The Functioning of Nmap TCP Maimon Scan and Nmap TCP ACK Scan

 

The Functioning of Nmap TCP Maimon Scan and Nmap TCP ACK Scan

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Introduction

As networks are nowadays becoming an integral part of the lives of everyone’s globally, the need for developing advanced technologies to ensure the security of such networks is also becoming crucial towards making sure there is protection of data and preservation of privacy, especially among the internet networks. Therefore, network security is becoming significantly important as the number of people spending time connected continues to tremendously grow. This is due to the fact that compromising network security will have a commendable detrimental effects likely to affect the entire network been used (Comer, 2006). However, this has nowadays been checked through the availability of effective tools that are vital in assisting with the network security.

However, in this era of computer usage the prioritization of the network security of crucial importance since it helps in abating the works of hackers (Doug and Alan, 2003).  This is mainly because in the computer networking, hacking often involves any technical effort of the manipulation of the normal functioning of the network connections as well as the connected systems thereby necessitating the need for taking the network security measures in advance. This is mainly because today hacking is often associated with the programming attacks that are maliciously targeted on the internet as well as other network connections (Network Uptime, 2011).

Nmap also referred to as the network mapper is actually a free and open source utility mostly used for network security auditing or network exploration. In addition, a great number of systems as well as network administrators usually find it more useful in performing tasks such as managing service upgrade schedules, network inventory, and also in monitoring host or service uptime (McNab, 2011). Also, Nmap uses raw internet protocol (IP) packets in more crucial ways towards determining the hosts that are available on the network, the operating systems they are running, what services offered by those hosts (application name and version), the type of packet firewalls/filters are in use, as  well as other numerous characteristics of the network. It was designed to rapidly scan large networks, but works fine against single hosts (Comer, 2006).

Additionally, Nmap usually run on the entire of major computer operating systems, as well as the official binary packages that are commonly available for Linux, Mac OS X and Windows. In addition, to the Nmap executable classic command-line, the Nmap suite also includes an advanced GUI as well as a results viewer (Zenmap), redirection, a debugging tool (Ncat), a flexible data transfer, a utility for the comparison of scan results (Ndiff), as well as a tool for the analysis of packet generation and response (Nping).

Network mapper is however a free port scanner, released under GNU GPL. The Nmap output usually contains a list of targets that have already been scanned. Each of such targets always consist of specific information that is mainly dependent on the type of scan used (Doug and Alan, 2003). Moreover, it also consists of the ports table which is identifiable through a unique port number. In addition, these ports table also consist of the service name, state as well as the protocol used. Therefore, there are four states which could be filtered / unfiltered or open / closed. Thus, when the port is open, this means that the host machine has an application that is active and it is listening for packets on the relevant port. While on the other hand, when the port is actually filtered, it is an indication that a firewall is present (McNab, 2007). Therefore, in this situation, a firewall is actually a piece of software or even a hardware gadget that blocks the port thereby making it hard for the network mapper to determine  its state, that is, is it closed or is it open.

Nmap is capable of performing a wide range of scans. However, some of these scans are more aggressive and blatant, whereas others are usually designed to be stealthy as well as performing scans undetected. Therefore, depending on the scan type performed, there is an opportunity to discover different information as well. Hence, Network mapper is likely to provide eleven scan techniques such as: Connect, SYN Stealth,  Ping, UDP Scan, FIN, Xmas, Null, IP Protocol Scan, RPC Scan, List Scan, ACK Scan, Window Scan and FTP Bounce all of which having details and features capable of unearthing and displaying network installed programs especially applications and other security features (Doug and Alan, 2003). Therefore, these scanning techniques have security features ranging from firewalls, anti hacking systems to advanced intruder detecting systems. However, as long as the security of the network is concerned, a firewall is of very crucial importance since it greatly helps in the detection as well as prevention of the unwanted network traffic (McNab, 2011).

Thus, it actually has predetermined a mechanism that usually sniffs the entire of the network’s incoming as well as outgoing traffic and acts accordingly. Hence, as a result of this, some of the traffic, which is not required wouldn’t pass the firewall thereby creating a barrier that is responsible of securing the network from attacks and more so the external attacks (Comer, 2006). Additionally, some of the hackers are likely to attack a firewall thereby creating a channel that they are capable of using to aid their penetration into the network, however, a network mapper consists of an anti hacking systems in place, which is responsible of detecting such hackers and denying them entry into the network.

However, whenever our network security mechanisms are actually not strong enough, there are chances of some packets possessing some transmission control protocol flags to be able to bypass such filters without being detected (Stallings, 1995). Apparently, the Nmap usually has some flags, the sA flag and the sW flag responsible of supporting the acknowledgment flag by scanning the time to live value as well as the window value. This is actually very crucial in helping the reduction of the problem of transmission control protocol flags to bypass the filters without being detected, an  aspect that is very crucial in making the network to be more secure from external attacks thereby  ensuring the network security (Comer, 2006).

The Nmap TCP Maimon Scan

The network mapper Transmission Control Protocol is a network security scanner that was discovered by Uriel Mainon. According to Network Uptime (2011) it doesn’t have significant difference with the Fin scan, Null scan as well as the Xmas scan. Therefore, in regards to Request for comment 793 (TCP), a packet needs to be generated in response to the requests irrespective of whether the port is open or closed. However, some of the systems will not be capable of passing the packet forward, when the port is open (McNab, 2007).

The Nmap TCP Maimon scan ensures that the relevant flags at the port scan jacket are in place. However, these flags are the Fin flag and the acknowledgement flag. Therefore, the target is responsible of generating a RST packet with one of the two possible states, that is, when the port is open or closed. Moreover, the Nmap TCP Maimon scans usually functions by use of a property of TCP stacks. Hence, whenever packets are usually sent to a closed TCP port without the RST flag set results to a RST packet been sent in return (Doug and Alan, 2003). However, whenever the packets are sent to an open TCP port without any of the following SYN, ACK or RST flag set are just discarded silently. Moreover, sending such packets without any of the flags set, then the closed ports are capable of differentiating them from the open or filtered ports.

 

 

The Nmap TCP ACK Scan

The network mapper Transmission Control Protocol acknowledgement scan does not deal with establishment of the open and filtered ports. However, it usually deals with the rules that pertain to stateful states as well as the filtering ports. Therefore, the TCP ACK scan is involved in plotting out firewall set regulations. Thus, it usually enables the establishment when the network defender is actually a simple defender filter that allows the established connections only or a stateful defenders doing advanced packet defence (Comer, 2006).

However, the stateful mechanism at times is used for deleting TCP acknowledgement flags header.  Therefore, an acknowledgement scan mostly functions by moving a TCP acknowledgement packet possessing an address to port within an external network (Network Uptime, 2011). Additionally, Nmap’s exceptional ACK scan hardly finds a port that is not closed. Therefore, ACK scan is only capable of offering a mechanism that is either filtered or unfiltered mainly because of its connection issues to an application justifying an open state.

Thus, this scan is differentiated from the fact that it never determines open or filtered ports. Hence, it is often used in mapping out firewall rulesets, responsible of determining if the ports are stateful or not as well as which are filtered. However, the ACK scan probe packet usually consists of the ACK flag set only (McNab, 2011). However, when unfiltered systems are scanned, therefore, both ports either open or closed return a RST packet. Thus, Nmap TCP ACK scan then labels them as unfiltered, indicating that ACK packet can’t reach them, irrespective of whether they are open or closed. Alternatively, the ports that do not respond, or involved in sending some ICMP error messages back, they are therefore labelled filtered.

 

The Nmap TCP Maimon Scan Operation

The Nmap TCP Maimon operates by  scanning all the ports within a computer system network whereby all ports are also filtered (Network Uptime, 2011). This scan takes several hours to complete but it is very  effective in ensuring network security.

Therefore, the options used include: -v for increased verbosity vas well as  -sT for a TCP scan -p1-65535 which specifies the port rage from 1 to 65535 (the entire TCP ports)

For instance, an example of  a Nmap TCP Maimon Scan is as follows:

C:’WINDOWS’system32’drivers’etc>Nmap -sT -p1-65535 192.168.1.124

Starting Nmap 4.20 ( http://insecure.org ) at 2007-04-24 00:39 Central America Standard Time

All 65535 scanned ports on 192.168.1.124 are filtered

MAC Address: 00:16:41:17:9D:B1 (USI)

Nmap finished: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 6925.996 seconds

 

ACK Scan Operation

ACK scan does not locate any port that is open. Therefore, the ACK scan only provides a “unfiltered” or “filtered” disposition since it usually never connect to an application in confirming an “open” state (Jeff, 2006). Hence, an ACK scan functions by moving a TCP ACK packet with a destination MAC address to another  port in a different part of the network. If a reply is not gotten then the port is classified as filtered, as shown by diagram below:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moreover, when the port located in a different system sends back a RST packet, then the established association between device on another network and the network mapper is classified as unfiltered (Network Uptime, 2011), as shown in the diagram below:

 

 

 

 

 

 

[69.240.103.51] [68.46.234.161] TCP: D=6969 S=38667     ACK=0 WIN=1024

[68.46.234.161] [69.240.103.51] TCP: D=38667 S=6969 RST WIN=0

In addition, the network mapper production shows the scan output through an internetworking device whereby in the case illustrated above only a single TCP port was indicated as unfiltered. Therefore, the network mapper adds the weight on ‘un’ as shown in the example below according to (Network Uptime, 2011)

# nmap -v -sA 68.46.234.161 -P0

Starting nmap 3.81 (http://www.insecure.org/nmap/) at 2005-04-24 10:40 EDT

Initiating ACK Scan against pcp05116560pcs.tallah01.fl.comcast.net (68.46.234.161) [1663 ports] at 10:40

ACK Scan Timing: About 9.02% done; ETC: 10:46 (0:05:03 remaining)

ACK Scan Timing: About 75.68% done; ETC: 10:42 (0:00:36 remaining)

The ACK Scan took 119.13s to scan 1663 total ports.

Host pcp05116560pcs.tallah01.fl.comcast.net (68.46.234.161) seems to be functioning quite well.

Remarkable ports on pcp05116560pcs.tallah01.fl.comcast.net (68.46.234.161):

(The 1662 ports inspected but unidentified below are in state: filtered)

PORT     STATE      SERVICE

6969/tcp unfiltered acmsoda

Nmap finished: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 119.271 seconds

Raw packets sent: 3328 (133KB) | Rcvd: 8 (368B #

 

The Nmap ACK scan main advantage is that since it does not open any session, as the case the application one as well as the talk between network mapper and the device on another part of the network is actually not complex. However, the scan is usually not for many ports which may make it not to be seen when combined with other packets on the network. On contrary, this scan method also have a main disadvantage of its simplicity (Doug and Alan, 2003). This is due to the fact that it will actually not try gaining connection to any device that is on another network. In addition, it is actually not easy for it to  identify ports that are not closed. Generally, this scan method does not search for ports that are not closed, however, it serves a very crucial task of classifying the ports that are sifted in a defence apparatus (Jeff, 2006).

TCP ACK Ping Operation
The TCP ACK ping is made up of an arbitrary TCP ACK that is sent to a device on another network. When the device is actually not passive, a RST will then be sent back. However, for the passive devices whose ports are not filtered, response to the ACK is actually ignored. Additionally, the port usually list choices that enables the client in classifying a chain of ports for the ACK ping to apply (Network Uptime, 2011). However, this port list condition is not flexible as a mere spelling of the IP addresses; but it is an activity that often precede the scan procedure itself and not the real scan. For this scan all the ports are listed one by one whereby each of them is separated with a comma.

However, this method of scanning which is transmission control protocol ACK ping consists of a great benefit, that is, the TCP ACK ping uses few packets in comparison to other methods of scanning. In addition, there are numerous times when the well known ACK query to a device is not easily seen. Moreover, the TCP ACK ping scan method is very crucial since it allows checking of various port numbers, thereby giving nmap additional ways at times of negotiating a scan via a defence mechanism (Comer, 2006).

In conclusion, network security is of crucial significance especially at this time when almost everyone spends significant time connected on daily basis. Therefore, the network mapper is an important method to ensure that this security is maintained via its scanning techniques including the two discussed in this report, that is, Nmap TCP Maimon Scan and Nmap TCP ACK Scan (Network Uptime, 2011). Both of these scanning techniques despite utilising different working mechanisms they collaboratively function for a similar ultimate goal which is to ensure the network security.

 

Bibliography

Comer, D. E. 2006, Internetworking with TCP/IP: Volume 1 – Principles, Protocols and Architecture, 5th Edition, New York: Prentice Hall.

 

Doug, W. and Alan, R., 2003, The Jing a Telescope factory(JATF): A network security case study, Journal of Information Systems Education, online, http://search.proquest.com/docview/200109678/13090C992D94DBAA1C8/3?accountid=45049, viewed on 25 July 2011.

Jeff, F., 2006, Nmap 4.0  Does Windows, Windows IT Security, Issue 6, Vol 6, pp 11-12, online, http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=31c94913-59b7-4b54-8873-344a470436d6%40sessionmgr15&vid=2&hid=9, retrieved on 25 July 2011.

McClure, S., Scambray, J. and Kurtz, G. 2003, Hacking Exposed, 4th Edition, Worcester, UK: Osborne.

 

McNab, C. 2007, Network Security Assessment: Know Your Network, 2nd Edition, Sebastopol: O’Reilly.

 

McNab, C., 2011, Network Security Assessment, online, http://books.google.com/books?id=_g6MHX88bXUC&pg=PT69&dq=Nmap+TCP+Maimon+Scan&hl=en&ei=r4AgTre3LsTtrQfak6GTAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDgQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Nmap%20TCP%20Maimon%20Scan&f=false, viewed on July 25 2011.

Network Uptime, 2011, Online Resource for Network Professionals, online, http://www.networkuptime.com/nmap/page3-12.shtml, viewed on July 25 2011.

Stallings, W. 1995, Network and Internet Security: Principles and Practice, IEEE Computer Press.

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GOING GREEN IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

In today’s business setting, environmental sustainability (going green) becomes more and more important. From a Hotel’s standpoint of view why should they think and act green? What could they do and what would be the advantages and disadvantages of doing so (give some examples)?

 

The effects of global warming continue generating intense debate among businesses that see it as a major threat to their operations. In this regard the global community is seeking partnerships with governments and other stakeholders to formulate policy guidelines that will act as means of ensuring that they adopt green essay/impact-technological-competency/">technology in their operations to counter this threat. Failure to do this will result to irreversible decline in profits, deterioration of people’s health through emergence of killer diseases like skin cancer and closure of businesses.

The hospitality industry has not been left out in adopting green technologies in their operations to ensure they slay this global phenomenon. In doing this they have realized the immense benefits that come with the green essay/impact-technological-competency/">technology in almost all areas of their industry. The use of renewable industry like solar energy, wind power and bio fuels reduce the energy costs incurred in the hospitality industry a great deal. Due to their nature of operations they require power throughout; when preparing food, entertaining guests and also when cleaning. This therefore means they incur huge electricity bills through out and this can be reduced by the adaptation of green essay/impact-technological-competency/">technology. Installation of solar panels or wind power can reduce these expenses in a great way and this can increase their profits and enable investment in other projects like expansion.

The use of green essay/impact-technological-competency/">technology also reduces the pollution of the environment. The damage that is usually done to the environment when hotels use diesel products is very catastrophic. They use the product on large quantities especially in cooking. Diesel products emit a lot of hydrocarbons into the air that cause global warming, which is known to hamper marine life and make some species of the marine bio diversity extinct. This affects the product range available for offer to their clients. They also poison most fish species which make them unfit for human consumption. These diesel emissions are also known to be carcinogenic and cause a lot of cancer related ailments that pose a very great danger to the workers in the industry and to the whole world at large. However all this can be avoided if the industry adopts green essay/impact-technological-competency/">technology. There are no side effects of using green energy since they are environmentally friendly and they use ecologically friendly resources.

The industry has also come alive to the fact that ecotourism is a major attraction to many people who want to conserve the world we live in. People appreciate and value those involved in environmental conservation and majority like being associated with them. Many organizations and governments prefer holding their meetings and conferences in venues that are accredited by environmental conservation agencies as compliant to set green standards. The hospitality industry being a major player in this field does not want to be left behind. This is because those who comply and champion these interests will attract wide clientele and this will be a major boost to their businesses. Many players in the industry have sought to comply with the set standards to ensure they remain competitive in the industry. The industry has therefore invested heavily in imparting the required knowledge and skills to its staff and other stakeholders to ensure best practices. They are then seeking certification from recognized regulatory institutions that also continuously monitor their progress through regular visits and checks.

The adoption of green essay/impact-technological-competency/">technology by the hospitality industry improves the public image and the perceptions that people have towards the industry. The world today is doing everything to combat global warming which is seen as a major threat to future earnings of almost each sector in the global economy. This will also attract a lot of customers to those who will be seen to be compliant. The hospitality industry is therefore viewed as one of the environmentally sensitive industries and this places it strategically on the global arena of attaining sustainable development.

The players in the hospitality industry must embrace the use of renewable sources of energy like wind power and solar energy. Such installations will ensure minimal environmental pollution and also availability throughout. This is because the sources i.e. sun and wind are naturally available and apart from installation costs and routine maintenance there are no other major associated costs. The electricity bills and the costs of running stand-by generators will be done away with and profits will increase both in the short and in the long run.

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The industry players should also invest heavily in the provision of skills and knowledge to the stakeholders who must be involved in the attainment of desired objectives. The stakeholders are mainly their workers, customers and also their suppliers. They should organize workshops and seminars to educate them on the necessity of adopting the green essay/impact-technological-competency/">technology. When they fully understand the benefits they will commit to observe and adhere to the standards set in the industry and this will ensure attainment of desired results.

The adoption of the above measures will nonetheless be an uphill task to most of the players in the hospitality industry. Most of these measures like installing and maintaining solar and wind energy systems require huge budgets and skilled workers. Most of the players in the industry are midlevel enterprises that lack the financial ability to manage such capital intensive projects. Also those who carry out these projects may take a long time to recover and return to profitability.

The green essay/impact-technological-competency/">technology should be implemented by all the industries not only the hospitality industry. This will enhance the realization of the aspired results which will guarantee the global population of a better environment to live in. This is because global warming is a major threat to all industries regardless of the area of specialization. Failure by the industry players to implement these policies will be threatening the same businesses they rely on.

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Festival pheromone_Review

Compose  effects of festivals and events on the choice of tourist destination and tourism industry in general in Jehu Island and Scotland……………………..

Contents page                                                                                   

3. 1.0 Introduction

3. 2.0 Phenomenon, Aims, Scope and Research Philosophy

5. 3.0 Scope of the Literature Review and Conceptual Framework

6. 4.0 Methodology, Findings and Conclusions

8. 5.0 Conclusions of research findings

10. 6.0 References

 

1.0 Introduction

This paper reviews the effects of festivals and events on the choice of tourist destination and tourism industry in general in Jehu Island and Scotland. It analyses the relationship between a particular event and tourist attraction in Scotland as well as the relationship between several festival activities on the choice of tourism destination in the Jehu Island of South Korea. The analysis will therefore capture both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of festivals and tourism.

i)       2.0 Phenomenon, Aims, Scope and Research Philosophy

The research phenomena contained in both articles are cultural events and festivals and tourism industry. The Scotland article analyses the impact of traditional musical events to tourism industry by examining the concept of cultural tourism in Scotland. However, cultural arts per se comprise several elements including music. Authors in this research therefore narrows to the role and impact of traditional music on tourism industry because previous studies concentrated on cultural arts in general.

Traditional music is a very important element of Scotland cultures and is increasingly becoming a priority for many tourism organizations. This study by MCMorland and Mactaggart seeks to examine factors that motivate visitors to attend music events in Scotland. Authors perceived that traditional music, as a specific component of Scotland culture and arts plays an important role in shaping tourism sector. They undertook to answer the following research questions:

a)    What is the role of traditional music in tourism industry?

b)    What factors motivate visitors to attend music festival and events?

The research questions in the study are clear and were clearly answered at the end of their study. This research concentrated on particular event, traditional music, and one country, Scotland and involved a community from one particular geographical location of the country. The study was exploratory and used quantitative methods of research were used with likert point rating which are appropriate in this type of study.

A study by Min-Jung and Jeonglyeol purposed to examine how festivals impacts on the tourism choice of Jeju island destinations and to determine the relationship between festivals and tourism in this destination. This study undertook to examine what determines the choice of tourist destination, specifically  concentrating on a particular geographical location, Jehu Island, and during a certain period of time, the summer time and using a variety of cultural events that happens in this region.

The study questions were:

a)    How does festival awareness affect festival attendance in Jehu Island?

b)    How does festival satisfaction influence the choice of tourists’ destination?

c)    What is the relationship between festivals and choice of tourist destination?

The three research questions were answered by the research at the end of their study and informed them to make recommendations that are useful to all stakeholders in the tourism industry of Jehu island of South Korea. The research however used qualitative statistics due to the nature of data in this study.

ii)     3.0 Scope of the Literature Review and Conceptual Framework

Literatures from social cultural discipline have been used in the study carried out by McMorland and Mactaggart. Studies on festival events and tourism industry have been reviewed in the study. Other studies on economic subject such as that conducted by (Bowdin et al., 2006; Brown & James, 2004 among others were reviewed to determine economic values of tourism and festival events to the society.

Previous research on tourism motivation theories has been reviewed in this study, (Cooper et al, 1993). Various studies on the motivation of event goers have been extensively reviewed in the research. Is summery, the reviewed literatures can be narrowed down to the discipline of social sciences and focuses on culture and tourism in Scotland which seems to be a recent field of study yet has attracted a substantial academic research which provided enough literatures for the Scotland research.

However, the concept of arts and tourism is wide and broad, with different components; music, opera, dance, fine arts and theater hence the need for research on a particular component was inevitable. This research analyses one particular element of cultural arts, music, and how it is related to tourism in Scotland. Scottish music, being a valuable form of country culture as it is, plays a big role in the tourism industry of the country. The study therefore undertook to assess what motivates music attendees and the effects of traditional music on tourism sector. Motivation was the independent variable with enjoyment, support of Scottish music and family togetherness being dependent variables in the research.

Literatures in Min-Jung and Jeonglyeol study were similar to those used in the Scotland research. Literatures on social and cultural events, tourism, economic and environmental disciplines were used in the study of Korean Jehu Island. The literatures used are recent but broad, focusing on the impact of culture on tourism industry. Authors identified specific component of culture, local festivals and undertook to examine how they influence the choice of tourist destination in the Jehu Island.

 

iii)    4.0 Methodology, Findings and Conclusions

The purpose of research conducted by McMorland and Mactaggart was to determine the impact of traditional music on tourism industry in Scotland; it is an exploratory research. Initially, the focus group was used to give their views on what motivates them to attend music festivals. Questionnaires were administered to the focus groups and consisted a 7 point likert scale rating for motivational attributes.

The sample size of 110 respondents was randomly selected from among the festival attendances, and the collected data was analysed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Respondents were identified and grouped into four clusters according to the similarities of their dominant motivational characteristics, such as modernists group, thrill seekers group, social pleasure seekers group and family and inspirational seekers, breaking visitors into different motivational groups for further analysis.

The study by Min-Jung and Jeonglyeol was a questionnaire survey of domestic visitors to Jehu Island. A sample of seventeen festivals with a sample population of 223 subjects were selected using non probability sampling method from a total of thirty festivals held to address the two hypotheses which were pre-stated by the Authors.

Questionnaires were self administered to the respondents and 186 out 223 questionnaires were useful for this study giving a response rate of 83.4%. Both reliability and validity test were conducted and confirmed that data used in analysis was reliable and valid, (Ryan, 1995). The analysis of data was done using the SPSS and other methods of descriptive statistics. Hypothesis one and two were analyzed using regression analysis to determine the importance and role of festivals on the choice of tourist destination, with awareness and after visit being dependent variables and satisfaction being independent variable.

Findings: Research findings from the study indicate that enjoyment is main motivator for attending traditional music festivals according to primary research using the focus group, with a mean score of 6.6, consistent to study carried out by Uysal et al. (1993). However family togetherness scored the lowest rating among the reasons for attending music festivals in Scotland. Other reasons that motivate attendees are to support Scottish music with a rating score of 5.2 meaning that people attend music festivals to promote the music industry and the Scottish culture, indicating the country cultural events have a strong backing for the future.

Majority of the respondents agreed, at 89% that there exist a strong positive relationship between traditional Scottish music events and Scottish tourism hence music is an important part of tourism industry in Scotland, consistent with, Smith (2003) studies which termed arts as a sub-sector of cultural tourism. It also found that traditional music is an important component of Scottish culture.

The findings from Min-Jung and Jeonglyeol study also indicated that festivals motivates and attracts individuals to a given tourist destinations. However Only 30% of attendants were satisfied with festival events and satisfaction was positively related to the visit after satisfaction meaning that satisfaction determines the choice of tourist destination and leads to return visits while attracting new visitors at the same time. Therefore, it is satisfaction level and not the number of festivals that matters in attracting tourists.

Demographics results showed that only younger populations were more satisfied hence the need to develop programs that will satisfy other demographic groups. Awareness of event was found to influence people’s visitation of destination hence the need for event promotions; this also implies that festivals greatly impacts on tourism visitation and choice of a given destination.

Different reasons for visiting tourists’ destination were to spend leisure time with family, friends and relatives just like in the findings of McMorland and Mactaggart, ( 2007), education, interest in the festival and to understand culture. The reasons for not attending were given as lack of time and information.

5.0 Conclusions of research findings.

The study points to the importance of traditional music to tourism industry of Scotland hence event organizers and tourism organizations can use music to promote Scottish cultural values and tourism industry. Accordingly, in order to improve tourism industry, the views of tourists and event attendees need to be considered when formulating policies on tourism.

Similar studies are recommended which should cluster analysis consisting communities from different geographical locations. An extension study on enjoyment should also be done to determine the exact type of enjoyment, whether it’s enjoyment for music or dancing or both that motivates attendees. A more in-depth comparison study on the type of company the attendees keep, whether they attend with partners, family or friends. Nevertheless, the study, although exploratory, has given an insight into tourists’ motivating factors and is of enormous benefit to the tourism industry in Scotland.

Several recommendations can be derived from the study of Min-Jung and Jeonglyeol that can help to effectively manage festivals and attract tourists. The findings recommends for the systematization of festivals incorporating all key stakeholders and professionals a like rather than being left in the hands of a few people.

Festivals should be commercialized and offered as a product that satisfies the consumers as suggested by Tomljenovic, Larson, and Faulkner (2001). This calls for development of diverse programs that will satisfy all the demographic groups and undertake promotional activities including the use of travel agencies, media and tour operators to create awareness of festivals to consumers.

References

Bowdin, G., Allen, J, O’Toole, W., Harris, R., & McDonnell, I. (2006). Events management (2nd ed.). Oxford: Butterworth. Heinemann.

Brown, S., & James, J. (2004). Event design and management: Ritual sacrifice?  In I. Yeoman, M. Robertson, J. Ali-Knight, S. Drummond, & U. McMahon-Beattie (Eds.), Festivals and events management—an international arts and culture perspective

(pp. 53–64). Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.

Cooper, C., Fletcher, J., Gilbert, D., & Wanhill, S. (1993). Tourism

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