Oligopoly Theory Case Study

Oligopoly Theory
Oligopoly Theory

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Oligopoly Theory

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Watch a Youtube video or review an article on the Pfizer-Allergan merger. Write a 1-page paper commenting on the reasons for the failure of this merger within the context of oligopoly theory.

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Oligopoly Theory Case Study Essay

Drug maker Pfizer Inc. and Ireland-based Allergan Plc (AGN.N) merger deal was meant to save Pfizer about $35 billion in taxes. Pfizer canceled the $160 billion merger after President Obama’s campaign to stop US companies from heading overseas succeeded. Pfizer in its opinion maintains that the decision was driven by new treasury rule amendments aiming at such deals, termed as inversions.

Obama termed the merger deal as one of the most insidious tax inversions since the deal was meant to relocate Pfizer’s headquarters to Ireland and save the company huge amount of tax. Following this effects, lawmakers argued that tax inversion is not the best way to deal with U.S huge tax rate but rather….

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Foundational Theories of Human Development

Foundational Theories of Human Development
Foundational Theories of Human Development

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Foundational Theories of Human Development

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Comparing Freud, Mahler, and Adler. Compare and contrast the developmental models of Freud and Mahler, and then contrast these two developmental theories with Adler’s theory. Be sure to also address the following:

A brief description of each theory. Which perspective appeals to you more, and why?

What are some ways the Adlerian approach can be applied to group counseling? What are some advantages of using a group format with this approach?

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What concepts from these psychoanalytic approaches do you see as being potentially useful in your work as a nurse psychotherapist?

Describe.Why should the nurse psychotherapist understand developmental theories for application in clinical practice?

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Nursing Education Theory

Nursing Education Theory
Nursing Education Theory

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Nursing Education Theory

Question 1

In the recent course, the core principles that have been applied are andrology. This aspect was developed by Malcolm Shepherd Knowles (1913-1997) which was used synonymously as adult education. The core aspect of andrology is that it is both an art and a science of adult learning (Iwasiw, Goldenberg, & Andrusyszyn, 2008). 

This term is sometimes viewed to be equivalent to pedagogy, which is a Greek word that refers child leading (Kearsley, 2010). The principles of andragogy are based on four assumptions. To start with, it points out the issue of self-concept, which indicates that as a person matures, they shift from becoming dependent personality to being self-directed persons (Atherton, 2013).

Additionally, andragogy assumes that as human beings mature, they accumulate experience reservoirs, which become the resources of learning (Iwasiw, Goldenberg, & Andrusyszyn, 2008).   Additionally, this increases readiness to acquire knew knowledge, which increases their developmental responsibilities. This also improves their orientation learning (Atherton, 2013).

This is because a nature person’s perspective continues to change by the adoption of immediacy application of the learnt knowledge rather than postponing of the knowledge, thus shifting the learning orientation from subject centeredness to that of the problem solved approach. Additionally, the matured adult gets the motivation to learn increases (Kearsley, 2010).

Nursing Education Theory

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 The core principles of andragogy that have been observed in this course include the principle of planning and evaluation of the instruction given (Iwasiw, Goldenberg, & Andrusyszyn, 2008).   Additionally, in this learning process, all experiences and mistakes are viewed as effective and form the basis of learning as it broadens an individual’s way of thinking (Atherton, 2013).

Additionally, the learning by the adults is important if it gives immediate relevance or benefits to person’s lives or their jobs (Kearsley, 2010).  Additionally, the adult learning problem centred   as compared to content oriented. This is effective way of interacting learning and improving the knowledge as well as critical thinking skills of the learner (Iwasiw, Goldenberg, & Andrusyszyn, 2008). 

 The effectiveness of this learning method is based by the fact that in each of the aspect being taught must be elaborated extensively giving the specific reasons behind the concept (Kearsley, 2010).   Additionally, this learning process ensures that instructions are task oriented, thus ensuring that the concepts are understood rather that memorization as compared pedagogy (Atherton, 2013).

Additionally, this learning method puts into considerations the diversity of the learners, thus allowing integration of different materials and learning methods according to each person’s experiences (Kearsley, 2010).  The learning method assumes that learning instructions is self-directed, thus the learners will enable them discover new knowledge without actually depending on other people (Iwasiw, Goldenberg, & Andrusyszyn, 2008). 

Nursing Education Theory

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 Question 2

 There is high diversity in nursing career. This includes diversity in students, contents being taught and the tutors teaching these contents. The learning method chosen must be delicate enough to accommodate this diversity (Kearsley, 2010).  The diverse learning theories include the Leon Festinger’s cognitive dissonance where the students are seeking to balance between their behaviour and their attitudes (Iwasiw, Goldenberg, & Andrusyszyn, 2008). This is often important where a person seeks to choose between the learning issues that are culturally competent from those that are not. 

This method is not popular in nursing because it inhibits acquisitions of new ideas that conflict the persons attitudes or even behaviours (Atherton, 2013). Carl Rogers experiential learning theory focuses on the applied knowledge which improves (Kearsley, 2010), despite the popularity, this learning method is still not widely used in nursing process. This trend is similar to Albert Bandura social learning theory (Iwasiw, Goldenberg, & Andrusyszyn, 2008). 

Nursing Education Theory

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 The learning theory foundation for nursing course is the adult learning theory (Iwasiw, Goldenberg, & Andrusyszyn, 2008).   This is because this learning theory incorporates the aspects of the other learning theories aforementioned (Atherton, 2013). Additionally, this learning theory integrates the use of case studies, simulations, role playing as well as self-evaluation by the students (Kearsley, 2010).  The students are involved during the planning as well as evaluation. The learning methods promote learning activities based on experiences (Iwasiw, Goldenberg, & Andrusyszyn, 2008). 

Additionally, this learning method puts into considerations the diversity of the learners, thus allowing integration of different materials and learning methods according to each person’s experiences (Kearsley, 2010). The learning method assumes that learning instructions is self-directed, thus the learners will enable them discover new knowledge without actually depending on other people (Atherton, 2013). This helps in promoting the nursing processes principles of leadership and cultural competence. 

This method also increases the student’s attentions, through the incorporation of modelled events as well as the use of observation characteristics (Iwasiw, Goldenberg, & Andrusyszyn, 2008).  This learning method ensures that knowledge is retention through use of symbolic learning and improvement of motor reproduction, thus ensuring that self-reinforcement. This learning method integrates other learning methods which ensures that the student attention, motivation, memory, behavioural frameworks and cognitive abilities (Iwasiw, Goldenberg, & Andrusyszyn, 2008). 


Atherton J S. (2013). Learning and Teaching; Knowles’ andragogy: an angle on adult learning [On-line: UK] retrieved 1 December 2015 from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/knowlesa.htm

Iwasiw, C., Goldenberg, D., & Andrusyszyn, M. A. (2008). Curriculum development in nursing education. Boston, MA: Jones & Bartlett

Kearsley, G. (2010). Andragogy (M.Knowles). The theory Into practice database. Retrieved from http://tip.psychology.org

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Euthanasia: Incorporating a Theory


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Incorporating a Theory

Management of terminally ill patients is pretty demanding. Clinicians taking care of these patients are always passed with several questions. How can I be most helpful to this patient? What is the most appropriate manner of delivering news of a terminal diagnosis? However, the most important of all these questions that they ask themselves is how they can develop a thoughtful and reasonable plan for end of life care? It is for this reason that I chose the Lewis’s theory of change as the most crucial theory of euthanasia.

Despite proposing that euthanasia is the best approach for patients nearing their end of life, I strongly believe that health officials should equip themselves with necessary skills for managing these patients before they may request for euthanasia.

In today’s world, hospital settings are receiving a high number of patients who are put under palliative care. Most of these patients tend to engage in poly-pharmacy where they are prescribed more than four drugs. The probability of medical errors to occur in such hospital settings is high. Such errors usually lead to disturbing consequences not only on the patient but also on the nurse.

The occurrence of such errors can however be minimized significantly through the incorporation of technology that promotes patient care and saves time for the busy nurses. An example of an approach that can be used is the Bar-Coded Medication Administration (BCMA). This technology entails the use of scanning devices to contrast bar codes installed in patients with codes that display the prescribed drugs, electronically identifying the possible errors against the medical records, hence decreasing the occurrence of medication errors drastically.

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However, implementation of change in practice is usually associated with production of anxiety or fear of failure in nurses resulting in resistance to this change process. It is for this reason that Kurt Lewis’s theory of change comes in handy. Most healthcare institutions have used this model to study human behavior and how it is related to change as well as the patterns of resistance to the change.

The model determines forces that inhibit change implementation and factors that drive the change process. By identifying these two forces, health care organizations can then work towards strengthening the positive driving forces and find solutions to the impeding forces.

Kurt Lewis Theory Incorporation

This theory is made up of three stages; unfreezing phase, moving phase, and the refreezing phase.

  1. Unfreezing phase

During this stage, round table discussions can be conducted with the aim of teasing out the supporting and impeding forces. This will be essential particularly in identifying the challenges that should be overcome. Some restraining forces in this facility may include; lack of computer experience, staff resistance against the use of computerized devices, dislike of the new system, and the cases of workarounds. BCMA is implemented successfully without instances of dangerous workarounds with maximum investment in the results.

 On the other hand, the driving forces may include; enough financial investment, proper time management, support from top level managers, and potential ease of use.

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  •  Moving Phase

This phase involves the actual change including planning and implementation of the project. Bar code implementation may require corporation from various teams such as the clinical information services, information technology (IT), pharmacy, clinical nurse educators, program managers, and administrators. A project leader should also be chosen to oversee and assess all phases of this project. Some of the challenges that can be encountered during this stage include the rediscovery of workarounds. However, they can be solved through provision of further education.

  • Refreeze Phase

This is the final stage. Here the there should be ongoing support of the clinicians on the frontline. All stakeholders should also be accorded technological support to a point where the change is deemed complete and all users have familiarized themselves with the technology and are comfortable with it. Once the process is fully functional, an analysis and summary of the challenges encountered, successes met, and problems encountered should be done for future reference. Any project of this magnitude can realize massive success once the Kurt Lewis theory of change is implemented.

Review of Literature

Euthanasia is a clinical practice that is carried out usually in terminally ill patients such as cancer patients who are suffering severe pain. Thienpont enlightens that, it can be conducted either through administration of a lethal injection or blocking a patient’s feeding tube (Thienpont et al, 2015). However, this subject of euthanasia has raised heated debates on whether it should be conducted or not. Math and Chaturvedi conducted a research to seek views on whether it should be executed or not.

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From their study, they learned that some proponents of euthanasia argued that terminally ill patients occupy valuable space in hospital beds. They also argued that the long term palliative care accorded to the patients is a huge waste on medical resources. However, others opposed these views saying that it is not fair to kill someone just on petty grounds that hospital beds are needed by others. 

Terminally ill patients can be provided other avenues such as special hospices or homes where they can be taken care of. They even went further and stressed that if caring for the terminally ill is a waste then it would be just for the medical practitioners to deny medication to the elderly who are nearing the end of their life as well. To them, the description of hospice care as a waste of medical resources was rather harsh and families of terminally ill patients cannot agree to this statement.

According to Bauman and Dang, the best approach of managing patients with chronic diseases such as cancer or dementia is through hospice and palliative care (Bauman and Dang, 2012). Hospice care involves cooperation among several health officials from nurses, mental health professionals, clergy men, and to social workers all of whom act towards achieving a common goal, that is, providing the needs of chronically ill patients. Furthermore, they help in assisting family members who are constantly involved in the patient care process.

These officials work around the clock including weekends and holidays to offer their patients with a 24/7 care and assistance which they require desperately. According to Shah and Mushtaq, these specialists listen to and address the complaints of not only the patients but also the patient families (Shah and Mushtaq, 2014). They also provide counseling services and use advanced medical procedures and technology.

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According to Compas, et al, majority of these hospice and palliative care specialists help patients in patients’ homes so that these patients can spend the remaining time of their life with their loved ones and friends (Compas, et al, 2010). They can also assist patients at nursing homes, hospitals, and assisted living centers. These specialists are typically registered nurses (RNs) most of which hold a bachelor’s or a master’s of science degree in nursing. Their training involves

Carrying for terminally ill patients is accompanied with emotional circumstances that physicians usually find difficult to respond to (Leiva, 2010). Clinicians should therefore before be assisted from all specialties in attending their patients. Research has proven that even the most thoughtful health officials struggle with issues that arise when managing dying patients. This does not necessarily refer to assisted suicide of the patients under palliative care but rather to the overall emotional climate that encompasses this process whereby all that can be done medically has been done.

The most important attribute for such clinicians is being a straight shooter. Usually, patients and their families request that clinicians should be straight shooter. This actually means that they should use the truth when the patients and the families require it most. This may not cure or bring any form of happiness. However, being honest signifies that the clinician can be counted on to describe exactly the difficult times to be faced and offer solutions to these challenges.

Omipidam emphasized that it is important for physicians to understand that ethnicity and culture play a crucial role in management of patients in some communities (Omipidam, 2013). Therefore, physicians are advised to enquire from patients if they would like to receive information and make decisions or if the family wants to take care of the issues.

Moreover, physicians should maintain routine hospital calls. Just as it is crucial not to desert a patient to a consultant, it is equally important to ensure that regular visits to the terminally ill patients are maintained. The family as well as the patient should be well informed acutely of the frequency and the duration of the visits. The research conducted by Boudreau proved that physicians have a tendency of changing their schedules and shorten visits once the patients enter the last stages of illness (Boudreau, 2011).

One does not need to be a practitioner to correctly understand what this distance behavior has on the family and the patient. Maintaining frequency and duration of the visits will increase the understanding of the family, patient, and the physician.

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Most terminally ill patients suffer from depression (Katon, 2011). As a result, physicians should be well skilled in managing such psychological issues. Stuck and Nobel implied in their study that engagement of creative arts such as music engagement, expressive writing, and visual arts can be used to improve health outcomes (Stuckey and Nobel, 2010). This is because they help in enhancing an individual’s emotions, moods, and other psychological states.

Some of the countries that have legalized the proposed change- euthanasia include Netherlands and Belgium. Pereira ascertains that one of the main reasons for undertaking this policy was to relieve pain and suffering among terminally ill patients. However, Ncayiyana opposes this practice citing reasons that it does not show dignity and respect to human life (Ncayiyana, 2012).

The author offers alternative solutions saying that improvements on medication have been done to promote patients quality of life and ensure that their deaths are as humane as possible. The scholar argues that a person in sedation state still is still biologically alive and has the right to live until his/her natural death.

In some cases, patients request for euthanasia. However, Schüklenk,  confirms that several organizations such as the European Court for Human Rights have since ruled that no one has a recognized right to die whether with the aid of a third person or a public authority (Schüklenk, et al, 2011). He debates that if people were given the right to take their life, then people that are critically injured or the very old would have been compelled to request their death.

Hickman and Douglas oppose the idea that relatives can call for euthanasia to spare themselves the miseries of watching their loved ones go through agony and severe pain (Hickman and Douglas, 2010). Nevertheless, they have no right whatsoever to end life of the patients despite them being relatives.

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A survey conducted by Bennett et al on 200 doctors and 400 nurses, indicated that almost 94% of the nurses and 95% of the doctors viewed hospice care to be very important for patients with life-threatening conditions. Almost all these doctors and nurses wanted hospice care to be made readily accessible. They also agreed that the general public should have more information regarding hospice palliative care and end-of-life care training should be fundamental in medical and nursing education (Bennett et al, 2010).

However, the surprising fact from this survey was that 72% of the doctors and 28% of the nurses revealed that medical professionals do not enough concerning palliative care. This indicated the existing gap of knowledge that is used in support terminally ill patients. According to Bennett et al, basic medical education is not sufficient for hospice care training.

The environment, values, and culture in clinical settings and other places of care should encourage and promote greater openness and discussions about end of life. Policy makers in the field of healthcare should also seek ways of supporting and creating more opportunities and avenues for nurses to employ in their practice of hospice care in whichever specialty they are in.

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Bauman, L. & Dang, T. T. (2012). Helping patients with chronic illnesses overcome barriers to self-care. The Nurse Practitioner, 37(3), 32-38. 

Bennett, H. D., Coleman, E. A., Parry, C., Bodenheimer, T., & Chen, E. H. (2010). Health coaching for patients with chronic illnesses. Fam Pract Manag, 17(5), 24-29.

Boudreau, J. D. (2011). Physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: Can you even imagine teaching medical students how to end their patients’ lives? The Permanente Journal, 15(4), 79–84.

Compas, B. E., Jaser, S. S., Dunn, M. J., & Rodriguez, E. M. (2012). Coping with chronic illness in childhood and adolescence. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 8, 455–480.

Hickman, R. L., & Douglas, S. L. (2010). Impact of chronic critical illness on the psychological outcomes of family members. AACN Advanced Critical Care, 21(1), 80–91.

J. Katon, W. (2011). Epidemiology and treatment of depression in patients with chronic medical illness. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 13(1), 7–23.

Leiva, R. A. (2010). Death, suffering, and euthanasia. Canadian Family Physician, 56(6), 528–530.

Math, S. B., & Chaturvedi, S. K. (2012). Euthanasia: Right to life vs right to die. The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 136(6), 899–902.

Ncayiyana, D. (2012). Euthanasia: No dignity in death in absence of an ethos of respect for human life. The South African Medical Journal, 102(6), n.p.

Omipidam, B. A. (2013). Palliative care: An alternative to euthanasia. BMJ Supportive and Palliative Care, 3(2), 229.

Pereira, J. (2011). Legalizing euthanasia or assisted suicide: the illusion of safeguards and controls. Current Oncology, 18(2), 38–45.

Schüklenk, U., Delden, J. J. M., Downie, J., Mclean, S. A. M., Upshur, R., & Weinstock, D. (2011). End-of-life decision-making in Canada: The report by the Royal Society of Canada Expert Panel on end-of-life decision-making. Bioethics, 25(1), 1–4.

Shah, A., & Mushtaq, A. (2014). The right to live or die? A perspective on voluntary euthanasia. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 30(5), 1159–1160.

Stuckey, H. L., & Nobel, J. (2010). The connection between art, healing, and public health: A review of current literature. American Journal of Public Health, 100(2), 254–263.

Thienpont, L. Verhofstadt, N., Loon, T., Distelmans, W., Audenaert, K., & Deyn, P. (2015). Euthanasia requests, procedures and outcomes for 100 Belgian patients suffering from psychiatric disorders: A retrospective, descriptive study.  BMJ Open, 5(7), n.p.

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Selecting a Relevant Emergency Management Theory

Emergency Management Theory
Emergency Management Theory

Selecting a Relevant Emergency Management Theory

In this paper, the main emergency management theories which act as the backbone for the proposed research proposal are described comprehensively. The paper also provides an analysis of how the research topic actually expands the selected theories and a justification is provided of why the selected theories were selected for the research topic of this proposal.  

Lastly this paper provides an assessment of why the identified emergency management theory are suitable for the selected methodology of this research.

Emergency management theory

For this research proposal, the main emergency management theories which serve as the backbone of the research proposal include the Emergency Response Theory and the Disaster Preparedness Theory. Environmental emergencies refer to events or incidents which threaten public welfare, health, and safety, and they include such things as acts of terrorism, industrial plant explosions, hurricanes, chemical spills, wild fires, and even floods.

Emergency Response Theory pertains to organizing available resources, coordinating and directing them so as to respond effectively and properly to an incident and bring the emergency situation under control (Medlin, 2011). In essence, this coordinated response is aimed at protecting the health of members of the public by reducing the impact of the incident on the environment and the community.

The Disaster Preparedness Theory gives emphasis to educating people about hazards which might impact their area and the importance of training people in essential disaster skills for instance disaster medical operations, light search and rescue, fire safety as well as team organization (Mitzel, 2014).

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How research topic expands theory

In this project, the research topic is Community Emergency Response Teams (CERT) in the Northeast Region of the United States. This research topic clearly expands theory by incorporating something new regarding processes of disaster management and preparedness and emergency response. Community Emergency Response Teams are voluntary programmes that entail doing the most good for the most number of people in the community through people assisting people as well as through preparedness.

This is a constructive approach and the members could help other people within their place of work or community after an incident when professional responders are not instantly available to assist (Bobko & Kamin, 2015). On the whole, the topic expands theory by highlighting that community emergency response teams are about encouraging individuals to take active roles in alleviating the effects of a disaster event by having preparedness projects within their communities.

Empowering communities through safer practices serves to encourage a culture of safety in the area as communities would be better prepared in a situation of emergency to do the most good for the most people.   

In essence, the CERT program assists in training individuals in the community to be prepared well to respond to situations of emergency within their communities. Whenever emergency situations take place, members of Community Emergency Response Team could provide crucial support to first responders, give immediate help to the affected victims, and arrange spontaneous volunteers at the location of the disaster or emergency (Medlin, 2011). In addition, members of the CERT team could assist with non-emergency projects which help in improving the community’s safety.

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Justification for the selected theory for the chosen research topic

The selected theories – Emergency Response Theory and Disaster Preparedness Theory – are appropriate for the project’s research topic considering that Community Emergency Response Teams are usually involved in educating individuals as regards disaster preparedness for the hazards which might impact their area. In addition, CERTs provide training to people in basic response skills like disaster medical operations and fire safety, which is emphasized by the Emergency Response Theory.

It is notable that CERT volunteers use training which they learned during exercises and in the classroom to help other people within their community after a disaster has occurred when professional responders are not immediately available to provide assistance: this is something that is underscored by the selected emergency management theories. Moreover, Community Emergency Response Team volunteers are encouraged to support emergency response organizations by assuming active roles in disaster preparedness projects (Fithen & Fraser, 2012).  

Why the chosen emergency management theories are appropriate for the methodology

The chosen emergency management theories are suitable for the selected methodology considering that these two theories behind community emergency response team are rooted in a simple observation: in major emergency situations, professional emergency services are often overloaded. All parts of the globe have tornadoes and/or earthquakes, and severe storms and floods are the most common disasters.

The common mass disasters include earthquake, floods, tsunami and hurricanes. All these could create mass emergencies hence community emergency response teams have a mission everywhere. The main aim of the CERT program is disaster preparedness. In general, the belief according to the selected emergency management theories is that civilians who receive community emergency response team training are more likely to prepare beforehand for a major emergency situation and are aware of the proper steps to be taken following an emergency.

This helps to reduce the probability that they would require help from emergency responders hence eases pressures on limited resources for instance rescuers and their equipment (Fithen & Fraser, 2012). The other objective of the community emergency response team program as per the selected theories is providing an auxiliary force of trained emergency personnel who are able to respond to events which are really not life-threatening and includes things like light search and rescue operations, shelter management, dispatch and paperwork.

These time-consuming or non-urgent tasks would otherwise belong to emergency professionals, which divert them from rescue operations. As such, the theories are suitable for the methodology.   

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In conclusion, the main emergency management theories which act as the backbone of the proposed research study are the Emergency Response Theory and the Disaster Preparedness Theory. The research topic expands theory by incorporating something new regarding processes of disaster management and preparedness as well as emergency response.

The selected theories are appropriate for the research topic because Community Emergency Response Teams are often involved in educating individuals on the subject of disaster preparedness for the hazards which could impact their area, and this is something underscored by the two theories.


Bobko, J. P., & Kamin, R. (2015). Changing the paradigm of emergency response: The need for first-care providers. Journal Of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning, 9(1), 18-24.

Connolly, M. (2012). Creating a Campus Based Community Emergency Response Team (CERT). Community College Journal Of Research & Practice, 36(6), 448-452.

Fithen, K., & Fraser, B. (2012). CERT Incident Response and the Internet. Communications Of The ACM, 37(8), 108-113.

Medlin, J. D. (2011). Emergency Preparedness: Coaching the Fundamentals. Corrections Today, 73(4), 50-52.

Mitzel, B. (2014). Emergency Preparedness & Response. (cover story). Professional Safety, 52(6), 60-65.

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Weber’s formal rationality and substantive rationality

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Weber’s formal rationality and substantive rationality

Rationalization of society is an idea that was conceptualized by Weber (Carroll, 2011). This paper provides an exhaustive explanation of what Max Weber meant by differentiating between substantive rationality and formal rationality. Moreover, with the use of the concepts of substantive rationality and formal rationality, this paper analyzes whether the Human Relations Theory and Scientific Management are substantively rational, formally rational, neither or both.

Rationalization is basically a product of technological advancements and scientific study in the West. Lippman and Aldrich (2013) reported that rationalization, by decreasing the tradition’s hold on society, brought about new practices. Rather than the behaviour of human beings being motivated by traditions and customs, rationalization resulted in behaviours which were guided by practicality and reason.

Rationalization changed modern society to a great extent and it also played a vital role in the development of capitalism. The main types of rationality include formal rationality, substantive rationality, theoretical rationality and practical rationality (Sterling & Moore, 2012). This paper is focused only on formal rationality and substantive rationality.

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Formal rationality and substantive rationality

Substantive rationality – people may consider various possible actions or values, and trying to make them consistent. Max Weber, in the early 20th century, referred to this as substantive rationality. Weber saw it as problematic in the contemporary society largely because rationalization of social life makes it very hard for individuals to pursue certain values (Sterling & Moore, 2012). For instance, it might be very hard to pursue religious or family values in contemporary society thanks to economic pressures as well as dominance of bureaucratic institutions and organizations.

In essence, substantive rationality entails deciding the most appropriate choice of a means to an end as guided by each of the collective values. Put simply, a person is trying to make his or her system of values and his or her actions matching or in agreement with each other (Kemple, 2013). Derksen (2014) noted that substantive rationality is understood as goal-oriented rational action in the context of ultimate values or ends. It is the extent to which economic actions serve ultimate values in spite of what they might be. This concept is holistic thinking that focuses on problem solving in a system of values.

Formal rationality on the other hand entails making decisions which are founded on regulations, rules, as well as the bigger social structure of the society. In essence, formal rationality entails quantifying or calculating the most efficient means to an end (Hedoin, 2012). It is also the degree of quantitative calculation or accounting that is theoretically feasible and actually applied.

As Weber pointed out, formal rationality refers to straightforward means-ends rational calculation. For instance, a person has a goal to accomplish and he/she then takes rational steps – that is, steps which are founded on science, logic, observation or prior experience – to accomplish that particular goal (Townley, 2012).

Formal rationality, as Hedoin (2012) stated, is a more extensive form of rationality which typifies business organizations; bureaucratic organizations in particular. This results in universally applied regulations, laws and rules which typify formal rationality in the Western world, especially in the scientific, legal and economic institutions, over and above in the bureaucratic type of domination.

Some of the examples of formal rationality include rational-legal types of authority for instance the modern judicial and legal systems (Townley, 2012). The fear of Max Weber was that formal rationality was becoming increasingly dominant in the western contemporary society, and that the significance of substantive rationality was actually reducing.

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Scientific Management

Frederick Taylor was a contemporary of Max Weber and he conceptualized the idea of scientific management which seeks to increase results and performance by making employees more efficient and work more rational. According to Frederick Taylor, scientific management gave emphasis to the following:

(i) discovering effective and efficient means of working by using scientific techniques;

(ii) selecting the finest, most skilled personnel to perform work tasks and recruiting them;

(iii) providing professional development and training to improve the efficiency of these employees in the business organization; and

(iv) closely monitoring employees’ achievement of well-defined goals and standards (Sterling & Moore, 2012). In today’s age, most organizations and companies have espoused and implemented the fundamental principles of scientific management and rationality (Kemple, 2013).

The scientific management model proposed several principles applicable in management. Some of these principles comprised the study as well as application of scientific techniques to the tasks contained in different roles in order to improve workers’ efficiency (Derksen, 2014).

Moreover, it suggested a reform of the processes of recruitment which ensured that new employees were selected in a scientific way to ensure that the workers who were hired were actually suitable for the job. Scientific management made a lasting and vital contribution in terms of the development of contemporary management.

The application of scientific management principles is formally rational and therefore scientific management can be considered as being formally rational. The approach underlying such thinking is that people’s behaviour within organizations is rational, and that premeditated rational action has to be taken in order to ensure that control is effected over their actions for the purpose of the organization itself (Lippman & Aldrich, 2013).

It is in this sense that management control is in fact very consciously rational and purposive. Weber suggested that the movement toward formal rationality would result in the development of interactions and practices aimed at facilitating calculation or efficiency instead of promoting aesthetics, morality or tradition (Kemple, 2013).

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Scientific management by Taylor affirmed to have introduced a more formal rationality into the process of management. This assertion has a number of vital implications. It enabled the management of a business organization to be taught. If prescriptions of the management could be identified through experiment and study, then it is possible for individuals to attain management status (Giannantonio & Hurley-Hanson, 2011).

It is not essential to be born into managerial authority positions as it had been supposed by the old social class structures. Through training and experience, even individuals from disadvantaged ethnic groups or social classes could become managers. Another supposition was that scientific management would be helpful in getting rid of social conflicts.

If facts that are scientifically based could become the starting point and foundation of managerial decision-making, then the arbitrary exercise of managerial power would need to be eradicated and there would not be any rational disagreements with regard to managerial policies (Derksen, 2014). On the whole, scientific management offered the likelihood that conflicts of opinion could really be resolved through rational investigation.  

According to Ritzer (2011), one familiar modern organization today that has effectively espoused and implemented the main principles of scientific management and formal rationality is McDonald’s – a company whose practices and structures typify and illustrate the ideas of Frederick Taylor and Max Weber in action. Ritzer (2011) pointed out that McDonald’s – as well as the McDonaldization of other firms in today’s era – is really not a novel or new phenomenon; rather, it is the product of the processes of rationalization which have been taking place during the past century and influenced commercial, governmental and even educational organizations.

In essence, McDonalized corporations have 4 main purposes or characteristics: (a) control over individuals entering the organizations by means of non-human technology; (b) efficiency, or the best technique of getting from one point to another point; (c) calculability, or a highlighting on the quantitative facets of services and/or products offered; and (d) predictability, the assurance that over time in every location, services and products would actually be the same (Lippmann & Altman, 2013).

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According to Max Weber, scientific management is formally rational. Max Weber did not see the success of formal rationality only in the bureaucracy. The other place where he saw the triumph of formal rationality is the modern capitalist factory which was greatly influenced by the formally rational military along with its discipline (Ritzer, 2011). Max Weber saw the organizational discipline within the modern capitalist factory as totally formally rational.

He saw the height of this type of formal rationality within the American system of scientific management: Weber stated that with the help of appropriate measurement methods, the individual worker’s optimum profitability is computed similar to that of any material means of production. Basing on this, he noted that the system of scientific management in the United States successfully proceeds with its rational conditioning as well as training of work performances, therefore drawing the final conclusions from the discipline and mechanization of the plant (Wren, 2011).

In essence, man’s psycho-physical apparatus is totally adjusted to the demands of the machines and tools – put simply, it is functionalized, and the person is shorn of his or her natural rhythm by the functional specialization of muscles and by creation of a most favourable economy of physical effort (Hedoin, 2012).    

Human Relations Theory

Also referred to as behavioural management theory, the Human Relations Theory is focused more on the people in a place of work than the processes, procedures and rules. Rather than directives coming directly from the senior company executives, this theory emphasize communication between managers and staff members and allow them to interact with each other to help in making decisions (Townley, 2012).

Rather than providing employees with quotas and demanding specific procedures, staff members are exposed to emotional as well as motivational tactics in order to get them to enhance and improve their productivity. This style basically focuses on creating productive, satisfied employees and helping employees to invest in the organization. 

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The Human Relations Theory is neither substantively rational nor formally rational. As a kind of decision-making, formal rationality is subject to calculation which goes into an action to improve its likelihood of success. In formal rationality, the most efficient means to an end is calculated or quantified (Lippman & Aldrich, 2013). In essence, formal rationality forces order on the society by means of quantifiable, rigid terms through decisions which are founded on universal regulations and rules.

The Human Relations Theory is not formally rational at all. As per the Human Relations Theory, the attitudes of people in an organization have the potential of affecting their productivity either in a negative or positive way. The place of work can be likened to a social system that comprises informal groups that bear significant influence over the workers’ behaviour and attitude.

Additionally, this theoretical framework emphasized on the style of supervision and management. It stated that the adopted styles of supervision and management have a direct impact on the workers’ job satisfaction level (Derksen, 2014).

Furthermore, the Human Relations Theory is really not substantively rational. Even as many business organizations operate basing upon the Human Relations Theory, Wren (2011) pointed out that this kind of management has its shortcomings. Business organizations risk their employees becoming very social or easily influenced by personal opinions and emotions when making important decisions instead of depending on hard data.

In addition, dismissing workers after they become invested in the organization or reprimanding them for poor performance might be harder and more difficult. In spite of these risks, this theory can increase employee productivity and retention rates in the organization.

As workers feel more valued by their organization, they would invest in it and its greater good (Wren, 2011). Substantive rationality is a kind of decision-making that is actually subject to values as well as an appeal to ethical norms and it does not consider the nature of consequences: the human relations theory is not at all substantively rational.  

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To sum up, Max Weber stated that substantive rationality is basically a goal-oriented rational action in the context of ultimate values or ends. It entails deciding the most appropriate choice of a means to an end as guided by collective values. Conversely, formal rationality entails making decisions which are founded on regulations, rules, as well as the bigger social structure of the society.

It involves quantifying or calculating the most efficient means to an end. Since the application of scientific management principles is formally rational, scientific management is in fact formally rational. Nonetheless, the Human Relations Theory is neither substantively rational nor formally rational.


Carroll, A. J. (2011). Disenchantment, rationality and the modernity of Max Weber. Forum Philosophicum: International Journal For Philosophy, 16(1), 117-137.

Derksen, M. (2014). Turning Men into Machines? Scientific Management, Industrial Psychology, and the ‘Human Factor’. Journal Of The History Of The Behavioral Sciences, 50(2), 148-165. doi:10.1002/jhbs.21650

Giannantonio, C. M., & Hurley-Hanson, A. E. (2011). Frederick Winslow Taylor: Reflections on the Relevance of The Principles of Scientific Management 100 Years Later. Journal Of Business & Management, 17(1), 7-10.

Hedoin, C. (2012). Weber and Veblen on the Rationalization Process. Journal Of Economic Issues (M.E. Sharpe Inc.), 43(1), 167-187.

Kemple, T. (2013). Presenting Max Weber. Canadian Journal Of Sociology, 38(3), 407-412.

Lippman, S, & Aldrich, H. (2013). The rationalization of everything? Using Ritzer’s McDonaldization thesis to teach Weber. Teaching Sociology, 31, 134-145.

Ritzer, G. (2011). Explorations in social theory: From metatheorizing to rationalization. Boston, MA: SAGE.

Sterling, J. S., & Moore, W. E. (2012). Weber’s Analysis of Legal Rationalization: A Critique and Constructive Modification. Sociological Forum, 2(1), 67.

Townley, B. (2012). The role of competing rationalities in institutional change. Academy Of Management Journal, 45(1), 163-179. doi:10.2307/3069290

Wren, D. A. (2011). The Centennial of Frederick W. Taylor’s The Principles of Scientific Management: A Retrospective Commentary. Journal Of Business & Management, 17(1), 11-22.

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Human Resources School of Management Theory

Management Theory
Management Theory

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Human Resources School of Management Theory

The human resources school of management theory is widely accepted and has been in existence for quite some time. However, even though not every manager or company embraces it today, it is undeniable that it has transformed overall management practice not only in health care settings, but in all sectors for better (Dunn, 2010).   Human resources management theory, which is often referred to as behavioral management or motivational theory has a different view of the employee compared to the previous management theories that are more autocratic (Dunn, 2010).

In particular, this theory puts more focus on the individuals in a place of work instead of processes, rules and procedures. Thus, in human resources theory employees are not viewed as a mere cog in the wheel of the company, but it asserts that the prosperity of an organization can only be achieved by helping its employees to prosper (Dunn, 2010).

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The human resources school of management theory has various features, but the most important ones include:

1) communication between managers and employees is provided rather than directives emanating directly from an organization’s management, which allows interactions with one another in the decision-making process;

2) instead of employees been given quotas or been required to follow certain procedures, they are exposed to emotional and motivational tactics to promote their motivation for improved productivity;

3) the focus is in ensuring that employees are satisfied, productive and helping them invest and be loyal to the company;

4) empowering employees to be innovative through training and career development; and

5) providing appropriate rewards, appreciation and recognition methods when the company goals are achieved (Dunn, 2010).    

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The components of the human resources theory can be effectively used in health care setting today by encouraging motivation of health care practitioners, which subsequently results to improved job satisfaction and increased productivity. The components can also be used to boost employees’ sense of belonging by involving them in the company’s decision-making process, which improves their morale to work and loyalty to the company (Dunn, 2010).           


Dunn, R. (2010). Dunn and Haimann’s Healthcare Management, (9th ed.). Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press.    

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Theory X and Theory Y of Management

Theory X and Theory Y of Management
Theory X and Theory Y of Management

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Theory X and Theory Y of Management


 According to this theory, the managers view employees in different human nature concepts which he labels as Theory X and Theory Y.  This theory demands the managers to reflect about their employees including issues such as how do you treat the employees? How does the manager talk to them?  This is important to know because it enables the management learn where they are in the Theory X-Theory Y continuum.

In Theory X, managers assume that employees generally heat work and that the average employee is lazy, lacks ambitions and is generally lazy. This theory assumes that employee motivation is money. This type of manager is sharp contrast to Theory Y. Theory Y managers assume that employees and highly satisfied by their work and exhibit high level of creativity. According to this theory, employees seek recognition and self-fulfilment than money (Korzynski, 2013).

How I Identify and Differ With This Style

 I identify with this management theory because I believe that it is very important to understand the various ways to treat human nature, as most of the employee behaviour observed in their work place is a reaction to management style. For instance,  the management that believes employees avoids responsibility and must be coerced to achieve organizational goals  are likely to set strict measures to  the employees dictating what they want the employees to do, ways they want it done and closely monitor them.

This communicates lack of trust to the employees In this regards, the employees  reaction towards work is negative, which convinces  the managers  that their assumptions is actually correct. On the other hand, Theory Y managers have entirely different assumptions. In this type of management, they make their decisions by consensus. This enhances the employee’s sense of belonging. By empowering the employee, the employee’s authority increases and tends to be responsible. This management encourages the employee creativity as well as teamwork and are more likely to reward them. As a result, the employee’s reaction is positive because they are treated with respect and support (Mikkelsen, Jacobsen, & Andersen, 2015).

  Despite the fact that the theory explanations of management and employees performance are feasible- I highly doubt that there are managers who are purely X or Y.  The theories are designed to help the management understand their natural instincts and help them appreciate their attitudes such that they can adjust to certain situations within specific environment and organizational culture.

In this regards, it’s not a question if one is a Theory X or Theory manager. Irrespective of the type of management, the work must be done. Therefore, the key to success is evaluating your organization to identify the styles that are more consistent with bringing out the highest motivation levels and improve employee’s productivity (Reed & Bogardus, 2012).

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An Example of Business That Has Applied Theory Management Style

 An example of business that has applied Theory Management style in their organization is Google Company. The Google Company gives their students much freedom to ensure that they enjoy working at this company. The management looks at the employees tend to believe that they are self-actualizing as well as self-fulfilling. In Google Company, there is no micromanagement of the employees because they want them to be creative and improve their sense of belonging by making them take ownership of their work. 

 This company does not motivate the employees with fear of getting fired if they do not deliver quality work, but rather it encourages and empower employees to ensure that they take initiative to pursue their life goals. When the employee’s psychological needs are improved, they become motivated and are ultimately more likely to accomplish their company’s goals. The organizations push their workers to ensure that they understand their self-actualisation alongside the company’s goals set. The employees are given flexibility and ensure that the work place is comfortable. This motivates the employees to remain productive (Korzynski, 2013).

Case study

 During the unstable economic times, many companies management are expected to make tough decisions regarding the organization work force structure and size.  The director of Tri-County Home Health Agency is expected to implement a reduction in force (RIF) program also commonly known as lay-off.  This requires a lot of interaction with the top management officials and human resource manager to evaluate the jobs that need to be eliminated and ways the employees needs to be notified about the decisions. In this case, Theory X will work effectively (Gandolfi, & Hansson, 2010).

 Before implementing RIF, the management should explore all the alternatives available. This is because RIF could be a quick answer, but may not make sense in the long-term.  Other alternatives such as reducing work schedules, salary reduction, freeze of hiring, reduction of employee’s contribution and natural attrition. After reviewing these options and RIF still remains the best step for the company it is important for the management to explore ways to go about it.

The following should be put into consideration, including what departments or divisions are likely to be affected or will RIF affect the entire organization. In this case, what employees are essential to keep the company running, what set of skills are very vital in the organization for future (McConnell, 2010).

 One of the challenges during this process is selection of employees who will undergo lay-offs. This is complex due to the impact of disparate analysis.  In this regards, the selection criteria should be based on employee’s level of experience, versatility and proficiency. The unnecessary jobs categories and classifications should be eliminated. The employee’s performance can be evaluated using data from job appraisal.  To decide on whom to let go or stay, the management should strive an objective comparison of its employees. Strict compliance with the requirements must be maintained, failure to which employee’s claim of discrimination can be enforced (Gandolfi, & Hansson, 2010).

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 To communicate to the employees, a note of warning must be given to organizations. This facilitates quick action which is important for people who are staying and those who are leaving. All information about severance should be clear to ensure that every person understands it. The management should predict the questions anticipated and address the issue from the start.

Additionally it is important to the employees sign a release to avoid the employees taking action against the organization. It is also important to communicate with the survivors as they are equally affected. Additionally, the survivors are expected to match the same output level or even higher, which calls for motivation, giving the employees sense of hope and belief (McConnell, 2010).


Gandolfi, F., & Hansson, M. (2010). Reduction-in-force (RIF) – New developments and a brief historical analysis of a business strategy. Journal of Management & Organization, 16(5), 727-743. http://dx.doi.org/10.5172/jmo.2010.16.5.727

Korzynski, P. (2013). Employee motivation in new working environment. International Journal of Academic Research, 5(5), 184-188. http://dx.doi.org/10.7813/2075-4124.2013/5-5/b.28

McConnell, C. (2010). Umiker’s management skills for the new health care supervisor. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Mikkelsen, M., Jacobsen, C., & Andersen, L. (2015). Managing Employee Motivation: Exploring the Connections Between Managers’ Enforcement Actions, Employee Perceptions, and Employee Intrinsic Motivation. International Public Management Journal, 1-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10967494.2015.1043166

Reed, S., & Bogardus, A. (2012). PHR. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons

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What is nursing theory? Essay Paper

nursing theory
nursing theory

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What is nursing theory?

1. What is nursing theory? What is the relationship and importance of nursing theory to the discipline of nursing?:

Nursing theory is the concept that aims to establish a creative and rigorous idea reconstruction to explain the theorem or phenomena being applied in health care. This is a routine concept that supports the ideas and reference of ideas that is pointing towards nursing practice in both clinical and community setting.

The relationship and importance of nursing theory towards nursing is about the systematic organization of knowledge and skills towards health care. This is applicable towards patient advocacy by being able to provide patient care, which seeks to promote relevant health care practice in both hospital and community setting.

2. Grant theory is the process wherein there is a sociological imagination that is similar with other concept to form an abstract theory. The difference is that it is conceptualizing about the probable outcome that can be associated with its planning activity. Middle range theory is an approach that is aiming to establish collaboration, which seeks to promote social construction of practices.

In nursing perspective, the difference is about the intervention applied when the nurse is now going to apply plan into action. As for the practice theories, this how social beings uses their diverse intentions in order to accomplish certain tasks. The difference is that they always take to create a critical analysis such as evaluating the outcome of each practice.

3. Dorothy Johnson’s theory is applied for the advocating of effective and efficient behavioral functioning, which is similar with other theories that utilize emotions. The difference is about the application of psychological issues that affects nursing practice. The theory of goal attainment aims to direct nurses with the efficient application of health care between nurses and patients. The difference is about the application on interaction, perception, and communication that seeks to improve growth and development.

Estrine Levine’s theory is about the process of conservation principles in nursing, in which nursing is a continuous practice of enhancing skills and knowledge to be progressive. The difference is the concept of keeping together, which means that nursing process should be always intact regardless of what situation that the nurse and client are currently experiencing.

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4. Jean Watson applies caring theory being applied in both clinical and community practice. In contrast, it is all about the science of caring theory focusing on humanitarian caring process. Leininger’s transcultural theory is about the application of interpersonal relationship. The difference is about the cultural aspect that the nurse applies when providing care. Boykin & Schoenhofer‘s grand caring theory is a major application of clinical practice that seeks to promote nursing skills by guiding nurses. The difference is about the application of framework in nursing practice to improve client patient relationship.

5. Newman’s theory of health as expanding consciousness is the chosen theory. This supports the view of nursing profession by indicating that nursing is a continuous process. Nursing values becomes competent when nursing practice will be supported by additional insights and applications. This can be processed through trainings and seminar workshops to transform nursing practice competitive and reliable.

6. As an understanding of SDS, this is about the concept that focuses on the evolution of stress due to environmental stimuli. As a scenario in clinical setting, patients in distress who are seeking for health care service are suffering from psychological and physiological stress. Applying this model can be applied during physical assessment procedure and intervention, which enables to assess the problems and then address patient’s health care problems to prevent further injury and promotes health as related by Chinn & Kramer (2010).


Chinn, Peggy &Kramer, Maeona (2010). Integrated Theory & Knowledge Development in Nursing (8 ed.). St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 0323077188.\

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