Collective Bargaining Assignment

Collective Bargaining
Collective Bargaining

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Collective Bargaining

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Written Assignment 1 
(25 points) 3-4 pages, not including cover or References pages

Locate an article describing a collective bargaining situation that has arisen within the past two years. This article should be from a newspaper, an academic journal, or a credible online news source. Use a minimum of two additional references to support your discussion and to respond to the questions in the assignment.

a. Using APA guidelines, state the proper citation for the article.

b. State the nature of the collective bargaining dispute.

c. What are the underlying causes of the dispute?

d. What economic or ethical pressures has each side attempted to use to prevail in the dispute?

e. If there is any evidence of any illegal or unethical conduct on either side, describe it in detail.

f. Was the dispute resolved? If so, how?

g. What, if any, role was played by third parties in resolving this bargaining dispute? What was the identity of the third party?

h. In retrospect, could this dispute have been resolved in a more constructive fashion? If so, how? 

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Comments and Constructive Criticism

Comments and Constructive Criticism
Comments and Constructive Criticism

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Comments and Constructive Criticism

Article Reviews.

Article 1.

Excellent study!  Organization project management (OPM), is a platform that defines the company portfolios, programs and projects. OPM is the primary factor that ensures that projects align with the company’s long term strategic plan and that the projects undertaken by the firm are supervised and managed as a single entity and does not interfere with each other.

            Project management is one of the factors that leads to an organization growth and development. To have a successful project, the firm must integrate its culture, innovation, organization structure, strategic plans and the portfolio management. In addition, the shareholders must be the ones spearheading the projects process by overseeing the top management responsibilities and how they are able to communicate the process or the development of the project within the company, (Kerzner, pg.87, 2013).

For the project to be successful, the company must come up with a good budget that aims to finance the project to completion.This goes hand in hand with the shareholders defining on how the project is to be financed and the project proposed must be congruent with the company’s vision and its long term strategic objectives and goals.

Project managers should seek consensus on the selection of the projects, discussion from the company ideas through the innovative processes to the completion of the project. This do include the pre development of the project, development activities and commercialization activities of an individual project.

Companies must create an innovative environment within the organization. This helps the employees to be part of new implementation of the company process and it also encourages new ways of thinking and hence new skills are innovated. Without this platform, any implementation of company changes may lead to the failure of the company’s projects since the employees have not brought up to speed with the processes.

Comments and Constructive Criticism

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Article 2.

All projects that are launched by companies do not meet all the necessary success criteria. Most of them are affected by the customers’ taste and preferences and if it fails to align with their needs, the project may fail. It is argued that having chaotic requirements and constructions reworks in between the project life cycle, the project definitely fails.

Company projects that have a good starting point, well organized and planned stages, and a forecasted end point are believed to be successful. When the firm has a credible project that is well organized and planned and there is the stakeholders’ intervention from the start point to end point, the project is forecasted to be successful.

Comments and Constructive Criticism

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To ensure this, the top management must take into consideration the project schedule, project scope, support from the top managers, support of the customers, tasks that are technical, acceptance by the clients, monitoring and feedback, communication and trouble shooting. For this to happen, the company should consider the hand off process that ensure the project transition from the inception-to-order, (ITO). In addition, integration of all the aspects of project management should be exercised in order to guarantee a successful project.

The company top management needs to implement flexible and durable changes that aims to meet the company long term objectives and goals. The company will have to implement changes like stage gate model that will help the project manager to be able to scope the project, build the business case for the product, design the project, testing and validating the product and finally taking the product to the operation phase.


Kerzner, H. R. (2013). Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.

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Teenage violence in School: Article Review

teenage violence
Teenage violence in School

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Teenage Violence

Forster, M., Grigsby, T. J., Unger, J. B., &Sussman, S. (2015). Associations between gun violence exposure, gang associations, and youth aggression: Implications for prevention and intervention programs. Journal of criminology2015.


Forster, Grigsby, Unger and Sussman (2015) conducted a study that investigated the link between gang association, exposure to neighborhood violence and social self control to incidences of aggression at school. The study collected data from minority youths from three Southeast Los Angeles schools. In the literature review, the authors show that aggression is a serious problem in schools. According to Forster et al (2015), over 600,000 teenagers reported assault related injuries annually, in addition, between 20 and 40 percent of school going students had experienced a bullying incident at school. The literature review also revealed that between 700,000 and 1,000,000 teenagers were members of gangs.

Past studies have shown that exposure and association to gangs, affiliation with delinquent peers, and family processes are indicators of violence perpetration and victimization. To investigate the link between the variables, the study sampled 77 female and 87 male 7th and 8th graders in three South Los Angeles middle schools. Questionnaires were used to collect data on substance abuse, demographics, social self-control, and family and peer gang association, neighborhood violence and self-reported aggression.

The study reported that teenagers with high levels of social self-control were less likely to be involved in past week aggressive episodes. Students with friends who were members of gangs reported 91 per cent higher incidents of aggressive episodes. For girls, aggression was 46 per cent higher if the family was affiliated to gangs. Exposure and fear of gun violence also increased the incidence of aggressive episodes by 26 per cent. According to the study, students were most likely to be involved in aggressive incidents if they were male, had friends associated with gangs, and had low levels of social self-control.

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Forster, Grigsby, Unger and Sussman (2015) is useful study as it explores an area of research where there exist little empirical evidence to link the variables. It is worthwhile to note that the research provides an insightful background on the teenage and school violence. The author then seeks to investigate the factors that lead to high rates of aggression among teenagers and school going students. Unfortunately, the research only sampled 164 students which is a small sample to facilitate the generalization of the results of the study to the general population.

In addition, the study was conducted in only three schools in the South Los Angeles area where gang violence and gun crime is common (Forster et al, 2015). It is obvious that teenage aggression in other areas may be driven by other factors apart from association with gangs and exposure to gun violence. However, the results than link social self-control to lower levels of self-reported aggression can be generalizable to other student populations.

Using self-reported measures is also a major weakness of the study as the students may fail to report honestly on most of the data collected. Observation would have been a better option for collecting the data on past week aggression as opposed to self-reported measures of aggression. Using observation, the researcher would have been able to see and record incidents of aggression rather than hear about them from the participants.

The study rightly concludes that school based interventions can be used to disrupt the development of aggressive behavior. School based programs can help indeed help in the development of social self-control which has an inverse relationship with the development of aggressive behavior.


Forster et al (2015) is a very useful study in research on teenage violence, and associated the associated study areas. The study provides valuable statistics on the state of teenage violence indicating that more than 600,000 school age children report aggression related injuries every year. The study helps to illustrate that teenage violence is a serious problem affecting many school going children and it is an area that warrants further research.

Most importantly, the research identifies some of the factors that are predictors of teenage violence perpetration or victimization. The study reveals that association with gangs and gang members is a contributing factor to aggressiveness among teenagers. Other impacts of gang association such as the tendency to use substances and other truant behaviors can also be investigated in future studies in the area.

The study also reports an inverse relationship between social self-control and incidents of teenage aggression. Further studies also need to be conducted to establish whether self-control can decrease aggression among teenagers who associate with gangs, and have been exposed to gun violence. The study also indicates that self-reported measures of aggression were limitations of the study, and thus another method of data collection like observation can be used for future studies. The study design also provides a research model that can be expanded for future research in the area of teenage truancy and violence.

The research sample for future research on the topic can be expanded to more schools from more heterogeneous school districts to ensure the results can be generalized. Therefore, Forster (2015) is an important research article that provides preliminary evidence linking association with gangs, social self control, and family association with gangs with teenage violence perpetuation. Most importantly, the study establishes several directions for future research in the area.


Forster, M., Grigsby, T. J., Unger, J. B., & Sussman, S. (2015). Associations between gun violence exposure, gang associations, and youth aggression: Implications for prevention and intervention programsJournal of criminology2015.

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Motivation Mystery: How to Keep Employees Productive Article Critique

Motivation Mystery: How to Keep Employees Productive
Motivation Mystery: How to Keep Employees Productive

Motivation Mystery: How to Keep Employees Productive

The article “Motivation Mystery: How to Keep Employees Productive” by Patrick Hull is not only an interesting but also an enlightening resource. Inferring from the article, it is apparent that motivating employees in the workplace to ensure that they remain productive is a current pertinent event, which researchers have to address.

Managers have always focused on providing incentives to the employees to keep them motivated, and hence productivity. Among those that have produced the expected outcomes include bonuses, perks, amenities, education, and positive recognition. While these benefits might be optimal, it is of central importance to go well beyond the practice of providing incentives (Hull, 2013). This is especially due to the notion that incentives may not be sustainable. As such, they may change, and this might correspond with a shift in the motivation depicted by the employees.

For example, if the incentives are scaled down, it means that the worker motivation will also decline. In the light of this, while still providing the incentives, it is important to devise another strategy to maintain the employees’ morale. The course that Zappos, which is an online clothing and shoe company based in Las Vegas, is a benchmark model (Hull, 2013). The firm does not provide extraordinary perks for the employees. Instead, the Chief Executive Officer has created a corporate culture that elicits and maintains happiness, and which builds loyalty among the employees.

To conclude, it is perceptible that organizations have to be highly innovative in their employee motivation practices. Not all methods, such as the provision of integrated incentives, can ensure long-term motivation and productivity subsequently. It is suggested that managers should focus on creating a culture that creates happiness and loyalty among the workers.


Hull, P. (2013). Motivation Mystery: How to Keep Employees Productive. Forbes. Retrieved from

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Nurse work environment: Article Critical Analysis

Nurse work environment
Nurse work environment

Nurse work environment: Article Critical Analysis


Critical appraisal is conducted for 3 main reasons; a) to improve nursing practice, b) to increase nursing knowledge and understanding c) to provide a baseline for the study to be conducted. There is need for thorough understanding of the research study so as to establish the study strengths and weaknesses, and to evaluate the quality if strength of the evidence developed by the study as well as the appropriateness of its use in the reader’s practice. 

In this context, this essay is a critical appraisal of the following article; Ma, C., & Park, S. H. (2015). Hospital Magnet status, unit work environment, and pressure ulcers. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 47(6), 565-573.

Critical analysis

  The article introduces the topic in a way that orientates the reader to the subject. It provides the background information using succinct statements. The last sentence of the introduction part is the thesis statement (Creswell, 2014; Jaul, 2013). Pressure ulcers are critical patient issue because they are associated with prolonged hospital stays, increases patient risks for adverse events and increased consumption of the healthcare costs (Cai, Rahman, & Intrator, 2013; Buttaro et al., 2013, p. 304).

Nurses play crucial role in preventing pressure ulcers. However, the degree of patient safety is determined by the nurse work place environment, “The organizational factors in work-environments facilitate or constrain the professional nursing practice” (Ma & Parks, 2015, p. 566).  The article evaluates the nursing factors at both the hospital and unit level associated with Hospital acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU).

The research problem and its significance

The research problem in this study is the organization’s factors or nurse work environment that negatively influence patient’s outcome, such as increasing HAPU incidence. “The unit-level work environments have major impact on the nurse work environment” (Ma & Sharks, 2015, p.65). The research problem is a focal point of research. It is well stated in this article and generates questions in which the research study aims to address (Stafford & Brower, 2012, p. 11; Suttipong & Sindhu, 2011, p. 373).

On the other hand, the significance of a study is the rationale of the study.  The researcher proves to the audience that the research is vital and worth doing it.  For instance, the study indicates that the need to reduce hospital acquired pressure ulcers has gained national attention. “There are approximately 2.5 million pressure ulcers that occur in the USA, and coasts $9.1-11.6 billion (Ma &Sharks, 2015, p. 65).”

 The research design and methods

Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt state that research design is the overall strategy chosen by the researcher to integrate different components of the study. It should be constructed in a logical manner to ensure that the researcher effectively address the research problem using the appropriate data collection method and analysis of data.  In this context, design includes the study setting, description of the study sample, data collection method and data analysis. This part describes all the instruments used and their rationale; (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2014; Lewis, 2014).

 The research method is used in this article is qualitative. The research design used in this article is the Cross-sectional observational study of data collected from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI). This research design is appropriate for this study because it examines the relationship of exposure and outcome in a defined population at one point in time.

In addition, the research design is inexpensive, less time consuming and provides a good but quick picture of prevalence of the research problem and its outcome. Although appropriate for this study, the main issue with this research design lacks time element making it difficult to determine the temporal relationship between the research problem and the outcome of the proposed intervention (Ma & Sharks, 2015, p.567).

 Data used in this article was collected from NDNQI. NDNQI is a repository for nursing quality data in the USA that enables the researchers to conduct comparative analysis in order to develop evidence based practices for nursing-sensitive patient practices and outcomes at unit level.

The data collected was supplemented with the NDNQI RN survey, which collected information related to nurse work conditions such as work content, environments and demographics.  The total participants for RN survey was 33, 845 from 1,381 units in 373 healthcare facilities in 44 States. The inclusion criteria for this survey were nurses who had spent 50% of their time in general units in the hospital within the last three months.

The researcher also established measures to ensure reliability of the data collected, “To ensure reliability of the aggregated unit measures…… units with RN response rate below 50% were excluded from data analysis (Ma & Sharks, 2015, p.566).”

Data analysis of the collected data was compare the nurse work environments, staffing levels, HAPU rates and the RN skill mix of the NDQI member hospitals.  Three multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate the effect of nurse work environment and healthcare facilities management of HAPU. The data analysis used is appropriate for this nature of the study as it provides conclusive comparative analysis (Ma & Sharks, 2015, p.568).

 Findings and their relevance to contemporary nursing policy and practice

 The study examined work environments impact on management of HAPU at hospital and unit level.  The study findings indicate that improving working environments both at hospital level and unit level results to lower HAPU rates.  The data findings presentation in this article  is concise and appropriately used non-textual elements such as table summaries and figures to present data findings effectively.  The data provided is critical in answering the research question. For instance, Magnet hospital units had 21% low odds of having HAPU as compared to the non-magnet hospital.  

There are several limitations noted in this study. To start with, participation of hospitals in NDNQI is voluntary, which indicates overrepresentation or underrepresentation of hospitals with certain characteristics. Secondly, the study omitted some specific information such as ethnicity, socioeconomic status and other co-morbidities that could introduce residual confounding effects. In addition, patient level information in most of quality indicators is limited.

Despite the limitations, the study findings are consistent with the previous studies. The nursing implication of this study is that it improves the understanding of work environments in relation to patient’s outcomes. In this context, the nurse work environment refers to the context in which the nurses provide patient centered care (Guihan et al., 2016, Matsuo, Oie, & Furukawa, 2013).

The quality of care is influenced by the nurse work environment characteristics such as the administrative support, nurse-physician relations and nurse resource adequacy.  Effective nurse work environments are established through better communication, team work between the healthcare providers and higher autonomy/practice control.

Nurses in such types of environments are less likely to suffer from burnout or express intent to quit their jobs, but are likely to function efficiently, deliver superior quality of care that ultimately improves patient’s overall outcome (Demarre et al., 2014, p. 392; Singh et al., 2015, p.7; Neilson et al., 2014, p. 21).


The study findings in this study facilitate the understanding the link between organizational environments and the patient outcomes. This study highlights the effectiveness of unit-specific quality improvement initiatives in today’s highly specialized care. This study generates new ideas that will help improve patient safety and quality of care in nursing practice.


Buttaro, T. M., Trybulski, J., Polgar Bailey, P., & Sandberg-Cook, J. (2013). Primary care: A collaborative practice (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Cai, S., Rahman, M., & Intrator, O. (2013). Obesity and Pressure Ulcers Among Nursing Home Residents. Medical Care, 1.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). A concise introduction to mixed methods research. Sage Publications.

Demarre, L., Verhaeghe, S., Van Hecke, A., Clays, E., Grypdonck, M., & Beeckman, D. (2014). Factors predicting the development of pressure ulcers in an at-risk population who receive standardized preventive care: secondary analyses of a multicentre randomised controlled trial. J Adv Nurs, 71(2), 391-403.

Guihan, M., Murphy, D., Rogers, T., Parachuri, R., SAE Richardson, M., Lee, K., & Bates-Jensen, B. (2016). Documentation of preventive care for pressure ulcers initiated during annual evaluations in SCI. The Journal Of Spinal Cord Medicine, 160204031040002.

Jaul, E. (2013). Cohort study of atypical pressure ulcers development. International Wound Journal, 11(6), 696-700.

Jaul, E. (2014). Multidisciplinary and comprehensive approaches to optimal management of chronic pressure ulcers in the elderly. Chronic Wound Care Management And Research, 3.

Lewis, R. (2014). Reducing harm from pressure ulcers. Nursing Standard, 29(12), 74-74.

Matsuo, M., Oie, S., & Furukawa, H. (2013). Contamination of blood pressure cuffs by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and preventive measures. Irish Journal Of Medical Science, 182(4), 707-709.

Ma, C., & Park, S. H. (2015). Hospital Magnet status, unit work environment, and pressure ulcers. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 47(6), 565-573. 

Melnyk, B., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2014).Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare: A guide to best practice, 3rd Edition. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Neilson, J., Avital, L., Willock, J., & Broad, N. (2014). Using a national guideline to prevent and manage pressure ulcers. Nursing Management – UK, 21(2), 18-21

Singh, R., Dhayal, R., Sehgal, P., & Rohilla, R. (2015). To Evaluate Antimicrobial Properties of Platelet Rich Plasma and Source of Colonization in Pressure Ulcers in Spinal Injury Patients. Ulcers, 2015, 1-7.

Stafford, A., & Brower, J. (2012). Let’s get comfortable. Nursing Management (Springhouse), 43(9), 10-12.

Suttipong, C., & Sindhu, S. (2011). Predicting factors of pressure ulcers in older Thai stroke patients living in urban communities. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 21(3-4), 372-379.

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Nurse staffing: Article Critique

Nurse staffing
Nurse staffing

Nurse Staffing Article Critique Questions

Question 1: Introduction

            The authors of this article have various nursing qualifications that make them competent to carry out an investigation on the given topic. Sung-Hyun Choo is a registered nurse with a doctoral degree in nursing. Barbara A. Mark is a registered nurse with a doctoral degree in nursing, and he also possesses the Fellows of the American Academy of Nursing (FAAN) qualifications. George Knafl has a doctoral degree in nursing, Hyoung Eun Chang is a registered nurse with a Masters degree in Public Health, and Hyo-Jeong Yoon is a registered nurse.

            The current study is an empirical quantitative research that examines how nurse staffing and experiences of patients are related as well as how missed nursing care affects this relationship. The variables in the study therefore are; nurse staffing, experiences of patients, and missed care by nurses. The study population comprises of patients, nurses, and nurse managers.

            The purpose of the study is to assess the relationship between experiences of patients and nurse staffing and to find out the mediating impact that missed care has on this relationship. The researchers have used a correlational study design to carry out their research. The study is based in South Korea. A total of 208 patients and 362 nurses have been sampled from 23 treatment units in six health care facilities in the region.

Nurse staffing has been measured based on the manner in which patients and nurses perceive nursing adequacy as well as on patient-to-nurse ratios. Experiences of patients has been measured using the occurrence of adverse events, the way patients communicate with nurses, and on how patients rate the health facilities. The researchers have used the MISSCARE Survey-Patient that contains three domains to measure missed care as reported by patients.

            There are two key findings in this study. First, the researchers have found that there is a significant relationship between patients’ perceptions of nurse staffing adequacy and patients’ experiences as well as missed care as reported by patients. Second, missed nursing care as reported by patients mediates the relationship between experiences of patients and nurse staffing.

Question 2: Research Problem and Purpose

            The problem statement for this study states that, “In light of the increasing emphasis on patients’ perceptions and experiences, research on the relationships among nurse staffing as assessed using empirical and perceptual measures, patient-reported missed care, and patients’ experiences is expected to enhance our understanding of how nurses and nursing care contribute to patients’ experiences (p. 348).”

The purpose statement of the study states that, “The purposes of this study were (a) to examine the relationship of nurse staffing, as measured by nurse-perceived and patient-perceived staffing adequacy as well as by the patient-to-nurse-ratio, with patient experiences, and (b) to determine the mediating effects of patient-reported missed care on the relationship between nurse staffing and patients’ experiences (p. 348).”

This study is significant in the sense that, it will help the health facilities in South Korea to understand how patients perceive nurse staffing as well as the main factor that contributes to missed nursing care. This study is relevant to nursing because its findings will help health care organizations to learn that patients’ experiences can be improved and missed care can be reduced by providing appropriate nurse staffing.

The study is feasible to conduct because the researchers possess the right expertise to carry out the research. In addition, the subjects that the researchers can use in the study are readily available, and the health care facilities from where the study participants can be obtained are easily accessible.

Question 3: Review of the Literature

            The three major topics listed in the review of literature include; the relationship between nurse staffing and patient outcomes, the effect of missed care on nursing quality and patients’ outcomes, as well as the measurement of nurse staffing.

 Two models have been identified in the review of the literature. The first theoretical model assumes that negative patient outcomes and high rates of missed nursing care are attributed to inadequate nurse staffing. The second model states that patient’s experiences, as well as the way patients perceive missed care, are directly affected by nurse staffing.

            The review of literature perfectly describes current knowledge of the research problem because it describes what other researchers have written about the study topic as well as the gaps that new studies should fill. In addition, the review if literature has mainly focused on articles published between 2008 and 2016.

            The studies reviewed in the review of literature have been summarized based on the way they address the relationship between nurse staffing and patient outcomes, as well as in the way they describe the association between missed care and nursing quality. The studies have also been summarized based on the way they describe how nurse staffing should be measured.

Question 4: Study Framework

            The authors have explicitly described the study’s framework and their description leaves no doubt to the reader. This description can easily be followed by someone else who did not conduct the study.

 The important concepts found in the study’s framework include the samples used in the study and how they have been obtained, the measures that have been used to study the performance of variables, the methodology used to collect data, as well as how the collected data has been analyzed.

            The framework presents the relationship among the major concepts of the study. For instance, the data collection process indicates how information has been obtained from nurse managers, nurses, and patients that were selected at the sampling stage.

Question 5: Research Objectives, Questions, or Hypotheses

            This article has clearly stated the study objective which also serves as the study purpose. However, the researchers have not pointed out clearly whether there are specific research questions or hypotheses being addressed.

The article’s objective states that, “The aims of this study were to examine the relationships between nurse staffing and patients’ experiences, and to determine the mediating effects of patient-reported missed care on the relationship between nurse staffing and patients’ experiences (p. 347).”

Question 6: Variables

            The major study variables are nurse staffing, experiences of patients, and missed care as reported by patients. Out of the three variables, one of them is an independent variable and two of them are dependent variables. The independent variable is nurse staffing while the dependent variables are experiences of patients and missed care as reported by patients. The performance of the dependent variables is determined by the nature of nurse staffing.

The conceptual definitions of the major variables have been provided in the study. Nurse staffing has been defined by the number of nurses, patients’ experiences have been defined by patient outcomes, while missed care has been defined by the timely responses to care that patients receive from nurses.

            The operational definitions of major variables are explained in the methods section. Nurse staffing has been defined by patients’ perception of staffing adequacy. Patients’ experience has been defined by hospital rating, adverse events, and communication. While missed care as perceived by patients has been defined by basic care and communication.

            The author has not identified any extraneous variables used in the study. Demographic variables such as age, gender, and sex of participants have not been specified in the study.

Question 7: Research Design

            The research design used in the study is correlational design. This is because the researchers are trying to investigate the relationship between dependent and independent variables as well as how that relationship is affected by one of the dependent variables.

 The correlational study design perfectly matches the study objective because it allows the researcher to examine how nurse staffing and experiences of patients are related as well as how missed nursing care affects this relationship. Its effectiveness is answering the research questions and hypotheses have not been explained because the researchers have not clearly stated the questions and hypotheses that are being addressed by the study. Since the study purpose in this research is the one that acts as the study objective, it can be concluded that correlational research design provides a means to examine the study purpose.

            The study includes interventions and this is evidenced by the use of a number of specific measures to examine the performance of variables. For instance, missed care as reported by patients has been examined by using domains such as basic care and communication between nurses and patients. Pilot study findings have been used to design the major study because the researchers have relied on previous study findings to organize their study framework.

Question 8: Strengths and Weaknesses

            One of the strengths of the study lies in the use of a large sample size that helps the researchers to minimize bias. The other strength of the study lies in the manner in which the researchers have used a correlational study design that helps them to examine the relationship among variables.

 The main weakness of the study is that the findings may not be generalized because the researchers have focused their study in health facilities in Korean context alone without integrating what might happen in other countries. In addition, other patient characteristics which have not been adjusted in the study might have contributed to the observed patient experiences.


Cho, S., Mark, B. A., Knafl, G., Chang, H. E. & Yoon, H. (2017). Relationships between nurse staffing and patients’ experiences, and the mediating effects of missed nursing care. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 49(3): 347-355.

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