The Role of Social Work Theory in Future Social Work Practice

Social Work Theory
Social Work Theory

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The Role of Social Work Theory in Future Social Work Practice

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For this assignment please use headers when answering each question and give description of each question. It makes it easier to follow the points and it helps the professor understand that I answered each point. 

The Role of Social Work Theory in Future Social Work Practice

Now that you have examined various theory types and theories that inform the basis of social work practice, what insights have you gained from that examination?

How might you apply the knowledge you gained in this course to the next course you take?

How might this knowledge inform your future social work practice?

You began this course with an examination of theory types and what they meant in terms of how you use theory. Has exposure to specific theories over the last several weeks changed your perspective on the theory type that most appeals to you? If so, what has triggered that change?

You might recall that some theories answer the question “why,” while others provide a framework for treatment, based on answers to the question “why”. What theory resonates with you most after a closer analysis of numerous social work and integrative theories?

Does that theory coincide with the theory type that appealed to you in Week 1? How might the appeal of some theories and your ability to be flexible in understanding and applying them influence your social work practice?

For this Discussion, review this week’s resources. Think about the theories you examined in this course and consider any insights you gained as a result of examining them. Select the theory that most appeals to you and then reflect on the theory type you selected as being the most appealing in Week 1 (micro, meso, macro, scientific theory, perspective, paradigm, model, and ideology).

If the theory you selected no longer aligns with the theory-type you selected in Week 1, think about why that might be the case. If the theory you select now is represented by the theory type you selected in Week 1, be prepared to defend why that theory type still appeals to you most. Finally, consider how your insights regarding the theories helped prepare you for your next course and your future social work practice.

Post by Day 4 a brief summary of the important social theory insights you gained from this course. Describe the theory type you selected in Week 1 and the theory that appeals to you most among all those covered in this course. Then explain whether or not that theory type still appeals to you in relation to the theory you selected, and why. If it no longer appeals to you, include a description of which theory type now appeals to you more and explain, why. Finally, explain how these insights helped prepare you for your next course and your future social work practice.

There’s no articles required for this assignment. You may use any two articles of your choice but the information in parentheses is the topic used for week 1

(Week 1: Paradigm refers to a framework that helps in comprehension of the human experience. The two major ones are the scientific and practice paradigm. The scientific paradigm does question the authenticity of methods and problems while practice paradigm does focus on authenticity of praxis concords (Okpych and Yu, 2014). In the practice paradigm, we have three aspects these are positivism, constructivism, and critical theory. The three are vital in evaluating human interactions regarding perception, conflict resolution, and structures that hold the society (Canda, Chatterjee, and Robbins, 2012).)

Social Work Theory

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Improving the Human Services Field Peer Response

Improving the Human Services Field Peer Response
Improving the Human Services Field Peer Response

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Improving the Human Services Field Peer Response

In response to two selected peers, ask questions to help them consider other ways in which they can meet current trends in the human services field. Suggest other trends that they may not have identified.

The current economic and political climate has had a profound affect on the human services fields and has impacted those served in a very real and direct way. The Affordable Healthcare Act (AHA) for example has created such a backlash in the political and economic arenas that it has even caused the United States government to shut down due those who resist and fight its implementation and continues to be a heated debate.

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Social Contract Concept Essay

Social Contract Concept
Social Contract Concept

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Social Contract Concept

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In a paper of 800-1,200 words, reflect on the social contract concept. If you were to think about a new social contract, what would it be? Think in terms of two contracts: one between the citizenry and the state, and one between the professionals and the health care system.

Social contract theory says that people live together in society in accordance with an agreement that establishes moral and political rules of behavior. Some people believe that if we live according to a social contract, we can live morally by our own choice and not because a divine being requires it.

Provide a minimum of three references.

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Sexual Harassment in the Workplace

Sexual Harassment in the Workplace
Sexual Harassment in the Workplace

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Sexual Harassment in the Workplace

Assessment 1: Report Overview For this assessment, write a 1000 word report on the issues below: 
Sexual harassment in the workplace

Your report should be structured as follows: 

1. Introduction (200 words): Define the issue and use Australian research and statistics to explain how common it is, and the likely impacts of this violence (for instance, mental or physical health impacts, number of hospitalisations, and other indications of impact). 

2. Theoretical section (800 words): Select TWO theories from the following list, and apply them to the issue: Liberal feminism, Marxist/socialist feminism, radical feminism, critical masculinities theory. You need to pick the most appropriate theory to help you explain the issue. Think carefully about the theories you select. 

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Write 400 words on EACH theory, in which you briefly define the theory, and then describe how that particular theory would explain the issue you have selected. For instance, if you select Marxist/socialist feminism for the issue of sexual assault, then your 400 word paragraph needs to explain what Marxist/socialist feminism is, and present a Marxist/socialist feminist explanation for sexual assault. 
Your bibliography should contain no fewer than EIGHT academic sources. Any media sources are additional to this. 

Marking Criteria 

1. Accurate and clear presentation 

2. Further research and comprehensive understanding (AT LEAST 8 ACADEMIC SOURCES) 

3. Logical and clear structure 

4. Quality of written expression 

5. Correctly formatted citations and bibliography.

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My Contribution as a Social Worker Admission Essay

My Contribution as a Social Worker
My Contribution as a Social Worker

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My Contribution as a Social Worker Admission Essay


What contribution to the profession and society you expect to make as a social worker, especially in terms of our program’s mission emphasizing culturally competent practice with Latinos/as, other minority groups, and those communities, groups, families, and individuals who are disenfranchised, oppressed, and/or marginalized;

The Latino population is the fastest growing group in the United States; thus, it is imperative that social workers and other mental health practitioners be knowledgeable about the current literature on how to effectively serve this population. This article elucidates key issues and knowledge, such as immigration and migration concerns; discusses how to assess for levels of acculturation; examines cultural values; and highlights salient work issues and health disparities that Latinos experience. Recommendations on how agencies and universities can recruit and promote bilingual practitioners are introduced. Finally, culturally responsive strategies for professional use of self and fostering the therapeutic alliance are discussed.

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Safe guarding in health and social care

Safe guarding in health and social care
Safe guarding in health and social care

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Safe guarding in health and social care

Reasons particular people are more vulnerable to abuse and harm self and others

A vulnerable group includes peoples who are eligible or are in receipt of community care.  This includes people with physical disabilities, learning disabilities, and people with cognitive deficits, people who are frail physically and mentally. Drug addicts and alcoholics are also identified as vulnerable group.  These people are generally weak and are unable to defend themselves from harm or abuse and therefore need safe guarding in health and social care.

In this context, abuse refers to the violation of a person’s human rights as well as their civil rights by another stronger being.  Abuse takes many forms including sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and psychological abuse, physical, financial or institutional abuse (Callewaert, 2011). Some of the signs and symptoms include unexplained injuries and frequent illnesses. If the care giver gives implausible injuries explanation is an indicator of neglect or physical abuse.  

Other indicators include frequent ER visits for vulnerable people with chronic diseases or if the functionally impaired vulnerable person comes to the hospital without any company (Podnieks, Penhale, Goergen, Biggs & Han, 2010).

Safe guarding in health and social care

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Sexual abuse includes all sexual practices where the vulnerable people have not given consent such as rape, sexualised language and inappropriate touching. Physical abuse includes pushing, pulling, burning, forcefully restraining a person and misusing their medication. Psychological abuse includes all activities that cause a person to have emotional distress such as verbal abuse, humiliation, intimidation and harassment. 

Financial abuse includes stealing from the person, fraud and resource exploitation.  Neglect is a type of abuse that involves denying the vulnerable person the adequate medical and social care (Alexandra Hernandez-Tejada, Amstadter, Muzzy & Acierno, 2013).

 In discrimination type of abuse, the person is treated in unfavourable manner due to their gender, age, type of disability and ethnic background. Lastly, the institutional abuse includes failing to give services to the vulnerable person due to reason to another.

It is important to note that abuse can take place in various settings including the vulnerable person’s homes, nursing homes, state facilities, and at the hospitals. The main issue is early identification of abuse. This is because of the many abuse of the vulnerable people, only a small fraction of them is detected (Ansello & O’Neill, 2010).

Safe guarding in health and social care

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 The vulnerable groups are at risk of self-harm and abuse mainly because they often dependent of care givers to manage their daily activities such as dressing, bathing and in the maintenance of their personal hygiene. Additionally, these people tend to have little ability to utilize their self-defence tactics or mechanisms to avoid violence. It is also commonly assumed that these people with disability do not comprehend what is happening to them; hence, even when the persons disclose what has happened to them, they are often not believed. The following are the reasons why the some people are vulnerable to abuse and self-harm.

 One of the reasons for vulnerability of the special group is the issue of dependency. The special group are more vulnerable if they are dependent to other people for daily activities.  Evidence base studies reports that 97%-99% of the people who abuse the vulnerable individuals are care givers and trusted individuals, and it is estimated that 44% of the victims relate to the persons extent of disability. In most cases, the abuse may not be reported because of fear of the vulnerable person’s safety, shock, and reluctance of the witnesses to get involved or in breaking the silence code (Callewaert, 2011).

 Communication abilities are other reasons why vulnerable individuals are prone to abuse or self-harm. The vulnerable person may lack means of communicating to others about their abuse. This could be due to poor articulation and lack of effective expressive skills. In some cases, the vulnerable person may need assistive devices to communicate which could be lost, taken away or even become misplaced, hindering communication between the abused person and the person in charge.

In some cases, the vulnerable may lack enough resources (in terms of monetary), which can be used to replace the faulty or lost communication devices. This is worse of the person is physically unable to move due to the nature of their disability, which would make themselves unable to move or run way from the abusive situation. In adequate resources will make the individual person run away from the abuser or terminate their services (Podnieks, Penhale, Goergen, Biggs & Han, 2010).

Safe guarding in health and social care

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 Other reasons that are associated with increased vulnerability include social isolation where the vulnerable person lives in over protected environments. The lack of physical access makes the vulnerable individual lack skills to communicate to the community that they are suffering.  The presence of misleading roles as well as expectations in the society can make the abused individual remain silent, increasing risk of abuse.

For instance, the vulnerable groups are normally advised to be submissive and compliant, and are not support to question their authority. This lack of social exposure could make the vulnerable person to continue to suffer (Podnieks, Penhale, Goergen, Biggs & Han, 2010).

 Stigmatization, discrimination and stereotyping are other reasons why the vulnerable persons continue to be abused. For instable, the disable people may be discriminated in their work environments. Most of the discrimination cases in the justice systems are often dismissed, denying the vulnerable discriminated individuals their human and civil rights. It is often believed that the vulnerable people such as the disabled are asexual.

People believe that the disabled people (for instance) cannot hold intimate relationships. It is also commonly assumed that the vulnerable people intellect is compromised. This makes it difficult for people to believe their abuse complaints. In incidences where the vulnerable persons have signs and symptoms of abuse, the abuser may quickly claim that they are self-inflicted, putting the vulnerable person to greater risks of abuse and sexual assaults (Hawkes, 2015).

Safe guarding in health and social care

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Risk factors which may lead to incidents of abuse and harm self and others

As mentioned above, vulnerable groups of people are likely to face abuse from their care givers. Risk factors sometimes can be correlated with causes or causatives of abuse of the vulnerable persons. In some cases, the risk factors could also be the risk indicators of the confounders that influence the causal factors on abuse of the vulnerable group. 

For instance, care givers mental status such as depression is causal factors that lead to abuse of the disabled or elderly persons; it is also a risk indicator that this kind of care giver is likely to neglect the disabled or the elderly persons because the care giver is socially withdrawn or lack of interests associated with depression (Hawkes, 2015). Another example of causal relationship is that of shared living with vulnerable person’s abuse.  

Therefore, it is important to identify the risk factors that are associated with abuse incidences as they help in identifying indicator of abuse or maltreatment. To begin with, the health status of the person influences how the person will be treated.   The vulnerable group have reduced decision making ability due to their reduced cognitive functionality. Additionally, the dynamic health status and restricted mobility makes it difficult for the vulnerable person to seek refuge or rescue. The reduced energy levels in these people reduce their ability to perform daily living activities or become independent (Callewaert, 2011).

Safe guarding in health and social care

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The living arrangement has also been identified as a risk factor for abuse. Vulnerable people living alone are likely to be less physically abused. One study conducted indicated that Alzheimer patients living with their immediate families were more likely to be abused. This is because shared residence tends to increase their contact opportunities with the care givers and relatives, hence increasing the rusk for abuse or violent behaviour.

In nursing home settings, abuse of the vulnerable groups is likely to take place if the standards of the nursing home are low, the settings have inadequate staff. Interactions between untrained staff and the vulnerable groups living in these home care settings. In most cases, these home care settings have deficient physical environments and the policies in these institutions are based on the homecare settings interests instead of the vulnerable groups (Hawkes, 2015).

Cultural factors are key determinants of abuse on the vulnerable people. For instance, in some cultures, domestic violence is viewed as illegitimate and is most likely hidden.  This is because if family friends, neighbours and kin learn of the behaviour, they are likely to result in informal sanctions. In this case, person’s abuse is likely to be hidden from the society and the relevant authority.

Other cultural factors include the general assumptions that vulnerable people are weak, dependent and weak. In some cultures, there has been erosion of bonds between the generations; especially where young people have migrated to the urban centres in communities where the elderly people are cared for by their young ones. The elderly people are left alone and become socially isolated (Callewaert, 2011).

Safe guarding in health and social care

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 The intra-individual characteristic of the abusers is another risk factor for patient abuse. If the care giver suffers from psychotic disorders or is using substance use; then it is likely that the care giver will mistreat the vulnerable person.  The type of abuser dependency is another risk factor that determines if the vulnerable will be abused or not.  The risk of abuse is higher if the vulnerable person depends financially on the care giver.  

The study indicates that caregivers may lack coping strategies or lack resilience. This is often associated depression and increased anxiety. In some cases, the perspectives of the care givers determine their attitudes. Aggressive and abuse caregivers believe that the care giving on these vulnerable   persons as burdensome without any reward (Podnieks, Penhale, Goergen, Biggs & Han, 2010).

The intra-individual characteristics of the victims also increase risk of abuse. One study conducted in Netherlands found that victim’s verbal and physical aggression influenced how they would be treated by the care givers. The study also indicated that financial mistreatment of the care givers can make them become aggressive.  Several studies have associated gender as a risk factor for abuse; which reports higher number of victims with adults. The study indicates that women tend to have more emotional and physical abuse as compared to males.

The relationship between the perpetrator and the victim has been investigated. Although the study findings in inconclusive, it is believed that the most of the abusers are spouses of the victims. Other studies have reported race or ethnicity as the key concern; but the study findings cannot be generalized (“Older people have high risk of suicide after self-harm”, 2012).

Safe guarding in health and social care

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 Other risk factors mentioned include the intergenerational transmission. Research indicates that adults who had undergone child maltreatment, neglect and abuse are likely to maltreat or harm others. Similarly, social factors play a major role as risk factors for abuse of vulnerable individuals.

Poverty, unemployment and low socioeconomic status increases the likelihood of the vulnerable groups to be maltreated or abused; especially if poverty interacts with other social factors such as depression, drug use and social isolation. This could lead to aggression of the care giver on the vulnerable persons (Parle, Kaura, Sethi & Jena, 2013).


Alexandra Hernandez-Tejada, M., Amstadter, A., Muzzy, W., & Acierno, R. (2013). The National Elder Mistreatment Study: Race and Ethnicity Findings. Journal Of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 25(4), 281-293.

Ansello, E., & O’Neill, P. (2010). Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation: Considerations in Aging With Lifelong Disabilities. Journal Of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 22(1-2), 105-130.

Callewaert, G. (2011). Preventing and Combating Elder Mistreatment in Flanders (Belgium): General Overview. Journal Of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 23(4), 366-374.

Hawkes, N. (2015). Young goths may be more vulnerable to depression and self harm, study finds. BMJ, h4643.

Older people have high risk of suicide after self-harm. (2012). Mental Health Practice, 15(9), 5-5.


Podnieks, E., Penhale, B., Goergen, T., Biggs, S., & Han, D. (2010). Elder Mistreatment: An International Narrative. Journal Of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 22(1-2), 131-163.

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Health and Safety in the Health and Social Care Workplace

Health and Safety
Health and Safety

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Health and Safety in the Health and Social Care Workplace

A Case Study of Silver Meadows 


Health and safety is always a crucial aspect that poses a concern to everyone with regards to day-to-day affairs. In health and social care settings, especially care homes for the elderly health and safety remains a fundamental consideration for all law enforcement agencies as well as practitioners. This makes the importance of continuous monitoring in addition to reviewing of health as well as legislations and safety policies’ implementation for health as well as social care workplace undisputable and this has been succinctly discussed and explained in this assignment.

According to Graham & Steven (2008) this is attributable to the fact that, good health and safety of care home residents is the key to their happiness something which has made the management and staff of home care workplaces to be cautious enough in managing health and safety issues. As a result, health protective agencies have been emphasizing on the implementation of appropriate policies, systems, and procedures for health and safety in all health as well as social care settings to alleviate hazards.

The context of this assignment will provide a clear view of policies, systems, and practices and their effect in the promotion of safety in health and social care home in the perspective of Silver Meadows Care Home. From the perspective of health and social care home, employees, patients and their relatives or visitors ought to be protected from hazards. Therefore, in health and social care working environment, the management, staff as well as individual patients have the right to participate in implementing health and safety plans for the benefit of all those involved.

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This assignment intends to discuss and evaluate the necessary health and safety policies, systems, procedures, and practices in accordance with legislative requirements as well as possible solutions and the associated dilemmas based on the case study of Silver Meadows Care Home. Three major tasks are covered in this assignment.

Firstly, the implementation of policies, systems, procedures, and practices aimed to communicate health as well as safety information; responsibilities of health and social care home management and staff in managing health and safety; as well as an analysis of appropriate health and safety priorities of case study health and social care home.

Secondly, risk assessment and the importance of obtained information in health and social care planning; analysis of a particular aspect concerned with health and safety policy; as well as dilemmas that are encountered in implementing health as well as safety policies and systems in addition to potential effect of non-compliance with legislations concerned with health and safety. Finally, the process of how to monitor and review of health aa well as safety policies, systems, procedures, and practices and their effectiveness in promoting safe culture and a healthy workplace as well as evaluation of personal contribution. 

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Health is without any doubt the most important concern for everyone, and safety is inseparable from health service. As a result, this has been the key reason why various policies and laws have been formulated concerning health and safety with regards to health and social care working environments. Discussion of the details is presented in the sections below:

Task 1: (a) Implementation of Policies Systems, Procedures, and Practices for Communicating Information on Health and Safety 

In conventional health care as well as safety settings communication usually involve various aspects, including information exchange among staff, management as well as patients and their relatives. However, due to technological advancement there has been continuous expansion of possibilities for storage, processing and retrieval of medical data.

According to Tripathi et al., (2009) varied types of information technologies and applications in the medical field have continued to enormously grow and evolve to ensure effective management and communication health as well as safety in both social and health care settings. From a perspective of social and health care workplace, there are several legislations that aim to support health and safety that are discussed below:

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  • The 2008 Act on Health and Social Care

In this Act information technology and communication (ICT) in health products are considered critical in disseminating important information concerning welfare, health and safety. This is attributable to the fact that, ICT can be used to allow control or combination of various sources of information in order to gain efficiency and provide better care within a health and safe environment while making sure that staff and resources are freed up. As a result, implementation of communication policies, systems and procedures in the Silver Meadow Care Home in accordance with this legislation will lead to various benefits, including:

Patient Safety: This is because they will result to reduction of medical errors such as surgical errors, adverse drug related admissions, transfusion errors, as well as professional negligence.
Quality of care: Health information technology (HIT) reduces paperwork and provides more time to nurses which can be used to attend to their patients (Tripathi et al., 2009). As a result, Silver Meadows Care Home residents can get quality care from the physicians, nurses and the cares due to the saved time.

Patient access to care: Access to health and social care is improved using Health information technology (HIT) by ensuring that processes that are ineffective are streamlined resulting to increased staff productivity. The indicators of success in provision of care includes: time-out results analysis, time taken to respond to patients’ inquiries, as well as improved self-management of chronic diseases.

  • Health and Safety at Work Act 1974

This Act usually considers a variety of issues that are related to health, safety, as well as welfare of employees across various workplace sectors. With regards to requirements of health and safety, this Act delegate a general obligation to the management and staff of health and social care homes to cooperate and take care of others concerning issues pertaining health and safety.

  • Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1992

The Act is a refinement of 1974 Act where it requires the management of health and social care homes to regularly conduct risk assessments and record findings prior to communicating them to employees and patients. This Act compels the management to arrange on implementation of health and safety measures for the purpose of improving emergency procedures as well as providing clear information and training to their staff and also work in collaboration with other stakeholders.

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  • Health and Safety Regulations 1981

In order to boost health and safety, this regulation compels the management of health and social care workplace to provide information to staff, patients and visitors on first-aid arrangement. In addition, they must also ensure that there is provision of first aid equipment as well as availability of trained first aiders.

This means that it is inevitable for the implementation of health information technology in Silver Meadows Care Home to step up health and safety in its settings, which has to be carried out in accordance with the entire raft of standard, legislation, as well as guidelines altogether referred to as “Information Governance” in UK. It has been operational for sometimes and cover issues of accessing and disclosing health information as well as confidentiality.

The 2008 Act on Health and Social Care establishes the National Information Governance Board for Heath and Social Care, (NIGB) which is mandated to carry out a statutory duty of supervising the governance of information (Tripathi et al., 2009).

Figure1: Implementation Model                                 (Source: Pall, 2012)

According to Stranks, (2005) Health Department is obliged to formulate policies regulating provision of services related to health and social care to people across UK. Even though implementation of these policies and procedure may be compromised by non-compliance, rectification can be achieved through regular monitoring by supervisory agencies shown in the above figure which ensure home cares oblige to specific health and safety policies at all levels.

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Task 1: (b) Responsibilities of Management and Staff in Managing Health and Safety

Management and staffs of Silver Meadows Care Home just like those in other home care settings have certain responsibilities that they are supposed to adhere to. Elderly people are without any doubt the most vulnerable age group of the population implying that special consideration must be taken towards their safety, care, and security (Fisher, 2005).

According to Sowers & Catherine (2008) all the staff of elderly home care must be able to readily access up to date policies for nursing care and medication guidelines. On the other hand, the British National Formulary must also be readily accessible to nurses working at Silver Meadows Care Home.

In the UK, planning of health and safety in health as well as social care workplaces is conducted by both non-government institutions as well as government institutions. There exists a public health and health care system in the government of UK. In this system, there is distribution of responsibilities from the department of health down to the local authorities. As a result, the system includes health and social care providers and takers,

NHS commissioning board, clinical commissioning board, monitoring system as well as public and local health (Pall, 2012). There is an integration of this system where responsibilities are delegated to all organisational bodies based on health and safety which ought to be provided by social and health care homes.

Management is the other crucial aspect of safety and health with regards to organisational structure, particularly in relation to the management and staff responsibilities at health and social care home.  In the management of health and safety responsibilities of management as well as staff include: systemic utilisation of standardised techniques which are important in the identification and removal of impeding hazards; and controlling potential risks by influencing behaviours as well as encouraging attitudes during techniques (Pall, 2012). 

As a result, the responsibilities of management and staff in relation to health as well as safety management at Silver Meadows Care Home can be assessed in the context of care and support plan for a physically disabled individual because palliative care is offered.

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For example: A Care and Support Plan for a Physically Disabled Individual

Based on the care and support for the physically disabled individual, the plan includes taking the person to a restaurant once per week to take dinner since he/she is unable to this individually. However, the person wants to eat a burger at the restaurant every time when taken out, but the carers or support workers are of the opinion that burgers are not healthy and the person should not eat them that often.

Here the management and staff of Silver Meadows Care Home through their responsibilities with regards to management of health and safety can devise individualised mental capacity for making a better decision. But within the responsibilities of management and staff is it a good decision to hinder such a person to take fatty foods? From this perspective, the answer is yes; however, they should ensure that they use in supporting and encouraging tone of voice so that they feel as though they are being bullied.

They should also concern them in taking responsibility when they eat foods that are unhealthy. This implies that responsibilities and management of health and safety are related to individuals as well as the organisation. Furthermore, the example of care and support plan provided shows how the management of health and safety can be comprised and the appropriate steps that can be used to rectify it also discussed.

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Task 1: (c) Analysis of Health and Safety Priorities

Care homes should be maintained in a manner that portrays a home in order to be pleasant to live in by providing safe and healthy environment. Hence, the management and staffs of care homes should prioritise the most important issues with regards to maintaining high quality health and social care for the residents.

In the context of Silver Meadows Care Home, which offers dementia care, palliative care, nursing care, and residential care for the elderly people, it is clear that there should be some appropriate health and safety priorities. For instance, since Silver Meadows is taking care of elderly people whose movement is limited there is need to prioritise the safety of entry and exit in the workplace to allow easier movement in case of an emergency (Moonie, 2000; Sprenger, 2003).

Also considering that elderly people are not stable and vulnerable to fallings, the floors should always be maintained in good state and not wet or slippery through better housekeeping practices (Sprenger, 2003). In health and social care settings, infection is the main risk and its prevention should be prioritised since elderly people often have compromised immune systems meaning new infections or cross infections may pose a significant danger to them.

This can be controlled by limiting the number of visitors or employees to an area considered risky; using measures of hygiene which reduces or prevents transferring of infectious agent through regular hand washing and ensuring that the work environment is maintained in a hygienic condition. Reducing the risk of sharp injuries should also be prioritised at care home through engineering controls and elimination of risks as well as safe usage and disposal of sharp objects (Sprenger, 2003).   

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Task 2

In order to understand the impact of requirements of health as well as safety on practitioners and customers of health and social care homes, there is need to carry out risk assessment, as well as impacts of policy on customer and care practice, care planning, encountered dilemmas, as well as effects of non-compliance. Details of these aspects are discussed in the contents that follow:

Task 2: (a) Risk Assessments’ Information and Care Planning for Residents

Information on the services offered by health and social care home constitutes an important element of ensuring services are provided and taken in the context of health and safety in care planning. This can either be in the context of organisational decision making as well as individual care planning.

Risk assessment is the most appropriate method to collect this information because it involves identification of impending hazards, possible severity of harm likely to result from of the identified hazards, calculating the extent of risk, monitoring as well as reappraisal of the risk (Grinnell & Yvonne, 2008). Hence, there is need for regular risk assessments in order to assess the risks associated with health and safety of individual care planning.

In most instances, the nature of risk assessments tend to be simple and can be done through direct observation/examination, but some are more complex and requires lengthy procedures to ascertain. The process of risk assessment involves several steps which have to be executed as follows:

(1) significant hazards are identified through observations or interviews;

(2) making a decision on who is likely to be harmed by the hazards;

(3) evaluating the risks and deciding on the effectiveness of existing precautionary measures followed by implementation of proper measures if the existing ones are ineffective;

(4) recording the findings and communing them to the staffs; and

(5) reviewing the risk assessment and if necessary revisiting it (Lishman, 2007). The model of risk assessment in health as well as safety management is illustrated in the figure below:

  Figure 2: Model for managing health and safety in work place, (Source: Dowding & Barr, 1999)

The information obtained from risk assessments plays a critical role in informing care planning for residents and organisational decision making concerning policies and procedures because its inherent features which include: it is recognised as a risk control, its implementation is done in accordance with modern procedures to manage risk, the risk assessment needs to be reviewed and revisited or amended if necessary, it ensures that there is control of all hazards, and it results in mitigation of any residual risk to be reasonably practicable.

According to Carr (2010) getting information from risk assessments can be of considerable benefits; for example, at individual care planning they include: knowing different care services offered by various health and social care facilities, knowing better providers of health and social care, knowing the rights of getting the services of health and social care homes, appraising services offered by health and social care homes, as well as helping to make decisions on services to be sought.

In addition, in the context of organisational decision making benefits include: an organisation gets to be aware of different procedures policies that concern social and health care, an organisation can get to be aware of new procedures and policies concerning health as well as safety management at care homes, it helps an organisation to decide on the services to give to a client and how to give, and also the information helps organisations to be conscious with regards to their right, client right as well as obligations (Carr, 2010).

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Task 2: (b) Analysis of a Particular Aspect of Health and Safety Policy

In UK, various health and safety policies do exist with regards to regulation of different aspects of health and social care settings. There are both positive and negative impacts of these policies. One of safety and health policy is the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1992. This regulation is the basis of the policy made against aggression and violence in care homes and has varied impacts care home service users and the care providers (OSHA, 2012).

This is because aggression or violence expressed by some service users is a source of distress and injury to care providers at work. This policy helps in reducing aggression and violence which positively impact the care providers. Alternatively, it may hinder health care provision to service users with aggressive or violent behaviours, especially those seeking dementia care due to their limited cognitive ability. The policy also causes financial burden to care providers since they have to continuously train their staff on how to effectively handle patients who are potentially aggressive or violent.

 Another policy is Health and Safety Regulations 1981 which compels the management of health and social care workplace to provide information to staff, patients and visitors on first-aid arrangement as well as ensuring that there is provision of first-aid equipment and presence of trained first aiders (AHS, 2010).

This policy helps care providers or other patients to immediately get first when injured by violent patients or from any other accidents. However, it increases cost of running care home in purchasing first aid equipment and recruiting first aiders. Both policies seem to have both positive and negative impacts, but it is also clear that their overall impact is good to care providers and patients even though they may hinder service provision (Balarajan et al., 2011).

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Task 2: (c) Addressing Dilemmas Encountered Implementing Systems and Policies for Health, Safety and Security

Silver Meadows Care Home is faced with dilemmas in ensuring that every legislation is adhered to because of their budgetary implications as well as quality care improvement or staff performance and also security measures. Popple & Leslie (2008) asserted that based on required expectations and stakeholder needs implementation of necessary systems is needed with emphasis on government requirements. Dilemmas are the concerns the facility face to ensure security and safety of patients is guaranteed (Popple & Leslie, 2008).

Thus, the specific dilemmas include the need to ensure security and safety of patients always since it is the responsibility of the facility to guarantee the well-being of patients within a secure environment. In addition, budgetary requirements to implement the appropriate systems for assured security and safety of patients is another dilemma because the facility is faced by financial constraints and needs to outsource for the required capital.

Considering Silver Meadows Care Home is considerably large, there is need to maintain high security levels as well as safety processes. Through implementation of new technology for operating systems and departments, it is possible to effectively manage time and increase the quality of care. However, these dilemmas can be addressed by liaising with management through which services of consultants can be used to monitor the activities through which the performance of employees can be improved.

In order to increase the quality level of health and social care, continuous training programs need to be provided for the staff in order to ensure standards are developed. Finally, the dilemma with security can be addressed by implementing security camera system to increase safety at home care. According to Mizrahi & Larry (2008) implementation of a process of performance evaluation can maintain standards of employees with regards to Health and Safety Act 1981.

Stringent adherence to policies, legislations and codes or standards of practice is also essential in achieving this goal as well as reducing risk irrespective of investments required since through cost benefit analysis should obviously give more benefits than costs.

Task 2: (d) Effects of Non-Compliance with Health and Safety Legislation

In case, health and social care home is non-compliance with a legislation or regulation which govern health as well as safety, its performance becomes ineffective and clients are dissatisfied. This means that when standards are not maintained in a home care, clients become unhappy and often seek health care services from other providers.

According to Mathis & Jackson (2010) failure of a home care to provide the necessary training programs to their employees on existing legislation, regulations and standards often results to non-compliance subsequently hindering performance and quality service which eventually reduces the profits.

According to Rosenfeld & Russell (2012) non-compliance to legislation may result to legal actions, especially when patients’ rights are violated as a result of failure of home care to maintain the legislation or the standards. The legal actions may also incur the home care a significant financial burden in terms of compensations and legal fees.

Also, the home care may be banned to operate by the government due to gross violation of patients’ rights arising from non-compliance to legislation. Furthermore, when a home care is non-compliance with existing legislation the overall impacts may be increased risk, customer dissatisfaction, poor performance, poor levels of productivity, and a possibility of a ban from the government.

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Understanding of the process of monitoring and review of health as well as social care workplace policies, systems, procedures, and practices is central to success in health and safety implementation. This section covers the monitoring and review of safety and health policies, systems and practices as well as their effectiveness in the promotion of safe culture and healthy workplace as well as evaluation of personal contribution. Details of these aspects of health and safety have been discussed in the following contents:

Task 3: (a) Monitoring and Review of Health and Safety Systems, Policies, Procedure as well as Practices

Health as well as safety systems, policies, procedures, and practices monitoring plays a fundamental role in managing safety and health in home cares. However, writing and launching of health and safety policy does not mean that is the end of responsibilities. In fact, it is the initial step in implementing a safety and health policy, which is vital in ensuring the required standards and codes or procedures are outlined alongside the need to ensure that they are always adhered to by everyone.

Since there is a continuous change in safety and health management, the monitoring of the policies’ effectiveness needs to be done proactively for the purpose of regular evaluation of the progress and timely identification of deviations. Hence, monitoring and review of social and health care is required due to legal, morale as well as cost reasons. However, two general ways of monitoring as well as reviewing health and safety policies exist such as: proactive and reactive monitoring.

Proactive monitoring which involves taking precautionary actions prior to a hazard constitutes the checking of implemented standards as well as control of management needs through regular inspections in addition to safety audits. This plays an imperative role in ensuring that preventative or protective measures and interventions are developed and implemented.

As a result, this leads to significant reduction of risks as well as considerable gains in terms of costs reduction through minimised damages. Alternatively, reactive monitoring involves examination of events upon their occurrence and constitutes learned lessons from previous mistakes. Regular inspections of health and safety policy are an appropriate method of reviewing the progress of implementation.

This approach is important in ensuring that risks or damages are mitigated in a timely manner for the purpose of abating their negative effects, which if left unaddressed would result to significant liability or taint the reputation of the facility. Thus, the need for devising the correct interventions is very important for long-term impact to be felt.

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Task 3: (b) Effectiveness of Safety and Health Policies, Systems, Procedures, and Practices in the Promotion of a Positive, Healthy and Safe Culture

Health as well as safety systems, policies, procedures, and practices’ effectiveness is depended on social and health care promotion by focusing on several factors such as: the promotion of non-occupational factors and healthy lifestyles, as well as the organisational environment. Non-occupational factors are: home and community conditions as well as family welfare. On this aspect, emphasis should be directed to improving home and community conditions mainly by devising an appropriate approach through which collaboration between all the concerned parties can be achieved.

Healthy lifestyles can be achieved through heightened awareness creation programs across all groups as well as encouraging change of lifestyles by highlighting the envisaged benefits. In addition, organisational environment is achievable through implementation of the necessary occupational safety and health standards as well as developing and implementing appropriate workplace designs and organisation. WHO proposed an effective model presented in the figure below: 


Figure 3: Effectiveness Model of Health and Safety      (Source: WHO, 2013)

The policies discussed previously such as the Management of Health and Safety at work Regulation 1992 puts more emphasis on risk assessments and reporting of findings, while Health and Safety Regulation 1981 compels home cares to provide first aid. These two policies play a critical role in promoting healthy workplaces as well as safe culture.

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In conclusion, it is safe to state that health and safety implementation in home care, an integrated policy is required through which everyone will get surety to equity in health and social care. For the development of competence of health service providers, there is need for an integrated training since without such policy individuals will be taking their health risk responsibility.        


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Facilitating change in health and social care

health and social care
health and social care

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Facilitating change in health and social care


This paper evaluates the aspect of change in health and social care setting. Economic factors, operational framework, policy setting, and knowledge are highlighted as the core drivers of this change. Moreover, the paper evaluates not just the challenges brought about by this change but also its impact, and suitable service response mechanism. When it comes to essential principles of change management, PowerPoint presentation is employed.   Furthermore, planning of changes, monitoring process, the plan for determining current transformations, social care policy and benchmarks for measuring change are discussed.

1.1Main factors that lead to change

Change refers to the transformation from the current state to a preferred future state. The cycle of change is never ending in our organization. Some welcome and enjoy uncertainties it comes with it; others fear change because they think that something valuable will be lost, and they feel that change will bring unnecessary stress (Brown & Jones 2012). In health care and social services, care is about those who provide the service and those who need the service. People are receptive to impacts of change such as managers have to establish how changes will deliver intended care within the organization.

The main reason why change is always constant is because stimuli of change, as well as other factors that drive change, are economic factors, social factors, operational factors, change in policy, and technological developments. 

Economic factors

The cost of health services has been on an upward trend in spite of, the increased financing in the sector. For this reason, there is a need to reduce expenditures of the current services while looking for cost-efficient ways of delivering the services in the future. Of concern is to ensure that the skills of the existing workforce are up-to-date and specialization has to be enhanced.

Besides, cost reduction has to be maximized through the use of private and nonprofit, supplies (Hayes 2014). The rising user expectation also has to be addressed. This is because as roles develop, information becomes readily available meaning that a large group people will be able to quickly access the available information leading to more informed citizens on the services available.

Availability of information leads to a more informed choice. In other words, people will be in a position to analyze the risks involved, the value of treatment provided, and learn the long-term effects of the treatment method that they have chosen. This affects the demand for certain services and institutions depending on how people view them.

In a social point of view, consumers are encouraged to be active and choose how their needs will be met. This has been made possible through the provision of means for people to directly purchase services, meaning that intermediary parties have been eliminated. This option is boosted by the increasing number of individuals who understand their rights and what they are entitled to.

There is also an increase in the roles of women, and globalization of the medical sector has led to a changed workforce. These changes mean maintaining existing working patterns will be difficult to maintain. It also means that new ways of working will be created based on different career structures and patterns of recruitment. The mixed economy will also contribute to social care change.

This is further enhanced by the shift of authorities towards direct service provision. This method has enabled a shift towards efficiency and economy. Furthermore, it has led to the emergence of improved regulation due to improved knowledge, skills and training leading to long term changes.


With expanded knowledge, improved medications and new ways of doing things, expansion and improvement of services have been achieved. In areas such as drugs, the rate of change is slowing, while new discoveries are increasing. However, given the rising costs of healthcare, the expectation is that with the new developments and technological advancements, it will create new demand on available resources.

Innovations will strengthen or improve existing institutions. Expansion of clinical know-how boosts changes in health care. This is because increased specializations lead to improved healthcare and expands the range of roles leading to the development of new working opportunities.

Development of information technology has allowed professionals to search and present advice without the need for face-to-face consultation. Social care service provision widens staff groups which are providing specialized knowledge and skills. This leads to expansion of expectations, responsibilities, and requirements for new competencies and training.

Improved technology has led to new methods for storing and delivering information. The emergence of the internet has enabled people to do certain tasks online; thus, reducing the need for involvement of specialized staff. This gives them more time to concentrate on more complex care and management duties. Also, this has led to the increased number of individuals responsible for their care.

Operational Framework

Operating environment is also starting to change. For instance, the patient’s choice of where to be treated may undermine the financial position of health care provision centers. Likewise, the introduction of the private sector will, in the long run, affect the existing trusts and provide new opportunities for service delivery.

Policy Environment

Given the new regulations by the government aimed at improving performance, new ways of working and delivering care are evolving. Roles are changing as well as management and organizational structures. The need for improved performance occasioned by financial constraints is also bringing about change (Brown & Jones 2012). This is due to increased innovations in service delivery meaning that there is a continual change in professional roles. Policy changes are also reducing demarcation lines between different professional boundaries, making it much easier to effect changes. Increasing emphasis on interdependence has led to improvement in joint performance through joint monitoring and evaluation.

1.2Challenges and main factors of change

Inadequate capital affects final project outcomes owing to the costs related to the provision of social care service such as hiring new staff, acquiring new equipment, training, and staffing costs are significant challenges for health care provision. Staff resistance or difficulty in adapting to changes is difficult since workers are accustomed to certain ways of operating (Payne 2014). Switching to the new system could be very challenging to them. Political pressure can also compel the institution to achieve set targets.

The changing nature of healthcare comes with challenges and prospects. Staff training and the need for continued professional development are some of the challenges. Furthermore, maintaining quality health care and ensuring the safety of patients, requires extended care and meeting demands for integrated services. To reduce these challenges, there is need to increase the workforce, proper planning, and proper governance to enhance collaboration between administrators and medical providers 

Several opportunities will also come along health care transformation. The increase in skills depths provides advantages and serves to make use of skill mix and expertise in the team. This method also ensures proper staff utilization through identification of specialized knowledge and skills leading to proper utilization of resources (Kadushin & Harkness 2014). Better patient outcomes and more focused patient services, opportunities for development, and job satisfaction will be realized.

2.1Strategy and principles for assessing current changes

Making transformations in an organization involves the determination of the changes that worked and those that never worked; thus, leading to improvements. Therefore, it is expected that one collects data before, during and after the implementation to help measure the progress based on the set goals (Cameron & Green 2015).

Recognize the variables to be estimated and the data required. This relates to the kind of information to be analyzed such as staff attitudes, perceptions et cetera. Secondly, decide the best tools for data collection and develop the best ways to collect them. Thereafter, choose the best tools depending on information required such as the need to know staff attitudes by analyzing members of staff through individual interviews or groups.

Training the personnel is important in developing methods to allow for valid, reliable and accurate data collection.  The information gathered should be organized not just in a systematic way, but by considering the purpose, and technique for efficient data collection.  The data is then analyzed to understand the scale, nature, and the cause of a problem.

2.2. The impact of recent changes

Owing to improved health care standards, and increase population in will be experienced leading to congestion. This change will occasion improvement of transport systems due to the changing demands. The increase in the number of young people requiring social and health care will exert pressure on the providers of social amenities (Brown & Jones 2012)

Owing to the improved standards of living, higher wages are demanded to provide for the increased cost of living. This also means an additional charge for personal care. Improved health care means improved well-being and improvement of the quality of life. This is associated with delivery of high-quality primary care, better access to medical services, improved patient participation through tailored services, and continuity of attention.

Moreover, this will also lead to improved skills while making services available within the community. Collaborative working means provisions of full range services while utilizing available resources, getting access to a larger population leading to improved income generation;  hence; increased profitability.

2.3. The effects of current change in health and social care

Organizational transformations can lead to improved efficiency. This can be achieved by meeting set goals. All agencies should strive to be more efficient following modifications. This is connected to the utilization of available resources to attain the desired output. It also refers to resources utilized by a firm to generate the desired productivity.  Efficiency in organizations maximizes resources during production without wastage (Bourke et al. 2016)

Reduction in cost benefit is geared towards overall cost reduction. Benefits or outcomes should be more than costs incurred to achieve that end. Whether the organization aims to make profits or not, the total cost should be balanced with the outcome of the service so as to be viable. 

Referral in health care refers to the process of transferring patients from a low cadre hospital to a high cadre hospital for further treatment. This referral rates can be used to measure the effectiveness of a hospital based on the number of referrals done to a  high cadre hospital vs. the number of cured patients (Kadushin & Harkness 2014).                                                

This is often done through restructuring and training to improve their skills and technical know-how. The time the patient waits to be attended to is a significant method to evaluate impacts of changes in a health facility. Minimal waiting time indicates speedy patient care administration and by extension faster service delivery and timely intervention.

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2.4. Suitable Responses to recent changes

There should be improved employee participation through the creation of employment opportunities. The management should conduct proper staff training on different technologies. There should also be a change in the structure of the Directorate; new employees should be hired to handle the increased work occasioned by improvements and introduction of new facilities.

There should also be a change of equipment to handle new developments meaning new manpower should be hired to manage or train staff on how to handle new equipment (Cameron &Green, 2015). There should also be a change in service delivery and communication owing to improved facilities.

Local authorities should ensure that people are advised correctly to make good decisions about care and support and the range of available support providers. They should also promote caregivers, children, and families.

3.1. Fundamental principles of change management using Power Point Presentation

3.1.1 Address the “human side” systematically.

Any transformation creates issues touching people. New jobs will be set up new skill and capabilities will be required. Dealing with such changes requires the involvement of leadership, engagement of key stakeholders and leaders.  

3.1.2 Start at the Top.

CEO is seen as the main point as everybody looks to him for strength, support, and direction. Leaders should, therefore, embrace new challenges so as to motivate the rest of the institution. The executives should work together to get the best success.

3.1.3 Involve Every Layer.

Changes affect all sections in the organization and as such training must align individuals to the mission and vision of the organization with the bid of make change happen.

3.1.4 Make the Formal Case.

Legal case allows for creation and alignment of leadership. This is achieved through confronting reality, developing a faith that the company has a healthy future, and provides a clear roadmap that will guide behavior and decision-making.

3.1.5 Create Ownership.

Leaders should accept responsibility in all areas under their control. This achieved through involving people in all the processes and reinforcing by use of incentives and rewards.

3.1.6 Communicate the message.

Communication provides employees with the right information at the right time, and they get their feedback through various channels.

3.1.7 Assess the cultural landscape.

Effects of cultural change should be identified early and addressed to avoid backlash at later stages.

3.1.8    Prepare for the unexpected.

This is achieved through continual assessment of impacts and the willingness to adapt to transformation

3.1.9.    Speak to the individual.

This is intended to educate employees on the intended effects of change constituted, how it will be measured and what success or failures will be expected. By so doing, it will make people aware of the coming changes, and they feel involved in the change process.

3.2. Planning changes in health and social care

Planning for change in health and social care is necessary for continuity of the organization. Any projected effect should be expected. Detailed plan including support after implementation should be documented to ensure that the project is implemented successfully. There is also the need to think of possible mishaps that can occur after implementation. Possible mitigation strategies should be developed to counter the mishaps.

During planning, the goals of the organization are identified, goals are set, tasks are outlined, and schedules of how to accomplish those tasks are developed. It also involves deciding what to do, how, and who will do the tasks. This stage assists in determining the direction of the project (Bourke et al. 2016).  Planning also includes defining the  health tribulations within the society, identifying needs that have not been met, analyzing the resources to meet them, setting goals, and setting action plans for the accomplishment of those programs. Planning also involves establishing policies, programs, objectives, schedules, and budget.

When planning, the following factors, and methods can be considered: stakeholders, staff, management styles, consultation, and communication. All these factors should be aimed at improving health outcomes to reduce inequalities in health and produce effective approaches of care. The change has to be clinically-based; hence, each proposal should then meet the local status. Therefore, the senior management should be at the forefront of the design and development, and patients and members of the public should also be engaged. Local authorities are relevant stakeholders and they can be integrated when planning.

3.3. Monitoring recent changes

To evaluate changes, it is crucial to start with weighing the evidence against each other as this is the best way for determining change.  Several changes exist such as transformational, incremental; episodic, planned, and continuous changes. These changes may be considered by evaluating research, surveys, and sample assessments (Valentin, Schepman & Brinjzeels 2013).  Data collection may be based on people’s opinions regarding on what they view to be the truth, beliefs in what people know, preferences in what they choose, behaviors in what they do, and attitudes in terms of what they need.

Basic questions can be asked that are based on opening response, closed response through different scales that are agreeable, and ranking scales. When reviewing change through the survey, rewards and costs have to be taken into account; People should be more willing to help in evaluating the impact if there is a reward. Reliability and validity should be considered when reviewing the change.

Sampling technique is another method that can be used to monitor and evaluate the change.  This approach provides sample statistics for classifying the targeted people through obtaining controllable objects of study and quantitative representation of resident’s distinctiveness.

Group forums can also act as a basis for reviewing changes in social care services. This platform ensures discussion is carried out either online or through gatherings. Through this avenue, messages are posted and people can hold conversations regarding different topics. Through group feedback, it makes it easy to learn and assess the effect of health services.

Monitoring also ensures the improvement of essential functions in the implementation of health services. It enables one to determine if the service is meeting the set objectives, identify program challenges and benefits, and areas to be revised. This is achieved through analysis of program domains.


The paper has sought to assess the current transformations in health and social care settings. Economic factors, operational framework, policy environment, and knowledge were seen as the underlying factors that drive healthcare and social change. While the challenges and impacts of the change process were evaluated, effective service response mechanisms were proposed.

Essential principles of change management were presented through Microsoft PowerPoint application. In the end, the paper highlighted planning, monitoring, strategy for quantifying change, social care policy, and tools for measuring change.


Brown, K., & Osborne, S. P. 2012. Managing change and innovation in public service organizations. Abingdon: Routledge.

Bourke, A. et al 2016. Evidence generation from healthcare databases recommendations for managing change. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety.

Cameron, E. and Green, M., 2015. Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. London: Kogan Page Publishers.

Epstein, M.J. and Buhovac, A.R., 2014. Making sustainability work: Best practices in managing and measuring corporate social, environmental, and economic impacts. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Hayes, J., 2014. The theory and practice of change management. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Swayne, L.E., Duncan, W.J. and Ginter, P.M., 2012. Strategic management of health care organizations. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Payne, M., 2014. Modern social work theory. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Thompson, N., 2015. Understanding social work: preparing for practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Kadushin, A. and Harkness, D., 2014. Supervision in social work. New York: Columbia University Press.

Huber, D., 2013. Leadership and nursing care management. London: Elsevier Health Sciences.

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Teenage Pregnancy Research Proposal

Teenage Pregnancy
Teenage Pregnancy

A study on how teenage pregnancy affects education, employment, and housing.


Teenage pregnancy is a major social problem affecting many countries worldwide ranging from the first world to third world countries. According to research, UK has the leading number of teenage pregnancies. Every year, there is an increase in the number of girls between 13 and 19 who get pregnant (Magaraggia, 2010).

An increased number of teen pregnancies have been attributed to various factors such as peer influence, lack of parental guidance on sexual health as well as socioeconomic factors such as poverty. Most researchers link lack of parental guidance, peer influence and mass media influence as the primary causes of teen pregnancy.

Despite extensive measures laid down to deal with teenage pregnancy, the rate remains rampant. Teenage pregnancy leads to school drop out for the victim, poor housing due to increased cost of living and unemployment for the relatives due to increased responsibilities. (Magaraggia, 2010). 

Objectives of the study

The major objectives of the study will include:

  1. To identify factors contributing to teen pregnancy.
  2. To determine and describe the effects of teen pregnancy on education, employment, and housing.
  3. To determine the various ways of curbing teen pregnancies


In the current world, the number of teen pregnancy has been a growing concern. The United States has been found to have the highest number of pregnant teenage girls. Therefore it is an issue that requires to be addressed to help in reducing the numbers.


The study will aim at getting relevant information on teen pregnancy, and this will substantially contribute to prevention of pregnancies among adolescents. Information gathered from the study could be used in education institutions as well as healthcare facilities to offer the necessary information regarding teen pregnancy.

Literature Review

Today, teenage pregnancy remains a major issue. According to Minnick & Shandler 2011, among the industrialized countries, UK has second  highest rates of teenage pregnancy. The Census conducted in 2008 which indicated that the birth rate of mothers between the ages of 14-19 was 41.5 per 1000 women. Each year, 14 million children are born worldwide to teenage mothers between the age of 15 and 19 UNICEF, 2012. Magaraggia (2010)established teenage pregnancy as a social problem which requires being addressed.

Many factors have been attributed to high incidence of teenage pregnancy. The following factors have been attributed to the increased rates of pregnancy among adolescents. These factors include; inadequate and inaccurate information on sexual health, peer pressure which offers an avenue to discuss sex matters and mass media which gives teenagers easy access to pornographic materials (Magaraggia, 2010)

Teenage pregnancy may have detrimental effects in all aspects of life including education where the affected person as to drop out of school to be able to take care of the child. Also, it may lead to unemployment being attributed to low self-esteem as well as inability to perform assigned duties(Girma & Paton, 2015). Consequently, the victims find themselves living in substandard houses due to reduced finances.


Curbing of teenage pregnancy requires application of different approaches including sexual education and raising awareness. Both the society and policy makers can as well be involved solving in providing solutions to the risk factors of teenage pregnancy (Girma & Paton, 2015). Therefore, combined efforts from families, healthcare facilities and the society as a whole will be required to help in coming up with a solution to this nightmare.


Girma, S., & Paton, D. (2015). Is education the best contraception: The case of teenage pregnancy in England? Social Science and Medicine, 131, 1–9.

Magaraggia, S. (2010). Teenage pregnancy: the making and unmaking of a problem. Gender and Education, 22(4), 475–476.

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