Nursing theories

Nursing theories
Nursing theories

Nursing theories Question 1

Nursing is a field that has been changing rapidly over the years and along with its good transition is the coming up of various nursing theories (Cowen, 2014). These theories are what the advanced nursing practitioners keep in mind d use as a guide to either give them a sense of direction during work or help them understand and grasp most valuable lessons of nursing. Science based nursing theories specifically have been a backbone of clinical care.

Self-efficacy is a theory by Alberta Bandura that came about from the socio-cognitive approach (Maddux, 2013). This theory acclaims that there exist three aspects that affect self-efficacy, these are the environment, habits as well as personal factors. Schwarzer, (2014) states that self-efficacy theory is exceedingly important for advanced nursing practitioners in that, the goal of all healthcare providers is for people to manage their health (self-efficacy) particularly those patients with chronic illnesses such as diabetes, asthma or hypertension. T

his in a way goes in line with what Bandura concluded in his theory that motivation, performance, and feelings of frustration associated with repeated failures impact an individual’s perception of health.

Another important theory is the tidal model theory by Phil Barker, which emphasizes on helping people to reclaim the personal story of mental distress by recovering their voice. Barker here gives a philosophical approach to the discovery of mental health (Alligood, 2014). For nurses to start using this model in the engagement process, some requirements need to be agreed upon such as change is unavoidable, the patient, in the end, understands what it is best for him or her, and recovery is possible (Monteiro et al., 2015).

For this reason, the tidal model theory is useful for any nursing practitioner since it helps people recover from mental illness. Kurt Lewin born in 1890 came up with the change theory (Burnes, 2017). This theory has three main concepts: Main thrusts, controlling strengths and harmony. What makes or course change to occur are the main thrusts, they bring about the change since they push a patient to in the desired direction.

Controlling strengths are those that hinder the patient since they push the patient in the opposite direction (Monteiro et al., 2015). Harmony is a condition where the main thrust forces equal the controlling strengths forces, and thus no change occurs. This theory inspires nurses to push patients in the desired direction by all possible means.

Finally, The Helvie Energy theory addresses the notion of energy. In this theory, the person might be seen as an energy field influencing and being influenced by all other energy fields in the synthetic, physical, organic situations (Alligood, 2014). It has been noted here that the mentioned science-based nursing theories help advanced nursing practitioners positively in performing their work.

Nursing theories Question 2

To become a doctorate-prepared nurse, one needs to have enough clinical nursing experience and good memory of several nursing theories at hand (Hunt, 2013). It is critical to know what other scholars who are in the nursing field have done so as to avoid replication. Studying the several nursing theories can assist one to also come up with their science-based nursing theories.

Nursing everywhere has been committed to a rigorous scientific need that provides a significant set of knowledge to advance nursing practice (Blais, 2015). Many science-based theories have been documented over the past decade. Any Ph.D. in the nursing field is built upon doctoral programs including research methods, nursing theory, policy, and economics. Science-based nursing theories over time have aided many people in getting their doctoral degrees.

Madeleine Leininger came up with the Transcultural Nursing Theory, which emphasizes that nurses work on as per the patient’s social choices (Rav, 2016). It begins with the nurse assessing the patient while considering the patient’s cultural background after which a nursing care plan is also given according to the logical cultural assessment. In this theory, it is the responsibility of nurses to comprehend the part of the culture in a patient’s well-being.

Leininger used three nursing activities to accomplish culturally loving care for the patient, which are: Cultural maintenance, cultural negotiation, and social care patterning (Mallela, 2015). Madeleine is now a registered nurse with several degrees such as Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Human Sciences and Doctor of Science. She also is a certified transcultural nurse. All these achievements of Madeleine could not have come about if it were not for her coming up with the nursing mentioned above theory.

The Humanistic nursing theory by Paterson and Zderad integrates both humanity and existentialism to nursing theory. Butts & Rich, (2013) elaborate that humanism tries to understand people from the contexts of their experiences while existentialism, then again, is the acceptance that pondering begins with the acting, feeling and living person. In this theory, the nurse assists and cares for the patient. Any nurse applying for a doctorate needs to have such good values so as to achieve the doctorate.

All things considered, any nurse in practice slowly realizes that the work they do, the care they provide is all based on their theory of what is right for their area of nursing. Their philosophies for their jobs, work ethics, treatment of patients, and their behavior all fall in the realms of some nursing theorists whom they learned in school.


Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing theorists and their work. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Blais, K. (2015). Professional nursing practice: Concepts and perspectives. Pearson.

Burnes, B. (2017). Kurt Lewin: 1890–1947: The Practical Theorist. The Palgrave Handbook of Organizational Change Thinkers, 1-15.

Cowen, P. S., & Moorhead, S. (2014). Current issues in nursing. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Hunt, E. C., Sproat, S. B., & Kitzmiller, R. R. (2013). The nursing informatics implementation guide. Springer Science & Business Media.

Maddux, J. E. (Ed.). (2013). Self-efficacy, adaptation, and adjustment: Theory, research, and application. Springer Science & Business Media.


Monteiro, A. R. M., Martins, M. G. Q., Lobô, S. A., de Freitas, P. C. A., Barros, K. M., & de Fátima Tavares, S. (2015). Systematization of nursing care to children and adolescents in psychological distress. Revista de Pesquisa: Cuidado é Fundamental Online, 7(4), 3185-3196.

Ray, M. A. (2016). Transcultural Caring dynamics in nursing and health care. FA Davis.

Schwarzer, R. (2014). Self-efficacy: Thought control of action. Taylor & Francis.

Butts, J. B., & Rich, K. L. (2013). Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

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