New market entry

New market entry
New market entry

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New market entry

Next plc is a leading British manufacturer and seller of products ranging from clothing, footwear, and other home products. Within the past years, it has realized a very big increase in sales. This is as a result of its massive marketing strategies. Despite this increase in profits, Next plc has not achieved an optimum returns scale. It still needs to come up with a strategy of expansion to increase its markets internationally so as to increase its sales. The main foster behind this is the increased competition from other manufacturers in the same line of business.

However, Next’s operations have faced challenges in the recent past, and it has faced criticism over alleges of breaking consumer protection regulations resulting from customer billings even if the products were returned a week earlier. This report seeks to analyze the market potential of Next plc including its adaptation to entry into international markets. It further identifies possible markets for expansion. As a result of the impressive results, Next plc has resorted to increasing its full prices and impress net sales gain compared to other companies embracing discounting. Its online sales have increased due to the brand and thus, trusted in UK fashion brands.

Macro factors affecting retail markets

The business has less impact itself on these factors and thus, a minimal impact when trying to change them. One of a key factor here affecting Next plc is consumer behavior. These include consumer cultures, lifestyles, norms, population changes and other demographic factors. Given that the company deals in the clothing business, it needs the company to create styles that are appealing to all different cultures.

Contrary to this, the manufacturer may ignore creating a fashion that existed let’s say 100 years ago. A growing population may also demand a different fashion compared to a young population (Fall Diallo, et’ al.,2013). Another macro factor is technology. Next anticipates reaching a large target population through online sales. Unavailability of resources and low demand and production is a derailing factor (Lusch et’ al., 2015).

There could be the scarcity of an essential material such as leather while their highs demand from a certain market. A competitor, for example, Primark clothing, can introduce a product thus shifting demand for the product thus reducing sales at Next plc. It is recommended that massive online marketing is carried out targeting customers.

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Legal and political factors can also impact sales in the retail market. These factors include worker’s rights and laws preventing child labor. The union members within the clothing industry may decide to picket their employers as the case of Primark. This may also affect Next plc. This negatively impacts production and thus a decline in sales. This causes negative publicity because employees may also choose to picket suppliers and customers.

Economic factors also affect the retail market (Russo et’ al.,2012).  They both may bring out positive or negative results. An example is during the economic boom where customers have much income at their disposal hence an increase in sales. However, recessions may bring a negative effect due to the low sales. Consumers normally choose to shop on cheap products and as for Next plc, it sales fashion clothes.

Micro factors affecting retail markets

These factors affect the business operations directly. One of a key factor here is the suppliers. Suppliers play a key role in the success of the business. Their supplies are useful in the production of a final product. Thus, they should be accorded the power to be the sole supplier to prevent counter supplies. A new market may lack certain supplies thus making penetration harder.

The resellers also play a key role in the market. Identifying an effective reseller brings a challenge to the new business (Russo et’ al.,2012). These can be intermediaries in the market and resellers who if their reputation is good, and their net sales will increase due to the good public image. Next plc is planning to expand its markets and achieving this can be facilitated by the use of mock-marketing where resellers are identified, and evaluation of net sales carried out.

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The customers determine the market strategies. International customers should not be treated the same way as local customers. Their reasons for buying Next’s products play a major role in marketing the products. The general public must be satisfied by the product. Any action of the company must be analyzed on how it might affect the public. These results from the fact that the public has the power in helping the company reach its goals. A satisfied public will assist in the marketing of a product (Lusch et’ al., 2015).

Because the targeted marketing strategy is online sales through the internet, the followers of the brand will share the strategy. The competitors are an internal factor impacting the retail market too. An example of the competitors is Primark Company. They sell similar products but have many outlet stores across the world. Therefore, the impact of price and product differentiation should be taken into account so as to outplay the competitors.

Effective market potential evaluation

When evaluating an effective market, several factors need to be put into consideration. One of the approaches used is an approach is to estimate demand in the market. This is normally based on the population size. This can be achieved by predicting the market potential by either population or their purchasing power (Hu, et’ al.,2015). However, a developing economy can change rapidly over time.

The understanding of these new markets requires learning the variation in the structure of the economy and its performance in the past. There could also be changes in the business environment. This can be approached comprehensively thus needed in making a meaningful assessment of the potential of a market now and in the future (Goworek, et’ al.,2012).

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It is recommended that various markets which include China, The United States, Italy, South Africa and Switzerland be considered for expansion. However, changes in recent economic structures should not have caused a tremendous impact on their economic performance (Schneider, et’ al.,2014, January). Spectrum approach to the study of policies can be used and the market opportunities available. Also, their market potential was evaluated describing the specific geographic areas to serve in. The market share revenue of these identified markets are seemingly high and thus expected returns are higher with a leading potential market identified.

Recommended markets

The United States market

The US advantage in per capita output, apparently in the recent years, can be attributed to its large domestic market. Despite the decline in mall traffic in the US clothing sector, it sets up a good market potential for entry. The US’s disposable income and consumer sentiment are increasingly on the rise hence driving in an increased for high-end products carried by international companies. The industry’s growth expectation is to increase in the next five years facilitated by the rise in high-income households. The current players in the market give less of discounts and have not invested much in online sales thus giving Next plc a great go-through.

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Furthermore, the cost of capital that is associated with establishing clothing stores is relatively low, and the only barrier that can reduce entry is brand awareness and competition. The challenge in the US market is that existing players have already established their brand names, and thus Next plc might need to invest their money and time to sway consumers into preceding other products and buying their products as per Odell, J. S. (2014).

The US marketing is cost effective because of the improved technology and thus, minimal time is wasted in marketing the new product. Next plc has a unique blend of fashions for children, women and men. This makes it easy to make shopping within one stall. It is proposed that Next plc opens a store in two states of America. These will act as the supply center to other sub stores and online orders.

There are very few legal requirements for the entry into US market and thus making it less costly for Next plc. The US has an extremely large population that creates a very large market for these goods. The unique blend of fashion from Next plc is sure to win the US market over a short period. It is therefore proposed that the US be chosen for expansion.


Despite the harsh climatic conditions of the economy in European countries, the United States, and Africa, China’s economy has been growing over the past few years. By the year 2020, China is expected to be the largest economy in the world. China has a large demography, increased consumer spending and rising incomes. Also, the business environment here is open thus making it attractive for investment. It is proposed that Next plc opens a branch in the main cities of China that are economic blocks.

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With a population that exceeds 1.3 billion people, it presents a good market for cloth, footwear, and household goods. Although China is a leading foreign seller, it mainly deals with machinery products and thus should not be viewed as a hard to enter the market. China’s consumers spend most of their incomes on food and clothing (Hu, et’ al.,2015). This brings in an opportunity to present the fashion by Next plc. China’s regulations do not limit the operation of a clothing business.

It, however, has regulations on industrial and mechanical practices. With the increased Chinese technology, Next’s online sales will be easily accessible. It is proposed that after an entry into the market, a massive online advertisement is carried out. The investment in tier towns of China will facilitate this.

The Chinese government is focused on rapid economic growth, and the presence of a gap in the clothing sector presents an opportunity to Next Plc to carry out business. The huge population will present a good market. It is proposed that a trial store is opened in one of the tier cities of China. The expansion plan will start from one of these cities before expanding the business to other parts of the country.

Justified market entry strategies

When entering the proposed international markets, it is proposed that Next plc uses a variety of entry strategies. Direct entry strategies can be adopted whereby the products are sold directly to the buyers in the target markets. Achievement of this can be through the use of local sales distributors or representatives who may choose to sell the products by not taking the title to the merchandise.

Indirect strategies involve the use of intermediaries such as trading companies or trade agents. They will in turn be paid in commission. This strategy is most applicable where the agent has a clear knowledge of the market due to its complexity (Johnson, et’ al.,2013). The agents will be required to gather market information and provide any promotional advice to Next Plc. This will simplify the entry and the risks associated with exporting.

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An overseas company can also be selected to own permission of sales through licensing. This can be through patents, designs, and brand names. This helps reduce the appearance of Next’s products on the black market. Next plc can also come up with strategic alliances with an international business dealing with the same line of business. It is proposed that the strategic alliance is carried out for a short period until it is fully adapted to the new market. Also, joint ventures can play a key role.

A business with the same objectives is chosen to enhance easy expansion and make it possible to enter a complex market like the Chinese market. A wholly owned subsidiary can be opened in the proposed markets as per Majaro, S. (2013). It will be controlled directly by the mother company through foreign direct investment. A new investment store can be purchased or rented in the new country. However, the cost can be higher because of the substantial costs involved.

Export processing zones can work well in some markets. It is proposed that it will form an investment incentive while creating employment thus, transfers of skills. This provides a base for transfer of skills thus providing a line for transfer of goods in and out of a country as per De Mooij, M. (2013). These market entry strategies need to be weighted so as to come up with alternatives that will best suit Next plc. Every approach should pay attention to marketing, the risks involved and the control and management available. A matrix of the entry strategy can be drawn so as to choose the best approach

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Adaptation of Next’s marketing mixes to the new markets

In the face of the increasing importance of an international market for many businesses to survive and increase profitability, several factors such as economies of scale and competitive strike are key areas of concern. The marketing mix concept is a key area of concern in international marketing and penetration (Cavusgil, et’ al.,2014). This helps the Next plc’s products to adapt and suit the country they are carrying out their business. Having had a thorough understanding of the global markets, the promotion strategies need to be defined and analyzed if a change is needed. Next plc is adapted to the new market in its marketing mix as illustrated below.

Product support: Next plc has a good product support and helpline for assisting its customers. This helps in critical areas like product sourcing. The company’s existing products match the markets due to their new product development. Next plc has a product testing and management department where products are tested to match the international markets. The unique labeling, packaging, and production control put Next plc at a forefront.

Price support: prices from a key factor because most of the competing businesses depend on it to win customers. Next plc has well-established prices to suit all classes of customers. Discounts should be given to loyal customers in the new market. The price lists are nearly constant thus improving customer trust. The customers and agents are provided with training on the use of products thus easy penetration to a new market.

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Promotion/selling support: Next plc has invested on promotional strategies making new market entry easy. Through their sophisticated advertising machinery and sales force, the company can reach out to the targeted customers in the new market over a short period. Product promotion helps the product gain knowledge from the new customers. New markets such as China require massive advertisement.

Inventory support: Next plc has a well-established inventory control system. Inventory management forms the basis for controlling the level of production of the company. The large number of stores and warehouses of Next plc gives it a nice stand. The supply procedure is easy, and one can make online orders.

Distribution support: Next plc provides distribution support to its customers through various ways. There is fund provision to agents and orders are also processed within a short time. This means that order delivery is timely thus winning the customers in the new market. There are a fast export preparation and documentation. It also provides insurance to a product purchased by a customer that is rare among competitors.

Service support: Next plc provides a range of services to its customers. The services that will contribute to easy entry to the market vary depending on customer needs. Next plc processes quote within a short time. After-sales service is offered to customers, which is a rare ingredient between many competitors. There are guarantees and warranties that cover any sales thus improving customer trust. Next plc always publishes sales reports and catalogs to be distributed citing the good performance of the company. This helps in publicity and improving the company image.

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Therefore, before designing any international marketing mix of the business, Next plc should design an analysis of every country they would like to open or start the business. This helps in determining the items that are to be included in the marketing mix. The ones to be standardized and those to be adjusted to suit local needs are analyzed. Every country may need its different marketing mix.

It is, therefore, proposed that Next plc used both online presences for marketing in the new markets and built a store or stores for presence. This helps facilitates the process of supply of goods to the customers. Next plc can achieve its projected anticipated increase in their profits and market if they adopt this report. It is proposed that some parts of this report may need amendments over time.

However, it is upon the management to consider following the guidelines herein. The SWOT analysis of Next plc puts it in a greater position of becoming a leading clothes seller both locally and in the global market. It is proposed that due to Next plc’s market potential, it will easily adapt to the new business and expect less competition. The sales procedure and the marketing plus supply affectivity of Next plc will help in winning large international markets. The customers can make purchase and payments online with instant delivery.


Lusch, R. F., Serpkenci, R. R., & Orvis, B. T. (2015). Determinants of retail store performance: a partial examination of selected elements of retailer conduct. In Proceedings of the 1995 World Marketing Congress (pp. 495-504). Springer International Publishing.

Russo Spena, T., Caridà, A., Colurcio, M., & Melia, M. (2012). Store experience and co-creation: the case of temporary shop. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management40(1), 21-40.

Fall Diallo, M., Chandon, J. L., Cliquet, G., & Philippe, J. (2013). Factors influencing consumer behaviour towards store brands: evidence from the French marketInternational Journal of Retail & Distribution Management41(6), 422-441.

Goworek, H., Fisher, T., Cooper, T., Woodward, S., & Hiller, A. (2012). The sustainable clothing market: an evaluation of potential strategies for UK retailers. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management40(12), 935-955.

Hu, H., & Jasper, C. (2015). A Revisit of Theoretic Model of Store Image Formation and its Application in Chinese Consumers. In Revolution in Marketing: Market Driving Changes (pp. 125-125). Springer International Publishing.

Schneider, S., Seifert, F., & Sunyaev, A. (2014, January). Market Potential Analysis and Branch Network Planning: Application in a German Retail Bank. InSystem Sciences (HICSS), 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 1122-1131). IEEE.

Johnson, G., Whittington, R., Angwin, D., Regner, P., Scholes, K., & Pyle, S. (2013). Exploring strategy: text and cases. Pearson.

Odell, J. S. (2014). US international monetary policy: Markets, power, and ideas as sources of change. Princeton University Press.

Majaro, S. (2013). International Marketing (RLE International Business): A Strategic Approach to World Markets. Routledge.

Cavusgil, S. T., Knight, G., Riesenberger, J. R., Rammal, H. G., & Rose, E. L. (2014). International business. Pearson Australia.

De Mooij, M. (2013). Global marketing and advertising: Understanding cultural paradoxes. Sage Publications.

Barrett, H., & Weinstein, A. (2015). Corporate entrepreneurship, the marketing mix, and business performance. In Proceedings of the 1997 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference (pp. 144-150). Springer International Publishing.

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Back Pain: Research Study in Australia

Back Pain
Back Pain

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Back Pain


Back pain is a common and costly disorder in Australia. Hoy et al., (2014) report that about 25% of Australians suffer from back pain and approximately half of them seek medical attention. The direct costs for treatment of this condition in Australia have been estimated to be approximately $ 1 billion with an addition of $ 8 used in indirect costs (Buchbinder et al., 2013).

The condition is also prevalent within the healthcare professionals where nurses have a higher likelihood of developing back pains unlike individuals from other professions. In South Australia alone, back injury accounts for over $2 million in every financial year (Lorig et al., 2013). Surveys of patient self-managing their back pain as well as those managed in primary care have indicated that usual care is not often evidence based hence hindering provision of best outcomes to patients.

Consequently, there has been a growing demand to address the ramifications of back pain through changes in health policies, investments, and service delivery. Healthcare providers, are charged with the responsibility of ensuring that patients receive effective prevention and treatment strategies to curb this menace.

In my visit to John’s home, there are a number of activities that I will conduct to examine John’s condition and the proper intervention that he needs for effective management of his condition. Some of these activities that I will examine include;

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Patient Education

In my initial visit, the first is educating John on chronic back pain. I will highlight clearly that the condition may arise due to an injury or diseases on different body structures such as the muscles, joints, ligaments, or nerves. According to Traeger et al., (2014), the type of pain varies and can be felt as muscle pain, bone pain, or nerve pain. I will also emphasize that it is important for patients to seek medical attention the moment they have back pains and not wait until the disorder worsens to promote effective management of the condition.

At this point, it will be of great significance for me to let John know that he is not the only one suffering from back pain. He should understand that back pain is a massive problem in Australia that sends more people to seek medical attention more than any other condition except common cold (Driscoll et al., 2014).

Nutrition and Weight loss

Normally, patients who are overweight and suffer from back pain, such as John, may not be aware their excess weight aggravates their condition (Brady et al., 2016). It is well known that obese patients are at a greater risk for back pain, muscle strain, and joint pain unlike those that are not overweight. Moreover, obese patients also complain of fatigue and shortness of breath which makes them refrain from exercises worsening their back pain (Heuch et al., 2013).

When patients do not get enough exercise for quite some time, the back’s supporting structures become weak, stiff, and deconditioned which further increases pain (Silisteanu & Covasa, 2015, November). It is for this reasons that I will encourage John to have a weight loss program which may involve gentle low-impact activities such as walking, jogging, or water therapy. I will also advise John to avoid eating foods with high fat content. He should also stick to a rational nutrition plan which involves changes in eating habits as a step toward effective management of his back pain.

During the visit, I will observe John’s posture and position. Reviewing of John’s curvature of the spine, shoulder symmetry, and the iliac crest will also be of great importance. I will conduct a physical examination through palpation of John’s paraspinal muscle to identify any form of tenderness and then initiate proper interventions as per the findings.

Pain Alleviation

For pain reduction, I will encourage John to take timed bed rests and adjust his position to improve flexion of the lumbar region. I will teach him to regulate and adjust the pains that traverse through the respiratory diaphragm. Relaxation can also help in reducing muscle tension that contributes to back pain. John should also adjust his sitting position regularly or even engage in other activities such as reading books, watching a movie or take part in yoga.

I will advise John to request his wife, Donna, to gently massage his back. It has been proven by Kumar, Beaton & Hughes, 2013; Schulz et al., 2014) that massage aids in reduction of muscle spasms, reducing damming, and improve blood circulation.

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Depression is the most common emotion linked to chronic back pain. Patients with chronic back pain have major depression which is said to be four times greater in such patients than in the general public in Australia. John is not an exception from this statistics since he reports that he is depressed because he can no longer take part in activities such as hiking and cycling that he has always loved.

Research has revealed that depression can trigger back pain (Steffens et al., 2012). It affects the intensity, frequency and the rate of healing of back pain. Consequently, I will advise John to communicate about the depression. Mostly, many patients do not talk to their physicians about their depression, anxiety, or stress (Center, 2012). Individuals that are stressed tend to tense their back muscles which in turn trigger the onset of low back pain or make it even worse.

They believe that the emotions will go away once the initial pain problem is solved. Therefore, John should regularly keep me updated about his feelings so that I may provide desirable care to him. I will also recommend John to interact with other people, for instance, he can occasionally visiting his daughter or son or play with his grandchild to avoid being lonely and stressed up.

The two activities that I will give priority in my subsequent visits are;

  1. Adherence to Medication

Generally, healthcare providers are aware of the considerable increase in rates of opioid prescribing. Opioids have long been used as pain management agents. However, they are associated with adverse reactions such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, respiratory depression, addiction, and even death. The side effects usually limit their use by patients. Therefore, in my first visit and subsequent visits, this is an issue I will be reviewing.

In these visits, I will assess the effectiveness of the prescribed analgesics and inquire from John on whether what he feels after taking the drug. I will then initiate appropriate adjustments according to the patient’s condition for effective pain management. Besides, other pain management therapies such as acupuncture, yoga, chiropractic care, and herbal medicines such as ginger, capsaicin and feverfew can be used (Ferreira et al., 2014).

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ii)  Exercise

According to Searle et al., (2015)exercise should be the first treatment choice for a patient with back problems such as John. This is because exercise matches the fact that individuals with chronic back pain should be physically active and involve themselves in their management. Moreover, treatments such as massage, acupuncture, and manipulative therapy are passive hence the patient is not involved in the therapy.

Falla et al., (2014) further highlight that exercise provides other health benefits beyond back pain management, for instance, in terms of bone and cardiovascular health. Therefore, I will encourage John to take part in usually low grade oscillatory exercises such as knees side to side rotation, knee to chest stretches, pelvic tilts, and press ups. I will also help John to come up with an exercise program which I will be supervising to ensure he follows it.

 There are several forms of exercise and there is no genuine reason of expecting that one approach would be better than the other (O’Sullivan, 2012; Elden et al, 2013).  As a result, I will give John a list of beneficial exercises he can engage in and enquire from him which type he would prefer so that it is included in the exercise program. The best form of exercise for any patient is the one they are enthusiastic about and willing to continue with.

For instance, John says he likes cycling; an activity that has been recorded to have desirable outcomes in patients with back pains. This can be included in his program. I will advise John not to take part in heavy physical activities, circular motions, and sways which often worsen the condition. I will encourage John to switch activities while sitting, lying or walking for a long time.

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Back pain is a common health problem in Australia (Cramer et al., 2013). However, its prevalence can be reduced significantly if patients and clinicians work together. Patients, for instance, should seek early medical attention and adhere to the prescribed medications and the recommended activities. On the other hand, physicians should keep a close surveillance on these patients and ensure that desirable patient outcomes are realized.


Brady, S. R., Hussain, S., Brown, W. J., Heritier, S., Billah, B., Wang, Y., & Cicuttini, F. M. (2016). Relationships between weight, physical activity and back pain in young adult women. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage24, S10-S11.

Buchbinder, R., Blyth, F. M., March, L. M., Brooks, P., Woolf, A. D., & Hoy, D. G. (2013). Placing the global burden of low back pain in context. Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology27(5), 575-589.

Center, C., Relief, P., Covington, L. A., & Parr, A. T. (2012). Caudal epidural injections in the management of chronic low back pain: a systematic appraisal of the literature. Pain Physician15, E159-E198.

Cramer, H., Lauche, R., Haller, H., & Dobos, G. (2013). A systematic review and meta-analysis of yoga for low back pain. The Clinical journal of pain, 29(5), 450-460.

Depression Goesling, J., Clauw, D. J., & Hassett, A. L. (2013). Pain and depression: an integrative review of neurobiological and psychological factors. Current psychiatry reports15(12), 1-8.

Driscoll, T., Jacklyn, G., Orchard, J., Passmore, E., Vos, T., Freedman, G., & Punnett, L. (2014). The global burden of occupationally related low back pain: estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. Annals of the rheumatic diseases, annrheumdis-2013.

Elden, H., Gutke, A., Kjellby-Wendt, G., Fagevik Olsén, M., Stankovic, N., & Östgaard, H. C. (2013). Back pain in relation to pregnancy: A longitudinal 10-year follow-up of 369 women diagnosed with pelvic girdle pain during pregnancy. In Advances in multidisciplinary research for better spinal/pelvic care. The 8th Interdiciplinary World Congress on Low Back & Pelvic Pain, Oct, 2013. Dubai.

Falla, D., Gizzi, L., Tschapek, M., Erlenwein, J., & Petzke, F. (2014). Reduced task-induced variations in the distribution of activity across back muscle regions in individuals with low back pain. PAIN®155(5), 944-953.

Ferreira, P. H., Ferreira, M. L., Maher, C. G., Refshauge, K. M., Latimer, J., & Adams, R. D. (2013). The therapeutic alliance between clinicians and patients predicts outcome in chronic low back pain. Physical therapy93(4), 470-478.

Heuch, I., Heuch, I., Hagen, K., & Zwart, J. A. (2013). Body mass index as a risk factor for developing chronic low back pain: a follow-up in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. Spine38(2), 133-139.

Hoy, D., March, L., Brooks, P., Blyth, F., Woolf, A., Bain, C., & Murray, C. (2014). The global burden of low back pain: estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. Annals of the rheumatic diseases, annrheumdis-2013.

 Kumar, S., Beaton, K., & Hughes, T. (2013). The effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review of systematic reviews. Int J Gen Med6, 733-741.

Lorig, K., Ritter, P. L., Plant, K., Laurent, D. D., Kelly, P., & Rowe, S. (2013). The South Australia health chronic disease self-management Internet trial. Health Education & Behavior40(1), 67-77.

O’Sullivan, P. (2012). It’s time for change with the management of non-specific chronic low back pain. British journal of sports medicine46(4), 224-227.

Schulz, C., Leininger, B., Evans, R., Vavrek, D., Peterson, D., Haas, M., & Bronfort, G. (2014). Spinal manipulation and exercise for low back pain in adolescents: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Chiropractic & manual therapies22(1), 1.

Searle, A., Spink, M., Ho, A., & Chuter, V. (2015). Exercise interventions for the treatment of chronic low back pain: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trialsClinical rehabilitation29(12), 1155-1167.

Silisteanu, S. C., & Covasa, M. (2015, November). Reduction of body weight through nutrition intervention reduces chronic low back pain. In E-Health and Bioengineering Conference (EHB), 2015 (pp. 1-3). IEEE.

Steffens, D., Ferreira, M. L., Maher, C. G., Latimer, J., Koes, B. W., Blyth, F. M., & Ferreira, P. H. (2012). Triggers for an episode of sudden onset low back pain: study protocol. BMC musculoskeletal disorders13(1), 7.

Tekur, P., Nagarathna, R., Chametcha, S., Hankey, A., & Nagendra, H. R. (2012). A comprehensive yoga programs improves pain, anxiety and depression in chronic low back pain patients more than exercise: an RCT.Complementary therapies in medicine20(3), 107-118.

Traeger, A. C., Moseley, G. L., Hübscher, M., Lee, H., Skinner, I. W., Nicholas, M. K., & Hush, J. M. (2014). Pain education to prevent chronic low back pain: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMJ open,4(6), e005505.

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Structure of academic writing

Structure of academic writing
Structure of academic writing

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Structure of academic writing

Writing an academic essay can be an uphill battle particularly when you are not sure where to begin. Thankfully, once you learn the structure of academic writing it might make it easier to write your paper. Also, a good structure can be applied to almost any kind of academic writing, including advanced thesis writing.

It is worth noting that a successful academic paper requires a lot more than just structure. For instance, a good essay topic is important. Also, how you organize your content and the research you put in is equally important. Finally, do not hesitate to rewrite and edit your draft until your essay is perfect.

Now, we will explain the basic structure of academic writing and how you can apply it to your essay.

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Understanding the structure of academic writing

Regardless of the nature of your academic paper, there is a basic structure of academic writing. The accepted way to structure your paper means that it should have the following:

  1. an introduction,
  2. a body, and
  3. a conclusion

Now, this structure is relevant whether you are writing a simple admission application essay or a postgraduate thesis.

Tips for Writing Your Essay Introduction

Your introduction is an essential part of your essay because it sets the tone for the rest of the paper. It also tells the reader what to expect from the academic paper as a whole. Therefore, you need to place careful thought into the crafting of your essay. Below are a few tips to help with writing your essay introduction.

Build context for your essay

Firstly, build context. One of the most common and successful ways of building context for your essay is through storytelling. Basically, you want to give the reader a brief background about the subject matter. This helps the reader to understand the context of the essay.

Include some facts and figures

Secondly, include facts and figures. Facts are a great way to get attention because they give your subject matter a more solid form. Without facts, your proposition may remain vague in the mind of the readers.

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Define key concepts

Thirdly, define key terms. The introductory section is where you can offer key definitions of terms used in your paper. This helps the reader to better understand the context in which you use certain words and terms.

State the aim of the essay

Fourthly, describe the purpose of the essay. You can do this by talking about the structure of the essay and stating what it is about. Your essay could be to prove, analyze, describe or compare. Explaining the purpose to readers helps them to know what to expect.

State the thesis statement

Finally, it is very important to firmly state the thesis statement in the introductory section. This serves as an introduction to the paper.

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Tips for Writing the Body of your Essay

Think of the body of your essay as the meat of the academic paper. This is an important part of the structure of academic writing. Here are a few tips to guide you.

Understand the type of essay

It is important to note that there are different types of essays. An essay could be argumentative, analytical, critical, descriptive, or a blend of all four types. Once you understand the type of academic paper you are working on, it will help you to structure your paragraphs.

Write in paragraphs

Subsequently, the body of the essay will be in the form of paragraphs. It is important to remember to break up your writing into paragraphs. This makes for easier reading.

Each paragraph should contain a single idea

Again, it is worth mentioning that each paragraph should contain a single idea. It is not good form to mix several ideas in a single paragraph and could lead to confusion.

Use topic sentences

Topic sentences are a great way to help you organize your thoughts as well as the idea for the paragraph. Thus, you are advised to begin your paragraphs with a topic sentence.

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The Conclusion

This is the final part of your paper and is used to present a powerful argument for your thesis statement. Write your conclusion by:

– Stating the thesis statement again

– Reviewing the main topics

– Summarizing the main points

– Concluding your argument

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Standard Academic Essay Format

Standard Academic Essay Format
Standard Academic Essay Format

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Standard Academic Essay Format

Is there a standard academic essay format? Depending on who you ask, you will get different answers. This can be confusing, so we have decided to answer the question once and for all here. This article will examine if there is indeed a standard format for academic essays and what form they take.

Yes, there is a standard academic essay format, but most institutions have a preferred format. Whilst there is no uniform style across all institutions for formatting your essays, there are some common denominators. So, one institution might prescribe a certain font or justification style, while another might use a different one. However, when it comes to certain areas like spacing, heading and pagination amongst others, the rules are somewhat similar.

Therefore, if you are writing an essay and use the specific essay format that has been given to you. But, if none has been specified, then you can format your essay using the standard below.

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Formatting Your Academic Essay

First, your essay must be clear and easy to read. Second, it should be set out in clearly distinguished paragraphs. And third, your essay needs to look professional. The standard academic essay format used here will help you achieve all the above mentioned.


If you are writing a long essay, like a PhD dissertation, for instance, you might need several levels of headings. Generally, most essays need about three levels with the first being the essay title. Here’s how to format your essay headings:

Heading 1 (or Essay Title) is usually bold, size 14 and centered.

Heading 2 is aligned left, size 12 and bold

Heading 3 is also aligned left, size 12, bold and italicized.

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It is generally a good idea to space your essays for several reasons. One, it makes it easier on the eye when reading. And two, the grader can easily write on the paper if it is in hard copy. Some academic institutions insist on double spacing, however, if there is no specification then use a 1.5 spacing.


In general, there are two rules of thumb when paragraphing in standard academic essay format. You can either indent the first line of the paragraph or leave a line between paragraphs. It is important to choose one style and be consistent. In other words, do not make use of both paragraphing styles when writing your essay.

Page Margins

There is no real set standard for page margins when writing your academic essay. If you are using Microsoft Word to write your essay, you could probably stick with the default. If not, then a margin of about 1 inch on both sides is good enough.

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So, we’ve already touched on fonts a little in the headings section. However, for the body of your essay you need to bear a few things in mind:

– Be consistent in your use of fonts. This means that you should not use multiple fonts across a single essay. Stick to one.

– Use straightforward fonts like New Times Roman or Arial. Do not even go near fonts like Comic Sans.

– Use 12 point fonts for your essay.


It used to be that the alignment in a standard academic essay format was justified. But, that has changed. Now it is best to make the body of your essay left-aligned for easy reading.

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Finally, most academic essays require that you number your pages. For academic essays, it is best to place the page numbers are the right-hand corner of the page. Again, if you are using Microsoft Word, you can easily insert the page numbers. If you are writing a thesis or an essay with several pages, then you need a title page. This is the page that has the essay title and your name. Note that the title page should not have a page number.

So, is there a standard academic essay format? We believe that there is, to some extent. However, this depends on the institution in question. If you need more help with formatting your academic essay, reach out to us.

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Academic Essay Structure Guide

Academic Essay Structure
Academic Essay Structure

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Academic Essay Structure

Writing an academic essay requires skill and some knowledge. Having a good understanding of the subject matter is important. Equally important, however, is how you arrange the subject matter so that it is logical and coherent. The key is to understand that the right academic essay structure is important.

While there is no particular structure for an essay, having some sort of structure is important. Fact is, the type of essay and what it is focused on will affect the structure. So, an academic essay structure for a thesis might be different from an admission application essay for instance. That said, there is a generally accepted structure for most essays and that’s what we’ll share in this article.

The General Academic Essay Structure

The general structure for academic essays is usually broken into five parts. These include the introduction, three paragraphs, which make up the body of your essay and a concluding paragraph. Of course, it is important to note that the body of your essay might need more than three paragraphs. This largely depends on the subject matter as well as the scope of your essay. The larger the scope, the more paragraphs you would need.

However, for this article, we will work with three paragraphs for the body of your essay. We will take you through how to write an engaging introduction to your essay. Afterwards, we will go through the construction of your paragraphs and finally, the conclusion.

This is a guide to help you get a working academic essay structure to enable you to put your essay together. If you have already written your essay, you can go through the steps below to ensure synthesis in your work.

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How to Write an Engaging Introduction

The introductory paragraph to your essay is a very important one. This is because it is what will determine if your reader keeps reading the essay or not. Therefore, your introductory paragraph must align with your essay title. Also, it should shed some light on what the rest of the essay is about.

Here are some tips for writing an introductory paragraph that grabs the attention of the reader:

– It requires stating again that the introduction should align with the essay title.

– Take a firm stance and let your readers know what it is. This is not the place to sit on the fence, figuratively speaking.

– Start with a hook that gets your reader’s attention. This can be a controversial statement or a question.

– If there are certain key terms that you use in the essay, explain them.

– Finally, state your thesis statement, if you have one.

Once you have crafted a gripping introduction, the next step is to write the body of your essay.

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Constructing Your Paragraphs

Again, writing the body of your essay requires care and deliberateness. This is the meat of your essay so to speak and is an essential part of your academic essay structure. When writing your paragraphs, note that each paragraph should contain a single idea. Paragraphs are used to build your argument so each thought should follow logically.

Tip: Use the what, how, and why of your essay to build your paragraphs. What is your essay about? Why not use the first paragraph of the body of your essay to state your claims? Then how you justify those claims could come in the next paragraph. Finally, explain why your position or claims are important. This is the time to show if your subject matter has any greater significance.

Once you have the body of your essay written, the final step is the concluding paragraph.

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Concluding with a Summary

Finally, end your essay by giving your reader a sense that the essay has come to a logical end. Therefore, you should once again state your thesis statement, if there is one. Then, give a summary of your main points and finish up on a positive note.

In conclusion, writing a great essay does not have to be difficult once you get the academic essay structure. But if you need help from a professional essay writer, get in touch with us.

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Geox case study

Geox case study
Geox case study

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Geox case study

Case analysis: Geox shoe company


            The impact of innovation has been increasing in the recent few years. Innovation is taking place in all products including shoe manufacturing factories. Mr. Palegato’s story points to “necessity” as the driving force behind innovations. 

However, we also learn that most innovation ideas are not put to use due to lack of ability to implement them. He approached different shoe manufacturing firms who did not buy his idea of ‘breathing shoe’ product.

Product diversification and development is seen as another driving force behind the success of many companies. Geox Company realized the importance of product diversification and extended their breathability technology into fabric products. Geox embraced innovation in its operation which gave the company a competitive advantage.

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Important points

Geox history


Continuous innovation is necessary for the survival of human race due to the ever changing natural demands. Product development is essential for company’s performance in the current competitive world markets. Though initially started by manufacturing shoes for the children, Geox extended breathing technology into jackets and other fabric items.

The company invested heavily in research and development by involving engineers and best universities. The company carried out continuous experiments in its state of the art laboratories, continuously generating new research ideas for the company.

Patents and copyright laws are important in driving innovation. Gaining patent rights has helped many companies to survive in the world market. Geox shoe producing company is known for innovation and company patent rights have been protected sufficiently and their innovations are not under threats of copying and imitation by its rivals.

Geox investments in research and development yielded a stream of patents; over 50 patents were obtained to its name by September 2009. There were patents related to equipment, machinery and even processes and materials. 

Smart people with smart ideas have always found their way out just like Mr. Polecat. Although most people are creative, many lack the ability to translate their good ideas into business opportunities. Engaging in marketing research gives any given company an opportunity to be competitive.

Technological development is necessary to support innovations. Goex did not enter into main shoe market until they introduced a different technology in their breathing technology to help them expand into producing sports shoes. Technology is seen as a pre-condition for innovation. Innovation alone cannot guarantee good performance of company products especially in the fashion-mindful shoe industry. 

Competition should not deter the implementation of business ideas. Fierce competition in the shoe manufacturing sector did not deter Polegato from pursuing his business idea. Instead it helped him come up with better ideas to win customers. Competition from other players in the industry helped the firm to grow in strength.

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Global footwear industry

The world market is growing and more so the demands for shoes just like other goods and services. The USA provides the biggest market for shoes although Asian market is growing rapidly. This market is highly segmented hence provides manufacturers the opportunity to specialize, for instance in casual wear, children and sports.

            Market segmentation gives new entrants an opportunity to venture into big market by starting off with a particular market segment and later expand into the bigger market. Geox entered the shoe market by producing shoes for children before venturing into the larger market.

We should be flexible and avoid sticking to our areas of specialization all the time. Although specialization has been found to increase individual competence in a particular area, overspecialization may lead to loss of opportunities for many people. Having interest in things outside your area of expertise helped in establishment of Geox company which is quite different from Polegato’s areas of specialization.

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Geox profile

Setting clear company objectives is necessary for the performance of any company. Geox Footwear Company just like other firms in footwear industry has clear objectives that guide their operations. Their operations are lined towards achieving the set objectives.  

Outsourcing is necessary for cutting costs and helps in saving costs associated with setting up new firms in a new area. The money saved can be utilized in other areas that are more demanding. For instance, Geox outsourced its production to Asian shoe factories which contributed over 95% of its total production. Outsourcing was the company’s easiest way of entering new markets of Asia without necessarily installing full operational plant.

Brand name is necessary marketing tool for company products. Geox name had been established as a popular brand name across the globe, this acted as a major marketing tool for its products. Company brand name differentiates its products from those of its competitors and is easily accepted in the market without even much advertisement and sales promotion.

However advertisement and sales promotion plays a crucial role in popularizing company products. However, communication strategy determines the effectiveness of advertising to the audience.

A well established distribution channel is equally necessary for company performance. Customers require goods when they need them and this depends on the efficiency of company’s distribution network. Geox had excellent distribution network spread across the globe of over 10,000 multi- brand stores and 997 single stores Geox stores located in major world cities.

Staff development through training and promotion cannot be underestimated. Staffs need to be motivated to give their best in terms of performance. For instance, Geox School was established in 2001 which was training school for both new recruits and company staff.

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Footwear key players

Footwear industry is one of the most competitive industries in the world today. The major players includes boss holdings, brown shoe company, coach inclusive company,  Iconix Brand Group, Rocky Brands, skin Inc. among others.

However, challenges are inevitable and companies should be prepared for the challenges that arise. For instance, global economic downtown exhibited in 2009, adversely affected Geox just like many others. 

However drastic measures are called for to overcome external challenges. For example, the company halted its expansion strategy until the period of economic recovery to consolidate its weakened financial status. In most cases, strategic change is necessary to minimize production and operational costs sometimes leading to the laying off some staff to cut down company costs. 


From the story of Mr. Mario Polegato and Geox Shoe Company, we realize that most innovative ideas are left unutilized due to lack of ability to implement them.  It’s my view that had not Mr. Polegato had the ability and means to raise funds to implement his breathing shoe technology, the idea could have been wasted.

Innovation is key for survival of any company in the evolving world market hence patenting laws need to be enhanced to promote innovation. Governments should embrace the idea generation to encourage creativity among its citizens.

Companies should carry out industry and external market analysis to inform its strategic marking process. Analysis of industry will assist in establishing company strengths and weaknesses as well available opportunities to exploit, and threats posed by the industry players. External analysis will prepare the company for unforeseen challenges and benefits. 

Investment in research and development should be accompanied with investments in new technology and infrastructure that provide conducive environment for the function of companies. Globalization and opening of borders have greatly contributed to the growth of many firms by offering markets for their goods and services. 

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Innovation is taking its rightful place as the main weapon for company survival in the global market. Therefore, this noble concept should be supported by all governments and major players tasked with regulation of trade and patent rights. Technological development, political stability, favorable economic environment and ecological and social factors have both negative and positive influence on performance of manufacturing firms. Companies should always be prepared for the unforeseen circumstances that have led to downfall of many companies in the past.


Ali Farahoomand. (2011) Breathing innovation into shoes; Asia case research Centre, University of Hong Kong. POON Kam Kai series; 10/472c

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Explicit and Implicit Memory

Explicit and Implicit Memory
Explicit and Implicit Memory

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Explicit and Implicit Memory

Define and explain the differences between Explicit and Implicit Memory. Explain the role of the hippocampus in forming memories.

Explicit and Implicit Memory

Explicit memory is the information that an individual works consciously to remember while information that is remembered effortlessly or unconsciously is known as implicit memory.  There has been a lot of research on explicit memory and presently, researchers are working on finding out how implicit memory functions and the influence it has on behavior and knowledge (Myers, 2011).

Explicit memory stores information in cases where a person is trying to remember something intentionally, for example, what was learnt at school. This memory is used daily when recalling things such as the time and date of an appointment, the current president, a friend’s phone number, and a test’s information.

This memory is also referred to as declarative memory since an individual explains and recalls the information consciously. Explicit memory may be semantic that involves memories of names, concepts, and facts, or episodic that deals with long-term memories of particular events (Myers, 2011).

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Implicit memory involves the things people do not try to remember purposely. It is both unintentional and unconscious (Myers, 2011). It is also referred to as declarative as an individual cannot make it available consciously. For example, a person does not consciously remember how to turn on the television. Although implicit memory is recalled consciously, it has an impact on behavior and knowledge on varying tasks. 

The role of the Hippocampus in forming memories

            The brain’s horse-shoe shaped area has a vital role in that it consolidates information from short-term into long-term memory. The hippocampus is a component of the limbic system that is linked to long-term memories and emotions. Moreover, it is involved in complicated processes including organizing, storing, and forming memories. In case one hippocampus side gets damaged, memory function remains almost normal as it is present in the two brain hemispheres (Myers, 2011).

Explicit and Implicit Memory


Myers, D. G.  (2011). Psychology in Everyday Life (2nd Ed.).  (Chapter 6, 78-90). New York:      Worth Publishers.

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