There is an alternative for social and natural sciences, while using the Turabian style, to use the author-date approach with notes and parenthetical references.
Under the Turabian style, there is a brief citation of sources in parenthesis in the text by the last name of the author and the publication date.
Bibliographic information under this style is presented in endnotes or footnotes and a bibliography.
Footnotes and endnotes
The note reference supersedes the referred passage and is characterized by an Arabic numerical that is in subscript form. The Turabian style comprises footnotes and endnotes present numerical arrangement of notes, at the foot and end respectively of books, essays or articles. The bibliography is included in the notes during the first citation.
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The sources that are used in writing the article, book or essay in the Turabian style are listed on the last page of the document in alphabetical order with reference to the surnames of the authors. All bibliographic information must be provided.
The names of the authors should be listed in line with the way they have been cited on the work.
What if a source has more than four authors? Use the name of the first author, and then abbreviate the other authors as ‘et al’. For example, a book is written by A.K Smith, M.G Mohan, Peter Balfour and Rose McMillan in 2007, the citation will be (Smith et al, 2007).
What if the work does not have an author? Use the title of the work to cite and then give the date.
The following is the citation format under Turabian style;
Book bibliography: Author’s names. Year.Book title. Publication place: Publisher.
Book no author given: Book title.Year. Publication place: publisher
Journal article citation: Author’s names. Year. Article title .Periodical title volume (Month): page-page
Website citation: Author’s names. Year. Article title [online].Website name; available from http://writtenify.blogpost.com/2009/07/turabian-citation-syle.html; internet; Date Accessed.
Magazine and newspaper article: Author’s names. Year. Article title.Newspaper name.Date.
Encyclopedia article: (Author’s name, “Article title,” in Encyclopedia name)
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The Turabian style is almost similar to the Chicago Manual of Style. The slight difference is that the Chicago Manual of Style aims at giving general publication guidelines whereas the Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations aims at giving student paper, dissertations and theses guidelines.
MLA style is generally instrumental in the field of humanities and liberal arts for citing sources and writing papers. The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th Edition) and the MLA Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing contain all resources required in using MLA style. These guidelines are used to cite sources in all literary and scholarly magazines, newsletters, journals among other presses.
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Generally, MLA style is characterized by citations of brief parenthesis in the particular text basing on the sources listed on the last page of the document (bibliography).
MLA style citations help in avoiding plagiarized work thus indicating the responsibility of writers in handling their pieces of writing.
In-text MLA Citations
The in-text citations, basically meant to direct the reader to the source of the writer’s information, should be brief, complementary and clear. This consists of the last name of the author and page number.
This must provide a comprehensible list of all works cited in the document; alphabetically arranged using the surnames of the authors or the title of the document in case the author’s name is not provided.
MLA style consists of a white 8.5 by 11 inch and double spaced document with a comprehensible font preferably Times New Roman of 12 ppt. Single spacing is preferred after periods and other punctuation marks. Document margins should be 1 inch from all sides. The first paragraph line should be indented half-inch on the left margin. The page numbers should be on the right-hand side, a half-inch from the top and a flush at the right-hand margin.
Long titles should be italicized if used. In case endnotes are used, they should be included on a different page before the page containing cited works. Title pages should not be used unless asked to do so.
The upper hand corner of the first page should have a list of: writer’s name, instructor’s name, the course, and date. The title should be centered and in Title Case. It should not be underlined, italicized or placed in quotation marks. All pages should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerical.
MLA style guidelines require the use of block quotation format in cases where the quotation is more than four lines long. It is recommended that a colon should be used in introducing the quotation; the quotation should be double-spaced; quotation marks should not used.
As popular as APA paper is in academic writing you could find it difficult to perform your tasks on essays or term papers as well as dissertations using the citation styles for an APA paper.
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