pharmacology

Module 2: Drug Profile activities
Section 3: Signal Transduction Mechanisms for Receptors
For your chosen drug:
1.    Describe the mechanism of action. Your answer should:

1.    Identify how the interaction of the drug with its molecular target(s) accounts for the major therapeutic effect (i.e. the effect you want the drug to cause in clinical practice; e.g. for paracetamol – pain relief)
2.    Include a description of how the drug alters function at the cellular level.
3.    Include a description of how the altered cellular function manifests as a change in body system function, and the eventual major therapeutic response
Critically review 2 ORIGINAL RESEARCH PEER REVIEWED journal articles that provide evidence for the clinical effectiveness of your drug IN HUMANS. Your response should identify and critique the:

0.    Type of study (e.g. randomised control trial, anecdotal report, etc).
1.    Comparator agent (e.g. placebo, current gold standard therapy, etc).
2.    Sample size (the number of study participants).
3.    Measures of effectiveness.

On the basis of this critique, briefly summarise your interpretation of the evidence for the effectiveness of your drug.

MEDICAL AND HEALTH CARE

 

MEDICAL AND HEALTH CARE

BY

NAME OF THE STUDENT

NAME OF THE TUTOR

NAME OF COURSE

DATE

 

 

 

Thailand’s population as of April 2011 is approximately 66,720,000 billion with structures of age group 0-14 acquiring a 20% that of the whole population , 71% representing ages 15-64 and 9% representing age 65 and above. The country being one of the Third World countries has its population estimated to grow even higher with 0.5 % by the end of year 2011, due to uncontrolled birth rate compared to death rates of the elderly people (International Data Base, 2011).

The age group bracket 60 and above represents the older people in Thailand who only present a 9% of the total population countrywide. According to (Knodel & Chayovan 2009), in Thailand the ageing population is among the most growing rates in the Asian continent. Between year 1960 and year 2000, the rate increased from 5% in the 60s to 9% in 2000 millennium. However the figures are pre judged to rise by year 2020 with an increase of 18% of the total country’s population. In addition an increase is characterized with the rate of older age group surpassing that of the general population. The difference between the male and the female in this group is approximately 0.8%.

The rate of rise in older population is likely to exert more efforts on the public health due to the care that these individuals within this group require for the state of bodies prone to chronic diseases. Knodel and Chayovan (2011, p. 25) argue that the elderly will need dedicated attention due to high prevalence of illnesses requiring the government to formulate policies to cater for this bulging demand, leading to more use of resources towards health care issues of this group.

According to (Jitapunkul & Wivatvanit 2009), the rate of life expectancy in Thailand is more emphasized at the median age of 74, from age cap 60 and above. Therefore, the health sector has to integrate comprehensive measure against the trending rise in this group, which raises expectations of quality medical facilities to cater for illnesses that these people may have. This calls for more reforms in the public health especially to cater for the elderly in major areas such as vaccination against chronic diseases, good health and control, occasional health monitoring, medical technological advancements, clean environment and water. Thailand is a developing country with income levels varying such that access to health care depends on the resources to attain them.

Based on the portrayed statistics in (Rees & Karcharnubarn 2009) the expectancy will grow in alignment to the growth rate of this group. However the country situation in 50 years to 100 years can not be as severe as in the current situation due to the expected changes that will be experienced then. For instance, more use of technological advancements in health care provision, the health issues that are present portray a state of high death rates caused by the same advancements as a result of accidents rates, cancer rate at age 50, environmental degradation exposing harmful and fatal pathogen, disasters and global political instability.

In conclusion, the aging number of people in Thailand and the world at large will shift from 60 to 50 due to increase in varieties of diseases that are affecting people, especially cancer and diabetes between ages 40 to 50, which are fueled by changing factors in the world

 

REFERENCES

Jitapunkul, S & Wivatvanit, S 2009, ‘ Natiopnal policies and programs for the aging population in Thailand’, Ageing International, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 62-74.

Knodel, J & Chayovan, P 2011, ‘Intergenerational family care for and by older people in Thailand’, pp. 1-27.

Knodel, J & Chayovan, P 2009, ‘Older Persons in Thailand: A demographic social and economic profile’, Ageing International, vol.33, no, 1, pp.3-14.

Rees, P & Karcharnubarn, R 2009, ‘Population ageing and healthy life expectancy in Thailand’, pp. 1-24.

U.S. Census Bureau. International Data Base (IDB). http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/country.php (accessed April 29,2011)

 

medicine

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

STUDENT’S NAME

COURSE NAME

INSTRUCTOR’S NAME

DATE
ESSAY QUESTIONS

1. The pharmaceutical industry has been subject to considerable regulation in bringing drugs to the marketplace. Discuss the benefits and costs to society from this policy.

Regulations have been set in the market on the drugs provided by pharmaceutical industry to prevent them from selling substandard drugs to users. Prescription Drug Marketing Act was developed to establish requirements that pharmaceutical industries had to meet in distribution of drugs. Its main purpose was to prevent these industries from selling ineffective, substandard and forged drugs in the supply chain of drugs [1].The law requires that a person who is not the producer or manufacture of a drug should provide a pedigree statement to the buyer. A pedigree statement includes the origin of the drug, their names and addresses of the manufacturer. There have been a lot of incidences on forged drugs that are highly priced or those that have a high market value. Drugs that have a high market value are also subject to forgery.The government prohibits the sale of illegal drugs as its market promotes crime, erodes morals in the society, leads to poverty and diminished health.

BENEFITS OF DRUG POLICIES TO CONSUMERS.

Consumers are able to gain access to quality drugs that are essential for their health. Regulations on pharmaceutical industries pose standards to be attained when manufacturing medicines. The manufacturing industries have to meet and adhere to this standards pertaining to the quality of the products.High quality products provide consumer satisfaction as the drug will heal the disease or disorder intended.

Prohibition of illegal drugs from the market poses many benefits for the individual.People in the society are prevented from experiencing diminished health that is caused by consumption of substandard goods [2].Moral behavior is improved in the society in that individuals do not engage in vices of smuggling illegal products. Reduction of moral behaviors in turn reduces the level of poverty in the society as property theft decreases.

Regulations on pricing ensure that consumers are not discriminated by the high prices that can be set by the industry with the malice of obtaining more revenues.Any industry aims at generating more revenue and having access to a large part of the Market. Industries engage in unscrupulous means of obtaining more revenue by increasing the price of the commodity that yields more demand in the market. The government has curbed these acts by setting the maximum prices that drugs can be sold in the market and this has prevented the exploitation of the consumer in the industry.

Regulations on advertisements ensure that consumers are not given the wrong impression on the use of the commodity and prevent patients and customers from exploitation [3].Pharmaceutical industries should avoid advertising their products using features that are not present in the drug. This prevents the consumer from having to buy a worthless commodity or a drug that will not serve the purpose to which it is intended.

Safety of drugs is very essential in the consumption of medicines. Regulations that ensure the safety of drugs to potential users have been set. These regulations ensure that consumers use medicines that are not harmful to their health. Thenumbers of deaths have reduced from the consumption of non- poisonous drugs.

The prescription drug act 2(1) shows that the government will pay benefits to the cost incurred on the purchase of an eligible product [4]. This is a benefit to the consumer in that he or she will be compensated if the drug purchased causes more serious loses than benefits. For example, a consumer purchases a drug to heal a wound on the leg. Instead of the wound getting better, it spreads and becomes worse such that the leg gets amputated. Such a patient is eligible for damages provided the drug was manufactured for that purpose and it adhered to set standards.

Standards protect the economic interest of the consumers and the reliability they have on the products. Consumers rely mostly on products that have been approved by the government of food and drug regulations. They are guaranteed that the product will satisfy and meet the needs for which they intend to use.

COSTS OF DRUG POLICIES TO CONSUMERS.

The process of inspecting drugs to ensure that they adhere to the set regulation reduces the pace at which these drugs enter into the market hence delaying the medicines to the consumers [5].It takes a lot of time for the drugs to be manufactured and then pass through the Food and Drug Administration to be inspected on their quality and standards. This increases the time at which these commodities reach the market and eventually the time which the consumers obtain them.

The regulations set will reduce the number of industries that will be willing to engage in the manufacture and sale of the drugs. This will cause shortage of drugs in the industry henceincrease in the prices of the available drugs. This poses a disadvantage to consumers in that drugs will be scarce and hard to find and also the costs of the drugs will be high.

Regulations deter innovation. This is because the establishment of a product that meets the costs of the set standard is very costly to the manufacture. Lack of innovation will lead to the consumers using the same products over a given period of time and it becomes monotonous especially if the product does not serve its purpose effectively. Consumers usually aim at having a variety of products to choose from and this need is limited by the set standards and regulations.

Regulations on costs may set costs too high for the poor in the community to afford. Regulations leads to a state of monopoly in industries in that only one or few companies can afford to produce commodities according to the set standards.This creates a situation where the industries can set their own standards but according to the range given by the government.The poor in the society finds it difficult to buy these commodities and can lead to a number of deaths to patients who cannot afford medication.

  1. 2.      As a senior policy maker in the Ministry of Health in a low or middle income country, you have received advice from an economics consultant that user charges for health services should be increased substantially to reduce moral hazard.
    What arguments would you use in your policy advice to the Minister of Health to either support or reject this advice? Provide evidence to support your arguments.
    Note that moral hazard refers to overutilization as a result of patients not paying the full cost of health services.

There are several factors that have to be addressed before deciding on whether to subsidize or increase user charges in health facilities. User charges are essential for the running of the organization but it should not be the key source of finance in the health industry. These charges should not be applied uniformly because it will not affect the poor and the wealthy uniformly [6]. The rich will view the prices as low because they can afford it but the poor will view the prices as high because they cannot afford the medical services. The user charges should be increased according to the average income of the people in the society. An analysis should be conducted before increasing the charges to evaluate the magnitude of this effect on the community. User charges cannot be subsidized because the funds available are not enough to run the health industry and the industry also suffers from financial constraints. Increased charges can increase the revenue of the organization but it cannot fully control the moral hazards in the society. In fact it will increase the hazards because many people in the society who are poor cannot afford to pay for the services at all. If user fees were to be increased then the poor are to be excluded form it [7]. The act of increasing user fees will lead to citizens in the society to reduce the utilization of health facilities but will in turn face more moral hazards such as seeking medication from drug peddlers and others will die because they cannot afford to go to hospitals [8]. It is very embarrassing for our neighboring countries to find out that the citizens have been dying due to expensive health services provided.

However, the benefits of increasing the user charges outweigh the loss that people will undergo in the community. This is because we cannot remain stagnant in relation to the economic growth and the provision of quality health services. People should always have a price to pay in order to improve the society and to reduce the amount of laziness found in the society. Individuals should be discouraged on overutilization of the health services and encouraged to be responsible by paying for those services. People will use their time and money wisely when they realize that medical services are to be paid for. Citizens should realize that quality is expensive and this will motivate them to look for money to pay for quality services. Congestion in hospitals will reduce because people will not be seeking unnecessary treatments. This will pave way to dealing with emergency situations that were previously hindered by the long queues found in the hospitals. The staff in the hospitals will be relieved of the duties of having to deal with unnecessary medical cases. The staff will be having enough time to rest or conduct research on technical illnesses.

I would accept the advice to increase the charges in order to increase the government funds given to such hospitals. These funds will improve health outcomes, finance distributions to the poor and to improve on the social well being of individuals. Increasing user charges will trigger other projects such as employment activities and a sense of responsibilities in the society. People will look for ways of making a living when they realize that the basic needs are not entirely free. Increase in hospital charge will also lead to improvement in the security system to prevent people from stealing to pay for the services. Various governmental teams should be set to advice the citizens not to engage in social vices as law defaulters will be arrested. It is also important to advice them to live peacefully and to help out their neighbors. The citizens should be encouraged to use resources carefully and wisely because in them over utilizing the health resources, they are consuming the services that should be used tomorrow and this will create difficulty in health resources in future.

There has been alleged over utilization of services and abuse of the services by people in the society. This really calls for amendments in the small charges that are available to citizens in the society [9]. Every member has to participate in the cost of health that they consume. User charges will improve the quality of health service due to the increase of this user charges and prevention of unnecessary use of the services. Exceptions should be placed only on special treatments such as child care, elderly health services, prenatal services and other preventive services. Patients should be motivated to pay for quality services than to over utilize non- quality services. User charges will add to a small amount of income for the health services though it is not supposed to be taken as the primary source of income. It reduces the in necessary excessive demand for health devices [10]. The effect of user charges should be considered in advance before the implementation of the increase in charges.

CONCLUSION

User charges should be increased to reduce the rate of over exploitation of health resources and the unnecessary demand for health services. Quality comes at a price and such a price must be worked for and utilized wisely. This will lead to decongestion in the hospitals and the staff will do quality work due to the reduction of dealing with unnecessary cases. Increase in charge will cause people to be responsible in the society in that they will set medical funds aside and use the available medical services wisely. However, the user charges should not be increased uniformly for both the rich and the poor.The poor should be allowed to basic preventive treatment like child immunization and pre natal services.

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

  1. U.S Food and Drug Administration.2011, march 3. CPG Sec. 160.900 Prescription Drug Marketing Act—Pedigree Requirements under 21 CFR Part 203. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/ICECI/ComplianceManuals/CompliancePolicyGuidanceManual/ucm073857.htm
  2. Miron JA, Zwiebel J. The economic case against drug prohibition. The Journal of Economic Perspectives (1986-1998), 9(4), 175. United States: American Economic Association, 1995.
  3. Whewell R.Supply chain in the pharmaceutical industry: strategic influences and supply chain responses. United States: Gower Publishing, Ltd, 2010.
  4. Manitoba laws. 2011 August 17. The prescription Drugs Cost Assistance Act. Available from: http://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/p115e.php
  5. Philipson T, Sun E. 2008 January 3. Regulating the safety and efficacy of prescription drugs. Available from: http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/804
  6.  Gertler PJ, Hammer JS. Strategies for pricing publicly provided health services. SSRN Working paper series, Rochester: 2004. Available from: http://search.proquest.com/docview/189880819?accountid=45049
  7.  The World Bank. Economic and welfare effects of the abolition of health user fee. United States: WorldBank publications, 2004.
  8.  Livingstone I, Belshaw RGD. Renewing development in Sub-Saharan Africa: policy, performance and prospects. United States: Routledge, 2002.
  9. Hufti HM. Healthcare development strategies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. United States: Springer, 2000.
  10. Walley J, Wright J. Public Health: An Action Guide to Improving Health. United States: Oxford University Press, 2010

 

 

 

“Thank you for smoking” by Jason Reitman(2005)

Should lobbyists be prohibited by law from gifts to elected officials?

With tobacco related diseases being regarded as one of the leading causes of death (preventable death) in the US, legislative measures have been considered fundamental in creation of comprehensive scheme to lower the use of tobacco and consequently reduce the number of preventable deaths. In order to achieve such an objective, campaign contributors and lobbyist (or lobbying activities) have been pointed out as two important aspects that influence the legislators’ voting conduct. The lobbyists have the capability of providing information that can influence legislators and hence influence others too to either support or reject legislations that are proposed by the national assembly. Campaign contributors on the other hand can influence the out come of the legislature by using financial incentives (contributions) in supporting candidates who share the same thoughts as them. The contributions can also be used to buy access to the lobbyists and therefore help in augmenting the message by lobbyists and therefore sway legislators when they are elected.  Studies that have been carried out show that the extensive lobbying and the immense campaign contributions have got an influence on the positions those legislators have on the positions they take regarding tobacco related issues (Samuels, Glantz, 1991 & Jacobson, Wasserman, Raube, 1993). This kind of relationship has been the subject of criticism with allegations being made that the influence lobbyists and campaign contributors assert is normally to their own advantage and mostly to the detriment of the general public. This has led to constant debates of whether the government should altogether ban the act of giving gifts to elected officials by lobbyists. Are lobbyists and campaign contributors’ actions always selfish or do they also serve the interests of the general public? This paper is going to look into these questions in order to conclude whether the lobbyists should altogether be banned.
Support for the Lobby groups
Lobbying generally revolves round advocating of interests that are potentially and actually affected by the government’s decision. This process is carried out by individuals or interest groups who share the same thoughts. This practise as mentioned has been considered important in ensuring the proper functionality of the US government. Additionally lobbying is fundamentally protected by the 1st Amendment which posits that the Congress shall not make any laws that prohibits the petition the rights of the people to peaceably petition the government to redress grievances. The lobbying practice is additionally considered useful in the resolution of conflicts revolving around competing views as they help in provision of information, opinions and analysis to the legislators and the government alike and hence allow them to make balanced and informed choices and therefore creating a structure that acts as a system of checks and balances which paves way for completion with other interested groupings. This helps in ensuring that a lone figure is not permanently embedded in positions of power. The process has always been hailed because it increases expediency in legislators’ duties as it provides accurate assessment and reliable data on the effects of a bill, policies or regulations. What should be understood by the general public especially the critic is that lobby groups have a vertical power system. The influence that a particular group has largely depends on the amount of resources (both time and money) at its disposal. This is to mean that equality does not exist amongst individual lobbyists, and therefore the thought that all lobby groups wield much power should be discarded.

Criticism against lobby groups
Critics of lobby groups sight one specific disadvantage that lobby groups have; the wielding of too much power. This they have argued makes the groups susceptible to corruption.
Attempts to regulate lobbying
Although as discussed above lobbying is protected by the US constitution, several attempts have been made to regulate their activities. The efforts have been in place chronologically from 1907 when campaign contributors were banned from sponsoring election candidates. The affected bodies included banks and corporations. In 1911, the first restrictions against domestic lobbying were proposed but it was not until 1946 when the Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act was passed. This was however challenged by lobbyists in 1954 (See, United States v. Harriss) where the court upheld the constitutionality of the Act but narrowed the application and scope of the Act and asserted that the Act subsequently applied to paid lobbyists who communicated on a one to one basis with Congress members on crucial proposed and pending legislations
Should Lobbyist be Prohibited from giving gifts to elected officials therefore?
The questions of whether to bar lobbyists from giving elected officials gifts depends entirely on the way a person views the issue. Constitutionally the right to lobby is protected by the 1st Amendment and therefore asking to ban lobbying is fundamentally setting aside the provisions of the 1st Amendment. Additionally lobbying especially amongst tobacco lobby groups has been found by studies to be of great importance especially since it gives better information on tobacco related issues and has been found to be of great importance to non0profit organisations (Joanna et al, 1997). What should be done is regulation of the lobbyists through appropriate legislations and policies. This is important since the right is guaranteed under the constitution, however as it should be appreciated, not all rights and freedoms are absolute; the government has got the power to regulate these rights. So instead of banning the lobby groups from doing its activities it should be regulated.

Work Cited

Jacobson, P.D., Wasserman, J. & Raube, K. The Politics of Anti-Smoking Legislation. J Health Policy Law. 18: 787-819 (1993).print.

Joanna, E.C et al. State Legislators’ Perceptions of Lobbyists and Lobbying on Tobacco Control Issues. 6:332-336 (1997). Print.

Samuels, B. Glantz, S.A. The Politics of Tobacco Control. JAMA. 266:2110-7 (1991). Print.

United States v. Harriss, 347 U.S. 612, 74 S. Ct. 808

 

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My drug is (Ondansetron)

I need you answer these questions to write each answer under question.  My drug is (Ondansetron).  Please use peer review for articles which use to answer these questions.  Please use all Australian website when needed.  Please use Bryant, B. & Knights, K., 2011, ‘Legal and Ethical Foundations of Pharmacotherapy’ in Pharmacology for Health Professionals, 3rd Edition, Mosby, Please follow the structure guidelines which attached.  Please avoid plagiarism and Wikipedia website to get information.  Please I need you to write original assignment, and please don’t give my assignment for any client to avoid plagiarism because may some client request the assignment.  I have attached questions which you need to answer.  I have attached file under name ( how to write this essay) so please is very important to guide you how to write this assignment.  Please upload all articles and materials which you have used for this assignment.

 

Section 1: Introductory Concepts 1. Regarding the availability of drugs in Australia use a FLOW diagram and arrows to illustrate the links between: • Advisory Committee on Medicines Scheduling (ACMS) • Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing • Australian Register of Tehrapeutic Goods (ARTG) • National Medicines Policy (NMP) • Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC) • Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) • Quality Use of Medicines (QUM) • South Australian Ambulance Service (SAS) • The Therapeutics Good Act (1989) • The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) (10 marks) Section 2: National Medicines Policy and the Quality Use of Medicine 2. Link to http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/policyperspectives/PPM_No6-6pg-en.pdf “How to develop and implement a national drug policy” WHO Policy Perspectives on Medicine, January 2003. LIST the key components of a national drug policy. (10 marks) 3. Link to http://www.nmp.health.gov.au/ click on Quality Use of Medicines and down load the document titled ‘The National Strategy for Quality Use of Medicines’. Read carefully the section on responsibilities of the key partners in achieving QUM. As a potential paramedic, discuss how you will support the Quality Use of Medicines. (10 marks) Section 3: Drug information resources for Australian health care professionals 4. As a paramedic, it is essential to have a personal list of appropriate drug information resources that you will consult when necessary. These may include textbooks, practice guidelines, journals and online material. In your workbook: • List the drug information resources (including the full citation) that you have identified and consider appropriate (e.g. Therapeutic Guidelines). • Provide an explanation of the reasons for including each resource in your personal list. • Identify the limitations of each of these drug information resources. (10 marks) Section 4: Over-The-Counter & Complementary and Alternative Medicines 5. For this Workbook Learning Activity select either St John’s Wort or Hawthorn Leaf. • Search the literature for the herb you have selected • List the conditions for which the herb is used • List any precautions or contraindications regarding use of the herb in any particular patient group • Copy and paste the abstracts from 2 peer reviewed journal articles that provide clinical evidence of either the effectiveness of the herb, or lack of effectiveness of the herb, for the treatment of any of the conditions you have listed in the second bullet point. The journal articles should describe clinical trials where the herb has been compared to placebo or a conventional (prescribed) drug normally used for that condition.

 

 

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