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Exposure to the WMD agents
You are asked to perform a briefing to the mayor and her staff on the following situation below
At approximately 9:15 pm, on the 11th of September in Orange Beach, Alabama (Temp 71oF, cloudy with calm winds), there is a 9-1-1 report that the movie theater in town that is packed to capacity to see the new adventure movie has had three explosions. The first explosion involved an explosion with a flash and loud bang resulting in a fine mist being released on the movie goers. As the movie goers were frantically leaving through the exits, two more explosions went off at each exit with another flash and loud bang but no physical shrapnel or other reports of physical damage to the theater.
Several days ago, it was reported by the news that the mayor’s office received a threat of a terrorist organization planning on releasing a biological agent in the town. According to reports at the movie theater, four used canisters marked Yersinia pestis were found in the location of the secondary bombs.
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As you are traveling to the scene you hear reports of patrons convulsing in the parking lot of the theater; they are unable to control their muscles and other bodily functions and are twitching uncontrollably.
Based on the cryptic details, what category of WMD weapon(s) was released on the crowd?
What is the potential outcome of being exposed to these WMD agents?
In what capacity will your organization of first responders be able to help (e.g. decontamination, weapon identification, first aid, etc.)?
What risk-based response procedures need to be taken to stabilize the scene and prevent further exposure to the WMD agents?
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Terrorism and terrorism prevention in your community
Case Study, you will focus on terrorism and terrorism prevention in your community. Start by conducting research around your community/location for examples of mitigation and prevention against terrorism. When looking for terrorism in your community, consider examples such as an active shooter threat or actual occurrence or a bomb threat or occurrence. For example, if you are in the Boston area, consider the Boston Marathon bombing, prevention methods used in museums, metal detectors, etc. If you are not in an area where terrorism is a concern, research an area that is, and use online images.
Take photographs of what you find so that you can show your professor what your area has done to address the issue of terrorism. If you are unable to find prevention methods in your community, you may use a nearby community or research one.
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Explain what has been done with regard to mitigation, recovery, and/or response efforts within your community or the community you researched. Mitigation examples include security, cameras, and metal detectors.
Explain who conducted these efforts and the vulnerabilities they faced in their community, and include the role these individuals or groups play with mitigating, responding, and/or recovering from the risk.
Research at least one major disaster that resulted due to terrorism. Explain the mitigation and recovery efforts.
What can your community, or the community you researched, learn from past disasters?
Consider the types of communication that would need to be used in the event of a terror attack. Discuss the organizations that would be involved, the forms of media that would be used, and the types of communication that would need to be provided to the public.
Additionally, include at least four visual aids/images that support your content (one 4-by-4 inch image per page maximum).
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Terrorism is founded on carefully planned structures. This paper intends to discuss terrorist organizations by developing a case study of Aum Shinrikyo terrorist group.
Origin of Aum Shinrikyo
Aum Shinrikyo refers to a doomsday cult whose origin is in Japan. The cult was formed by Shoko Asahara in the year 1984 (Ingram, 2017). Aum Shinrikyo earned international infamy after carrying out a deadly attack on Tokyo subway in the year 1995. Furthermore, in 1994 Aum Shinrikyo was also involved in a small sarin attack (Ingram, 2017). However, initially, Aum Shinrikyo conducted its activities in secret and never confessed. Shoko Asahara, the founder of Aum Shinkyo, bought a signal in Russia, which he directed to Japan and uses it in broadcasting his singing and persisting on his blamelessness (Ingram, 2017).
In 2007 Aum Shinrikyo was divided into two groups a group known as Aleph and a group called “Hikari no Wa” (Ingram, 2017). Thus, Aum Shinkyo became designated by many countries as a terrorist association. Among the countries is Japan and North Korea. For instance, in Korea, the commission in charge of examining public security made a public announcement in 2015 in the month of January that the group Aleph along with “Hikari no Wa” group is both branches of religion, which is considered as dangerous (Ingram, 2017). The commission also added that it would continue surveillance on the two groups for three subsequent years.
As a logistical set-up, Aum Shinkyo inspired and is still inspiring acts of terrorism globally. Notably, Aleph which is one of the groups of Aum Shinrikyo is a system based on syncretism belief (Kearns, Conlon & Young, 2014). Aleph draws upon an idiosyncratic understanding of elements by Shoko Asahara regarding ancient Indian Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism, and Hinduism. The main icon of worship was taken to be Shiva (Kearns, Conlon & Young, 2014). Aleph also incorporates millennialism ideas, which it borrows from the Bible’s Revelation book (Orsini, 2015).
Aleph also borrows from Yoga and Nostradamus writings (Kearns, Conlon & Young, 2014). Aum Shinrikyo’s group Aleph was founded by Chizuo Matsumoto who alleged that he was seeking to reinstate original Buddhism. Thus, in the year 1992, Chizuo Matsumoto started calling himself Shoko Asahara, which became his name (Kearns, Conlon & Young, 2014).
In the same year 1992, Shoko Asahara was able to publish an introductory book where he declared himself to be “Christ.” Furthermore, in the book Shoko Asahara refers to himself as the only master who is fully enlightened and identifies with “God’s Lamb” (Kearns, Conlon & Young, 2014).
Command structure of Aum Shinrikyo
Aum Shinrikyo is known to apply precise methodologies. Furthermore, Aum Shinrikyo has a prearranged study of doctrine which is in harmony with a particular system of learning. For a follower of Aum Shinrikyo to reach another stage, it is expected that the member successfully passes a given exam (Orsini, 2015). The practice of meditation is combined with hypothetical studies.
However, Shoko Asahara emphasized to his followers that hypothetical studies cannot serve any purpose when practical experience is not achieved. Additionally, Shoko Asahara also advised members of Aum Shinrikyo never to try explaining anything if they could not mostly experience it (Orsini, 2015).
Aum Shinrikyo’s followers were grouped into two. The first group was lay practitioners. The lay practitioners are Aum Shin rik yo’s members who live together with their families (Orsini, 2015). A second group is a group of members who lived a lifestyle that is ascetic. In most cases, the second group included individuals who usually live as a group (Orsini, 2015). For any follower to earn the status of an attained member, it was an obligation for the member to meet precise conditions so as to influence senior members to recognize that the member has reached a state of higher spirituality (Orsini, 2015).
For instance, in the stage of Kundalini Yoga a member was required to give a demonstration regarding his or her ability in showing abridged oxygen consumption, modification of electromagnetic activities of the brain, and reduced rate of the heart, which was to be proven by being measured using a corresponding equipment (Richards, 2014). When a member demonstrated all the changes described above, then he or she was considered having entered a higher state referred as Samadhi (Richards, 2014). Thus, a member who has attained Samadhi state was given permission to educate other members.
The purported mission of Shoko Asahara was taking all the sins that people in the world have committed. Shoko Asahara claimed that he had the ability to transfer spiritual power to Aum Shinrikyo’s members (Richards, 2014). Additionally, Shoko Asahara claimed he would ultimately cleanse Aum Shinrikyo’s members’ sins by taking them away. Consequently, scholars view Aum Shinrikyo as an outcome from Japanese Buddhism. The view by scholars influenced how Aum Shinrikyo’s definition and view of itself. Notably, Shoko Asahara made an outline of a prophecy on doomsday that integrated the “World War III” to be prompted by the United States (Richards, 2014).
Leadership of Aum Shinrikyo
Shoko Asahara is known to be the historical leader of Aum Shinrikyo. Furthermore, Shoko Asahara was also the chief of senior operations for Aum Shinrikyo (Sageman, 2014). Shoko Asahara came from a Japanese family that was poor. After realizing a personal enlightenment in religion, Shoko Asahara formed Aum Shinrikyo, a religious cult (Sageman, 2014).
Shoko Asahara had recruited almost 10,000 followers to Aum Shinrikyo during the 1990s. Notably, Shoko Asahara dreamt of being an emperor in Japan. Thus, Shoko Asahara assumed the role of interim commander of Aum Shinrikyo (Sageman, 2014).
Shoko Asahara tried to register Aum Shinrikyo with Japan’s government based on the law of religious corporations known as “Shukyo-hojin-Ho” in 1989 (Shapiro, 2013). The registration was to include benefits such as privileges regarding taxation, rights of owning property as Aum Shinrikyo organization, along with protection from interference by the state and other external bodies (Shapiro, 2013).
Initially, the Japanese government denied permission of registration to Aum Shinrikyo citing a string of complaints raised by families with members practicing the Shukkesha (Shapiro, 2013). Shukkesha refers to a practice where members are demanded to sever all the ties they have with family and ensure they cease communication (Shapiro, 2013).
Aum Shinrikyo gave a response to the Japanese government’s rejection by holding public demonstrations, holding lawsuits, and starting legal appeals to counter the government’s decision. Consequently, in the month of August in the year 1989 Aum Shinrikyo was approved of a legal status (Zúquete, 2015).
Thus, Aum Shinrikyo started a new trend in 1989 of greeting every difficulty that comes their way with vigorous denials accompanied by lawsuits (Zúquete, 2015). Notably, in May of 1989 many parents had hired a lawyer from Yokohama known as Sakamoto Tsutsumi. However, Sakamoto uncovered claims that were faulty arguing that tests had been carried out in Kyoto University revealing that he had a unique DNA in his blood (Zúquete, 2015).
Afterward, Aum Shinrikyo started the practice of blood initiation, which was assumed to increase the spiritual power of an individual though no tests were run (Shapiro, 2013). Later, Sakamoto, his wife along with infant son disappeared. An Aum badge was found indicating that Aum Shinrikyo was involved with the disappearance, but no direct evidence was available to link the group.
Thus, Aum Shinrikyo embraced the accusations as an opportunity of getting publicity. Asahara professed the need for political action in saving the world thus, launching “Shinrito” political party which translates to “Supreme Truth Party” (Shapiro, 2013).
Motivation of Aum Shinrikyo
Aum Shinrikyo is motivated by both general reasons and particular motives. For instance, Tomomitsu Niimi attacked a VX victim at 7 am on the 12th of December in 1994 after Shoko Asahara reported of suspecting the victim of being a spy (Zúquete, 2015). The victim was murdered by being sprinkled on the neck for being a nerve agent. Aum Shinrikyo capitalizes on visions of the millennium along with predictions of the apocalypse in framing its doctrine. Consequently, Aum Shinrikyo is highly prejudiced by Nostradamus work. Notably, Nostradamus work provides a cornerstone to Aum Shinrikyo’s teachings.
Markedly, the followers of Aum Shinrikyo actively recruit students along with professionals working in the medicine field, field of science, field of computers, the engineering field, along with other areas, which are technical. Therefore, the charisma by Shoko Asahara and his messages appeared to have more appeal to a majority of people who felt estranged by the modern society, the secular society and the conformist features of the Society of Japan (Zúquete, 2015).
At the crest of Aum Shinrikyo, it is approximated to be worth over $1.5 billion. Notably, having enormous financial resources, Aum Shinrikyo is motivated to invest its capital in high-technology, laboratories for “state-of-the-art,” and funding Aum’s research. Thus, Aum Shinrikyo can circumvent restrictions, which are associated with large laboratories for corporate research.
Additionally, for Aum Shinrikyo to raise funds, they collect money from donations, followers tithe, and selling of sacred materials. Aum Shinrikyo also conducts seminars along with courses regarding the teachings of the cult where it charges all individuals who are participating in the sessions (Kearns, Conlon & Young, 2014). Furthermore, Aum Shinrikyo diversifies its enterprises through running a string of hotels in Tokyo and a firm for manufacturing computers that assembles and sells computers within Japan using parts traded in from Taiwan.
Aum Shinrikyo is also motivated by the support it gets from a Japanese mafia known as the Yakuza, who provide the group with an agreement for marketing illegal drugs manufactured by Aum Shinrikyo. Aum Shinrikyo is also motivated by cooperation given by community leaders through engaging in greenmail practice, which involves extorting money from community leaders (Kearns, Conlon & Young, 2014).
Aum Shinrikyo extorts money from community leaders through threatening them about establishing Aum Shinrikwo’s branch office or an Aum Shinrikwo’s school in the local community in question. Consequently, Aum Shinrikyo also aims at gaining leverage by engaging in extortion, acts of coercion, engaging in theft along with murder as a way of raising money for the group.
Goals of Aum Shinrikyo
The primary goal of Aum Shinrikyo is to defend the ancient faith by promoting worldwide operations that endorse theologies collected from diverse sources. Furthermore, Aum Shinrikyo also operates on a goal of collapsing dictatorship from western countries and institutions within the Middle East. According to Shoko Asahara, Aum Shinrikyo has the goal of uniting all doctrines and establishing, forcefully a desperate need of the society adhering to rules given by the original Caliphs (Kearns, Conlon & Young, 2014).
For instance, in his religious decree, Shoko Asahara talks of individuals duty globally being leading a holy life through cleaning one’s sins based on the doctrine of Aum Shinrikyo, with Shoko Asahara as the self-proclaimed “Christ”. Furthermore, in the book Shoko Asahara refers to himself as the only master who is fully enlightened and identifies with “God’s Lamb” (Kearns, Conlon & Young, 2014).
The ideology of Aum Shinrikyo is based on an idiosyncratic understanding of elements by Shoko Asahara regarding ancient Indian Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism, and Hinduism. The main icon of worship was taken to be Shiva (Kearns, Conlon & Young, 2014). Aleph one of the groups of Aum Shinrikyo also incorporates millennialism ideas, which it borrows from the Bible’s Revelation book (Orsini, 2015).
Furthermore, Aleph also borrows from Yoga and Nostradamus writings (Kearns, Conlon & Young, 2014). The ideology is manifested by Tomomitsu Niimi’s willingness to attack and murder a VX victim at 7 am on the 12th of December in 1994 after Shoko Asahara reported of suspecting the victim of being a spy.
Even though most doctrines disagree with almost all thoughts of Shoko Asahara, Aum Shinrikyo is rooted in earning a status (Kearns, Conlon & Young, 2014). For instance, the doctrine of Aum Shinrikyo dictates that in order for any follower to earn the status of an attained member, it is the obligation that member to meet precise conditions so as to influence senior members to recognize that the member has attained a state of higher spirituality (Orsini, 2015).
In one of the stages known as Kundalini Yoga a member was required to give a demonstration regarding his or her ability in showing abridged oxygen consumption, modification of electromagnetic activities of the brain, and reduced rate of the heart, which was to be proven by being measured using a corresponding equipment (Richards, 2014).
Threat posed by Aum Shinrikyo
Aum Shinrikyo poses a number of threats. According to an annual report by the department of state in the United States regarding global terrorism, Aum Shinrikyo is a great threat as it has evolved. Aum Shinrikyo has evolved leading to its current dispersion in the Middle East. The two groups Aleph and a group known as “Hikari no Wa”, which are operationally self-governing affiliates of Aum Shinrikyo are developing to be increasingly aggressive (Kearns, Conlon & Young, 2014).
Furthermore, the affiliates of Aum Shinrikyo in the Middle East use the instability of their regions to their advantage. Moreover, affiliates of Aum Shinrikyo tend to be financially sovereign from the central leadership of Aum Shinrikyo. Notably, affiliates of Aum Shinrikyo raise funds to run their operations from illegal activities such as extorting money from community leaders, acts of coercion, engaging in theft along with murder-kidnapping people and requesting for ransom or fraud of credit cards.
Aum Shinrikyo is also highly active in Japan according to the department of the state of the United States. Compared to all affiliates Aum Shinrikyo in Aleph is the greatest threat to the United States. The head of Aleph in Japan was appointed in 2013 to be the deputy leader of the entire system of Aum Shinrikyo globally (Finn & Momani, 2017). Furthermore, in 2013, acts of terrorism were influenced by sectarian reasons, which present a major threat.
It was also revealed that there was the resurgence in the activities conducted by Iranian security forces along with Iranian intelligence, as the two institutions were linked to primarily supporting Iran for its Assad administration in Syria. Iran also was revealed to have allies in Japan, known as “Hikari no Wa”. “Hikari no Wa” is a renowned terrorist group known for its high-level illegal activities and affiliation to Aum Shinrikyo.
Policies of combating Aum Shinrikyo
There are various policies of combating Aum Shinrikyo. Notably, Aum Shinrikyo is no longer hiding when performing its operations. At the moment Aum Shinrikyo controls its operations mainly from Japan. Thus, America is faced with a great challenge regarding its lifestyle. Aum Shinrikyo constantly fights against the United States with the aim of creating a global caliphate. Consequently, it has been globally recognized that there is need to acknowledge the terrorism problem intensity, and the magnitude required in terms of effort for combating the problem (Eid, 2014).
One of the policies of combating the problem of terrorism is having coordinated regional counterinsurgency operation. Markedly, this policy involves robust efforts of stabilization and combination of diplomatic efforts, political attempts, security endeavors, and informational attempts. The second policy is to end the brutality that averts regional cohorts from fighting Aum Shinrikyo, thus creating space or energy for Aum Shinrikyo to make recruitments and execute its operations.
The third policy is a unification of the private sector with the government in an effort of fighting Aum Shinrikyo. The fourth policy is creating strong partnerships locally as a way of ensuring the stability of governments (Eid, 2014). Notably, a majority of countries have developed less responsiveness to terrorism while others have been overpowered by terrorism through terrorists acquiring and staying on their land.
The main aim of having partnerships is to ensure that Aum Shinrikyo will not reemerge after it has been defeated. The fifth policy is analyzing the position held by key players who notably are within the majority world of Buddhism, Muslims, and Hinduism (Eid, 2014). For instance, partnering with Russia requires careful diplomatic engagement as its presence of forces within Aum Shinrikwo’s territories develops a challenge.
Terrorism is a global problem. For years the problem of terrorism has been shifting from one continent to another. Consequently, it has been established that terrorism is founded on carefully planned structures. Thus, this paper has discussed terrorism foundations by developing a case study of Aum Shinrikyo terrorist group. Aum Shinrikyo is known for dominating its operations within Japan along with the Middle East.
The paper above has revealed that initially, Aum Shinrikyo was a logistical set-up that aimed at defending the ancient faith by promoting worldwide operations that endorse theologies collected from diverse sources. Furthermore, it has come out clearly through the paper above that there are two separate groups of Aum Shinrikyo terrorist group. A group is known as Aleph and a group known as “Hikari no Wa”.
However, the paper has also revealed that Aum Shinrikyo cannot be termed as an organization rather Aum Shinrikyo refers to a doomsday cult whose origin is in Japan. Furthermore, the paper has revealed that activities of Aum Shinrikyo are motivated by both general reasons and specific motives. Thus, Aum Shinrikyo tends to engage in illegal acts as a way of gaining leverage. The illegal acts include engaging in extortion, acts of coercion, engaging in theft along with murder, as a way of raising money for the group.
Ingram, H. (2017). The Strategic Logic of the “Linkage-Based” Approach to Combating Militant Islamist Propaganda: Conceptual and Empirical Foundations. Terrorism And Counter-Terrorism Studies. http://dx.doi.org/10.19165/2017.1.06
The various counter terrorism units in the country play an integral role in ensuring that the fight against terrorism is won. They are focussed on ensuring that not only the USA but the world in general is peaceful. A number of agencies are involved in the fight against terrorism in the USA but the focus of the paper will be centered on the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).
The FBI serves as an intelligence and law enforcement agency and has its headquarters in Washington D.C. The agency was started in 1908 and has grown immensely to cover a wider range of responsibilities. It currently has over 35,104 employees that have a wide range of skills and knowledge that are essential in protecting the citizens of the USA from terrorism attack (Gulati, Raffaelli, and Rivkin, 2016).
Counter terrorism: Structure of FBI
The FBI has a centralized organizational structure that ensures a seamless flow of information. The head of the agency is the director who works in close conjunction with the office of the General Counsel, chief of staff, inspection division. The next in line is the deputy director who works in close conjunction with the office of professional responsibility, office of equal employment, office of the public and congressional affairs.
The other units that are controlled directly by the director and deputy director are criminal justice information service division, tracking division, administrative services division, training division, information resource division, information resources division, national security division, criminal investigative division, laboratory division, finance division, investigative services division, and counter- terrorism division ( United States Federal Bureau of Investigations(FBI) Academy Handbook, 2014, p.89).
From an international perspective, the FBI has over 64 legats and smaller sub offices in various cities around the world. The presence of the agency is present in over 200 countries and they have been set up through a mutual understanding from the governments and the agency. Most of the offices are located within the U.S embassy or the consulate. Their main aim is to ensure that they share intelligence information that will benefit the country they are operating and the USA (International operations, 2017).
The agencies that they work with are Interpol, foreign police, CIA and other international organizations that safe guard the people. The interactions between the country they are hosted and the USA is based on the treaties, statues, executive orders and Attorney general guidelines that are agreed upon by all the agencies.
The Legat program goes further ahead to offer international intelligence training to the security agencies in the different countries that they operate. The training does provide an opportunity to strengthen the relationship between the agency, USA and the countries they operate in. Moreover, it does provide an opportunity to consolidate the security of the entire world with respect to combating terrorism activities (International operations, 2017).
After the 9/11 attacks in the USA, the agency’s responsibility, intelligence work increased immensely to ensure efficiency in the operations to combat terrorism (McClintock, 2016). The counter terrorism division within the FBI is divided into four branches which are operations Branch 1, operations Branch II, analytical and operations support branch.
The Operations Branch I is further divided into two sections which are the international Terrorism Section I that does concentrate on al Qaeda activities on a regional and international basis. The second section concentrates on terrorism affiliated groups in Iraq/Syria/Libya, Palestinian rejectionist groups, Iran and Hezbollah, and other terrorist groups that are present in different parts of the globe (Anderson, 2010, p. 19).
The second branch, operations branch II, concentrates on weapons of mass destruction, terrorist financing operations, domestic terrorism and communications exploitation sections. The FBI does provide intelligence information on nuclear, radiological, biological, chemical or other weapons that are used by terrorist groups to clear a large number of people or cause extreme damage to the infrastructure of any nation. The second section, terrorist financing operations section, focuses on the investigating the funding of the terrorism groups and freezing their assets to decapitate their operations (Gulati et al., 2016).
The section does play a vital role in carrying out in depth investigation, prosecution, disruption and continuous demolishment of the terrorist activities that are tied down to fund-raising activities. The section has been further divided into four units to enhance efficiency, they are financial intelligence analysis, global extremist financial investigations, radical fundamentalist financial investigative, and domestic WMD, and global financial investigations unit (Gulati et al., 2016).
The third branch is the counter terrorism branch that deals with analysis and preparation of the intelligence reports. The branch does serve as the clearing house for all the intelligence gathering and processing. The branch has five divisions which are activities, ideology, linkages, trade craft and terrorist group composition. The branch does identify intelligence assets, blind spots and gaps in the intelligence system, evaluating the threat levels within the country, and the source of funding for all the terror groups.
The most dangerous groups that the branch monitors are the Al Qaeda, Hezbollah and Hamas. Last but not least it does share the intelligence they have gathered with other security agencies in the country to consolidated their work efforts (FBI Counter terrorism Analysis Branch Jobs and Salary, 2017).
The last branch, operations support branch, does focus on handling a number of responsibilities that are essential in ensuring that the tactical personnel are able to operate efficiently in the various missions. They develop budgets, organize training programs for the units, formulate CTD strategies, and consolidate partnerships with external private entities in the intelligence security organizations (FBI Counterterrorism Operational Support Branch Jobs and Salary, 2017).
The branch has two divisions which are the national threat center and the counter terrorism operational response section. The division is the backbone of the FBI and does share intelligence information with the Joint Terrorism Task Force and the Department of Homeland Security to counter terrorism. Moreover, the unit also shares information with the general public when it comes to counter terrorism programs.
Additionally, the branch oversees the FBI personnel who have been seconded to other security agency and finally it does work in close conjunction with the Department of Defense when it comes to coordinating operations (FBI Counterterrorism Operational Support Branch Jobs and Salary, 2017).
On the logistic perspective focuses on ensuring that the agency can be able to work effectively in their operations. The employees in the logistic centre work in construction, space management employee health and safety, telecommunications management, facilities operations, mail/freight management, and security electronics. The logistics of the team does go beyond consolidating the operations within the Washington D.C offices and the legate in different parts of the world (Our very own global logistics Service, 2017).
Logistic aspect also does come into action when the FBI is engaged in field activities. The team that handles their logistics is referred to as the Rapid Deployment Logistic Unit (RDLU), the unit is the first respondents when the agency is called to handle an attack and it does constitute counter terrorism experts, communicators, medical staff, military liaisons, lab personnel among others. They also have the Crisis Advance Team (CAT) that does determine the number of specialist that are required to combat counter terrorism.
When the specialist responds to any attack the field specialists segregate areas to set up the command post, and other machines that will be essential in linking the operation to the FBI offices in the USA. The RDLU also does work in setting up temporary operation centers that provide the team with an opportunity of hosting major diplomatic meetings, international sports and other special events (Our very own global logistics Service, 2017).
On the financing aspects the agency does receive funds for operations mainly from the federal government. The president does provide the agency with the finances required to run the operations each financial year based on the budget prepared by the operational support branch of the FBI. The machinery and weapons used by the tactical team vary based on the mission that the agents are carrying out. As discussed, the unit has different agents handling varying issues with respect to countering terrorism (Operational Technology, 2017).
The one aspect that is clear is that the agency uses the latest technology in their role to combat terrorism in the USA and the world at large. The FBI has launched the operational technology division located in Virginia that does incorporate technology in the intelligence, law enforcement and national security aspect of the nation. Some of the specific areas that they focus on are advanced electronic surveillance and search, digital forensics, radio program, specialized support and coordination, tactical operations, technical personnel and defensive programs among others (Operational Technology, 2017).
In conclusion, counter terrorism is an issue that does affect everyone in the different parts of the world. The FBI is one of the agencies that our focus group concentrated on evaluating their organizational structure, size, the different responsibilities of the branches, the finances and the type of machinery that is used. The FBI is not the only agency that tackles terrorism issues, but it does play an effective role by collaborating with the internal and external agency to combat terrorism.
Anderson, J. W. (2010). Disrupting Threat Finances: Utilization of Financial information to Disrupt terrorism. Diane Publishing.
The changing nature of crime has a significant impact on criminology, leading to more intriguing research on new aspects of crime. As noted by Barlow & Kauzlarich, 2010: 18), criminology theories have established that the complexity of behaviors and criminal actions as explained in different criminological theories point to the fact that the nature of crime will continue to change.
The modern times are characterized by unique crimes including unusual cases of terrorism, larceny and cybercrime among others. Criminals have become more tactful and the advent of technology and crime-based films have further increased expertise in criminal activities. The need to address the changing nature of crime in a proactive manner is absolutely necessary and criminology must adjust to accommodate such developments.
Besides, there is need to investigate the impact of traditional forms of crime correction and punishment to establish its effectiveness in the wake of the changing nature of crime. Accordingly, criminology has been affected by the changing nature of crime and there is need to keep studying such crimes and ensure that they are amicably addressed. Criminology is tasked with the duty of studying crime and developing solutions; such that urgent research is required to address new aspects of crime.
The changing nature of crime could be a reflection that theories in criminology have been outdated and that new focus is needed in order to manage modern crime. New paradigms need to be explored in order to ensure enhanced crime management. In the case of terrorism for example, the field of criminology is tasked with determining the major motivations of crime and the possibility of preventing the attacks before they can happen.
Changing nature of crime: Terrorism
Recently, there has been a surge in the number of terrorist attacks in the form of lone shootings, an illustration that terrorism goes beyond the alleged question of religion where research has mostly been focused. The recent shootings in Las Vegas that left 59 people dead and nearly 500 injured on October 1, 2017 were perpetrated by a lone gunman whose motive of crime is yet to be identified.
Stephen Paddock as he has been identified planned the crime for a long time, purchasing guns and rounds of ammunition and booking hotel rooms that gave him a clear view of the venue (Yan & Karimi, 2017: 1). The attack raises questions on how such a crime could be executed under the tight security measures that the United States has taken against terrorism.
Paddock did not only purchase numerous guns and explosives but also managed to transport them in his car and into the hotel room without being flagged by security. It is possible if he managed to escape the scene as originally intended, he may have committed another crime such as a bombing, given the police found explosives in his car.
Paddock was mostly a private person and since no accomplice has been identified so far, finding the motive may require an investigation into his psychological health. Barlow & Kauzlarich (2010: 15) note that psychological causes have been linked to crime but its relation to terrorist attacks is still a new subject of study.
The changing nature of crime as far as terrorism is concerned needs to explore more theories than are currently being studied. This insinuates that criminology would have to change the direction of study towards investigating the impact of psychological issues and other factors as a trigger of terrorism (Corner, Gill & Mason, 2016; 561).
Barlow, H. D. & Kauzlarich, D. (2010). Explaining Crime: A Primer in Criminological Theory.
Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
Corner, E., Gill, P. & Mason, O. (2015). Mental Health Disorders and the Terrorist: A Research
Note Probing Selection Effects and Disorder Prevalence. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 39(6), 560-568.
Yan, H. & Karimi, F. (2017). Las Vegas killer had more explosives, 1,600 rounds of ammo in