinking and Decision making

critical thinking and decision making
Critical thinking and Decision making

Critical thinking and Decision making

E-module 1:

1: In order of priority, identify which tasks you yourself will undertake and which tasks you will delegate with critical thinking and decision making skills.

2: Document your rationales in detail.

Parham, (2012) states that Registered Nurses (RNs) are charged with the key responsibility of prioritising care whereby they ensure that patients receive safe and quality care within clinical settings. Care prioritization should be based on the condition of a patient as well as the severity of the disease. Critical thinking and decision making skills are some of the important parameters that nurses need for them to prioritize care (Levvet-Jones, 2013). From the scenario, I would first give priority to the elderly woman who has collapsed on the floor.

Usually, an unconscious condition can predispose an individual to situations that are life threatening when urgent medical interventions are not provided (Parham, 2012). I will employ the primary survey technique DRABCDE so that I can optimize the condition of the patient quickly and initiate met call or code blue if necessary (Thim et al, 2012). Usually, post-operative individuals are predisposed to the risk of clinical deterioration.

In managing the elderly woman my primary concern would be to stabilize her airway. This is because the analgesic and anaesthetics used during the operation depress the respiratory system and this can worsen her condition if not well managed (Farrell & Dempsey, 2014). Moreover, I will maintain contact with the met call teams for documentation and medication.

Similarly, I would assign tasks to the enrolled nurses (EEN) as well as assistants in nursing (AINs) to evaluate and offer support to the individual that fainted in the living room to reduce the potential risk. The delegation of these tasks will be done according to the scope of practice of an individual. I will frequently supervise them to ensure there is patient safety and legal requirements are observed (Eager, Cowin, Gregory & Firtko, 2010).

I would also give priority to Mr Esposito who is meant to leave the ward for cardiac catheterization and requires perioperative medication. I will therefore ask an EEN to administer the medication to reduce the risk and complications encountered after surgery (Farrell & Dempsey, 2014). Moreover, I will double check the patient’s perioperative check list and consent to avoid any legal or ethical issues (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, 2015). I would then request the AIN to help in transferring Mr Esposito to have cardiac catheterization.

Thereafter, I would call the ward clerk and inform him about the toilet overflow; this is a code yellow criteria due to crisis and mechanical damage (Government of Western Australia, 2013). The overflow may increase chances of infections spreading and smell in the hospital environment, and therefore, proper and timely intervention should be put in place by the members responsible (Government of Western Australia, 2013).

In the patient that is due for antibiotic, I will check the IV cannula site to determine whether there is any sign of infiltration or inflammation. Any sign of inflammation will prompt me to remove the cannula and I will inform the doctor on the need for the patient’s recannulation. I would also notify the EEN to prepare antibiotics for Mrs Chew and I will supervise the EEN closely when she is preparing the antibiotics.

According to the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (2015), enrolled nurses can administer most medications but they are not competent enough to administer IV antibiotics without completion of the IV medication competency. I will lastly discuss with the VMO about medication error that were recorded the previous week. I will then convey the information to the next shift staff to offer clarification of this discussion to avoid similar risks to patient and clinicians.

References

Eager, S. C., Cowin, L. S., Gregory, L., & Firtko, A. (2010). Scope of practice conflict in nursing: A new war or just the same battle? Contemporary Nurse: A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession36(1/2), 86-95. Retrived from http://search.informit.com.au/browseJournalTitle;res=IELHEA;issn=1037-6178

 Farrell, M., & Dempsey, J. (2014). Text book of medical surgical nursing (3rd ed.). Philadephia PA

Government of Western Australia, (2013).  Emergency codes in hospitals and health care facilities. Retrieved from http://www.health.wa.gov.au/CircularsNew/pdfs/12974.pdf

 Levvet-Jones, T. (2013). Clinical reasoning: Learning to thinking like a nurse. Pearson, Melbourne Australia,

Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2015). Enrolled nurses and Medication Administration Fact Sheet. Retrieved from:file:///C:/Users/Owner/Downloads/Nursing-and-Midwifery-Board—Fact-Sheet—Enrolled-nurses-and-medicine-administration.PDF.

Parham, G. (2012). Recognition and response to the clinically deteriorating patient. Australian Medical Student Journal3(1), 18-22. Retrieved from: www.amsj.org/ Thim, T., Krarup, Grove, Rohde, & Lofgren,. (2012). Initial assessment and treatment with the Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability, Exposure (ABCDE) approach. International Journal of General Medicine,117. http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/ijgm.s28478

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Quality of care: Article Review

Quality of care
Quality of care

Quality of care Article Review

Introduction

 The international agencies and national nursing associations acknowledge the fact that unhealthy working conditions affect the quality of care, employee’s health, and are associated with nurse sensitive patient outcomes. In their article “Hospital magnet status, unit work environment and pressure ulcers,” Ma and Park explored the relationship between the RN environment nurse outcomes (job satisfaction, turnover rates and intent to stay) and patient safety outcomes (pressure ulcers, falls, and quality of care).

The article suggests that the hospital administration  and  nurse leaders should understand the importance of nurse work environments, as it sets  the stage for quality care and provides competitive advantage in current’s  value driven healthcare system (Ma &Park, 2015).

This essay is a critical analysis of Ma & Park article’s that aims to assess if the information improves nursing practice, increases nursing knowledge and understanding on patient safety. The main topics that will be critically analyzed include the article’s research design, data collection, data analysis, findings, discussion and nursing implication.

The research problem and its significance

 Creswell   states that a study’s research problem should be described using an approach that orientates the reader to the research subject (Creswell, 2014; Jaul, 2014).  The article states that better nurse work environments are associated with lower hospital acquired pressure ulcers. Pressure ulcers are critical patient issue because they are associated with prolonged hospital stays, increases patient risks for adverse events and increased consumption of the healthcare costs (Cai, Rahman, & Intrator, 2013; Buttaro et al., 2013, p. 304).

The research problem in this study is the organization’s factors or nurse work environment that negatively influence patient’s outcome, such as increasing HAPU incidence. “The unit-level work environments have major impact on the nurse work environment” (Ma & Sharks, 2015, p.65). The research problem is a focal point of research. It is well stated in this article and generates questions in which the research study aims to address (Stafford & Brower, 2012, p. 11; Suttipong & Sindhu, 2011, p. 373).

The study hypothesizes that nurses play crucial role in preventing pressure ulcers. However, the degree of patient safety is determined by the nurse work place environment, “The organizational factors in work-environments facilitate or constrain the professional nursing practice” (Ma & Parks, 2015, p. 566).  The article evaluates the nursing factors at both the hospital and unit level associated with Hospital acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU).

On the other hand, the significance of a study is the rationale of the study.  The researcher proves to the audience that the research is vital and worth doing it.  For instance, the study indicates that the need to reduce hospital acquired pressure ulcers has gained national attention. “There are approximately 2.5 million pressure ulcers that occur in the USA, and coasts $9.1-11.6 billion (Ma &Sharks, 2015, p. 65).”

 The research design and methods

Richardson-Tench and colleagues state that research design is the overall strategy chosen by the researcher to integrate different components of the study. It should be constructed in a logical manner to ensure that the researcher effectively address the research problem using the appropriate data collection and analysis approach (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2014; Richardson-Tench et al., 2014).

 The research method is used in this article is qualitative. The research design used in this article is the Cross-sectional observational study of data collected from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI). This research design is appropriate for this study because it examines the relationship of exposure and outcome in a defined population at one point in time.

In addition, the research design is inexpensive, less time consuming and provides a good but quick picture of prevalence of the research problem and its outcome. Although appropriate for this study, the main issue with this research design lacks time element making it difficult to determine the temporal relationship between the research problem and the outcome of the proposed intervention (Ma & Sharks, 2015, p.567).

 Data used in this article was collected from NDNQI. The data collected was supplemented with the NDNQI RN survey.  The total participants for RN survey was 33, 845 from 1,381 units in 373 healthcare facilities in 44 States. The inclusion criteria for this survey were nurses who had spent 50% of their time in general units in the hospital within the last three months. The researcher also established measures to ensure reliability of the data collected (Ma & Sharks, 2015, p.566).

Data analysis of the collected data was analyzed using t tests to compare the nurse work environments, staffing levels, HAPU rates and the RN skill mix of the NDQI member hospitals.  Three multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate the effect of nurse work environment and healthcare facilities management of HAPU. The data analysis used is appropriate for this nature of the study as it provides conclusive comparative analysis (Ma & Sharks, 2015, p.568).

 Findings and their relevance to contemporary nursing policy and practice

 The study findings indicate that improving working environments both at hospital level and unit level results to lower HAPU rates. The data findings presentation in this article  is concise and appropriately used non-textual elements such as table summaries and figures to present data findings effectively.  The data provided is critical in answering the research question. For instance, Magnet hospital units had 21% low odds of having HAPU as compared to the non-magnet hospital.  

There are several limitations noted in this study. To start with, participation of hospitals in NDNQI is voluntary, which indicates overrepresentation or underrepresentation of hospitals with certain characteristics. Secondly, the study omitted some specific information such as ethnicity, socioeconomic status and other co-morbidities that could introduce residual confounding effects. In addition, patient level information in most of quality indicators is limited.

Despite the limitations, the study findings are consistent with the previous studies that better nurse work environments is associated with lower hospital acquired pressure ulcers, lower readmission rated and a higher overall rating.  The nursing implication of this study is that it improves the understanding of work environments in relation to patient’s outcomes (Guihan et al., 2016, Matsuo, Oie, & Furukawa, 2013).

The quality of care is influenced by the nurse work environment characteristics such as the administrative support, nurse-physician relations and nurse resource adequacy.  Effective nurse work environments are established through better communication, team work between the healthcare providers and higher autonomy/practice control.

Nurses in such types of environments are less likely to suffer from burnout or express intent to quit their jobs, but are likely to function efficiently, deliver superior quality of care that ultimately improves patient’s overall outcome (Demarre et al., 2014, p. 392; Singh et al., 2015, p.7; Neilson et al., 2014, p. 21).

Conclusion

Critical appraisal is important process as if facilitates a thorough understanding of the research study in order to establish the study strengths and weaknesses and to evaluate the quality, and if the study’s strength is effective and appropriate for its use in the reader’s practice. This study generates new ideas that will help improve the quality of care and patient safety and quality of care in nursing practice. The study findings in this study facilitate the understanding the link between organizational environments and the patient outcomes. This study highlights the effectiveness of unit-specific quality improvement initiatives in today’s highly specialized care.

References

Buttaro, T. M., Trybulski, J., Polgar Bailey, P., & Sandberg-Cook, J. (2013). Primary care: A collaborative practice (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Cai, S., Rahman, M., & Intrator, O. (2013). Obesity and Pressure Ulcers Among Nursing Home Residents. Medical Care, 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/mlr.0b013e3182881cb0

Creswell, J. W. (2014). A concise introduction to mixed methods research. Sage Publications.

Demarre, L., Verhaeghe, S., Van Hecke, A., Clays, E., Grypdonck, M., & Beeckman, D. (2014). Factors predicting the development of pressure ulcers in an at-risk population who receive standardized preventive care: secondary analyses of a multicentre randomised controlled trial. J Adv Nurs, 71(2), 391-403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jan.12497

Guihan, M., Murphy, D., Rogers, T., Parachuri, R., SAE Richardson, M., Lee, K., & Bates-Jensen, B. (2016). Documentation of preventive care for pressure ulcers initiated during annual evaluations in SCI. The Journal Of Spinal Cord Medicine, 160204031040002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10790268.2015.1114225

Jaul, E. (2014). Multidisciplinary and comprehensive approaches to optimal management of chronic pressure ulcers in the elderly. Chronic Wound Care Management And Research, 3. http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/cwcmr.s44809

Matsuo, M., Oie, S., & Furukawa, H. (2013). Contamination of blood pressure cuffs by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and preventive measures. Irish Journal Of Medical Science, 182(4), 707-709. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11845-013-0961-7

Ma, C., & Park, S. H. (2015). Hospital Magnet status, unit work environment, and pressure ulcers. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 47(6), 565-573. 

Melnyk, B., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2014).Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare: A guide to best practice, 3rd Edition. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Neilson, J., Avital, L., Willock, J., & Broad, N. (2014). Using a national guideline to prevent and manage pressure ulcers. Nursing Management – UK, 21(2), 18-21

Richardson-Tench, M., Taylor, B., Kermode, S., & Roberts, K. (2014). Research in nursing: Evidence for best practice (5th ed.). Cengage Learning Australia: South Melbourne.

Singh, R., Dhayal, R., Sehgal, P., & Rohilla, R. (2015). To Evaluate Antimicrobial Properties of Platelet Rich Plasma and Source of Colonization in Pressure Ulcers in Spinal Injury Patients. Ulcers, 2015, 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/749585

Stafford, A., & Brower, J. (2012). Letʼs get comfortable. Nursing Management (Springhouse), 43(9), 10-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.numa.0000418777.69056.f7

Suttipong, C., & Sindhu, S. (2011). Predicting factors of pressure ulcers in older Thai stroke patients living in urban communities. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 21(3-4), 372-379. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2011.03889.x

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