Exposure to the WMD agents

Exposure to the WMD agents
Exposure to the WMD agents

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Exposure to the WMD agents

You are asked to perform a briefing to the mayor and her staff on the following situation below

At approximately 9:15 pm, on the 11th of September in Orange Beach, Alabama (Temp 71oF, cloudy with calm winds), there is a 9-1-1 report that the movie theater in town that is packed to capacity to see the new adventure movie has had three explosions. The first explosion involved an explosion with a flash and loud bang resulting in a fine mist being released on the movie goers. As the movie goers were frantically leaving through the exits, two more explosions went off at each exit with another flash and loud bang but no physical shrapnel or other reports of physical damage to the theater.

Several days ago, it was reported by the news that the mayor’s office received a threat of a terrorist organization planning on releasing a biological agent in the town. According to reports at the movie theater, four used canisters marked Yersinia pestis were found in the location of the secondary bombs.

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As you are traveling to the scene you hear reports of patrons convulsing in the parking lot of the theater; they are unable to control their muscles and other bodily functions and are twitching uncontrollably.

Based on the cryptic details, what category of WMD weapon(s) was released on the crowd?

What is the potential outcome of being exposed to these WMD agents?

In what capacity will your organization of first responders be able to help (e.g. decontamination, weapon identification, first aid, etc.)?

What risk-based response procedures need to be taken to stabilize the scene and prevent further exposure to the WMD agents?

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Development of a Health Care Policy

Development of a Health Care Policy
Development of a Health Care Policy

Development of a Health Care Policy


            Development of a health care policy is one of the ways through which developing nations can be influenced to take actions that promote public health and reduce mortality rates, especially in countries where health inequality is a common problem. The Nature of health policy developed largely depends on specific health care problems that exist in a country at any given time.

Furthermore, one has to consider various social determinants of health in a country before developing and implementing a health policy (Kumar and Preetha, 2012). According to Kumar and Preetha (2012), social factors such as demographic patterns, political and economic changes, cultural issues, and learning environments are believed to influence health situations of many countries around the world.

A health policy that is aimed at reducing health inequality can be effective in promoting public health, and can greatly be supported by a country whose health is negatively impacted by disparities in health care. This paper explores the concept of health policy development and implementation about health inequality while giving special consideration to Malawi.

Health Care Policy: Rationale for Selecting Malawi

            Malawi has been chosen for this case study because it is one of the world’s developing countries whose public health is negatively impacted by health inequality and lack of health policy to guide proper health care delivery. According to Daire and Khalil (2015), failure to access primary health care is one of the causes of high death rates among children aged below five years in Malawi.

Daire and Khalil (2015) further assert that health care for socio-economic barriers largely face Children in Malawi that policy makers in the health sector must address to promote positive child health in the country. Children who are born to low-income families in Malawi are highly likely to experience limited access to health care as compared to those who come from wealthy families. The main reason for the high infant mortality rates among low-income families in Malawi is a lack of primary health care policy.

According to Makaula, Bloch, and Muula et al., (2012) and Ustrup, Ngwira, and Fischer, et al., (2014), Malawi continues to experience low life expectancy because it currently lacks a primary health care policy to guide health care access among poor families with children aged below 5 years. Now, Malawi utilizes the Essential Health Package (EHP) program to implement primary health care.

This has impacted negatively on health care access among poor households and a significant reduction in life expectancy in the country. In this regard, Malawi is one of the developing countries that are experiencing high rates of infant deaths due to lack of primary health care policy and would; therefore, attract the attention of health policy makers (Daire and Khalil, 2015). 

Social Determinants of Health in Malawi and Why they should be Addressed

            There are two major social determinants of health in Malawi that need to be addressed. According to Kumar and Preetha, (2012), social determinants of health refer to factors in the social setting that influence the ability of a country’s population to obtain care at any given time. Examples of social determinants of health include socio-economic factors, family patterns, cultural beliefs and attitudes, learning environments, and demographic patterns.

In Malawi, the two social determinants of health that should concern policy makers are; economic affordability and geographic accessibility of health care facilities. These two social determinants are highly rampant among residents of rural Malawi. Rural populations in Malawi cannot access quality health care due to limited finances and high concentration of health care facilities in urban areas (Ustrup, Ngwira, and Fischer, et al., 2014).

            In a study conducted by Ustrup, Ngwira, and Fischer, et al., (2014), the researchers have found that health care facilities are mainly located in urban Malawi, and this makes households based in rural Malawi to travel to the urban areas to seek for care. Ideally, rural Malawi does not only lack adequate health care facilities, but it also has poor roads that make it difficult for occupants to reach urban areas.

The long travel time coupled with high costs of transport prevent children from low-income families from receiving quality care, hence the observed high infant mortality rates in the country (Makaula, Bloch, and Muula, et al., 2012).  Furthermore, variation in economic affordability among affluent and low-income families determines the nature of care that these two groups of populations can receive in Malawi.

Families in rural Malawi with either small or lack of basic income are faced with the challenge of obtaining care for their children as opposed to those in wealthy regions with high basic income. For this reason, limited economic affordability among residents of rural Malawi presents significant economic burden which prevents families from obtaining quality care for their children (Ustrup, Ngwira, and Fischer, et al., 2014; & Makaula, Bloch, and Muula, et al., 2012).

There is a great need to address social determinants of health about economic affordability and geographic accessibility of health care facilities to increase access to care for families in rural Malawi. As Daire and Khalil (2015) explain, one of the ways through which health inequality in Malawi can be solved is by addressing those factors that hinder citizens from accessing health care.

It is only by addressing these social determinants of health that Malawi will be able to reduce infant mortality and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Health care accessibility in Malawi will greatly be improved if the ability of low-income families to meet health care costs and to access health care facilities is enhanced (Daire and Khalil, 2015).

Potential Public Issues that might be encountered

Two major public issues may be faced in Malawi in an attempt to influence health policy development in the country. The possible general issues that may be encountered are related to the level of cultural awareness and health literacy among the country’s population. Health literacy refers to the ability of individuals to comprehend basic health information and their capacity to utilize it in decision-making.

High health literacy is directly related to improved health outcomes while limited health literacy is associated with poor public health. According to Smith-Greenway (2015), high infant mortality rates in Malawi are largely attributed to limited health literacy among low-income families in rural areas. Residents of rural Malawi rarely receive health education, and the public sector has not initiated any programs in those areas to keep citizens informed about health.

Also, the majority of households in rural Malawi can only speak their local language, and they do not understand any information presented to them in pure English (Smith-Greenway, 2015). Lack of public health education and proper communication of public health information are the primary causes of limited health literacy in Malawi. Consequently, limited health literacy may impede successful development and implementation of health policy in Malawi (Ustrup, Ngwira, and Fischer, et al., 2014).

The other public issue that may be encountered during health policy development and implementation in Malawi is the level of cultural awareness among the country’s population. According to Daire and Khalil (2015), cultural knowledge in a country determines the possibility with which a new policy can be developed and implemented. In this regard, it becomes difficult to implement a health policy that goes against the cultural beliefs and values of a country’s population.

As Reiney, Watkins, Ryman, Sandhu, Bo, and Benerjee, (2011) explain, low cultural awareness is a big problem in Malawi because it negatively affects health utilization among the country’s population. Specifically, cultural beliefs and values of the country’s population largely influence the patterns of health utilization in the country in the sense that, health underutilization is common in rural Malawi where occupants do not believe in care that is being offered by health care organizations. Ideally, low cultural awareness among rural populations in Malawi may prevent successful implementation of health policy in the country (Ustrup, Ngwira, and Fischer, et al., 2014).

Relationship Between Health Inequality and Life Expectancy in Malawi

There is an inverse relationship between health inequality and life expectancy in Malawi. In this regard, high disparities in health are associated with low life expectancy while low disparities in health are related to high life expectancy in Malawi. Life expectancy is low when infant mortality rate is high while life expectancy is high when infant mortality rate is low (Deurzen, Oorschot, and Ingen, 2014).

According to the World Health Organization report of 2017, health disparity in Malawi is significantly higher than that of Japan. Furthermore, an infant born in Malawi is highly likely to die at the age of 47 while a child born in Japan will probably die at the age of 87. Therefore, when health inequality is high in Malawi, life expectancy in the country is significantly low, especially among the rural populations (World Health Organization, 2012).

The inverse relationship between health inequality and life expectancy among poor populations is supported by research evidence. In a study conducted by Deurzen, Oorschot and Ingen (2014) the researchers have found that the rate of infant mortality is higher among the poor than among the rich populations. Therefore, a policy that can reduce health inequality will help to reduce infant mortality rate and eventually raise life expectancy (Deurzen, Oorschot, and Ingen, 2014).

Current Efforts in Malawi to Reduce Health Inequalities

            The government of Malawi has worked hard to reduce health inequalities in the country with the aim of reducing infant mortality rates that occur among its rural populations. These efforts are geared towards addressing two major social determinants of health: economic affordability and geographic accessibility of health care facilities. As Ustrup, Ngwira, and Fischer, et. al., (2014) explain, governments can increase geographic accessibility of health care facilities by constructing additional organizations in rural areas.

Between 2003 and 2010, the Government of Malawi constructed a total of 39 health centers in the rural areas. This has helped its rural populations to access health care and to save time and money that could have been spent in traveling to the urban areas to seek for health care.  Additionally, Malawi has taken appropriate actions to mitigate financial barrier among its rural populations by increasing their ability to meet health care cost.

In the year 2010, the Government of Malawi signed an agreement with facilities that operate under the Christian Health Association of Malawi (CHAM) to allow free health care services for mothers and children. With free access to child and maternal health care services, Malawi has been able to record a decrease in infant mortality rate with a slight increase in life expectancy (Ustrup, Ngwira, and Fischer, et. al., 2014).

Health Policy

            The best health policy to address health inequality in Malawi would be that which will get the support of the country’s population, considering the fact that residents of rural Malawi have limited health literacy and do not have trust in the care offered by health care organizations (Makaula, Bloch, and Muula, et al., 2012).

An example of a policy that might be developed to reduce health inequality in Malawi is the creation of a National Development and Social Fund to support programs that facilitate construction of health care facilities in the rural areas, while at the same time meeting the health care costs of mothers and children who reside in rural Malawi.

The Government of Malawi should set aside funds to facilitate implementation of this policy to ensure that both rural and urban populations have equal access to health care. Successful implementation of this policy will result in a reduction in infant mortality rates among the poor populations in Malawi, which will eventually translate into high life expectancy in the country (Ustrup, Ngwira, and Fischer, et. al., 2014; Dairen and Khalil, 2015).


Daire, J. & Khalil, D. (2015). Analysis of maternal and child health policies in Malawi: The methodological perspective. Malawi Medical Journal, 27(4): 135-139.

Deurzen, I. V., Oorschot, W. V. & Ingen, E. (2014). The link between inequality and population health in low and middle-income countries: Policy myth or social reality? PLoS ONE, 9(12): e115109. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115109

Kumar, S. & Preetha, G. S. (2012). Health promotion: An effective tool for global health. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 37(1): 5-12. doi:  10.4103/0970-0218.94009

Makaula, P., Bloch, P…..& Muula, A. S. (2012). Primary health care in rural Malawi: A qualitative assessment exploring the relevance of the community-directed interventions approach. BMC Health Services Research, 12: 328. doi:  10.1186/1472-6963-12-328

Reiney, J. J., Watkins, M., Ryman, T. K., Sandhu, P., Bo, A. & Benerjee, K. (2011). Reasons related to non-vaccination and under-vaccination of children in low and middle-income countries: Findings for a systematic review of the published literature, 1999-2009. Vaccine, 29(46): 8215-8221. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.08.096

Smith-Greenway, E. (2015). Are literacy skills associated with young adults’ health in Africa: Evidence from Malawi. Social Science and Medicine, 127: 124-133. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.07.036.

Ustrup, M., Ngwira, B…& Fischer, T. (2014). Potential barriers to healthcare in Malawi for under-five children with a cough and fever: A national household survey. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition, 32 (1): 68-78.

World Health Organization, (WHO). (2017). Fact file on health inequality. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/sdhconference/background/news/facts/en/

Counter Terrorism in The United States of America

Counter Terrorism
Counter Terrorism

The various counter terrorism units in the country play an integral role in ensuring that the fight against terrorism is won. They are focussed on ensuring that not only the USA but the world in general is peaceful. A number of agencies are involved in the fight against terrorism in the USA but the focus of the paper will be centered on the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

The FBI serves as an intelligence and law enforcement agency and has its headquarters in Washington D.C. The agency was started in 1908 and has grown immensely to cover a wider range of responsibilities. It currently has over 35,104 employees that have a wide range of skills and knowledge that are essential in protecting the citizens of the USA from terrorism attack (Gulati, Raffaelli, and Rivkin, 2016).

Counter terrorism: Structure of FBI

            The FBI has a centralized organizational structure that ensures a seamless flow of information. The head of the agency is the director who works in close conjunction with the office of the General Counsel, chief of staff, inspection division. The next in line is the deputy director who works in close conjunction with the office of professional responsibility, office of equal employment, office of the public and congressional affairs.

The other units that are controlled directly by the director and deputy director are criminal justice information service division, tracking division, administrative services division, training division, information resource division, information resources division, national security division, criminal investigative division, laboratory division, finance division, investigative services division, and counter- terrorism division ( United States Federal Bureau of Investigations(FBI) Academy Handbook, 2014, p.89).

From an international perspective, the FBI has over 64 legats and smaller sub offices in various cities around the world. The presence of the agency is present in over 200 countries and they have been set up through a mutual understanding from the governments and the agency. Most of the offices are located within the U.S embassy or the consulate. Their main aim is to ensure that they share intelligence information that will benefit the country they are operating and the USA (International operations, 2017).

The agencies that they work with are Interpol, foreign police, CIA and other international organizations that safe guard the people. The interactions between the country they are hosted and the USA is based on the treaties, statues, executive orders and Attorney general guidelines that are agreed upon by all the agencies.

The Legat program goes further ahead to offer international intelligence training to the security agencies in the different countries that they operate. The training does provide an opportunity to strengthen the relationship between the agency, USA and the countries they operate in. Moreover, it does provide an opportunity to consolidate the security of the entire world with respect to combating terrorism activities (International operations, 2017).

After the 9/11 attacks in the USA, the agency’s responsibility, intelligence work increased immensely to ensure efficiency in the operations to combat terrorism (McClintock, 2016). The counter terrorism division within the FBI is divided into four branches which are operations Branch 1, operations Branch II, analytical and operations support branch.

The Operations Branch I is further divided into two sections which are the international Terrorism Section I that does concentrate on al Qaeda activities on a regional and international basis. The second section concentrates on terrorism affiliated groups in Iraq/Syria/Libya, Palestinian rejectionist groups, Iran and Hezbollah, and other terrorist groups that are present in different parts of the globe (Anderson, 2010, p. 19).

The second branch, operations branch II, concentrates on weapons of mass destruction, terrorist financing operations, domestic terrorism and communications exploitation sections. The FBI does provide intelligence information on nuclear, radiological, biological, chemical or other weapons that are used by terrorist groups to clear a large number of people or cause extreme damage to the infrastructure of any nation. The second section, terrorist financing operations section, focuses on the investigating the funding of the terrorism groups and freezing their assets to decapitate their operations (Gulati et al., 2016).

The section does play a vital role in carrying out in depth investigation, prosecution, disruption and continuous demolishment of the terrorist activities that are tied down to fund-raising activities. The section has been further divided into four units to enhance efficiency, they are financial intelligence analysis, global extremist financial investigations, radical fundamentalist financial investigative, and domestic WMD, and global financial investigations unit (Gulati et al., 2016).

The third branch is the counter terrorism branch that deals with analysis and preparation of the intelligence reports.  The branch does serve as the clearing house for all the intelligence gathering and processing. The branch has five divisions which are activities, ideology, linkages, trade craft and terrorist group composition. The branch does identify intelligence assets, blind spots and gaps in the intelligence system, evaluating the threat levels within the country, and the source of funding for all the terror groups.

The most dangerous groups that the branch monitors are the Al Qaeda, Hezbollah and Hamas. Last but not least it does share the intelligence they have gathered with other security agencies in the country to consolidated their work efforts (FBI Counter terrorism Analysis Branch Jobs and Salary, 2017).

The last branch, operations support branch, does focus on handling a number of responsibilities that are essential in ensuring that the tactical personnel are able to operate efficiently in the various missions. They develop budgets, organize training programs for the units, formulate CTD strategies, and consolidate partnerships with external private entities in the intelligence security organizations (FBI Counterterrorism Operational Support Branch Jobs and Salary, 2017).

The branch has two divisions which are the national threat center and the counter terrorism operational response section. The division is the backbone of the FBI and does share intelligence information with the Joint Terrorism Task Force and the Department of Homeland Security to counter terrorism. Moreover, the unit also shares information with the general public when it comes to counter terrorism programs.

Additionally, the branch oversees the FBI personnel who have been seconded to other security agency and finally it does work in close conjunction with the Department of Defense when it comes to coordinating operations (FBI Counterterrorism Operational Support Branch Jobs and Salary, 2017).

On the logistic perspective focuses on ensuring that the agency can be able to work effectively in their operations. The employees in the logistic centre work in construction, space management employee health and safety, telecommunications management, facilities operations, mail/freight management, and security electronics. The logistics of the team does go beyond consolidating the operations within the Washington D.C offices and the legate in different parts of the world (Our very own global logistics Service, 2017).

 Logistic aspect also does come into action when the FBI is engaged in field activities. The team that handles their logistics is referred to as the Rapid Deployment Logistic Unit (RDLU), the unit is the first respondents when the agency is called to handle an attack and it does constitute counter terrorism experts, communicators, medical staff, military liaisons, lab personnel among others. They also have the Crisis Advance Team (CAT) that does determine the number of specialist that are required to combat counter terrorism.

When the specialist responds to any attack the field specialists segregate areas to set up the command post, and other machines that will be essential in linking the operation to the FBI offices in the USA. The RDLU also does work in setting up temporary operation centers that provide the team with an opportunity of hosting major diplomatic meetings, international sports and other special events (Our very own global logistics Service, 2017).

On the financing aspects the agency does receive funds for operations mainly from the federal government. The president does provide the agency with the finances required to run the operations each financial year based on the budget prepared by the operational support branch of the FBI. The machinery and weapons used by the tactical team vary based on the mission that the agents are carrying out. As discussed, the unit has different agents handling varying issues with respect to countering terrorism (Operational Technology, 2017).

The one aspect that is clear is that the agency uses the latest technology in their role to combat terrorism in the USA and the world at large. The FBI has launched the operational technology division located in Virginia that does incorporate technology in the intelligence, law enforcement and national security aspect of the nation. Some of the specific areas that they focus on are advanced electronic surveillance and search, digital forensics, radio program, specialized support and coordination, tactical operations, technical personnel and defensive programs among others (Operational Technology, 2017).

In conclusion, counter terrorism is an issue that does affect everyone in the different parts of the world. The FBI is one of the agencies that our focus group concentrated on evaluating their organizational structure, size, the different responsibilities of the branches, the finances and the type of machinery that is used. The FBI is not the only agency that tackles terrorism issues, but it does play an effective role by collaborating with the internal and external agency to combat terrorism.


Anderson, J. W. (2010). Disrupting Threat Finances: Utilization of Financial information to Disrupt terrorism. Diane Publishing.

FBI Counterterrorism Analysis Branch Jobs and Salary. (2017). Fbiagentedu.org. Retrieved 11 August 2017, from http://www.fbiagentedu.org/careers/countert…….analysis/

FBI Counterterrorism Operational Support Branch Jobs and Salary. (2017). Fbiagentedu.org. Retrieved 11 August 2017, from http://www.fbiagentedu.org/careers/countert…….operational-support/

Gulati, R., Raffaelli, R., & Rivkin, J.W. (2016). Does “what We Do” Make Us” who We Are”? Organizational Design and Identity Change at the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Harvard Business School.

International Operations. (2017). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved 11 August 2017, from https://www.fbi.gov/about/leadership-and-structure/international-operations

McClintock, M. (2016). Counter-Terrorism and Human Rights since 9/11. The Ashgate Research Companion to Political Violence, 411.

Operational Technology. (2017). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved 11 August 2017, from https://www.fbi.gov/services/operational-technology

Our very own global logistics Service. (2017). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved 11 August 2017, from https://archives.fbi.gov/archves/news/stories/2017/april/rdlu040805

 United States Federal Bureau of Investigations(FBI) Academy Handbook. (2014). International Business Publication, USA.

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Self-Sufficient Electric Generator

Self-Sufficient Electric Generator
Self-Sufficient Electric Generator

Self-Sufficient Electric Generator

 The self-sufficient electric generator is a new invention that will help to increase the supply of renewable energy in the society. The electric generator will help many people to meet their energy needs considering that it can be used for several purposes. Moreover, this invention is an appropriate source of electricity in today’s society because it is less costly and it does not cause environmental pollution (Islam, Hasanuzzaman, Rahim, Nahar, and Hosenuzzaman, 2014).

Self-sufficient electric generator Invention

            The invention discloses a self-sufficient electric motor and generator system accessories connected to each other. The motor will generate rational energy while the generator will produce electric energy. The two connected accessories will produce three-phase energy from the rational energy. Since both the motor and the generator can use either alternating current (AC), or direct current (DC), the invention can be made in either two or three-phase wires to produce AC or DC power. The system will serve general electric purposes including camping out, housing, industrial, and an excellent replacement of Gas, diesel, or any other engine petroleum dependency such as small or large car engines, heavy equipment, and machinery, among others. Additional advantages of the system include; easy portability, a home-based electric station for re-charging electric power cars, minimized maintenance costs, and lack of pollution because it does not produce smoke and noise. (Phoolari, Pavanasudan, and Uday, 2014).

Self-sufficient electric motor and generator system is efficient regarding energy, expenses, and environmental protection. Specifically, the invention offers an alternative for electric energy and does not require extra expenses for purchasing fuel tanks, oil filters, and for system maintenance. Moreover, the energy source will help to solve the problem of global warming because there will be no smoke and tailpipe emissions from automobiles.

Reference List

Islam, M. A., Hasanuzzaman, M., Rahim, N. A., Nahar, A. & Hosenuzzaman, M. (2014). Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security. The Scientific World Journal, 2014: 197136. doi:  10.1155/2014/197136

Phoolari, S. V., Pavanasudan, M. & Uday, M. (2014). Self-proclaiming generator for automobiles. International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, 3(11): 50-61.

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Theology of Evangelism

Theology of Evangelism
Theology of Evangelism

Theology of Evangelism


For a Christian to effectively share the gospel of Christ, a clear understanding of its implications and expected response is essential. Unlike other religions, Christianity understands the meaning of grace and the most critical ministry is making people believe the love that God has for them. In the theology of evangelism, Sin tends to manifest when people live in denial of God’s existence.

Although Satan gained control of the world at fall, Jesus repossessed it in Revelation 5 (Bible, 2000). Throughout the scriptures, the sermons given by apostles as they tried to preach the good news to the world are characterized by, authoritative evidence, vivid description of God’s activities, eyewitnesses, and miraculous deeds. The degree to which a Christian sacrifice for the gospel determines the reception of his/her message by unbelievers. Evangelism in the absence of theology degenerates into human manipulated desires and techniques.

On the other hand, theology without evangelism transforms into a powerless academic process. Evangelism should foster a sense of gratitude, concern, and responsibility based on passages such as Mathew 28: 18-20, Acts 20:21, Galatians 2:20 and John 14: 16 which demonstrate the love and expectation of Christ towards the saved in proclaiming the gospel to all nations so every person may repent and turn towards God (Bible, 2000). Through theology, a solid biblical foundation that can only be lived through passionate evangelism is realized. 

History of Theology of Evangelism

Evangelism is a Greek word meaning gospel or good news (RMNI, 2015). In 1st Corinthians 15:3-5, the elements of the gospel are revealed; first, Jesus Christ died to redeem humankind from the bondage of sin, after which he resurrected on the third day. Jesus appeared to individuals and groups, and it is through seeing that resurrection was verified.

Paul asserts that man is saved by holding on to the message which was earlier preached, and if a person truly believes that Christ died and rose for the redemption of humankind, then he or she is truly saved. Paul goes further and mentions in Romans 10:9 that by confessing with the mouth that Jesus is Lord and believe in the heart that God resurrected Him from the jaws of death, then a person is saved. Evangelism takes place when a saved Christian communicates the good news so that the hearers can comprehend it and make an individual decision to get saved.

Coleman (2017) asserted that it is impossible for a human being to obtain sound doctrine without a clear understanding of the Bible. Evangelism is anchored in redemption. The saving nature of the scriptures breeds the urgency for proclaiming the message to every living creature as mandated in Mathew 4:19.

Recognizing the sovereignty of God is implicit in the study of theology of evangelism. If God truly exists, then the man should bow and worship His Lordship as stated in Isaiah 45:22, “and be ye saved: all the ends of the earth, for I am God and there is no one else” (Bible, 2000). The liberal theology is based on the premise that God acts in utmost integrity, he is holy, and loves unconditionally, such that God is perfect. Without acknowledging the Lordship of God and the importance of gospel, theology is in vain.

Preaching the gospel of Christ and reaching out to people to get saved is a requirement for every Christian. In the biblical passages, God is revealed to be love like 1 John 4:8. When a person is saved and is determined to live by the will of God, as projected in the scriptures, then the love for God compels one to reach to others through evangelism. In 2nd Kings 7-13, the author mentions four Israelite lepers who secured a deserted camp started to feast and possess the assets.

However, they then agreed that it was selfish of them to keep the good news and therefore decided to preach the deliverance message. Also, Christians are commanded to evangelize in Mathew 28: 19. A student of the word also understands that evangelism does not end after reaching to people and communicating the message of salvation and redemption.

Discipleship, baptism, teaching the word of God to converts and other believers, as well as reminding people to obey the word of God are critical elements factors that are learned through theology (Yong, 2014).

It is compulsory for Christians to evangelize to all people across the globe irrespective of the religious or ethnic affiliations of the hearers. Acts 28 talks about the disciples, who after receiving the Holy Spirit were to witness at their homes and in foreign lands (Bible, 2000). In the same scripture, Jesus tells Andrew and Peter that He would make them become fishers of men if only they followed him.

To fish, a person goes to the lake with bait, and correspondingly, Christians are supposed to leave their comfort and go out to preach the gospel of Christ but armed with the scriptures. Theology equips Christians with the word of God and creates a greater understanding of the relationship between humankind and God and the entire process of salvation. Without such knowledge, then evangelism lacks in substance, and the message may not be authoritative.

Paul was a teacher of the law and understood the mindset of Pharisees and other religious affiliations thus giving him an opportunity to communicate authoritatively.

Theologically, Jesus is the only human being who did not inherit the seed of sin of Adam (Coleman, 2011), which makes every other person sinful (Roman 5:12). Jesus is the word of God, did not have a beginning, and by being in physical form, he demonstrated his humanity and not origin or existence. He volunteered to leave his heavenly body and be like us to ease the anger of God towards humankind so that redemption through grace may take place (Romans 3:24, Peter 2:24).

As such, if a person rejects the gospel of Christ there is no other way either in heaven or on earth that he or she can be saved (Acts 4:13). Since there exist other gods luring people and offering false salvation, compassion is practiced by projecting the weakness of other gods and spread the true message of redemption and deliverance. Although issues arise about the uniqueness of Christ given that scriptures are firm in asserting that He is the only way through which humankind can be saved, the pastoral duty of Christians is to lead the world to the cross, which is the source of abundant grace and hope.

The psalmists, in Ps. 16:3 claimed that all those who pursue other gods tend to increase their adversity instead of receiving the healing power. Theology teaches about the ways of Christ, life and death, and most importantly salvation, which is given freely to all human beings (Barker et al. 1993).

A theology that is based on evangelism projects Christians towards the biblical goal which according to Jude (24) Christ is presented as a bride amassed in blood but found without fault in the mighty eyes of the creator. Such a theological perspective focuses the energy of Christians on hope through the affirmation that Christ is indeed victorious. Upon getting saved, disciples receive the Holy Spirit who guides people in living a pure and blemish-free lifestyle.

This means that Christ is continuously working in the life of a believer through the spirit to ensure that the worldly passions do not take over. It is by studying the word and living in the world that Christ is manifested in the life of a Christian. Theology, therefore, serves to promote evangelism, which is not possible if a person does not, indeed understand and decide to live by the word of God.


A theology of evangelism asks Christians to fix their attention on upon the victory of Christ irrespective of the sufferings of the world. Even though it is not clear how the saved shall be, it is certain that when Christ appears, they shall be like Him. God has been and is still working to ensure that He accomplishes His purpose. It is upon every Christian to apply the word learned from the scriptures to proclaim the Gospel to all corners of the world.

The message of redemption should be the focal point of the theology ministry. Christ commissioned every Christian to make disciples who are willing to learn from the world and sacrifice their flesh for His glorious manifestation. Theology of evangelism is rooted in seeking the kingdom of God above everything else, denying oneself and taking up the cross, striving to be like Christ.

Reference List

Barker, K. L., Burdick, D., & Burdick, D. W. (1993). The NIV study bible, new international version. Zondervan Bible Publishers.

Bible, H. (2000). King James Version. Texas: National Publishing Company.

Coleman, R. E. (2011). The Heart of the Gospel: The Theology Behind the Master Plan of Evangelism. Baker Books.

Coleman, R. E. (2017). Theology of Evangelism. Baker Books. Retrieved from https://korycapps.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/re-coleman_theology-of-evangelism.pdf

RMNI Reconciliation Network Ministries (2015). Retrieved from https://www.rmni.org/teaching-resources/evangelism-a-discipleship/theology-of-evangelism.html

Yong, A. (2014). The Missiological Spirit: Christian Mission Theology in the Third Millennium Global Context. Wipf and Stock Publishers.

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Impact of changing nature of crime on criminology

changing nature of crime
changing nature of crime

Impact of changing nature of crime on criminology

The changing nature of crime has a significant impact on criminology, leading to more intriguing research on new aspects of crime.  As noted by Barlow & Kauzlarich, 2010: 18), criminology theories have established that the complexity of behaviors and criminal actions as explained in different criminological theories point to the fact that the nature of crime will continue to change.

The modern times are characterized by unique crimes including unusual cases of terrorism, larceny and cybercrime among others. Criminals have become more tactful and the advent of technology and crime-based films have further increased expertise in criminal activities. The need to address the changing nature of crime in a proactive manner is absolutely necessary and criminology must adjust to accommodate such developments.

Besides, there is need to investigate the impact of traditional forms of crime correction and punishment to establish its effectiveness in the wake of the changing nature of crime. Accordingly, criminology has been affected by the changing nature of crime and there is need to keep studying such crimes and ensure that they are amicably addressed. Criminology is tasked with the duty of studying crime and developing solutions; such that urgent research is required to address new aspects of crime.

The changing nature of crime could be a reflection that theories in criminology have been outdated and that new focus is needed in order to manage modern crime. New paradigms need to be explored in order to ensure enhanced crime management. In the case of terrorism for example, the field of criminology is tasked with determining the major motivations of crime and the possibility of preventing the attacks before they can happen.

Changing nature of crime: Terrorism

Recently, there has been a surge in the number of terrorist attacks in the form of lone shootings, an illustration that terrorism goes beyond the alleged question of religion where research has mostly been focused. The recent shootings in Las Vegas that left 59 people dead and nearly 500 injured on October 1, 2017 were perpetrated by a lone gunman whose motive of crime is yet to be identified.

Stephen Paddock as he has been identified planned the crime for a long time, purchasing guns and rounds of ammunition and booking hotel rooms that gave him a clear view of the venue (Yan & Karimi, 2017: 1). The attack raises questions on how such a crime could be executed under the tight security measures that the United States has taken against terrorism.

Paddock did not only purchase numerous guns and explosives but also managed to transport them in his car and into the hotel room without being flagged by security. It is possible if he managed to escape the scene as originally intended, he may have committed another crime such as a bombing, given the police found explosives in his car.

Paddock was mostly a private person and since no accomplice has been identified so far, finding the motive may require an investigation into his psychological health. Barlow & Kauzlarich (2010: 15) note that psychological causes have been linked to crime but its relation to terrorist attacks is still a new subject of study.

The changing nature of crime as far as terrorism is concerned needs to explore more theories than are currently being studied. This insinuates that criminology would have to change the direction of study towards investigating the impact of psychological issues and other factors as a trigger of terrorism (Corner, Gill & Mason, 2016; 561).


Barlow, H. D. & Kauzlarich, D. (2010). Explaining Crime: A Primer in Criminological Theory.

Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.

Corner, E., Gill, P. & Mason, O. (2015). Mental Health Disorders and the Terrorist: A Research

Note Probing Selection Effects and Disorder Prevalence. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 39(6), 560-568.

Yan, H. & Karimi, F. (2017). Las Vegas killer had more explosives, 1,600 rounds of ammo in

car. Retrieved from https//edition.cnn.com/2017/10/05/us/las-vegas-shooting-investigation/index.html

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Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) ,caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae  a bacteria which infects the mucous membranes. The bacteria is often transmitted from one individual to another during sexual contact, including anal, oral or vaginal intercourse. However, babies can also be infected with this condition during childbirth if the mother is infected. In babies, the disease affects their eyes. Hethcote &Yorke (2014) report that some of the factors that may increase the risk of one getting the infection include age, new sex partner, history of gonorrhea infection, multiple sex partners, and co-infection with other sexually transmitted diseases.

The bacteria cannot survive outside human body for long therefore it cannot be transmitted by sharing baths and towel, cups, toilets and seats, kissing or hugging.

Once infected, one presents with urethral discharge while urinating. The infection is treatable therefore one should seek medical attention early after noticing the symptoms.

Presentation of Gonorrhea

Usually, the infection causes no symptoms. However, when they appear it affects multiple body parts, but it appears commonly in the genital tract. Men who have been diagnosed with gonorrhea pus-like discharge from the tip of the penis, painful urination, and swelling and pain in one testicle. In women, the infection causes increased vaginal discharge, dysuria, dyspanuria, pelvic or abdominal pain, and vaginal bleeding between periods such as after vaginal intercourse.

The infection can also infect other body parts such as the rectum where it causes anal itching, discharge of the pus-like substance from the rectum, strains during bowel movements, and bleeding. When it infects the eyes, it may cause light sensitivity, eye pain, and pus-like discharge from one or both eyes. Patients may also develop a sore throat or swollen lymph nodes in the neck if the infection spreads to the throat. It can also disseminate to the various joints causing septic arthritis whereby the affected joints become red, warm, swollen, and extremely painful during movements.

Treatment of Gonorrhea

Adults who have been diagnosed with gonorrhea are prescribed with antibiotics. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recommended that patients with uncomplicated gonorrhea should be given a ceftriaxone injection in combination two oral antibiotics, that is, either doxycycline or azithromycin. This is advisable because the drugs provide a wide range of activity which is required due to the emergence of strains of drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae(Kerani et al. 2015).

Babies who are infected during childbirth are given two eye drops of erythromycin to prevent the spread of the infection. To avoid reinfection with gonorrhea, the patients are advised to abstain from unprotected sex for seven days after he/she has completed the treatment regimen and the symptoms have resolved.

The infection can cause some complications if it is untreated. For instance, it can cause infertility in women by spreading to the oviduct and the uterus cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) which causes scarring of the fallopian tubes, increase in pregnancy complications as well as infertility. Infertility can also occur in men if the infection affects the epididymis. Most importantly, the gonorrhea infection predisposes a person to the risk of being infected with STIs such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).

The following steps should be taken to reduce the risk of gonorrhea infection. First, sexually active women should be encouraged to visit health centers annually for gonorrhea screening (Jackson, McNair & Coleman, 2015). Condoms should also be used if a person is having sex with a new sex partner. For those who have been diagnosed with the disease, they should encourage their partners to also go to a hospital for testing.


Gonorrhea has a good prognosis especially if antibiotic therapy is administered early enough. Usually, the infection clears within 2 to 4 weeks if the Neisseria gonorrhoeaeis susceptible to the antibiotics that have been administered. For individuals who have are immune-compromised such as patients with HIV, the infection may last for months and become more severe.


Hethcote, H. W., & Yorke, J. (2014). Gonorrhea transmission dynamics and control (Vol. 56). Springer.

Jackson, J. A., McNair, T. S., & Coleman, J. S. (2015). Over-screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea among urban women age≥ 25 years. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 212(1), 40-e1.

Kerani, R. P., Stenger, M. R., Weinstock, H., Bernstein, K. T., Reed, M., Schumacher, C., … & Golden, M. (2015). Gonorrhea treatment practices in the STD Surveillance Network, 2010–2012. Sexually transmitted diseases, 42(1), 6-12.

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National Appliance Inc Logistics Case Analysis

National Appliance Inc Logistics Case Analysis. According to Marchet, Melacini, Perotti, & Tappia (2016), correlations exist between organizational internationalization choices and logistics operations.

Logistics Case Analysis

National Appliance Inc Logistics Case Analysis

According to Marchet, Melacini, Perotti, & Tappia (2016), correlations exist between organizational internationalization choices and logistics operations. Expressly, the authors point out that logistics serve as crucial enablers for company internationalization, which further contributes to a significant increase in logistics network complexity. Today, society is characterized by an increased demand for flexibility and speed, which require organizations to understand that their logistics strategy serves as a vital aspect of the overall operations and further contributes to achieving corporate objectives (Marchet, Melacini, Perotti, & Tappia, 2016).

In this case, National Appliance Inc has been operational for the past 35 years. During the past 15 years, they have experienced increased growth in their share of the products due to the provision of high-quality products at lower prices. This growth has been coupled with vertical integration in the company’s supply and marketing channels. Nonetheless, the company’s expansion into an international market, Paris, is characterized by various strengths and limitations, especially in logistics planning.

More precisely, the strengths associated with Mr. Reard’s international transportation plan include vast experience and considerable expertise in domestic transport management and logistics. These essential components have been acquired through the company’s successful transportation of their products domestically for the past 15 years, contributing to a significant reduction of transportation costs (Li & Sun, 2014).

Additionally, the plan formulated by Mr. Reard portrays strength based on the control and close monitoring of transportation activities via trucks, which allow him to remain in close contact with the drivers. As a result, this strategy fosters increased flexibility in services and the employment rate for many drivers. Besides, potential delays in truck transportation can be quickly addressed than other modes of transportation. Simultaneously, shipment of goods internationally from New Jersey to LeHavre, France, could significantly reduce transportation costs for the company compared to airplanes (Cook, 2016).

Conversely, Mr. Reard’s plan is characterized by several weaknesses that include a considerable distance between the United States and Paris. If the products are transported via shipping, they will take at least four weeks to reach the destination. As a result, the costs incurred during this period would significantly increase the lead times, ultimately affecting its price. Specifically, transportation of the finished products from the different plants, Memphis, Minneapolis, and Omaha, would significantly increase the costs and contribute to long lead times (Cook, 2016).

Besides, hiring an international transportation manager to take charge of Paris operations would lead to increased costs as he/she would demand a high salary. These shortcomings are coupled with the fact that Mr. Reard and his staff lack the necessary international experience and may thus be ill-equipped to prepare the plan.

An alternative plan that should be presented to Ms. Jameson entails:

  • Establishing a central hub between the three plants to facilitate management and assortment of the products and direct dispatched to New Jersey port to minimize the transportation costs and ensuring quality
  • Use rail transportation as the most reliable, timely, less costly, and risky mode in Europe for bulk products
  • Shift to shipment of the products from New Jersey to LeHavre, France, coupled with the relevant insurance before dispatching of the goods
  • Avoid hiring a transportation manager since it is not elaborately established whether doing business with the Paris distributor is on a contractual or regular basis
  • Engagement management in laying out the operational terms between the Paris distributor and National Appliance Inc

Visual Representation

Logistics visual representation

National Appliance Inc Logistics Case Analysis Conclusion

              As a justification for the strategy applied in Mr. Reard’s case, the international transportation plan formulated above focuses on cost reduction and the maintenance of quality and timely delivery of the company products to the end-user. Essentially, the central hub established will play a pivotal role in ensuring accuracy through the assortment and management of the products before they are dispatched to the New Jersey/New York plant.

This way, the lead time will be significantly reduced, and the goods meant for transportation to Paris will be readily available, fostering timely delivery to the final consumer. Nevertheless, this strategy harbors some shortcomings based on risks and losses associated with railway transportation. Additionally, in case of potential delays, accidents, or power outages, monitoring the transportation of goods becomes a challenge and can deter other sectors of the logistics and transportation process. Contrastingly, using trucks to transport goods may be effective but take more time.


Cook, T. A. (2016). Managing growth and expansion into global markets: logistics, transportation, and distribution. CRC Press.

Li, X., & Sun, X. (2014). Operations Management of Logistics and Supply Chain: Issues and Directions. Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Societyhttps://doi.org/10.1155/2014/701938

Marchet, G., Melacini, M., Perotti, S., & Tappia, E. (2016). Shaping the international logistics strategy in the internationalisation process. International Journal of Supply Chain and Operations Resilience2(1), 72. https://doi.org/10.1504/ijscor.2016.075914

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