Overhearing and Eavesdropping: Communications Essay

Overhearing and Eavesdropping
Overhearing and Eavesdropping

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Overhearing and Eavesdropping

According to research, overhearing a one-sided conversation is more annoying than eavesdropping (Bianca 2011). It’s even more annoying because you cannot avoid overhearing the conversation. The loud talks about one’s private life or how they behaved in a party are annoying. While I was in a restaurant taking a quiet lunch, a woman across the table made a call that was quite inappropriate.

She seemed to have been talking to her husband about their vacation and talked to him as if she was alone in the restaurant. She was loud and as she gave details about the requirements for the vacation one couldn’t help but overhear. She talked the entire time I was in the restaurant and the fact that everyone else was quite made it impossible to overhear her.

Overhearing one side of a conversation becomes uncertain and unpredictable making one’s brain get drawn to it to fill the other parts even when someone was not eavesdropping. According to Bianca (2011), though cell phones are making people rude, it doesn’t have to be that way. Top three phone etiquettes include lowering the voice while making calls in public, not being personal when there are other people present, and not taking calls while a person is already engaged in a face to face conversation.

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Cell phones can be so distracting if not used in a proper manner. With everyone now owning a cell phone, one becomes a party to unwanted conversations often. Otherwise, cell phones don’t have to be a bridging gap between people.

To avoid distractions and annoying others, it is advisable to lower one’s voice while in public, avoiding private discussions if there are other people near, and asking for permission from people close if you have to take a call when having a face to face conversation with others.


Bianca Bosker (2011). Cell Phone Etiquette: 15 Rules to Follow. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/03/26/cell-phone-etiquette-15-r_n_514927.html

Wood, J.T (2014). Communication Mosaics: An Introduction to the Field of Communication. Published by Wordsworth, Cengage Learning.

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Conflict Communication Strategies

Conflict Communication Strategies
Conflict Communication Strategies

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Conflict Communication Strategies

1.    lose-lose attitude is a perception towards conflict that assumes nobody can win from engaging in a conflict such that those engaged in a conflict must lose: for example, a deteriorated romantic relationship. A win-lose attitude towards conflict assumes that when two people are engaged in a conflict, one must sacrifice to lose for other or one person must win at the expense of another, an example is in a family dispute or affair.

On the other hand, a win-win attitude towards conflict has the assumption that benefits can be derived from a conflict, and it’s possible to reach to a consensus that satisfies everyone that’s involved in the conflict; an example is in a group or a team.

2.    Grace is an act of unexpected favor and forgiveness. When one is gracious, they forego their personal needs for another person. The act of grace is not compulsory, and a person forgives someone even when it’s not expected. Grace should be exercised with care. The other person must be sincerely apologetic for grace to be granted. Grace is appropriate for family and friendship relationships but not appropriate when a person is a danger to others or for extremists.

3.    Communication climate comprises of the overall feelings and emotional moods between people. Healthy communication climates can be created and sustained through task communication such as analyzing information and ideas, procedural communication such as ordering ideas, and climate communication, for example, engagement

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4.    Conflict arises when people that depend on each other have different opinions and interests. Conflict can be constructive or destructive. One of the benefits of conflict is that it brings understanding between people in a relation. When people differ in opinions, it creates an understanding of their culture and desires. Also, conflict brings people closer when they participate in the constructive conflict.  Conflict is a confirmation of loyalty when someone remains committed to the relationship despite the differences.

Chapter 8

1.    Culture is the understanding, beliefs, and means of interpreting experiences shared by people in a community or a relationship. Communication and culture are related in that some forms of communication are a response to culture, example, and low-context communication style. Also, the level of communication one uses defines the type of culture such as individualistic culture, and thirdly, the type and level of language a person uses represent cultural diversity, for example, multilingual.

2.    The five responses to cultural diversity are respect, understanding, participation, tolerance, and resistance. One may value other’s culture and ways of doing things, accept that no tradition is better than the other, get involved in cultural activities of another group, accept differences, or attack other people’s culture.

3.    Processes of adapting communication to different cultures include listening, assimilation, interpretation, and assimilation.

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Chapter 9

1.    Particular others are certain people that are important to a person and influence self’s values and esteem. Generalized others is a perception an individual has towards the rules, roles, and attitudes set up by one’s culture and community. Particular others shape one’s confidence and values while the generalized others define the way a person carries on their life in public. Particular others and generalized others create an individual’s norms, values and approach to life hence creating one’s sense of identity. A person values particular others but still conforms to the generalized other’s culture.

2.    Egocentric communication is a form of communication that calls attention to oneself. The endorsement is accepting one’s thoughts while acknowledgment is hearing another’s expressed feelings. Egocentric helps one gain confidence while endorsement gives power when one is communicating with a group. Egocentric and endorsement lead to acknowledgment which accepts others opinions and, therefore, making a person be an effective communicator.

3.    The social comparison involves comparing oneself with others to make judgments about one’s talents and abilities. Reflected appraisal is the definition and image that others give to us. Social comparison is done by oneself while reflected appraisal is judgment formed by others about us.

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Chapter 10

1.    Relationship dialects are tension that arises between people that are in opposition. Tension is either novelty or open. An example of Novelty tension is the desire to explore new things while an example of open tension is the desire to share private thoughts.

2.    Escalation of a relationship goes through three stages: one, intrapsychic processes which involves talking about not being satisfied with the partner, two, dyadic process where problems are discussed, three, grave dressing process where partners see no value in the relationship, then resurrection where partners take different paths and reforms without involving the other in their life.

3.    A romantic relationship undergoes three processes before it’s formed: passion, for example having a strong feeling towards another, relationship culture such as rules set for the relationship, then commitment, for example, contract or marriage.

4.    Pragma, ludus, and mania are some of the styles of loving. Pragma is discriminatory. I practice pragma such that I love people by offering finances because they are poor. Ludus is sassy for example, love towards a child. Mania is insecure and obsessive for example, the love I have for my best friend and lover.

5.    Communication is one of the major challenges of long distance relationship. It is hard to express one’s feelings, and it’s normally insecure when a partner is not near. To cope and sustain the relationship, couples should communicate daily over the phone and use video chatting methods. Also, couples should learn to listen and mind the other’s feelings.

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Chapter 11

1.    A group consists of more than two people who share same goals but are independent. A team consists of people with similar resources and has the same sense of identity as they try to fulfill a certain mission. A team and a group are similar in that members have similar goals. However, in a group people are independent while in a team people are dependent.

2.    Kinds of groups that are found in businesses and civil life include formal groups, informal groups, secondary groups, and primary groups. Primary group example is a departmental association; the secondary group is a project team, the informal group is a social affiliation, and example of a formal group is a management group.

3.    Working in groups is healthy as more ideas are generated than in an individual group. However, it takes the time to process work while in a group than in individualized project. Group work is more efficient as it leads to cohesion and cultural diversification.

4.    Climate communication, egocentric communication, task communication, and procedural communication are some of the communication methods involved in group communication. Egocentric is self-centered and brings conflicts in a group, task communication helps in idea generation, procedural communication assists in establishing a process of change, and climate communication help in creating a conducive atmosphere.

5.    Stages of standard agenda are idea generation, critic, dialogue, defense, analysis, then making the final decision. It is good to allow critics and discussion to help in coming up with the best alternative decision.

6.    Stages of nominal group technique are an introduction, generation of ideas, sharing of ideas, discussion, and voting. In deciding method to use for advertising, marketer introduces the idea, members give opinions, ideas are shared and discussed then voting takes place to take the best method.

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Chapter 12

1.    Rites are planned activities that are intended to bring a group of people together. Ritual is a recurring communication technique that is perceived by organization members to contain some set values.

2.    U.S workers during industrial revolution did not have the motivation to work as they only observed rituals as set by colonialists to avoid punishments. In today’s society, workers are represented by unions hence; their needs are considered and have the motivation to work.

3.    Major communication challenges faced by organizations today are unclear expectations, distance barrier between departmental units, and employees not trusting each other. Senior employees have conflicting interests with juniors and exercise their power excessively causing conflicts. The worst challenge is conflicting interest since it causes tension and lack of concentration by employees.


Asma Zaine (2016). Barriers to effective communication in organizations. Retrieved from http://www.hardywriters.com/member/view-order/?order_id=669022.17

Britannica (2015). Revolution of industrial unions. Retrieved from www.britannica.com/…/Revolution-and-the-gro.

julia Wood (2014). Communication Mosaics: An Introduction to the field of communication. Published by Cengage Learning.

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Models used in Decision Making

Models used in Decision Making
Models used in Decision Making

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Models used in Decision Making


This paper intends to examine models used in decision making. Models of decision making are terms used to refer to processes employed when formulating conclusions about decisions that an organization should follow through and the available alternatives to decisions. To achieve examination, the paper will look at organizational structures, which are viewed as vibrant.

Models used in decision-making

There are a number of models used in decision making within different organizations. However, this paper will focus on two models. Furthermore, the spotlight will be on the ability of two models in supporting the needs of IT in a business. The first model is rational-actor model, while the second model is organizational-process model. A rational-actor model is used when explaining decisions taken by large organizations which are centrally controlled (Kuwashima, 2014). The assumption of the model is that there is rationality in the business institution being considered (Courtney, 2013). Moreover, the model is used to show consistency within an organization and value maximization of specific constraints.

Therefore, the model shows how an organization makes rational choices. On the other hand, organizational-process model is used in examining the activities carried out by all departments of an organization. Moreover, organization-process model considers all activities an organization is involved in, as output from combined subsystems (Kuwashima, 2014). In a business there is a number of IT needs to be met.  Among the needs are email communication, software for accounting, storage of files, a system for telephone communication, a reliable internet connection, as well as, a system to be used by the support team.

Consequently, a rational-actor model may not efficiently support the needs of IT in a business. Notably, rational-actor model views actions taken by an organization, as influenced by choices made by a universal rational maker of decisions (Kuwashima, 2014). The assumption by rational-actor model fails to consider that, organizations are always made of subsystems which are loosely connected. In addition, all subsystems within an organization act independently.

However, an organizational-process model may competently support the needs of IT in a business. Notably, an organizational-process model considers operations which are routinely carried out within subsystems of an organization (Kuwashima, 2014). Moreover, organizational-process model looks at the interaction between all subsystems of an organization. An organizational-process model is, therefore, more capable of making appropriate decisions on the needs of IT in a business, compared to rational-actor model (Boulesnane, & Bouzidi, 2013).

Hire-Jordan-Smith model for making decisions

I work for an organization known as Hire-Jordan Smith. At Hire-Jordan-Smith the model of making decisions used is an organizational process. The process is initiated by, the use of strategic management. Every level of organization of Hire-Jordan-Smith has a separate operations system, which is aimed at enhancing the integrity and improving communication. All operations systems have their assigned goals, which are used in the evaluation of performance (Boulesnane, & Bouzidi, 2013). At all operations systems within Hire-Jordan-Smith are managers along with supervisors. Using trust and integrity managers along with supervisors make crucial decisions within their assigned operations systems. One of the operation systems of Hire-Jordan-Smith is IT (Huang & Hutchinson, 2013).

Hire-Jordan-Smith supports its needs for business by having managers along with supervisors being responsible for differentiated operations systems in different ways.  First, there is efficiency in system functionality. Communication flows well while all systems are able to integrate. Secondly, knowledge processes can be traced. Division of work enables employees to specialize and gain experience hence becomes more productive (Boulesnane, & Bouzidi, 2013).

Thirdly, there is more satisfaction of stakeholders such as suppliers of Hire-Jordan-Smith products, customers, as well as, employees and team of management. Fourth, the cost incurred by Hire-Jordan-Smith is lower. The cost that would be expected to be incurred to train employees to work in all systems is reduced with specialization.

Moreover, Hire-Jordan-Smith gets a competitive advantage globally from the use of separate operations system. First, there is efficiency in the management of relationships held with customers. It is easier for Hire-Jordan-Smith to understand its customers’ behavior. Secondly, the chain of supply of Hire-Jordan-Smith is proficiently managed. Thirdly, Hire-Jordan-Smith keeps a portal system which helps in educating and communicating with employees and customers. Fourth, due to the sufficiency of information from both customers of Hire-Jordan-Smith and its employees, it becomes easy for the management team in collaboration with supervisors to make reliable and productive decisions.

Theories of organizational structures

There are a number of theories developed for vibrant organizational structures. Two among the theories are systems theory and contingency theory (Sun, & Jeyaraj, 2013). For most IT organizations, systems theory is used to describe how various parts or divisions within an organization are interrelated.  However, systems theory is also used to manage any form of change experienced by the organization (Cricelli, Grimaldi, & Hanandi, 2014).

In systems theory, any change experienced by one department of the organization leads to changes within other departments of the organization. Notably, different systems of IT organizations are not sometimes linearly integrated. Therefore, if one part experiences a small change, then another part may be affected by large changes (Cricelli, Grimaldi, & Hanandi, 2014). In most cases, IT organizations experience changes in equilibrium due to the adaptation of the organizations to changes in the environment.

On the other hand, IT organizations may choose to employ contingency theory to manage changes within the organization. Contingency theory mainly addresses effective management of conflicts experienced by an organization (Conaldi, Lomi, & Tonellato, 2012). Through the use of software, organizations are able to address issues raised by changes from the environment. Effective adaptation and change depend on management’s team ability to come up with contingent decisions when the organization is facing changes.

Vibrant Organizational structure of Hire-Jordan Smith

At Hire-Jordan-Smith, the structure of the organization is divided into eight parts. The first division is the general manager. Parts two and three are the first project manager, along with, the second project manager (Boulesnane, & Bouzidi, 2013). Part four refers to research and development team. Part five refers to the quality control team. Part six, on the other hand, is made up of the engineering team.

Part seven refers to the analysis team. The last part refers to the marketing team. Integration and cooperation of the eight teams lead to constant growth and profit generation of Hire-Jordan Smith. In a situation where changes are experienced in technology, two project managers are responsible for initiating projects to be used in developing up to date technology within Hire-Jordan Smith.

The general manager is responsible for approving any projects presented by either of the two project managers. The research and development team is mandated with carrying out informed and updated research on how to improve the existing technology of Hire-Jordan Smith. The quality control team checks whether the product presented for sale by the research team meets all the standards of Hire-Jordan Smith. After approval by the quality control team, the engineering team starts developing the proposed product (Boulesnane, & Bouzidi, 2013).

The analysis team then examines the product presented to them by the engineering team after development. One’s the product is analyzed fully, the marketing team introduces the product in the market, and pushes its sales through different methods of advertising.

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Connection between Models used in decision making and Vibrant Organizational structures

Models used in decision making have a close relationship with vibrant organizational structures. For instance, the organizational-process model is employed in investigating actions taken by the entire organization (van der Meer, Kurth-Nelson, & Redish, 2012). On the other hand, vibrant organizational structures are divided into different parts all aimed at achieving the same goal (Huang & Hutchinson, 2013). All parts, however, are given different roles. Notably, changes in an organization influence, the choice made for a model to be used in decision-making.

For instance, changes in the type of technology used in an organization may result in a change of choice of method to be used in decision-making by an organization, from a rational-actor model to an organizational-process model. Such a change may be necessary due to considerations made by the organizational-process model, on routine services carried out within an organization.

However, an appropriate combination of models used in decision making, with vibrant organizational structures positively impacts on an organization’s competitive advantage within the global market. Having an appropriate combination enables evaluation of the level of satisfaction for all stakeholders (Kuwashima, 2014). In addition, the functionality of the organization’s system is improved with a high reduction of cost.

For instance, at Hire-Jordan Smith, the structure of the organization is divided into eight parts. All the eight parts have different roles but rely on each other. The model used by Hire-Jordan-Smith is in most cases, the organizational-process model (Kuwashima, 2014). Whenever Hire-Jordan-Smith wants to launch any product or software an analysis of all the parts and the roles they will be involved in is made. Consequently, costs of production are reduced and communication improved, which boosts sales of any newly introduced Hire-Jordan-Smith product.


Through an examination of a rational-actor model, and the organizational-process model, this essay has shown that a rational-actor model explains decisions made by organizations, while the organizational-process model examines all process that is run within an organization. To analyze the process of making decisions the paper has looked at the case of Hire-Jordan Smith. It has come out clearly that, the models used in decision making are closely related to vibrant organizational structures. They both define connections maintained within organizations as they run their activities.


Boulesnane, S. & Bouzidi, L. (2013). The mediating role of information technology in the decision‐making context. Journal Of Ent Info Management, 26(4), 387-399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/jeim-01-2012-0001

Cricelli, L., Grimaldi, M., & Hanandi, M. (2014). Decision making in choosing information systems. VINE, 44(2), 162-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/vine-04-2013-0022

Conaldi, G., Lomi, A., & Tonellato, M. (2012). Dynamic Models of Affiliation and the Network Structure of Problem Solving in an Open Source Software Project. Organizational Research Methods, 15(3), 385-412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1094428111430541       

Courtney, M. (2013). When worlds combine [information technology]. Engineering & Technology, 8(5), 80-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/et.2013.0513

Huang, Y. & Hutchinson, J. (2013). The roles of planning, learning, and mental models in repeated dynamic decision making. Organizational Behavior And Human Decision Processes, 122(2), 163-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2013.07.001

Kuwashima, K. (2014). How to Use Models of Organizational Decision Making?. ABAS, 13(4), 215-230. http://dx.doi.org/10.7880/abas.13.215

Sun, Y. & Jeyaraj, A. (2013). Information technology adoption and continuance: A longitudinal study of individuals’ behavioral intentions. Information & Management, 50(7), 457-465. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2013.07.005

Van der Meer, M., Kurth-Nelson, Z., & Redish, A. (2012). Information Processing in Decision-Making Systems. The Neuroscientist, 18(4), 342-359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073858411435128

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Organizational Communication System

Organizational Communication System
Organizational Communication System

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Organizational Communication System


            It is important to note that the organizational change is one of the most crucial aspects of an organization that should be taken seriously. This is due to the fact that many different issues, which may hinder the development of an organization, may appear or continue being manifested in a different department within an organization (Hunter, & Perkins, 2012). As a result, it has become extremely important coming up with significant strategies that can try to improve the overall process of service delivery within the organizational setup.

One of the sectors that have continued being marred by different levels of organizational challenges is the health sector. As a result, it has to keep on devising important strategies that can help to improve not only the general image but also the level of service delivery. Therefore, this paper is set to determine some of the important strategies that can be applied in order to improve the level of organizational communication within any heath sector’s settings.

The Communication System and its Challenges within the Health Care Sector

            The health care sector is one of the most important areas as when it comes to the process of defining the process of communication. This is due to the fact that communication process is considered done of the most important factor when it comes to enhancing the level of service delivery within the3 sector. The nurses are supposed to have powerful interpersonal communication skills within themselves in order to strengthen their level of taking care of their patients. This is considered highly important, especially when it comes to the process of defining the safety of the patients.

In short, the nurses are supposed to keep a proper communication system not only between themselves but also with their patients (Hunter, & Perkins, 2012). The move will help to ensure they are able to take care of the needs of their patents. They should be in constant improvement of the knowledge they can use to handle the challenges their patients experience throughout the whole health care process.

At this juncture, they should make sure they have established a solid system that can enhance the process of service delivery (Press et al., 2015). In short, the communication  process within  the health care system has provided the appropriate guidelines for the health care practitioners, as well as the rest of the nurses to devise the appropriate ways that can improve the planning, as well as the implementation of the appropriate changes while at the same time improving the coordination process. In the long run, the implementation of the appropriate changes, in the nursing and the health care facilities’ communication system, will help to bring out the positive changes that are required to improve the level of service delivery.

How the appropriate implementation of the communication system can help to improve the level of service delivery within the nursing system

            First, it is imperative understanding that the implementation of the effective communication system within the health care set up can help to improve it in multifaceted ways. For instance, it can help to improve the achievement of the health care’s organizational goals such as having the appropriate way that can be used to improve the process of achieving the mission, vision, and the overall objectives set by the health care. In short, the interpersonal nursing communication can be deemed one of the most effective methods that can help the team of nurses to devise some of the most appropriate strategies that can help to improve their coordination process.

Briefly, it makes them feel not only energized, but also organizes the process of communication by making sure that they have come up with a proper of effective paper work system that can be followed to the latter. Having a proper communication system not only makes the nurses to be responsible professions, but also more cautious when they are dealing with their patients and also with other relevant parties they might interact with when they are delivering their mandated health care roles.

However, one of the important things worth noting is that the nursing system has lacked a proper system that defines the overall process that can be used to improve the communication system (Lyngstad, & HellesØ, 2014). It is beyond reasonable doubt that the nursing system is one of the most important sectors that requires the adequate application of the appropriate approaches that can help to improve the level of the communication system among the parties involved (Press et al., 2015). The appropriate steps that can be used to improve the overall communication in any health care facility is discussed in the section below.

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The appropriate mechanisms that can be used to improve the health care communication system

            The communication system within the healthcare set up can be improved using multifaceted ways. First, the professional body should come up with appropriate plans that can bring positive organizational changes within the health care set up (Lukasiewicz, 2015). For instance, they should make sure the complex system that patients are supposed to follow is properly explained or expounded in order to reduce the level of ambiguity that might be involved (Weigand, 2012).

This is due to the fact that the nurses and other health care practitioners might be compelled to make regular changes in the manner they deliver their services to the patients. For examples, the school nurses will need to evaluate the manner in which they communicate with the students in order to avoid or minimize any information delivery mismatch.

            The nurses are also supposed to create an effective rapport of communication with the professions with the public health sector (Lyngstad, & HellesØ, 2014). In fact, the proper implementation of such important changes will not only improve the level of their awareness of the sources of deadly illnesses, but also helps them improve the way they can handle different health cases (Hunter, & Perkins, 2012).

            The nurses are also supposed to create a good communication system with the physicians. This is due to the fact that the move can help to improve the overall process of delivering quality health care services to the target patients’ ones they are discharged from the hospital (Lukasiewicz, 2015). Furthermore, they can be able to carry out proper monitoring and measurement of the long run outcomes of such patients.

            The nurses are also supposed to have a proper interpersonal communication within their working environment (Rowe, & Hogarth, 2005). As a result, they are able to detect most of the changes as they occur, thus, enabling them to devices some of the most appropriate and suitable changes they should apply in order to keep on improving the level of health care service delivery.


Hunter, D., & Perkins, N. (2012). Partnership working in public health: the implications for governance of a systems approach. Journal Of Health Services Research & Policy17(s2), 45-52 8p. doi:10.1258/jhsrp.2012.011127

Lukasiewicz, M. (2015). Improving organization and communication in your home health practice. OT Practice, 20(4), 11-13. Retrieved from http://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1660768995?accountid=14872

Lyngstad, M., & HellesØ, R. (2014). Electronic Communication Experiences of Home Health Care Nurses and General Practitioners: a Cross-sectional Study. Studies In Health Technology & Informatics201388-394 7p. doi:10.3233/978-1-61499-415-2-388

Press, M. J., Gerber, L. M., Peng, T. R., Pesko, M. F., Feldman, P. H., Ouchida, K., & … Casalino, L. P. (2015). Postdischarge Communication Between Home Health Nurses and Physicians: Measurement, Quality, and Outcomes. Journal Of The American Geriatrics Society63(7), 1299-1305 7p. doi:10.1111/jgs.13491

Rowe, A., & Hogarth, A. (2005). Use of complex adaptive systems metaphor to achieve professional and organizational change. Journal Of Advanced Nursing51(4), 396-405 10p. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2005.03510.x

Weigand, M. L. (2012). Nurse-to-Nurse Communication in Home Health. Pennsylvania Nurse67(3), 19-22 4p.

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Improper Communication System in the Nursing System

Communication System in the Nursing System
Communication System in the Nursing System

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Improper Communication System in the Nursing System

The Problem Identification

            The use and implementation of proper and effective communication channels is one of the major issues that have been presenting a lot of headache to the nursing community in the US. In fact, this is considered to be one of the major issues that has ended up affecting the level and efficiency of the health services delivery (Kourkouta & Papathaniasiou, 2014).

The lack of proper communication system between the nurses, between nurses and other health care professionals, and between the nurses and the patients is one of the major issues that has affected the quality of the healthcare services offered in various United States hospitals. As such, the identification of this gap is one of the most important aspect that requires the adequate application of the necessary interventions remedies in order to improve the level of service delivery.

Detailed Description of the Proper Lack of Communication within the Nursing System

            The enactment of effective policies that can be used to improve the communication system within the nursing communication is one of the most important issues, which is lacking. This is a very important issue as it has culminated to the ineffectiveness in depiction of the patient-centered delivery of the health care services. In short, the nursing community lacks a proper mechanism that can be used to promote the effectiveness on the delivery of the health care services.

Both the pre-services, as well as in-service training of the nurses do not put more emphasis on the need to develop a proper communication system. Furthermore, the nursing community does not also give a lot of emphasis when it comes to the portrayal of the importance of the developing proper communication system during their on-going trainings. Despite the United States devising some necessary measures that can be used to improve the provider-patient communication system, more improvements have to be carried out.

For instance, the nursing body in charge of taking care of the patients and those in charge of providing necessary training to the students should come up with a more harmonized way of communication (Kourkouta & Papathaniasiou, 2014). The majority of the “sentinel events” have occurred as a result of the lack of enactment of the proper communication.

Some of the inefficiencies that have occurred in the health care set up include issues such as the development of the medical errors, lack of adequate or effective treatments, and the arising of some unnecessary costs. Therefore, the development of such inefficiencies is enough reason to call for the initiation of the necessary intervention measures in order to correct them.

The Impact of the Lack of Proper Communication to the Nursing Working Environment and Patients

            The lack of proper and effective communication in then nursing system can considered to the main reason there has been disparity in the delivery of the target and improved health care services to the patients. First, the issue has led to the creation of inefficiencies when it comes to the development of proper services in taking care of the bio-psychological needs of the patients. This is due to the fact that different nursing bodies are not able to coordinate in the right or proper manner.

Secondly, the lack of proper communication has led to the ineffectiveness in the passing of important information from the nurses to the patients. It is imperative noting that the proper use of the oral communication is considered one of the most important aspects as it may led to the general well-being of the patients (Kourkouta & Papathaniasiou, 2014). As a result, the move may serve to exacerbate the health condition of the patients. The nurses are not able to expression an understanding to their needs, express their sincerity towards serving the patients, and kindness, among other important nursing elements.

In short, the lack of proper and effective communication between the patients and the team of nurses may improve fear and uncertainty among the patients. Furthermore, the strained interpersonal communication between the nurses is also considered another important issues that can affect the level of service delivery. When the team of nurses lack proper ways of communicating between themselves, they end up not delivering quality service to the latter (Kourkouta & Papathaniasiou, 2014). For instance, they may pass contradicting information of the patients, a condition that may undermine their overall safety.

The Significance of the Development of Improper Communication to the Nursing Profession

            The nursing profession is one of the most delicate sector in the health care system. Therefore, any slight mismatch in the relaying of the necessary information has been identified to have adverse effects towards the delivery of effective health care services. For instance, the use of ineffective ways of communication has affected the passing of information has affected the relaying of important information  to the different peoples and health professionals workers considered important during the delivery of the health care services (Kourkouta & Papathaniasiou, 2014).

Apart from that, there is lack of proper coordination between the superior health workers and the co-workers in the nursing sector. It is also highly difficult devising a proper procedure that the families, as well as the friends of the patients can make up the necessary follow ups of the health conditions (Unluturk et al., 2015). In short, the lack of proper communication has been thought to be the major causative agents of major ailing issues such as the endangering of the lives of the patients while at the same time not being able to being able to meet their needs (Liu, Manias & Gerdtz 2012).   

It is imperative noting that the patients may grow impatient whenever nurses do not develop efficient concerning over their nature (Kourkouta & Papathaniasiou, 2014). This a condition that is only worsened by the presence of the improper communication. As a result the issue may lead to the development of improper healing curve, which make the patients to have a prolonged stay at any health care facility.

On other hand, the lack of proper communication channel between the co-workers is considered to be highly detrimental towards improving the nursing services. When the team of nurses are not able to keep a proper communication channels, they may end up bringing confusion in different health care matters (Kourkouta & Papathaniasiou, 2014).

For instance, the nurses on duty may end up administering the wrong type of medicine to the patients, important files may end up being displaced, thus, losing important information, and there may be wrong scheduling of important health care matters (Liu, Manias & Gerdtz 2012). Therefore, the development of such matters acts as an important factor that should be used to devise the manner in which the different issues should be managed.

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The Enactment of the Appropriate Solution That Can Be Used To Mitigate the Above Mentioned Problem

            The nursing community can set appropriate strategies that can be used to improve the overall communication process within the health care system. First, the nurses should not only strive to improve their interpersonal communication but also the communication between their communication with the patients, as well as other physicians (Lombardo, 2013). Here, the move will help to ease the pressure that might be existing between the three bodies.

The patients’ emotions will be taken into consideration as there would be more improved state of reduced stress (Liu, Manias & Gerdtz 2012). Apart from that, improved communication system will also mitigate the cases of depiction of flawed assumptions while at the same time improving the satisfactory level of the patients (Kourkouta & Papathaniasiou, 2014). Moreover, the move will also improve the coordination process during the delivery of quality health care services.

Secondly, the nurses should also ensure there is prompt and timely delivery of necessary information to the patients. Such information may related to issues such as the necessary surgical procedures that should be used, as well as other necessary changes made within the medical or nursing filed (Chard, & Makary 2015). As a result, the proper implementation of such changes is considered highly imperative in trying to make sure that the patients feel confident and appreciate by the hospital’s management body (Bramhall, 2014).

Apart from that, the move will help to improve the nurse-patient interpersonal relationship, thus, facilitating the faster and proper identification of the major problems that might be affecting the patients. This will help the nurse to monitor and diagnose any occurrence of ill health.

            The nurses should also make sure they have developed a proper communication channel with the doctors and other important physicians. In fact, this is considered one of the most important procedure that can help to open up proper communication procedures while at the same time making sure the health care services provided are of high quality.

It is worth noting that for the doctors and other important health care practitioners to intervene, the nurses must develop a proper communication channel that will help them gather sufficient information about the health condition of the patients (Kourkouta & Papathaniasiou, 2014). In most cases, the team of doctors depends on the information relayed to them by the nurses of duty in order to give the appropriate medication procedures (Kourkouta & Papathaniasiou, 2014).

Apart from that, the nurses must also develop a proper communication procedure with the friends and families of the patients. In fact, the proper implementation of such an important move not only helps to identify the necessary history of the patients but also facilitates immensely in the development of a positive relationship with the patients (Chard, & Makary 2015). The showing of concerns to the relatives and friends of the affected families will not only give rise to the development of immense trust between the patients and the nurses but also make the patients feel comfortable and at home.

The Development of a PICO Question/Statement concerning the Matter

            Does the development of a positive communication in the health care system between the nursing community, physicians, relatives, and the patients lead to the improvement of the health care services delivery compared to the situation where the nurses and other health care practitioners operates with limitation communication?

Therefore, the use of such PICO questions is highly important as it acts as a mind provoking facet that can lead to the identification of the problems and the development of the necessary intervention measures.

Rapid Appraisal of the Main Journal Article Used

(Kourkouta, and Papathaniasiou 2014)

            The article states that the lack of the proper interpersonal communication between the nurses and other important parties has led to the strained relationship in the delivery of quality health care services. The articles has also pointed out how strained communication system can incorrect passing of information between the nurses and the patients, thus, affecting the quality of health care services.  As a result, it proposes for the application of the appropriate changes such as the development of a good interpersonal communication between the nurses, physicians, friends and families, and the patients.


Bramhall, E. (2014). Effective communication skills in nursing practice. Nursing Standard, 29(14), 53-59.

Chard, R., & Makary, M. A. (2015). Transfer-of-Care Communication: Nursing Best Practices. AORN Journal, 102(4), 329-342.

Kourkouta, L., and Papathaniasiou, I. (2014). Communication in Nursing Practice, Journal of the Academy of Medical Science, 26(1), 65-67.

Liu, W., Manias, E., & Gerdtz, M. (2012). Medication communication between nurses and patients during nursing handovers on medical wards: A critical ethnographic study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49(8), 941-952.

Lombardo, C. A. (2013). Nursing’s Role in Achieving Excellence in Care Delivery Across the Continuum of Health for New Mothers With Hypertension. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 42, S47.

Unluturk, M. S., Ozcanhan, M. H., & Dalkilic, G. (2015). Improving communication among nurses and patients. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 120(2), 102-112.

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