Interactions and definitions of isolation and loneliness

Interactions and definitions of isolation and loneliness
Interactions and definitions of isolation and loneliness

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Interactions and definitions of isolation and loneliness

Write an essay that compares and contrasts isolation and loneliness, defining both using multiple theories/theorists. It needs to relate how both affect people (especially in the workplace)

Some people use the words “isolation” and “loneliness” interchangeably, but this does not reflect the true meaning of each term. Isolation may lead to loneliness, and in some cases, loneliness may exacerbate isolation. Both have been found to occur with other mental health issues such as anxiety or depression.

Knowing how loneliness and isolation are distinct and related can help people who struggle with them best address and work through these issues. Here are a few things to know about handling loneliness and social isolation in your life.

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Cost Summary and Related Journal Entries: Business

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Cost summary
Cost summary

Cost Summary and Related Journal Entries: Business

Prepare a standard cost summary using a provided template, and then write a 1–2-page analysis of variances in a standard cost summary and how the variances could be corrected.

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:

  • Competency 1: Operate product-based cost accounting systems.
    • Apply procedures for recording standard costs to account for departmental factory costs.
    • Prepare journal entries related to standard costs.
  • Competency 4: Apply cost analysis to assist management decision making.
    • Analyze favorable and unfavorable variances for management decision making.
    • Analyze how variances can be corrected.

Cost Summary


All production costs, other than direct materials and direct labor, are lumped together into one category, termed overhead. In a manufacturing company, overhead is also known as factory burden, or manufacturing overhead. This cost category contains a wide variety of cost items. Many inputs, other than direct materials and direct labor, are needed to produce a finished product. Examples include:

  • Depreciation on buildings and equipment.
  • Maintenance.
  • Supplies.
  • Supervision.
  • Materials handling.
  • Power.
  • Landscaping of factory grounds.
  • Property taxes.
  • Plant security.

There are a number of procedures associated with the handling of overhead costs. They include:

  • Identification of each overhead cost’s behavior.
  • Determination of the budget for overhead costs.
  • Recording and tracking actual overhead costs.
  • Application of overhead estimates to actual production levels.
  • Analyzing budgeted and actual overhead costs for cost control.

Cost Summary

Questions to Consider

To deepen your understanding, you are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of the business community.

  • What is the difference between the standard cost and the actual cost of production?
  • Is it possible that a variance of one type might be partly or fully offset by another variance? Explain.


The following resources are required to complete the assessment.

  • Wild, J. J., Shaw, K. W., & Chiappetta, B. (2011). Financial and managerial accounting: Information for decisions (4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Assessment Instructions

For this assessment, complete the following two parts:

Part 1: Use the Assessment 4 Template (linked in the Resources) to prepare a standard cost summary and related journal entries, based on a scenario provided in the template.

Part 2: Read each statement below (a through h). Then, write a 1–2-page analysis identifying what might cause these variances in a standard cost summary for materials, labor, and factory overhead. In addition, analyze, from a manager’s perspective, how each variance could be corrected and explain why.

Cost Summary

  1. An unfavorable materials price variance.
  2. A favorable materials price variance.
  3. An unfavorable materials quantity variance.
  4. A favorable materials quantity variance.
  5. An unfavorable labor rate variance.
  6. A favorable labor rate variance.
  7. An unfavorable labor efficiency variance.
  8. A favorable labor efficiency variance.

Write your analysis in Microsoft Word. Use 12-point font, and double space. Follow APA style for citations and references.

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Ethics-based workplace culture
Ethics-based workplace culture

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Ethics-based Workplace Culture

Evaluate the efforts necessary to develop an ethics-based workplace culture in an organization. In this module, we’ll be looking at the efforts that go into a corporate ethics program and some of the difficulties faced by companies trying to implement such programs. Your readings from Terris’ book will look at some of the steps that Lockheed had to go through in the continued development and implementation of their ethics program. Terris states:Chapter 3 gives a detailed account of the various aspects of Lockheed Martin’s ethics program.

I treat the company’s code of ethics, the role of its corps of ethics officers, the nature of internal ethics investigations, efforts to “sell” ethics to the employee community, and innovative programs like the corporation’s annual “Ethics Film Festival.” I also describe how Lockheed Martin measures its own success in the ethics area, through a biennial survey, and the struggles of the ethics program to maintain credibility within a bottom-line environment. This chapter focuses on the strengths of Lockheed Martin’s ethics program, within the corporation’s own definition of the program’s mission (Terris, 2005. p. 48.)

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Our SLP article this module will also consider the efforts a company needs to put forth in establishing a workable ethics program, but will do so by examining the role of the individual in charge of organizational ethics at a large corporation. And though you may not ever be asked to serve as a Chief Ethics and Compliance Officer, it is good to contemplate the responsibilities of this position.

Unlike the titles CEO, CFO or COO, the Ethics Officer role is frequently not understood. Neither are some of the difficulties individuals face serving in that role. As a student of business ethics it is important to understand how organizational structure and leadership can help to facilitate a successful ethics effort within an organization.

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Use of household products for the purpose of getting high

Use of household products for the purpose of getting high
Use of household products for the purpose of getting high

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Use of household products for the purpose of getting high

According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, many common household products are used for the purpose of getting high, especially by children and adolescents. Many of these chemicals include gases used as propellants. Based on your opinion, should we ban these chemicals and only deal with organic types of cleaners like mild soaps, lemon juice, etc.?

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New market entry

New market entry
New market entry

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New market entry

Next plc is a leading British manufacturer and seller of products ranging from clothing, footwear, and other home products. Within the past years, it has realized a very big increase in sales. This is as a result of its massive marketing strategies. Despite this increase in profits, Next plc has not achieved an optimum returns scale. It still needs to come up with a strategy of expansion to increase its markets internationally so as to increase its sales. The main foster behind this is the increased competition from other manufacturers in the same line of business.

However, Next’s operations have faced challenges in the recent past, and it has faced criticism over alleges of breaking consumer protection regulations resulting from customer billings even if the products were returned a week earlier. This report seeks to analyze the market potential of Next plc including its adaptation to entry into international markets. It further identifies possible markets for expansion. As a result of the impressive results, Next plc has resorted to increasing its full prices and impress net sales gain compared to other companies embracing discounting. Its online sales have increased due to the brand and thus, trusted in UK fashion brands.

Macro factors affecting retail markets

The business has less impact itself on these factors and thus, a minimal impact when trying to change them. One of a key factor here affecting Next plc is consumer behavior. These include consumer cultures, lifestyles, norms, population changes and other demographic factors. Given that the company deals in the clothing business, it needs the company to create styles that are appealing to all different cultures.

Contrary to this, the manufacturer may ignore creating a fashion that existed let’s say 100 years ago. A growing population may also demand a different fashion compared to a young population (Fall Diallo, et’ al.,2013). Another macro factor is technology. Next anticipates reaching a large target population through online sales. Unavailability of resources and low demand and production is a derailing factor (Lusch et’ al., 2015).

There could be the scarcity of an essential material such as leather while their highs demand from a certain market. A competitor, for example, Primark clothing, can introduce a product thus shifting demand for the product thus reducing sales at Next plc. It is recommended that massive online marketing is carried out targeting customers.

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Legal and political factors can also impact sales in the retail market. These factors include worker’s rights and laws preventing child labor. The union members within the clothing industry may decide to picket their employers as the case of Primark. This may also affect Next plc. This negatively impacts production and thus a decline in sales. This causes negative publicity because employees may also choose to picket suppliers and customers.

Economic factors also affect the retail market (Russo et’ al.,2012).  They both may bring out positive or negative results. An example is during the economic boom where customers have much income at their disposal hence an increase in sales. However, recessions may bring a negative effect due to the low sales. Consumers normally choose to shop on cheap products and as for Next plc, it sales fashion clothes.

Micro factors affecting retail markets

These factors affect the business operations directly. One of a key factor here is the suppliers. Suppliers play a key role in the success of the business. Their supplies are useful in the production of a final product. Thus, they should be accorded the power to be the sole supplier to prevent counter supplies. A new market may lack certain supplies thus making penetration harder.

The resellers also play a key role in the market. Identifying an effective reseller brings a challenge to the new business (Russo et’ al.,2012). These can be intermediaries in the market and resellers who if their reputation is good, and their net sales will increase due to the good public image. Next plc is planning to expand its markets and achieving this can be facilitated by the use of mock-marketing where resellers are identified, and evaluation of net sales carried out.

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The customers determine the market strategies. International customers should not be treated the same way as local customers. Their reasons for buying Next’s products play a major role in marketing the products. The general public must be satisfied by the product. Any action of the company must be analyzed on how it might affect the public. These results from the fact that the public has the power in helping the company reach its goals. A satisfied public will assist in the marketing of a product (Lusch et’ al., 2015).

Because the targeted marketing strategy is online sales through the internet, the followers of the brand will share the strategy. The competitors are an internal factor impacting the retail market too. An example of the competitors is Primark Company. They sell similar products but have many outlet stores across the world. Therefore, the impact of price and product differentiation should be taken into account so as to outplay the competitors.

Effective market potential evaluation

When evaluating an effective market, several factors need to be put into consideration. One of the approaches used is an approach is to estimate demand in the market. This is normally based on the population size. This can be achieved by predicting the market potential by either population or their purchasing power (Hu, et’ al.,2015). However, a developing economy can change rapidly over time.

The understanding of these new markets requires learning the variation in the structure of the economy and its performance in the past. There could also be changes in the business environment. This can be approached comprehensively thus needed in making a meaningful assessment of the potential of a market now and in the future (Goworek, et’ al.,2012).

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It is recommended that various markets which include China, The United States, Italy, South Africa and Switzerland be considered for expansion. However, changes in recent economic structures should not have caused a tremendous impact on their economic performance (Schneider, et’ al.,2014, January). Spectrum approach to the study of policies can be used and the market opportunities available. Also, their market potential was evaluated describing the specific geographic areas to serve in. The market share revenue of these identified markets are seemingly high and thus expected returns are higher with a leading potential market identified.

Recommended markets

The United States market

The US advantage in per capita output, apparently in the recent years, can be attributed to its large domestic market. Despite the decline in mall traffic in the US clothing sector, it sets up a good market potential for entry. The US’s disposable income and consumer sentiment are increasingly on the rise hence driving in an increased for high-end products carried by international companies. The industry’s growth expectation is to increase in the next five years facilitated by the rise in high-income households. The current players in the market give less of discounts and have not invested much in online sales thus giving Next plc a great go-through.

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Furthermore, the cost of capital that is associated with establishing clothing stores is relatively low, and the only barrier that can reduce entry is brand awareness and competition. The challenge in the US market is that existing players have already established their brand names, and thus Next plc might need to invest their money and time to sway consumers into preceding other products and buying their products as per Odell, J. S. (2014).

The US marketing is cost effective because of the improved technology and thus, minimal time is wasted in marketing the new product. Next plc has a unique blend of fashions for children, women and men. This makes it easy to make shopping within one stall. It is proposed that Next plc opens a store in two states of America. These will act as the supply center to other sub stores and online orders.

There are very few legal requirements for the entry into US market and thus making it less costly for Next plc. The US has an extremely large population that creates a very large market for these goods. The unique blend of fashion from Next plc is sure to win the US market over a short period. It is therefore proposed that the US be chosen for expansion.


Despite the harsh climatic conditions of the economy in European countries, the United States, and Africa, China’s economy has been growing over the past few years. By the year 2020, China is expected to be the largest economy in the world. China has a large demography, increased consumer spending and rising incomes. Also, the business environment here is open thus making it attractive for investment. It is proposed that Next plc opens a branch in the main cities of China that are economic blocks.

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With a population that exceeds 1.3 billion people, it presents a good market for cloth, footwear, and household goods. Although China is a leading foreign seller, it mainly deals with machinery products and thus should not be viewed as a hard to enter the market. China’s consumers spend most of their incomes on food and clothing (Hu, et’ al.,2015). This brings in an opportunity to present the fashion by Next plc. China’s regulations do not limit the operation of a clothing business.

It, however, has regulations on industrial and mechanical practices. With the increased Chinese technology, Next’s online sales will be easily accessible. It is proposed that after an entry into the market, a massive online advertisement is carried out. The investment in tier towns of China will facilitate this.

The Chinese government is focused on rapid economic growth, and the presence of a gap in the clothing sector presents an opportunity to Next Plc to carry out business. The huge population will present a good market. It is proposed that a trial store is opened in one of the tier cities of China. The expansion plan will start from one of these cities before expanding the business to other parts of the country.

Justified market entry strategies

When entering the proposed international markets, it is proposed that Next plc uses a variety of entry strategies. Direct entry strategies can be adopted whereby the products are sold directly to the buyers in the target markets. Achievement of this can be through the use of local sales distributors or representatives who may choose to sell the products by not taking the title to the merchandise.

Indirect strategies involve the use of intermediaries such as trading companies or trade agents. They will in turn be paid in commission. This strategy is most applicable where the agent has a clear knowledge of the market due to its complexity (Johnson, et’ al.,2013). The agents will be required to gather market information and provide any promotional advice to Next Plc. This will simplify the entry and the risks associated with exporting.

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An overseas company can also be selected to own permission of sales through licensing. This can be through patents, designs, and brand names. This helps reduce the appearance of Next’s products on the black market. Next plc can also come up with strategic alliances with an international business dealing with the same line of business. It is proposed that the strategic alliance is carried out for a short period until it is fully adapted to the new market. Also, joint ventures can play a key role.

A business with the same objectives is chosen to enhance easy expansion and make it possible to enter a complex market like the Chinese market. A wholly owned subsidiary can be opened in the proposed markets as per Majaro, S. (2013). It will be controlled directly by the mother company through foreign direct investment. A new investment store can be purchased or rented in the new country. However, the cost can be higher because of the substantial costs involved.

Export processing zones can work well in some markets. It is proposed that it will form an investment incentive while creating employment thus, transfers of skills. This provides a base for transfer of skills thus providing a line for transfer of goods in and out of a country as per De Mooij, M. (2013). These market entry strategies need to be weighted so as to come up with alternatives that will best suit Next plc. Every approach should pay attention to marketing, the risks involved and the control and management available. A matrix of the entry strategy can be drawn so as to choose the best approach

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Adaptation of Next’s marketing mixes to the new markets

In the face of the increasing importance of an international market for many businesses to survive and increase profitability, several factors such as economies of scale and competitive strike are key areas of concern. The marketing mix concept is a key area of concern in international marketing and penetration (Cavusgil, et’ al.,2014). This helps the Next plc’s products to adapt and suit the country they are carrying out their business. Having had a thorough understanding of the global markets, the promotion strategies need to be defined and analyzed if a change is needed. Next plc is adapted to the new market in its marketing mix as illustrated below.

Product support: Next plc has a good product support and helpline for assisting its customers. This helps in critical areas like product sourcing. The company’s existing products match the markets due to their new product development. Next plc has a product testing and management department where products are tested to match the international markets. The unique labeling, packaging, and production control put Next plc at a forefront.

Price support: prices from a key factor because most of the competing businesses depend on it to win customers. Next plc has well-established prices to suit all classes of customers. Discounts should be given to loyal customers in the new market. The price lists are nearly constant thus improving customer trust. The customers and agents are provided with training on the use of products thus easy penetration to a new market.

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Promotion/selling support: Next plc has invested on promotional strategies making new market entry easy. Through their sophisticated advertising machinery and sales force, the company can reach out to the targeted customers in the new market over a short period. Product promotion helps the product gain knowledge from the new customers. New markets such as China require massive advertisement.

Inventory support: Next plc has a well-established inventory control system. Inventory management forms the basis for controlling the level of production of the company. The large number of stores and warehouses of Next plc gives it a nice stand. The supply procedure is easy, and one can make online orders.

Distribution support: Next plc provides distribution support to its customers through various ways. There is fund provision to agents and orders are also processed within a short time. This means that order delivery is timely thus winning the customers in the new market. There are a fast export preparation and documentation. It also provides insurance to a product purchased by a customer that is rare among competitors.

Service support: Next plc provides a range of services to its customers. The services that will contribute to easy entry to the market vary depending on customer needs. Next plc processes quote within a short time. After-sales service is offered to customers, which is a rare ingredient between many competitors. There are guarantees and warranties that cover any sales thus improving customer trust. Next plc always publishes sales reports and catalogs to be distributed citing the good performance of the company. This helps in publicity and improving the company image.

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Therefore, before designing any international marketing mix of the business, Next plc should design an analysis of every country they would like to open or start the business. This helps in determining the items that are to be included in the marketing mix. The ones to be standardized and those to be adjusted to suit local needs are analyzed. Every country may need its different marketing mix.

It is, therefore, proposed that Next plc used both online presences for marketing in the new markets and built a store or stores for presence. This helps facilitates the process of supply of goods to the customers. Next plc can achieve its projected anticipated increase in their profits and market if they adopt this report. It is proposed that some parts of this report may need amendments over time.

However, it is upon the management to consider following the guidelines herein. The SWOT analysis of Next plc puts it in a greater position of becoming a leading clothes seller both locally and in the global market. It is proposed that due to Next plc’s market potential, it will easily adapt to the new business and expect less competition. The sales procedure and the marketing plus supply affectivity of Next plc will help in winning large international markets. The customers can make purchase and payments online with instant delivery.


Lusch, R. F., Serpkenci, R. R., & Orvis, B. T. (2015). Determinants of retail store performance: a partial examination of selected elements of retailer conduct. In Proceedings of the 1995 World Marketing Congress (pp. 495-504). Springer International Publishing.

Russo Spena, T., Caridà, A., Colurcio, M., & Melia, M. (2012). Store experience and co-creation: the case of temporary shop. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management40(1), 21-40.

Fall Diallo, M., Chandon, J. L., Cliquet, G., & Philippe, J. (2013). Factors influencing consumer behaviour towards store brands: evidence from the French marketInternational Journal of Retail & Distribution Management41(6), 422-441.

Goworek, H., Fisher, T., Cooper, T., Woodward, S., & Hiller, A. (2012). The sustainable clothing market: an evaluation of potential strategies for UK retailers. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management40(12), 935-955.

Hu, H., & Jasper, C. (2015). A Revisit of Theoretic Model of Store Image Formation and its Application in Chinese Consumers. In Revolution in Marketing: Market Driving Changes (pp. 125-125). Springer International Publishing.

Schneider, S., Seifert, F., & Sunyaev, A. (2014, January). Market Potential Analysis and Branch Network Planning: Application in a German Retail Bank. InSystem Sciences (HICSS), 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 1122-1131). IEEE.

Johnson, G., Whittington, R., Angwin, D., Regner, P., Scholes, K., & Pyle, S. (2013). Exploring strategy: text and cases. Pearson.

Odell, J. S. (2014). US international monetary policy: Markets, power, and ideas as sources of change. Princeton University Press.

Majaro, S. (2013). International Marketing (RLE International Business): A Strategic Approach to World Markets. Routledge.

Cavusgil, S. T., Knight, G., Riesenberger, J. R., Rammal, H. G., & Rose, E. L. (2014). International business. Pearson Australia.

De Mooij, M. (2013). Global marketing and advertising: Understanding cultural paradoxes. Sage Publications.

Barrett, H., & Weinstein, A. (2015). Corporate entrepreneurship, the marketing mix, and business performance. In Proceedings of the 1997 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference (pp. 144-150). Springer International Publishing.

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Strategic Planning Research Paper

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Strategic Planning

Task 1

1.1. Factors informing the process of strategic planning  

According to Bain (2014), the success of any strategy is determined by the strategic plans put in place. Effective strategy implementation requires a clear understanding of the process of strategic planning (Favoro, 2015). The set strategies should be in line with the firm’s goals and objectives since they represent the financial strength and sustainability of an organization. It is impeccable for strategic managers to show a clear strategic path for resource allocation and decision making to get the best strategies out of the available alternatives.

The vision of a business is the representative of what the organization wants to look like in future. Additionally, a vision statement tends to provide a picture of what the organization wants to achieve in the long run. On the other hand, the mission statement is short-term and aims to provide the purpose of the organization. The mission statement shows the stakeholders the position of the organization and its capability in the near future.

The goals of an organization provide the means with which it aims to achieve its mission statement, while the objectives are the desired returns that an organization would want to achieve (Iowa, 2011). Finally, the core competencies are the main differentiating factors of an organization from its competitors. Resources, skills, and activities that competitors cannot imitate provide for an organization’s core competencies.

All the laid strategic plans must be consistent with the goals, objectives, mission, core competencies, and vision of an organization since they are the determinants of the expectations of an organization’s stakeholders. Since strategic planning involves laying the foundation for achievement of strategies with the available resources, when all the stakeholders are satisfied as per the mission and vision statement, it becomes possible to implement the strategies for realization of positive results.

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There are a number of issues that affect the process of strategic planning. Strategic planning is referred to as a phase-by-phase procedure with the purpose of advancing the an organization. Of the issues that affect the process of strategic planning, there are five major factors that influence the procedure. Confusion of the strategy with the plan, disconnection from the reality, ineffective strategic analysis, lack of consistent ownership, and complicating the innovative process are some of the issues relating to strategic planning.

During the strategic planning process, some plans seem to liaise with already existing policies, making the current approaches seem void and managers may do away with the strategies. In the course of the process, some employees are not involved and still, the process is intellectual and involving making the strategic managers to be detached from the real world and come up with unreal plans (Bain, 2016). When there is great involvement and use of comprehensive analysis, the process ends up with so many details that make it unattainable.

Also, since it’s only a part of employees that are involved in strategizing and planning, it can be said that the process is now owned by all the employees hence making it difficult for them to be accountable and responsible for mistakes resulting from strategy implementation (Long, 2012). New strategies bring about new control measures which eventually reduces flexibility and innovative nature of an organization. All these issues dampen the process of strategic planning and it’s up to the strategic managers to deal with them before commencing the process to avoid loopholes for successful implementation.

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1.3. An evaluation of strategic plans systems

The techniques used for formulation of strategic plans differ in accordance to the strategy. There is a variety of techniques used for strategic planning but the chosen technique should provide the best possible strategic outcome. The main methods used for strategic planning include; directive, command, coordination, emergent and directive strategic techniques (Iowa, 2011).

A directive technique is used in large organizations that have a simple way of doing things. The technique involves a comprehensive study of the internal and external environment for the top management to carry out strategic plans. However, if the organization is large and complex, the suitable technique is coordination where all the departments and resources are integrated together to find the most suitable strategy.

A command technique is used in small and medium enterprises where the owner or owners get involved in the strategic planning process.  The owner is responsible for strategy formulation, planning, assessment, and implementation since there are few stakeholders involved in the process. A combination of internal and external team of experts is used for strategic planning in the case of emergent technique.

 Therefore, the effectiveness of a strategic technique is highly dependent on the type and nature of an organization. It is crucial for strategic managers to be familiar with their organizations in order to apply the best technique. Combining the different techniques provides for application of the internal and external environment, available expertise skills, as well as associating all the stakeholders in the strategic planning for effective results.  

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Task 2

Successful organizations understand the need to update the existing strategies as well as develop new ones to have a sustained growth. Apart from understanding the objectives, mission, core competencies, goals, and mission of an organization; it is important to understand the micro and macro environment before formulating new strategies. SWOT analysis, PESTEL analysis, and Michael Porter’s analysis are some of the main tools that can be used in assessing the environmental factors affecting an organization for the formulation of new strategies (Sun, 2015).

2.1. McDonalds

McDonalds operates as a food chain and has a presence in 200 nations. Founded in 1955, it has continuously grown in market share and revenue through diversification of products and engagement in online selling to increase customer value for maximum satisfaction.

2.2.     McDonald’s organizational audit

To carry out McDonald’s organizational audit, SWOT analysis is necessary.  SWOT analysis is carried out to determine the strengths and weaknesses of an organization, as well as identify the opportunities and threats that an organization faces for the formulation of a sustainable strategy for an increase in market share.


  1. Ever since it was founded in 1955, the company prides itself in a great market share where it has established itself in 119 countries with more than 40 million customers.
  2. Offers a variety of products and menus for customers. The diversity of products makes the company have a sustained growth and increase in revenues over time.
  3. Utilizes up-to-date knowhow such as online marketing to increase customer value and market share.


Although the company has a sustained organization environment, its main weakness is in the product delivery after the emergence of E-commerce. It is difficult to deliver products to all its consumers due to infrastructural problems and bad weather.


Just like other food chains, the company’s main threats are:

  1. Intense market competition since there is free market entry.
  2. Rapid changes in consumer tastes and preferences.
  3. Penetration of the web


  1. Globalization that has created numerous avenues for expansion of the company.
  2. Technology advancement leading to diversification of trade through e-commerce.

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2.3. McDonald’s environmental audit

The intention of carrying out an organization audit is to understand the market that a firm operates in. Since McDonald has an international manifestation, its environmentally friendly inventory is influenced by technological, political, legal, economic, environmental, and legal factors.  The environmental audit is a global one. Through the of PESTEL model, it is possible to carry out an environmental audit on McDonald’s.

2.4.      PESTEL Analysis

Some governments may encourage the company’s presence in their countries by giving out incentives while some may restrict operations hence influencing the strategies set up by McDonald’s strategic managers. Economic factors that affect the strategies set by the company include inflation, recessions, demand, and the supply of the products. Also, the company’s operations are socially affected in terms of the culture of the different market segments such that McDonald has to formulate strategies are consistent with certain cultural orientation.

There are some governments that impose high tariffs and taxes on foreign companies or reduce the rates to encourage the companies and McDonald is not left out. In addition, the strategy of the company is affected by innovations like information technology as well as electronic-commerce, which have an impact on the manner in which company operations are carried out. All these PESTEL factors influence the company and the way it formulates its strategies.

2.5. Significance of stakeholder analysis in strategy formulation

Stakeholders are the persons who are directly or indirectly affected by the operations of an organization. Like other businesses, McDonald’s stakeholders include: employees, customers, lenders, investors and the government. To effectively formulate a new strategy, it is important for a company to analyze all the stakeholders’ needs and expectations of the company (Duggan, 2014). A stakeholder analysis is a procedure used to assess and determine the effect of the key persons in an organization as well as their influence in the organization.

A company`s appraisal is considered to: decide the individuals that will undesirably or definitely have an influence on organizations operations, comprehend the influence of the shareholders on the business, and come up with approaches that are reinforced by all shareholders as well as reduce the difficulties the institute might go through  when implementing the strategies.

2.6.      Advantages of stakeholder analysis in formulating a new strategy

  1. It is possible to get expertise opinions that assist in shaping of a strategy as well as gaining support for effective strategy implementation.
  2. When stakeholders are involved in strategy formulation, an organization increases its chances of getting extra resources.
  3. It gives a clear understanding of the opinions people have for the company hence providing room for improvement through the new strategies.
    1. New strategy for McDonald’s

With the rapid changes that are taking place in the market, the best strategy that McDonald should adopt is e-commerce so as to increase its market share and increase consumer’s value.

Task 3

It is important that various alternative strategies are looked into before implementation. Each strategy has its advantages and disadvantages and it’s the strategy with the best outcome that should be taken (Duggan, 2013). In line with the vision and mission of Marks and Spencer, substantive growth, market entry, limited growth, and retrenchment are some of the available alternative strategies. This section outlines the four alternative strategies and recommends a strategy for Marks and Spencer

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3.1. Background

Mark and Spencer is a multinational retailer offers a variety of products in clothing and accessories (Mark & Spencer 2016). The company was founded in 1884 and is one of the leading retailers in the world.

3.2. Evaluation of the alternative strategies by Marks and Spencer

Substantive growth strategy is formulated through mergers and acquisition. Suppose a business if sturdy in terms of finances, then this implies that it is able to consider a strategy. Marks and Spencer has a big market share but it can merge with another firm to increase the share for sustained growth. Also, an expansion strategy exists by acquiring another business as it will be at a reduced cost and procedures.

An inadequate development approach is integrated using a joint venture thus leading to a diminished competitive edge, thus Marks and Spencer do not consider it. Reduction of cost and assets as well as revenue generation is some of the retrenchment strategies available for Marks and Spencer. The company can reduce its operation cost in Middle East. Moreover, the company should strategize on taking up extra market segments in the world to increase its market share.

3.3. Recommended strategy for Marks and Spencer

The company best alternative strategy is sustained growth through mergers and acquisition. The firm is already financially stable and strong hence is in a position to acquire or merge with other businesses in the same line. The strategy is the best of the other alternatives since it will lead to cost reduction with increased market share and sales.

Also, the microeconomic challenges faced in some of the countries can be phased out through mergers with firms that are already stable in those economies. The competitive nature of the clothing industry requires uniqueness of strategies which can only be achieved by liaising with firms that already understand the culture of the people in the various market segments.

Task 4

A strategy is void unless it is implemented. After successful strategic planning it is crucial to identify proper methods for implementation. Implementation is the final stage and the way it’s carried out determines if the strategy will be successful (Sage, 2014).

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4.1. Honda’s Background information

The company is multinational and operates in the automobile industry. It is the second largest automobile and was founded since 1959. The company operates globally and has sells a variety of products.

4.2. Responsibilities and roles of personnel in strategy implementation

The formulated strategy has to be communicated to the different stakeholders either formally or informally. The functions of each organization are influenced by the novel approach and needs the application of an informed communication to reach out regardless if it is horizontal or vertical.

The personnel equipped with the implementation process are responsible for mapping the strategy, integrating the organization for delivering the strategy, and carrying out the change process as impacted by the new strategy.

The personnel have the role of mapping the new strategy to the internal and external users to make them have an idea of the prospects of the new strategy to the operations and image of the organization. By mapping the strategy, the personnel will also be involved in positioning the strategy to the existing culture of the organization so that it fits with the firm’s expectations. Finally, the personnel are tasked with the change process that results from the new strategy.

The middle management and outside parties are the ones that take the responsibility of strategy implementation. The middle managers implement the strategic plan that has been set up by top managers through making sense of the strategy to other stakeholders, interpretation and re-adjustment of the stakeholders view on the strategies, and advising the senior management on the implications of the new strategy (Lewis & McKone, 2015). Shareholders are convoluted in the modification procedure and compelled to make the policy flexible as envisioned by the organization.

 4.3. Resource requirements for implementing a new strategy for Honda

Resource allocation is a strategic process aimed at aligning all of organizations resources to its goals and objectives. Resources are in form of finance, human labor, and infrastructure. All these resources must be used in such a way that they lead to the achievement of the strategies.

Honda required resources are finance and human resources since it is already in possession of the materials and tools required for strategy implementation. To achieve its innovative process of generating unique products, the company needs expertise skills as well as finance to undertake the process of research and development as well as start-up capital for the new venture.

4.4. SMART targets

For achievement of strategy implementation in Honda, SMART goals must be set. SMART stands for specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and time-oriented. A strategy should be specific and clear to avoid complications during its implementation. A realistic target is achievable and falls within a specific time frame that is also measurable and is agreeable by all stakeholders. When a target is SMART it is easily implemented and is successful in the long run (Haughey, 2014).

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Strategic management is one of the crucial functions of a business. If all stakeholders are involved in the strategy formulation process, it becomes easier to implement and the required resources are made available. A strategy is said to be successful if it’s SMART has been analyzed using SWOT and PESTEL tools. After formulation, it requires different parties to take up the process of communicating the strategy in order to integrate all the functions of the organization for successful implementation of the strategies.


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Endometriosis: Lack of knowledge and awareness


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Endometriosis: Lack of knowledge and awareness

Research questions

The critical challenge that faces endometriosis community is inadequate factual awareness. Endometriosis is a challenge that keeps most women mired in menstrual myths, misinformation, delayed or under-diagnosis, under treatment, and lack of support.  The societal and cultural bias about menstruation has kept the disease invalidated, diminished and ignored.  This legacy of misinformation covering this illness is spread from medical educators, patients and the next generation (Ferreira et al. 2016).

The paper seeks to explore existing knowledge on socio-psychological impact of endometriosis on the lives of women. By doing this, it will provide insight into ways of increasing awareness of the disease. The research question is “What is the socio-psychological impact of endometriosis on women’s health? What are the impacts of increased awareness of endometriosis on women’s health?”

Clinical relevance

Endometriosis has remained in the twilight for centuries because the society has failed to recognize the existence of this disease. Research estimates that one in ten women in their reproductive age suffer from endometriosis. Endometriosis is often dismissed as a ‘normal’ problem among women. It affects 176 million women across the globe causing them to endure a life of pain and in some cases, infertility. 

Endometriosis has exerted massive economic and social costs at individual and society levels. In the US, it is estimated that 7.6 million women are affected and this accounts for $ 80.4 billion a year. This number is comparable to diabetes yet there are only a small percentage of the afflicted patients who have sought help and are aware of the disease.  (Moradi et al, 2013).

Research estimates that most of the primary doctors are not aware of endometriosis markers, which often makes the vast number of women to be underdiagnosed and undertreated. It is estimated that 61% of women suffering from endometriosis were told that it is normal to have painful periods when under treatment. It takes about 9.28 years to get a definitive diagnosis.

An average woman will take 4.67 years to report the issue and the physicians will take about 4.61 years to make the definitive diagnosis. During that time, the women continue to suffer severe pain and they are not in a position to socialise, work, or have a stable sexual relationship (Heidemann et al, 2013).

Most of the research studies have covered various aspect of the disease. However, most of these aspects are redundant in nature and lack translational benefit. A better part of the research study is directed towards the pharmaceutical diagnosis, but it fails to examine the far-reaching impact of the disease. The enduring lack of awareness exists at all societal levels; hence, this has led to average diagnostic delay which is often a catalyst for delayed effective treatment (Moradi et al. 2013).

 Early intervention and increased awareness of the disease is important. This is because it helps to reduce the disease morbidity, incidences of infertility, and disease progression across women of all ages. Also, increased awareness is important because it helps the affected women to make informed decisions about their health. Furthermore, increased awareness will facilitate delivery of correct information upon which the healthcare providers can base their healthcare decisions to make timely diagnosis (Ferreira et al. 2016).

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Research design

 To effectively address these research questions, the systematic review method will be adopted. This method is preferred due to its ability to include diverse concepts in qualitative and quantitative studies from several disciplines. Therefore, this review draws its synthesis from critical narrative instead of performing the classic systematic review methodology. The classical narrative method will adhere to PRISMA principles as much as possible.

This method is preferred due to its ability to provide exhaustive review of the current literature and published papers on endometriosis awareness, and its impact on women’s lives. The method is cost effective as minimal resources and time is needed. The results generated from this study can be generalized, they are reliable, and can be considered on the context of evidence based practice (Burns & Grove, 2011).

 The study design pitfall is the issue of study variables. This is because systematic review study variables vary, but tend to have the same outcome. Some of the reviews will only analyse certain variables such as gender and age factors that may not be allocated to other studies.  During the critical synthesis of these ideas, the variables studied in each of original studies will be put into consideration.

A systematic search will be done on multidisciplinary data bases including PubMed, CINAHL plus, Cochrane Library, EBSCOhost, SU database, and PsyARTICLES. Appropriate terms for searching the disease will be developed by reviewing the abstracts, titles and keywords, which will help to identify papers that have information on socio-psychological impact of endometriosis and its increased awareness (Burns & Grove, 2011).

 The systematic review will take broad view of the issue because there are limited studies on the impact of endometriosis or the effects that arise due to lack of disease awareness. The work will include information from the various disciplines including sociology and psychology to establish the holistic picture on the impact of endometriosis. 

The articles that will be explored include the peer reviewed articles from English language journals.  Due to the scarcity of the information on endometriosis, its impact and prevention strategies, no date restrictions will be imposed.  However, reviews, commentaries, opinions, and clinical studies will be excluded (Burns & Grove, 2011).


Increased   public knowledge and awareness will facilitate early identification of disease onset and facilitate timely intervention of the disease. This will reduce associated morbidity, infertility and associated clinical symptoms. It is time to alleviate the culture of menstrual misinformation by ensuring that the public get timely and authoritative education.  Therefore, increased knowledge and awareness will change the presumptuous perspectives and misleading attitudes that normally perpetuate myths about endometriosis.


Burns, N., & Grove, S. (2011). Understanding Nursing Research (5th ed.). Elsevier. ISBN-13: 9781437707502

Ferreira, A. et al  (2016). Quality of life of the woman carrier of endometriosis: systematized review. Reprodução & Climatério.

 Heidemann, L. et al (2013). The relationship between endometriosis and ovarian cancer – a review. Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 93(1), 20-31.

Moradi, M. et al (2014). Impact of endometriosis on women’s lives: a qualitative study. BMC Women’s Health, 14(1), 123.

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Facilitating change in health and social care

health and social care
health and social care

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Facilitating change in health and social care


This paper evaluates the aspect of change in health and social care setting. Economic factors, operational framework, policy setting, and knowledge are highlighted as the core drivers of this change. Moreover, the paper evaluates not just the challenges brought about by this change but also its impact, and suitable service response mechanism. When it comes to essential principles of change management, PowerPoint presentation is employed.   Furthermore, planning of changes, monitoring process, the plan for determining current transformations, social care policy and benchmarks for measuring change are discussed.

1.1Main factors that lead to change

Change refers to the transformation from the current state to a preferred future state. The cycle of change is never ending in our organization. Some welcome and enjoy uncertainties it comes with it; others fear change because they think that something valuable will be lost, and they feel that change will bring unnecessary stress (Brown & Jones 2012). In health care and social services, care is about those who provide the service and those who need the service. People are receptive to impacts of change such as managers have to establish how changes will deliver intended care within the organization.

The main reason why change is always constant is because stimuli of change, as well as other factors that drive change, are economic factors, social factors, operational factors, change in policy, and technological developments. 

Economic factors

The cost of health services has been on an upward trend in spite of, the increased financing in the sector. For this reason, there is a need to reduce expenditures of the current services while looking for cost-efficient ways of delivering the services in the future. Of concern is to ensure that the skills of the existing workforce are up-to-date and specialization has to be enhanced.

Besides, cost reduction has to be maximized through the use of private and nonprofit, supplies (Hayes 2014). The rising user expectation also has to be addressed. This is because as roles develop, information becomes readily available meaning that a large group people will be able to quickly access the available information leading to more informed citizens on the services available.

Availability of information leads to a more informed choice. In other words, people will be in a position to analyze the risks involved, the value of treatment provided, and learn the long-term effects of the treatment method that they have chosen. This affects the demand for certain services and institutions depending on how people view them.

In a social point of view, consumers are encouraged to be active and choose how their needs will be met. This has been made possible through the provision of means for people to directly purchase services, meaning that intermediary parties have been eliminated. This option is boosted by the increasing number of individuals who understand their rights and what they are entitled to.

There is also an increase in the roles of women, and globalization of the medical sector has led to a changed workforce. These changes mean maintaining existing working patterns will be difficult to maintain. It also means that new ways of working will be created based on different career structures and patterns of recruitment. The mixed economy will also contribute to social care change.

This is further enhanced by the shift of authorities towards direct service provision. This method has enabled a shift towards efficiency and economy. Furthermore, it has led to the emergence of improved regulation due to improved knowledge, skills and training leading to long term changes.


With expanded knowledge, improved medications and new ways of doing things, expansion and improvement of services have been achieved. In areas such as drugs, the rate of change is slowing, while new discoveries are increasing. However, given the rising costs of healthcare, the expectation is that with the new developments and technological advancements, it will create new demand on available resources.

Innovations will strengthen or improve existing institutions. Expansion of clinical know-how boosts changes in health care. This is because increased specializations lead to improved healthcare and expands the range of roles leading to the development of new working opportunities.

Development of information technology has allowed professionals to search and present advice without the need for face-to-face consultation. Social care service provision widens staff groups which are providing specialized knowledge and skills. This leads to expansion of expectations, responsibilities, and requirements for new competencies and training.

Improved technology has led to new methods for storing and delivering information. The emergence of the internet has enabled people to do certain tasks online; thus, reducing the need for involvement of specialized staff. This gives them more time to concentrate on more complex care and management duties. Also, this has led to the increased number of individuals responsible for their care.

Operational Framework

Operating environment is also starting to change. For instance, the patient’s choice of where to be treated may undermine the financial position of health care provision centers. Likewise, the introduction of the private sector will, in the long run, affect the existing trusts and provide new opportunities for service delivery.

Policy Environment

Given the new regulations by the government aimed at improving performance, new ways of working and delivering care are evolving. Roles are changing as well as management and organizational structures. The need for improved performance occasioned by financial constraints is also bringing about change (Brown & Jones 2012). This is due to increased innovations in service delivery meaning that there is a continual change in professional roles. Policy changes are also reducing demarcation lines between different professional boundaries, making it much easier to effect changes. Increasing emphasis on interdependence has led to improvement in joint performance through joint monitoring and evaluation.

1.2Challenges and main factors of change

Inadequate capital affects final project outcomes owing to the costs related to the provision of social care service such as hiring new staff, acquiring new equipment, training, and staffing costs are significant challenges for health care provision. Staff resistance or difficulty in adapting to changes is difficult since workers are accustomed to certain ways of operating (Payne 2014). Switching to the new system could be very challenging to them. Political pressure can also compel the institution to achieve set targets.

The changing nature of healthcare comes with challenges and prospects. Staff training and the need for continued professional development are some of the challenges. Furthermore, maintaining quality health care and ensuring the safety of patients, requires extended care and meeting demands for integrated services. To reduce these challenges, there is need to increase the workforce, proper planning, and proper governance to enhance collaboration between administrators and medical providers 

Several opportunities will also come along health care transformation. The increase in skills depths provides advantages and serves to make use of skill mix and expertise in the team. This method also ensures proper staff utilization through identification of specialized knowledge and skills leading to proper utilization of resources (Kadushin & Harkness 2014). Better patient outcomes and more focused patient services, opportunities for development, and job satisfaction will be realized.

2.1Strategy and principles for assessing current changes

Making transformations in an organization involves the determination of the changes that worked and those that never worked; thus, leading to improvements. Therefore, it is expected that one collects data before, during and after the implementation to help measure the progress based on the set goals (Cameron & Green 2015).

Recognize the variables to be estimated and the data required. This relates to the kind of information to be analyzed such as staff attitudes, perceptions et cetera. Secondly, decide the best tools for data collection and develop the best ways to collect them. Thereafter, choose the best tools depending on information required such as the need to know staff attitudes by analyzing members of staff through individual interviews or groups.

Training the personnel is important in developing methods to allow for valid, reliable and accurate data collection.  The information gathered should be organized not just in a systematic way, but by considering the purpose, and technique for efficient data collection.  The data is then analyzed to understand the scale, nature, and the cause of a problem.

2.2. The impact of recent changes

Owing to improved health care standards, and increase population in will be experienced leading to congestion. This change will occasion improvement of transport systems due to the changing demands. The increase in the number of young people requiring social and health care will exert pressure on the providers of social amenities (Brown & Jones 2012)

Owing to the improved standards of living, higher wages are demanded to provide for the increased cost of living. This also means an additional charge for personal care. Improved health care means improved well-being and improvement of the quality of life. This is associated with delivery of high-quality primary care, better access to medical services, improved patient participation through tailored services, and continuity of attention.

Moreover, this will also lead to improved skills while making services available within the community. Collaborative working means provisions of full range services while utilizing available resources, getting access to a larger population leading to improved income generation;  hence; increased profitability.

2.3. The effects of current change in health and social care

Organizational transformations can lead to improved efficiency. This can be achieved by meeting set goals. All agencies should strive to be more efficient following modifications. This is connected to the utilization of available resources to attain the desired output. It also refers to resources utilized by a firm to generate the desired productivity.  Efficiency in organizations maximizes resources during production without wastage (Bourke et al. 2016)

Reduction in cost benefit is geared towards overall cost reduction. Benefits or outcomes should be more than costs incurred to achieve that end. Whether the organization aims to make profits or not, the total cost should be balanced with the outcome of the service so as to be viable. 

Referral in health care refers to the process of transferring patients from a low cadre hospital to a high cadre hospital for further treatment. This referral rates can be used to measure the effectiveness of a hospital based on the number of referrals done to a  high cadre hospital vs. the number of cured patients (Kadushin & Harkness 2014).                                                

This is often done through restructuring and training to improve their skills and technical know-how. The time the patient waits to be attended to is a significant method to evaluate impacts of changes in a health facility. Minimal waiting time indicates speedy patient care administration and by extension faster service delivery and timely intervention.

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2.4. Suitable Responses to recent changes

There should be improved employee participation through the creation of employment opportunities. The management should conduct proper staff training on different technologies. There should also be a change in the structure of the Directorate; new employees should be hired to handle the increased work occasioned by improvements and introduction of new facilities.

There should also be a change of equipment to handle new developments meaning new manpower should be hired to manage or train staff on how to handle new equipment (Cameron &Green, 2015). There should also be a change in service delivery and communication owing to improved facilities.

Local authorities should ensure that people are advised correctly to make good decisions about care and support and the range of available support providers. They should also promote caregivers, children, and families.

3.1. Fundamental principles of change management using Power Point Presentation

3.1.1 Address the “human side” systematically.

Any transformation creates issues touching people. New jobs will be set up new skill and capabilities will be required. Dealing with such changes requires the involvement of leadership, engagement of key stakeholders and leaders.  

3.1.2 Start at the Top.

CEO is seen as the main point as everybody looks to him for strength, support, and direction. Leaders should, therefore, embrace new challenges so as to motivate the rest of the institution. The executives should work together to get the best success.

3.1.3 Involve Every Layer.

Changes affect all sections in the organization and as such training must align individuals to the mission and vision of the organization with the bid of make change happen.

3.1.4 Make the Formal Case.

Legal case allows for creation and alignment of leadership. This is achieved through confronting reality, developing a faith that the company has a healthy future, and provides a clear roadmap that will guide behavior and decision-making.

3.1.5 Create Ownership.

Leaders should accept responsibility in all areas under their control. This achieved through involving people in all the processes and reinforcing by use of incentives and rewards.

3.1.6 Communicate the message.

Communication provides employees with the right information at the right time, and they get their feedback through various channels.

3.1.7 Assess the cultural landscape.

Effects of cultural change should be identified early and addressed to avoid backlash at later stages.

3.1.8    Prepare for the unexpected.

This is achieved through continual assessment of impacts and the willingness to adapt to transformation

3.1.9.    Speak to the individual.

This is intended to educate employees on the intended effects of change constituted, how it will be measured and what success or failures will be expected. By so doing, it will make people aware of the coming changes, and they feel involved in the change process.

3.2. Planning changes in health and social care

Planning for change in health and social care is necessary for continuity of the organization. Any projected effect should be expected. Detailed plan including support after implementation should be documented to ensure that the project is implemented successfully. There is also the need to think of possible mishaps that can occur after implementation. Possible mitigation strategies should be developed to counter the mishaps.

During planning, the goals of the organization are identified, goals are set, tasks are outlined, and schedules of how to accomplish those tasks are developed. It also involves deciding what to do, how, and who will do the tasks. This stage assists in determining the direction of the project (Bourke et al. 2016).  Planning also includes defining the  health tribulations within the society, identifying needs that have not been met, analyzing the resources to meet them, setting goals, and setting action plans for the accomplishment of those programs. Planning also involves establishing policies, programs, objectives, schedules, and budget.

When planning, the following factors, and methods can be considered: stakeholders, staff, management styles, consultation, and communication. All these factors should be aimed at improving health outcomes to reduce inequalities in health and produce effective approaches of care. The change has to be clinically-based; hence, each proposal should then meet the local status. Therefore, the senior management should be at the forefront of the design and development, and patients and members of the public should also be engaged. Local authorities are relevant stakeholders and they can be integrated when planning.

3.3. Monitoring recent changes

To evaluate changes, it is crucial to start with weighing the evidence against each other as this is the best way for determining change.  Several changes exist such as transformational, incremental; episodic, planned, and continuous changes. These changes may be considered by evaluating research, surveys, and sample assessments (Valentin, Schepman & Brinjzeels 2013).  Data collection may be based on people’s opinions regarding on what they view to be the truth, beliefs in what people know, preferences in what they choose, behaviors in what they do, and attitudes in terms of what they need.

Basic questions can be asked that are based on opening response, closed response through different scales that are agreeable, and ranking scales. When reviewing change through the survey, rewards and costs have to be taken into account; People should be more willing to help in evaluating the impact if there is a reward. Reliability and validity should be considered when reviewing the change.

Sampling technique is another method that can be used to monitor and evaluate the change.  This approach provides sample statistics for classifying the targeted people through obtaining controllable objects of study and quantitative representation of resident’s distinctiveness.

Group forums can also act as a basis for reviewing changes in social care services. This platform ensures discussion is carried out either online or through gatherings. Through this avenue, messages are posted and people can hold conversations regarding different topics. Through group feedback, it makes it easy to learn and assess the effect of health services.

Monitoring also ensures the improvement of essential functions in the implementation of health services. It enables one to determine if the service is meeting the set objectives, identify program challenges and benefits, and areas to be revised. This is achieved through analysis of program domains.


The paper has sought to assess the current transformations in health and social care settings. Economic factors, operational framework, policy environment, and knowledge were seen as the underlying factors that drive healthcare and social change. While the challenges and impacts of the change process were evaluated, effective service response mechanisms were proposed.

Essential principles of change management were presented through Microsoft PowerPoint application. In the end, the paper highlighted planning, monitoring, strategy for quantifying change, social care policy, and tools for measuring change.


Brown, K., & Osborne, S. P. 2012. Managing change and innovation in public service organizations. Abingdon: Routledge.

Bourke, A. et al 2016. Evidence generation from healthcare databases recommendations for managing change. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety.

Cameron, E. and Green, M., 2015. Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. London: Kogan Page Publishers.

Epstein, M.J. and Buhovac, A.R., 2014. Making sustainability work: Best practices in managing and measuring corporate social, environmental, and economic impacts. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Hayes, J., 2014. The theory and practice of change management. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Swayne, L.E., Duncan, W.J. and Ginter, P.M., 2012. Strategic management of health care organizations. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Payne, M., 2014. Modern social work theory. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Thompson, N., 2015. Understanding social work: preparing for practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Kadushin, A. and Harkness, D., 2014. Supervision in social work. New York: Columbia University Press.

Huber, D., 2013. Leadership and nursing care management. London: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Valentijn, P.P. et al 2013. Understanding integrated care: a comprehensive conceptual framework based on the integrative functions of primary care. International Journal of Integrated Care13(1).

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Strategic Human Resource Management

Strategic Human Resource Management
Strategic Human Resource Management

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Strategic Human Resource Management


Strategic human resource management is a very broad area of study. It has also evolved over time, making it difficult to summarize the concept in a few words. As such, there is not one single definition that can fully encompass what the concept is about. However, there are certain key aspects which help to put the definition of this concept into context.

Strategic human resource management (SHRM) revolves around systematically connecting and integrating human resource concepts to match and meet corporate needs. Every organization has laid out structures intended to assist in the achievement of set goals and aspirations.

In order for these goals to be realized, there has to be a systematic and practical manner through the strategies of human resource management are merged with the needs of the organization. SHRM concerns itself with overseeing a smooth integration of the two. Since its emergence, human resource management has evolved. As organizations keep up with the dynamism in their respective fields, HRM has had to keep up. There is a lot of materials that have been written in regard to this topic, including the constant evolution. The focus of this discussion is literature review on this topic and what various authors thing about SHRM.

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Background Information

Human resource strategies play a crucial role as they address all fundamental issues arising from management of various issues on human resource. There is need to ensure that there is alignment between the needs of an organization and the strategies of human resource. The human resource department is in charge of the personnel who form the human resource of an organization.

As such, it is pertinent to ensure that there is a blend between the two. On one hand, human resource practices are more concerned about the welfare of the personnel in the organization. On the other hand, every organization has set goals which must be achieved. Sometimes, there is a clash between the two and hence the need to have middle point where the needs of both can be harmonized.

Literature Review

Why is it so important to have integration between business or organizational strategies and human resource management? Authors on this topic have provided a myriad of reasons as to why the integration is essential. Mello (2014) notes that integration of human resource management with business strategies contribute significantly to improvement of performance within the organization.

Further, Storey notes that with proper integration of the two aspects, the competitive advantage o the organization is increased. The competitive advantage is increased since the human resource management is customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Due to the unique system of HRM it is not easy for other organizations to imitate, giving the organization in context a niche.

Crucial Aspects of SHRM

Strategic human resource management is supported by two main tenets. The first tenet is the integration of human resource with specific business needs and the second is the devolution of human resource management to the managers.  Millimore (2010) notes that integration of the two is considered successful when all matters pertaining to human resource are considered to be crucial in business strategy.

In the past, business strategies have been formulated devoid and in total failure to consider the impacts on human resource management. The impact thereof is that in most cases, the human resource strategies and business strategies clash leading to a deadlock. Armstrong (2011) therefore recognizes the importance of such an integration thereby avoiding a deadlock.

Resource- Based View

       There are a number of theories that have been developed all of which seek to explain the relationship that exist between performance of an organization and human resource management. The resource-based view is one of the theories whose arguments have been used by researchers to assert this position.

According to this theory, organizations gain what is seen as competitive advantage or a niche for themselves when the resources within the organization are well taken care of. Blau & Schoenherr (2011) is of the view that the most valuable asset and resource for any organization is its human resource. The integration of human resource management will hence have a direct impact on the performance of the organization.

     The resource based theory is certainly a departure from previously held views where business strategy would focus more on the external environment. Prior to the evolution of human resource management, business organizations put more focus on the external environment including the market while completely ignoring the human resource.

It is not until the recent past that the perception changed. Human resources are now considered an integral part of business strategy and this has evidently seen a shift in performance by organizations. The integration of the two aspects has seen an alignment of goals for both concept which together work for the betterment of organizations.

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           From the above discussion, there are a number of findings. The first finding is that there is indeed a relationship between human resource management and performance of an organization. The second finding is that when the two aspects are integrated systematically, then there is evidence of improved performance for organizations.

There is need for more studies to be conducted with an aim of proving that the relationship between SHRM and organizational performance is causal. This means that strategic human resource management has direct impact on the performance of an organization. This means that failure to properly integrate the two will have ripple effect on the performance of a business firm.


         Human resource management sits at the center of good performance of every organization. Unfortunately, until very recently, human resource management has always been set aside during business strategizing. The role of HRM was not appreciated as more focus would be on the external environment of the business. However, with multiple researches conducted on the topic, the role of human resource management is now recognized and appreciated. Further, the need to integrate human resource management with business strategies has seen improved performance of organizations.

              As the name suggests, the integration must be strategic meaning that it must be done in a certain manner. The most important factor of consideration during integration of human resource management and business strategy is alignment of goals of each department. Recognition that human resources is one of the most valuable asset for each organization is a step in the right direction for organizations.

Management of human resources has grown in leaps and bounds to become the centerpiece of organizations. More organizations are now investing in this area as they seek to create a niche for themselves by increasing their competitive advantage.


Armstong, M. (2011). Strategic Human Resource Management: A Guide to Action. London: Sage

Blau, P.M., & R. A. Schoenherr (2014). The Structure of Organizations. New York: Basic  Books.

Mello, J. (2014). Strategic Human Resource Management. New York: Prentice Hall

Millimore, M. (2010). Strategic Human Resource Management: Contemporary Issues. London: Sage

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