Listerine Mouth Wash Marketing Strategy

Listerine Mouth Wash Marketing Strategy
Listerine Mouth Wash Marketing Strategy

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Listerine Mouth Wash Marketing Strategy

This project requires you to investigate the marketing strategy of an existing Consumer Product. 

The following parts are required with the points allocated per section.

1. Name of product and description of product Listerine mouth wash

2. Product Category – Size of product category (dollar or unit sales) and the major competitors.  What is the market share of the major competitors and your brand? What other information can you provide which can help to understand what is happening in the market.   20 pts

3.  Target Market – Describe the target market using market dimension variables. These are segmentation variables such as demographic, psychographics, behavioral or geographic. Only two or three sentences to precisely describe the typical user using these variables.  10 pts

4.   Explanation of the need that this product fulfills as it relates to specific target market. Is it a “Me Too” imitator? How is it different from other product brands in the.

This should also include the product positioning.           

10 pts

5.  Marketing Mix

Product Offering –  Things that should be included, name, features/attributes, packaging and any other things that  makes this offering unique and increases its ability to satisfy target market needs. What phase of product life cycle is the brand?  Picture of product should be included.

Distribution – Explanation of distribution system- direct or indirect 

Name the major type of intermediaries if indirect. 

Pricing – Give price per package. Explain pricing strategy.  What is the markup % at the retail level?  (Hint:  ask manager at the store).

Promotion – Explain all the promotion mix elements currently being used to promote the product.  Need to justify the reason different promotion mix elements chosen.  Attached a link to a commercial video would be something good to do for presentation.

Market Opportunity Matrix – Explain the primary growth strategy that has been used to grow and sustain this brand in the past 5- 10 years.  Provide justification.   Read about types of opportunities in Chapter 2

Market Penetration

Market Development

Product development


Listerine Mouth Wash Marketing Strategy

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Listerine Mouth Wash Marketing Strategy

Listerine mouth wash is a globally recognized brand that is used to clean the mouth and eliminate bad breath as well as kill germs. The product has been in the market for a long time and thus it has gained customer loyalty over time. This paper will focus on various marketing concepts regarding the product and thus provide a clear insight of the market performance.

Product Category

The product comes in various sizes and with different flavors. The common size that has gained a large demand in the market is Listerine cool mint antiseptic that is retailed at $39.86 and it is at 1.5 liters. Recently, there is a discount of 5 % so as to promote marketing. The major competitors in the market are Colgate Plax, scope and oral B which perform the same function. In the United States for instance, the product is consumed by over 61 percent of the market. The sales for the year 2016 were $105.3 Million (Statistics portal,  2017).

Target Market

The major target for the product is people with the needs of special hygiene and these are mostly people from well to do families who live in urban as well as semi urban areas. They have high levels of income and they mostly have a unique lifestyle whereby they prefer a differentiated product like Listerine mouth wash which is different from the common brands in the market. Young people mostly make up the target market (MBA School-Study Learn. Share, 2017).

Explanation of the need

Listerine mouth wash is known for its ability to kill germs at a higher percentage compared to the competitor brands. It also eliminates bad breath as well as fighting specific germs that cause gingivitis. The product is long lasting thus giving the customer value for their money. It comes in different flavors and finally it is clinically proven to work in the human mouth without causing harm and providing a long lasting freshness…..

Listerine Mouth Wash Marketing Strategy

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Digital Marketing Management

Digital Marketing Management
Digital Marketing Management

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Digital Marketing Management

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“The essence of a customer driven marketing strategy is based on four major factors,namely market segmentation targeting, product differentiation and positioning.”

Discuss, with the use of relevant examples, how businesses may implement customer driven marketing strategy through managing the above four factors in the digital world. Please justify your answer using valid reasoning underpinned by academic sources and personal/professional experience (if any).
Give real life examples

Digital Marketing Management

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Digital Marketing Management

Digital marketing has become part of the business operation in the current dynamic world. The evolution of technology has made the implementation of marketing strategy easier since the marketers can now focus on four major factors to promote awareness of their products globally especially by focusing on the customer needs. The factors considered in digital marketing management include; market segmentation, targeting, product differentiation and positioning.

This paper will mainly analyse the various ways in which these four critical aspects of marketing can be implemented through an informed customer driven marketing strategy so as to promote the business in the digital world (Royle, 2014).

Understanding the customers and their needs are critical in implementing the digital marketing strategy. This develops the first factor which is market segmentation. This aspect mainly deals with dividing up a broad market into various groups based on various characteristics so as to ensure the customers are able to access what they need. Customers are different and they have different tastes and preferences.

Their locations and age can also be different as well and thus the need to segment the market so as to promote marketing. Market segmentation therefore helps in diving up the market so as to understand the needs of the customer and be in a position to meet their different needs (Rossberger, et al 2017).

Segmenting the market based on the geographical location of the client is important. This is because; the marketers can be able to provide goods and services needed in one location that may have a different demand in the other region. This type of segmentation focuses on nations, cities, provinces or even districts based on the size and market share of the business.

People located in different places may value products differently for instance, a commodity like a car may be considered to be a necessity within the United Kingdom but a luxury in other places such as Africa. Segmenting the market based on the geographical location will enable the marketer understand the specific needs and requirements in a certain location and thus meet the customer expectations. This is very important, especially in this digital era whereby marketing has gone global due to the use of the internet in marketing (Gibler,et al 2014).

The second type of segmentation is known as demographic segmentation. This is one of the most common forms of segmentation that applies to various businesses. Markets are divided into various groups for instance based on age, gender, income levels, religion, level of education and ethnicity among other factors. It is easier to segment markets based on demographics when it comes to digital marketing (Ananda, 2014).

The implementation of the marketing strategy can be done with ease as the demographics, for instance, can be used by the customers to search the products they need on various online platforms used by marketers to advertise. Taking an example of age, the customer can be able to filter out the clothes being advertised online and select those that meet personal tastes and preferences.

Similarly, a customer can be able to filter out the male products with easy and select from a variety. This makes the process of marketing easier for both the customer and the marketer. Other aspects such as religion and income levels can also be used in the same manner and thus contribute to ease implementation of digital marketing (Daniel, et al 2015).

Market segmentation can also be based on the customer behaviour. This is whereby, the market is divided and classified into various segments based on the actual behaviour of a person for instance on the previous buying rates, user status, the brand loyalty portrayed over time, the attitude towards the products, readiness to buy as well as the occasions of buying. Understanding this concept is critical to a marketer when it comes to digital marketing. This is because, the marketer will be in a position to classify the market on similar behaviours of the customers and thus convincing them to buy will be made easier (Tu, et al 2017).

Customers have different, unique behaviours and thus classifying them, for instance based on their previous rates of purchase, the marketer can predict the likely potential of sales that will be made and thus the appropriate advertising strategies can be put in place through the online platforms.

Taking an example of previous customers with a strong brand loyalty towards Samsung phones, for instance, segmentation will help in ensuring that the customers are well informed of the new products in the market and thus less aggressive methods of advertising will be applied in this case compared to the new customers in the market, who may have never bought Samsung products before or those who have low levels of brand loyalty towards Samsung products (Shi,et al 2015).

Psychological segmentation is the last concept under this factor. Customers can be segmented based on their interests and opinions which make up their lifestyle. Marketers need to understand the lifestyle of the customers so as to be aware if their needs and changes in demand from time to time. The clothing industry for instance is one of the best when it comes to using segmentation based on the psychological behaviour of the customers.

Some customers need to buy clothes from particular suppliers and they always look forward to new products in the market for such sellers thus an opportunity for one to utilize the chance, so as to promote the sale of  such products. Understanding the shifts in demand, especially in the fashion industry can help a marketer promote the marketing strategy in place by balancing out the various methods of segmentation (Lanz, 2015)…..

Digital Marketing Management

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Burberry’s Mobile Marketing Campaigns

Burberry's Mobile Marketing Campaigns
Burberry’s Mobile Marketing Campaigns

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Burberry’s Mobile Marketing Campaigns

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Case Assignment

Imagine you have been hired as a consultant to the VP of marketing for Burberry. The VP wants to get an objective opinion from someone outside the company who is familiar with current digital marketing basics.Your job is to write a short memo of 750 -1,500 words critically analyzing Burberry’s mobile marketing strategy. Note that the company has decided to use mobile social platforms to reach its target markets.

Read and cite required articles listed above, including additional research you have done, to address the following issues:

• Evaluate the assumptions behind Burberry’s mobile marketing campaigns, with a brief introduction of the company mobile marketing efforts.

• Analyze the effectiveness of Burberry’s mobile marketing campaigns by applying relevant branding and promotion concepts. Also specify the criteria you use to evaluate the effectiveness.

• With the increasing popularity of mobile media and social media, what would you recommend to Burberry regarding its mobile promotion strategy? Explain why.Do not spend a lot of time digging in the company’s website and do not just rehash what the company did; instead, introduce a critical perspective.

Focus on the Case articles as well as relevant background reading. There are no right answers; after all, you do not have inside information. You will be evaluated on your understanding of the background materials and your logic reasoning. In particular, show your understanding of the way a change in target market affects the company’s promotion strategy.

Also, give some thought as to how Burberry’s mobile marketing meshes with other elements of its marketing program, for example, merchandising (product management), channel management, and pricing.

Assignment Expectations Regarding Your References and Defense of Your Positions 

Write clearly, simply, and logically. Your memo should be 750-1,500 words long, excluding title pages and references, but quality of writing is more important than length. Use single space, black Verdana or Times Roman font in 12 pt. type size.

Check the following link for business memo format:

Back up your positions or opinions with references to the required reading found in the Module 1-2 Backgrounds. In using those references, demonstrate your understanding of the concepts presented. Rather than grading on how much information you find, emphasis will be on the defense of the positions you take on the issues.

Also remember that:

• The “why” is more important than the “what.”

• The defense of your positions on the issues is more important than the positions you take.

Do not repeat or quote definitions. Your use of the required reading to support your opinions (that is, contentions or positions) should demonstrate that you understand the concepts presented.

Do not include definitions or summaries of the readings, or simply describe what the company did. Instead, your responses to the questions should be analytical and should demonstrate that (a) you understand the principles from the background reading and (b) you can apply them to this particular case. Vague, general answers will not earn a good grade.

Avoid redundancy and general statements such as “All organizations exist to make a profit.” Make every sentence count.Paraphrase the facts using your own words and ideas, employing quotes sparingly. Quotes, if absolutely necessary, should rarely exceed five words.

When writing an academically oriented paper, you will uncover many facts about the product. If you paraphrase the facts, cite the sources in your text and link those citations to references at the end of the paper.

Here are some guidelines on how to conduct information search and build critical thinking skills. 

Emerald Group Publishing. (n.d.). Searching for information. Retrieved from

Emerald Group Publishing. (n.d.). Developing critical thinking. Retrieved from

Guidelines for handling quoted and paraphrased material are found at:

Purdue Online Writing Lab. (n.d.). Academic writing. Retrieved from

Purdue Online Writing Lab. (n.d.). Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. Retrieved from

Purdue Online Writing Lab. (n.d.). Is it plagiarism yet? Retrieved from

Your paper consists of arguments in favor of your opinions or positions on the issues addressed by the guidelines; therefore, avoid the following logical fallacies:

Purdue Online Writing Lab. (n.d.). Logic in argumentative writing. Retrieved from

Mobile marketing spending is increasing in recent years due to the popularity of smartphone and mobile commerce. Burberry is starting to use the mobile apps to reach the target market. Burberry is the first brand to use a ‘Snapcode’ on Snapchat as it looks to give visitors in its stores access to exclusive content.

Read the following articles related to mobile app marketing campaign by Burberry, mobile app design, and the digital marketing trends. Note that you can find the articles without links in our online library databases using the search box on

TLC Portal.BI Intelligence (2015). Here’s where digital ad spending is going over the next five years. Retrieved from

Burberry launches on kakao (2015). Newton: Questex Media Group LLC. Burberry launches global partnership with line. (2015, Feb 05). M2 Presswire.DeMers, J. (2014, Aug. 15).

10 online marketing metrics you need to be measuring. Retrieved from

Goodfellow, J. (2016). Burberry is printing codes on its products to encourage customers to use Snapchat in-store. Retrieved from

L2 think tank: Burberry runs lunar new year WeChat campaign (2016). Chatham: Newstex. 

Magrath, V., & McCormick, H. (2013). Marketing design elements of mobile fashion retail apps. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 17(1), 115-134.

O’Reilly, L. (2012, Sep 20). Burberry to put mobile first in mix. Marketing Week (Online).

Roderick, L. (2015, Sep 18). Burberry in snapchat first as it premieres new fashion collection online. Marketing Week (Online).

Roderick, L. (2016, Apr 04). Burberry uses first ever snapcode to let in-store customers unlock online snapchat content. Marketing Week (Online).

How to conduct a marketing audit (n.d.). Retrieved from

Introduction to financial statements for marketing (n.d.). Retrieved from

Marks, R. E. (1997). Market structure and competition (October 9). Retrieved from

Marketing Research (n.d.). MarketingTeacher. Retrieved from

These Web pages explain concepts of the Segmenting, Targeting, and Positioning.

Building Customer Relationships. (2014). Pearson Learning Solutions, New York, NY. Retrieved from

Building Customer Relationships (Audio). (2014). Pearson Learning Solutions, New York, NY. Retrieved from

Segmentation (n.d.). MarketingTeacher. Retrieved from

Targeting (n.d.). MarketingTeacher. Retrieved from

Positioning (n.d.). MarketingTeacher. Retrieved from

Perner, L. (n.d.). Segmentation, targeting, and positioning. Consumer Psychologist. Retrieved from

Here are some useful links on market segments:

Nielsen. (n.d.). MyBestSegments ZIP code look-up. Retrieved from

Nielsen. (n.d.). Nielsen PRIZM – Understanding social and lifestage groups. Retrieved from

Nielsen. (n.d.). Segment Details. Retrieved from

TETRAD. (n.d.). Demographics. Retrieved from

This article explains considerations internal to the firm that affect its financial health:

Porter, M. (1980). Generic strategies. Retrieved from

These Web pages explain the forces external to the firm that affect the financial health of a product or company:

PEST Analysis (n.d.). MarketingTeacher. Retrieved from

Managing External Forces (n.d.). Marketing Tutorials. KnowThis. Retrieved from

The following readings relate to product management strategy:

Products and Services. (2014). Pearson Learning Solutions, New York, NY. Retrieved from

Products and Services (Audio). (2014). Pearson Learning Solutions, New York, NY. Retrieved from

Product decisions (n.d.). KnowThis. Retrieved from

This series of Web pages explains that product decisions over which firms have control are forces that determine the financial health of a product or company:

Product strategies (n.d.). LearnMarketing. Retrieved from

The following articles explain and illustrate branding:

Aisner, J. E. (1999) More than a name: The role of brands in people’s lives. Working Knowledge for Business Leaders Series. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School. Retrieved from

Beyersdorfer, D., et al. (2011 January/February). Preserve the luxury or extend the brand? Harvard Business Review. 89:1/2(January/February):173-7.

Christ, P. (2009). Understanding the importance of branding (October 28). Retrieved from

Clark, D. (2011 March) Reinventing your personal brand. Harvard Business Review. 89:5 (March):78-81.

Edelman, D. C. (2010). Branding in the digital age. Harvard Business Review. 88:12 (December):62-69.Introduction to brands (n.d.). Marketing Teacher. Retrieved from

Klein, K. E. (2008). A practical guide to branding. Bloomberg Businessweek (June 9).

Tauber, E. W. (1981). Four branding alternatives: A branding strategy based upon brand extension. Marketing Teacher. Retrieved from 

Zax, D. (2010). For Millennials, brands may be as important as religion, ethnicity. Co-Create(November 17). Retrieved from

The following article explains brand personality:

Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: Developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research. 24:4(March):343-372.

These articles address the question of celebrity endorsements:

A Teakettle with Star Power? The Upsides and Pitfalls of Celebrity Brands (2011).Knowledge@Wharton (April 27). Retrieved from

Star Blight: The Perils of Celebrity Endorsements (2006). Knowledge@Wharton (September 6).Retrieved from

Stone, M. (2012). How Retailers’ Love Affair With Celebrities Will Blossom In 2012. Forbes (January 4).

Check the professional market research reports from IBISWorld database to find the industry analysis for your cumulative Session Long Project.

IBISWorld Overview (n.d.). IBISWorld, Inc., New York, NY.IBISWorld Forecast (n.d.). IBISWorld, Inc., New York, NY.IBISWorld Data and Sources (n.d.). IBISWorld, Inc., New York, NY.IBISWorld Navigation Tips (n.d.). IBISWorld, Inc., New York, NY.

Check the following links for proper APA citation and reference format:

Purdue University Online Writing Lab. (n.d.). In-text citations: The basics. Retrieved from

Cornell University Library. (n.d.). APA citation style. Retrieved from

Golden Gate University. (n.d.). University library: Research help. Retrieved from

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. (n.d.). The center for writing studies. Retrieved from

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Burberry’s Mobile Marketing Campaigns

Internal Memorandum

January 15, 2018

To:       VP of marketing, Burberry


From:   Your Name, Marketing Consultant

Re:       Opinion on the digital marketing efforts by Burberry

Mobile marketing efforts

Burberry, a luxury clothing and apparel design, production and sales company, is among the top businesses in its industry. The firm, whose headquarters are in London, England and with operations around the globe, uses a variety of operational and marketing models to ensure they remain a top brand. With competitors such as Chanel, Gucci, Dior, and Louis Vuitton, Burberry has to employ innovative solutions to engage consumers and push for purchases. In the recent past, Burberry has adapted to the use of mobile technology in a bid to push for the increase in market share and sales for the brand.

A unique approach by Burberry to the marketing of their brand and merchandise has been the use of mobile marketing. The use of mobile marketing refers to various approaches used by companies to lure and inform their customers about their products and services. In using this method, the targeted customer is one who uses a mobile device for communications, media usage, learning, and entertainment. The methods used in mobile marketing are designed for the mobile device with a smaller screen size. Given the increasing size of the mobile phone market, as well as the constant rise in the number of mobile users, such targeted mobile marketing efforts by corporates are expected to have a large impact.

Assumptions behind Burberry’s mobile marketing campaigns

A first assumption is the continued growth of the mobile market. By investing heavily in mobile marketing Burberry assumes and heavily believes in the growth of the number of users of mobile devices. With this assumption, the company relies on the increasing numbers to upsurge the sales. In addition, the company assumes that their consumers are among the growing number of people who prefer having a mobile device such as a tablet, iPad, or smartphone in addition to a computer or laptop. This is in addition to those who are assumed to use mobile devices as their primary means of accessing information (Nagao, 2015).

Despite these assumptions having research data to back them up, they still are assumptions since there are a number of Burberry customers who prefer to visit the traditional brick and mortar shop as opposed to using the various e-commerce alternatives (Nagao, 2015). The assumption that the use of mobile devices will continue to rise may also be halted with the introduction of an alternative form of technological communication that may render devices such as the smartphone obsolete.

Another assumption by the company is that their online presence mirrors the sales. While the various online digital campaigns have been relatively successful, the use of online metrics and numbers may not accurately reflect the expected sales figures. Such figures as the number of daily or monthly visitors to a given webpage, or the number of clicks on an online advertisement, the number of likes on social media postings, or the number of followers may not necessarily translate to sales. However, as per Burberry’s reports, the firm’s sales have increased since the launch of the mobile marketing campaigns (Burberry PLC, 2017)….

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International Marketing

International Marketing
International Marketing

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International Marketing

Marketing continues to be one of the significant aspects of modern day businesses. This function is one that has led to the establishment of marketing departments in business and organizations. This is an indication that indeed, marketing is a vital element of any business. Whether there are good or bad economic times, marketing remains a pivotal operation in any industry or business.

Being able to determine and satisfy the needs of clients via products and services that have value and accessibility and whose qualities are well communicated is the primary target for any business. Production and marketing are two business functions that work hand in hand. This is because it is only through the output that a company can market their goods.

Marketing can be defined as the activity, combination of institutions and processes that are aimed at developing, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offering that possesses value for customers, partners, and the general society (Class notes). Another definition is that marketing is the supervision procedure that is responsible for recognizing, forestalling, and fulfillment of customer needs profitably. In this case, there will be a look at mobile marketing and how it has succeeded in China.

Before that, it is critical to understand the meaning of international marketing. According to Ghauri and Cateora, international marketing can be defined as the conduction of business activities that control the flow of a company’s goods and services to customers or users in more than one country for a profit. In China, it is essential to acknowledge that mobile marketing has been widely embraced.

It is vital to recognize that indeed, mobile phones have been said to present a potential for marketers to have a connection with their customers through the online channels. With the increase in the use of mobile phones, companies have been presented with a chance to change the way that they interact with their clients.

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According to (Session 2 Notes on culture), culture can be defined as the learned, common, compelling, and interconnected set of symbols whose meanings present some orientations for members of the society. When these orientations are combined, they offer solutions to issues that all communities must solve if they are aimed at remaining viable. The notes indicate that there are three essential components of culture.

These include beliefs, values, and customs. Going through the notes, one is enlightened that there are several factors that influence culture. These include language, religion, aesthetics, education, law and politics, technology, and social organizations.

Soares et al. (2006) stipulate that the growth of investigations addressing the connection between culture and consumption is exponential. Through this source, one is drawn to the fact that culture comprises the broadest influence on multiple dimensions of human behavior. The primary definition of culture as provided is that culture is the complicated whole which involves acquaintance, belief, art, ethics, tradition, and other capacities and habits that are embraced by man as a member of a community.

It is critical to acknowledge that indeed, culture is entirely different from other macro-environmental factors. Soares (2016)indicates that there are various scholars who have discussed the scopes that are most suitable for hypothesizing and operationalizing culture. However, the most outstanding dimensions are developed by Hofstede. In this case, Hofstede presents five magnitudes in his framework. The first of these is individualism-collectivism which illustrates the connection people have in each culture.

The second dimension is uncertainty avoidance which can be used to refer to the level to which a person feels threatened by uncertainty and ambiguity. The third one is power distance which is a reflection of the results of inequality in power and authority connections in society. The next dimension is that of masculinity-femininity. The final one is long-term orientation which is a representation of the virtues that are driven towards future rewards, especially in perseverance and thrift.

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Du (2012) indicates that the Mobile Marketing Association illustrates mobile marketing as the utilization of wireless media as an assimilated content delivery and direct reaction driver within a cross-media or stand-alone marketing communications program. He further indicates that the prosperity of mobile data and communication gadgets such as iPhones has driven more concentration towards the utilization of mobile devices for communicating marketing.

Du demonstrates that the increase in wireless and mobile communications around the world has in no small extent shifted the manner in which people interact, access, and distribute information. He indicates that the technology acceptance model (TAM) has played a significant role in marketing literature to illustrate a person’s behavior connected to the adoption and use of technology.

Through his research, Du discovered several things. In China, there are different factors that are directly and indirectly drive mobile banking acceptance. These include the likelihood of giving information, the probability of gaining access to content, the possibility of sharing content, the extent of risk reception, and degree of personal connection to one’s mobile device.

Zheng et al. (2012) indicate that in 1986, Davis among other researchers came up with the TAM model to illustrate the factors that drive decisiveness to the broad acceptance of computer technology. Davis and other scholars concluded that there were two aspects that influence users to adopt information technology. The first factor is assumed usefulness.

This was seen as a reflection of the extent to which a person believes that utilizing a particular system would increase his performance. The second factor is perceived ease-of-use. This was said to be a reflection of the degree to which a person considers that using a particular system would be easy or difficult (Zheng et al., 2012).

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According to Hong (2013), with an increase in the mobile phone adoption, it is critical for companies to adopt the technology acceptance readiness (TAR) methodology to forecast the customer’s willingness to utilize mobile commerce. However, as Hong indicates, one of the major influencers of mobile marketing is mobile marketing acceptance. In this case, he suggests that mobile banking includes a “two-way or multiple-way communication and promotion to offer a company and its clients utilizing mobile phones as a form of communication.”

In the past few decades, the rapid development of smartphone technology and mobile networks has presented more opportunities for mobile marketing. Under this, there are three main components of mobile marketing which include prompt messaging and advertising, mobile applications, and mobile social networks.

In China, the fast food companies have been viewed to adopt the mobile marketing method. One of these companies that have adopted this strategy is McDonald’s. Lee (2018) states that the utilization of digital marketing, electronic payments, and delivery have aided McDonald’s to come up with a unique growth strategy in China and which could be adopted in the home market in the United States. Lee states that in China, the utilization of mobile payments has been a significant part of the development of e-commerce.  

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In conclusion, it is vital to acknowledge that marketing is a function that has continued to prove its worthiness in various fields. Through marketing, companies have used this to gain competitive advantage. One of the backing factors is that the digital culture has been widely embraced in the society. To gain a global presence, international marketing has become widely adopted. Companies like McDonalds in China have adopted the mobile marketing strategy which has enabled them to remain competitive and have a broader digital presence. Such is a strategy that would be critical if all


Du, P. (2012). Factors Influencing Consumers’ Acceptance of Mobile Marketing: An Empirical Study of the Chinese Youth Market2(2), 24-37.

Ghauri, P., & Cateora, P. (2013). International Marketing1(1), 1-30.

Soares, A. M., Farhangmehr, M., & Shoham, A. (2006). Hofstede’s dimensions of culture in international marketing studies60(2007), 277-284.

Zhang, H., Li, Y., & Jiang, D. (2012). Empirical Study and Model of User’s Acceptance for Mobile Commerce in China9(6), 278-283.

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Social Media Marketing Speech

Social media marketing
Social media marketing

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Social media marketing

Over the years, the prospects of business activities, the growth of the global economy, and the growing populations have spurred the growth of various businesses worldwide. As such, the numbers of firms competing for the limited available resources have increased exponentially.

To make themselves stand out, creative companies have adopted the use of modern technology to create an edge over their competitors. One such use of technology to help the company stand out includes the use of social media for various business purposes. This report focuses on the use of social media by a selected company to perform social media marketing and therefore create customer value.

Social Media

Social media refers to the computerized network driven set of technologies that assist users in the creation and sharing of information with other users through various websites and applications (Obar & Wildman, 2015, pp. 746 – 747). The use of such networks has grown immensely in terms of numbers as well as usage. At the end of 2018, for example, the social media giant, Facebook Inc., had a monthly user base of about 2.2 billion users (Statista, 2017).

Similarly, Australia has had an increase in the numbers of social media users. Statistica reports indicate that Australia had an estimated 17 million Facebook users by January 2018. These users range from ages 13 to 65 and even older (Statistica, 2018).

In addition, the usage of social media has expanded from simple networking of friends, colleagues, and family, which was the initial intended use of social networks. Today, the use has spread to include all aspects of personal life and business. Big corporations are no longer left behind but are now part of the social media bandwagon. The growth in numbers of social media users, as well as the capabilities of the social media networks, has inspired businesses to take up social media as important tools in their portfolio to enable them to access their users in a faster and convenient way.

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Social media marketing

Among the key areas that inspire businesses to join social media is the ease with which they can access millions of their potential customers. The use of social media by companies is largely driven by the will to engage the growing numbers of users and also market their products to them. Social media marketing refers to the various strategies and processes adopted by various users of social networks in a bid to gain online traffic and attention (Saravanakumar & Sugantha, 2012; Hoffman & Fodor, 2010).

Business ventures are taking up social media marketing to allow for the use of better and cheaper alternative marketing for their products and services online. In addition, social media marketing is used to manage the brands of the company by addressing complaints and assessing the satisfaction of the consumers in an easier and faster manner compared to using other traditional channels.

Customer value

Customer value refers to the use of various tools available to the company to deliver the needs and desires of the specific user (Payne & Holt, 2002; Woodruff, 1997). The reference to customer value is imperative to the success of any firm. In this regard, many companies have taken up understanding the needs and wants of their clientele in a bid to increase sales as well as to foster a long-lasting relationship with the customers.

In addition, the firms are investing much more into research and development of new ideas, products, and brands as a means to understand the customer needs better. Such an improved understanding of customer requirements enables the companies to deliver customer value, as well as create customer value models that will help them in their development and customer management (Anderson & Narus, 1998).

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In order to further understand the use of social media in creating customer value, I will use Jetstar Airways to show how a firm can successfully use social media and social media marketing to create customer value. For Jetstar Airways, the company has a wide social media presence. It is among the few corporations that have taken up numerous social media accounts on various websites.

Jetstar Airways has social media profiles on Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, Flickr, YouTube, and Instagram. This is not the case with most other companies who opt to use just a few accounts that they can successfully manage. However, Jetstar Airways, despite having a widespread presence, has managed to stay active and in touch with their customers on the various social media platforms.

Jetstar Airways Social Media Marketing

Jetstar Airways has taken on social media marketing as a serious marketing approach in a bid to lure in more customers as well as develop a long lasting relationship with their current customers. In this regard, Jetstar Airways commits up to 40% of their total marketing budget into social media and other online channels (JetStar, 2011). Given the size of the company, this is a sizeable investment and shows the firm’s commitment to the use and value of social media marketing to its growth and success.

In this regard, and owing to the size of the company, Jetstar Airways uses different accounts for the group level of the company, as well as other regional and market specific profiles (Jetstar Newsroom, n.d.). These are intended to enable personalized service and faster reach to specific categories of clients, a feat the company has managed to successfully achieve.

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Jetstar Airways and customer value

According to an interview with the Chief Marketing Officer of Jetstar Airways, the airline took a strategic step to invest and improve on their digital marketing approach (Cameron, 2017). The approach used by the firm was a learning first and capability second, where the initial focus was on building expertise around digital marketing.

The second approach was building automation and personalization systems that would further assist in customer service and handle the various factors that contribute towards the improvement of customer value. These include internal factors such as a unifying vision, increase of the projects’ returns, and improvement of the effectiveness of communications (Cameron, 2017; Snyder & Tai, 2014).

The firms’ activities, especially the localized pages on Facebook and Twitter, are designed to engage the customers and keep them communicating with the brand. Examples of these pages are the main Jetstar Airways pages, Jetstar Asia, Jetstar NZ, and Jetstar Australia. These provide relevant information and tips on both company and flight-related topics, as well as general life issues that get their followers talking and sharing the content. Such engagement allows for the growth of the brand’s online presence and the creation of better relationships that lead to the development of customer value.

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Therefore, in conclusion, Jetstar has managed to create customer value through the effective use of various social media platforms. From the engagement in social media, the company is able to grow their online presence and educate potential customers about their products and services. The connection between such customers and the brand grows with the satisfaction of having their needs and wants, as well as expectations met as they had envisioned.


Anderson, J. C., & Narus, J. A. (1998, December). Business Marketing: Understand What Customers Value. Harvard Business Review: Financial Management. Retrieved April 4, 2018, from

Cameron, N. (2017, August 10). CMO Australia. Retrieved from Why technology, training and content go hand-in-hand in Jetstar’s marketing transformation:

Hoffman, D. L., & Fodor, M. (2010). Can you measure the ROI of your social media marketing? MIT Sloan Management Review, 52(1), 41 – 49.

JetStar. (2011, March 22). Jetstar to direct 40 per cent of marketing budget into social media and online channels. Retrieved from Jetstar Airways Newsroom:

Jetstar Newsroom. (n.d.). Jetstar social media. Retrieved from Jetstar Newsroom:

Obar, J. A., & Wildman, S. (2015, October). Social media definition and the governance challenge: An introduction to the special issue. Telecommunications Policy, 39(9), 745 – 750. doi:10.1016/j.telpol.2015.07.014

Payne, A., & Holt, S. (2002, December). Diagnosing Customer Value: Integrating the Value Process and Relationship Marketing. British Journal of Management, 12(2), 159 – 182. doi:10.1111/1467-8551.00192

Saravanakumar, M., & Sugantha, L. T. (2012). Social media marketing. Life science journal, 9(4), 4444 – 4451.

Snyder, D. J., & Tai, P. A. (2014). Customer Satisfaction At Low Cost Airlines: A Case Study Of Jetstar Pacific Airlines (JPA). The Clute Institute International Academic Conference, 254 – 265.

Statista. (2017, December). Number of monthly active Facebook users worldwide as of 4th quarter 2017 (in millions). Retrieved from Statista: The statistics portal:

Statistica. (2018, January). Breakdown of Facebook users in Australia as of January 2018, by age group. Retrieved from Statistica: The statistics portal:

Woodruff, R. B. (1997). Customer value: The next source for competitive advantage. Marketing in the 21st century, 139 – 153.

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Social Engagement Assignment

Social Engagement
Social Engagement

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Social Engagement


Hi Sonny, I do concur with you that indeed, mobile gadgets are shifting social engagement, the manner in which organizations and businesses conduct their marketing. I support the fact that apps such as Instagram have become a driving force in how companies conduct their marketing.

Such as you have stated is backed by the fact that these apps have enhanced brand recognition through making sure that potential customers are informed of goods or services provided by various companies or businesses in an instant and a convenient manner. Therefore, through your informative blog, it is clear that indeed, mobile has become a significant factor in the field of marketing.


Social engagement is one of the driving forces in marketing today. Through this, companies and other businesses put themselves in a position where they can directly engage with their already existing and potential customers.  Mobile phones and other internet-enabled gadgets such as tablets and personal computers have further heightened social engagement. As a marketer, am always drawn to the fact that marketing is a revolutionizing industry.

One of the aspects that I acknowledge is that for any company to survive, there must be marketing.  Technology has played a significant role in pushing for changes in the way that companies do their marketing. A vital lesson that I have learned is that mobile has become one of the major platforms for marketing of goods and products. As a millennial who owns a mobile phone and laptop, I have come to learn that most companies have not been left behind in adopting this strategy.

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Through reading the blog post by Sonny on how mobile has shifted the way in which companies carry out marketing, I am now more aware and knowledgeable of how companies have adopted apps as marketing platforms. Apps such as Instagram and Facebook have played a significant role in driving this aspect. One of the factors driving adoption of these platforms is that these apps have a large number of subscribers or users who frequent them.

One of the exciting things that I have read in Sonny’s blog post and one that I did not know is that there are categories of apps. Such as indicated include quick-timer and slow timer apps. This has opened up my mind on which applications are most appropriate in which situation. Without such knowledge, I believe that a marketer would be doing his or her job blindly and may not receive the best or anticipated results in social engagement primarily through the use of mobile apps.

In conclusion, I believe that the marketing industry is set for a time when the central and significant marketing will be mobile-oriented. For most companies, this is a reality that has not yet hit home since they are still stuck at majorly using traditional means such as television and billboards. With enough research and implementation, mobile marketing will prove to be beneficial to companies which intend to remain relevant and in business.

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Product Market Trend

Product Market Trend
Product Market Trend

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Product Market Trend

Write the trend of each product segments

• Telecommunication services• Phone devices• Accessories

Markets – what does the competitive landscape for your product look like?- What are the main Product market segments- Who are the major competitors and what are their products- What are the trends in the types of products being developed and launched

Please note that you will NOT be coming up with a new product idea. This assignment is about understanding the consumer, key influencing trends and creating the basis for idealization in the front end of innovation

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1. Markets – what does the competitive landscape for your product look like? • What are the main Product market segments Main product segments: • Telecommunication services? Optus, Vodafone, Telstra • Phone devices? smartphones, cell phone, public phones etc• Accessories? Headphones, cases, screen protectors, car holders, headsets

Marking Criteria 

1. Accurate and clear presentation 

2. Further research and comprehensive understanding (AT LEAST 8 ACADEMIC SOURCES) 

3. Logical and clear structure 

4. Quality of written expression 

5. Correctly formatted citations and bibliography.

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E-commerce Research Paper


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In the early of the 20th century 90s, internet commercialization directly promoted rapid development and growth of electronic commerce (Yan, 2008). Revolution that e-commerce has brought is comprehensive and far-reaching. While development and application of it is the process of continuous, change and evolve. Different from traditional business, e-commerce builds on the network and has been impacted by the environment of network. Not only the network brings competitive to it, but also some limit to it.

From the birth to now, tremendous growth of e-commerce has rested on clipping growth of computing technology. Computing technology has played a pivotal role on progress of e-commerce. Thereby, some issues of e-commerce could be solved with technology advancing. Similarly, appearance of e-commerce has brought improvement to supply chain. E-commerce linked the independent processes, which improved efficiency of operation of supply chain.

Main Body

E-commerce has advanced with the introduction of computers in doing business. It involves use of technologies such as computers and network communication in doing business. Defining e-commerce simply is that managing business in the Internet and Web (Shelly, Aileen, 2008). According to their same position and different angle of the e-commerce and different extent of participation, governments, academics, business people gave many different definitions.

It is however important to understand that e-commerce is not the same as doing business electronically. The approach of e- commerce tends to vary across nations and countries. The applicable of the concept is also different across these countries. Nevertheless, with all these variations, it is important to understand that the concept is still same because it relies on internet communication and electronic equipment.

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As the technology space increased, many other functions or services are now being provided through the internet. Shopping is one of the most widely service that takes place through electronic and network communication technologies. Nowadays, other services such as logistics, financing, among many other ancillary services take place through electronic technologies.

Other areas where e-commerce applies is in  electrical trading market, supply chain management, network marketing, electronics currency exchange, online transaction processing, automated data collection systems, inventory management and electronic data interchange (EDI). This functionality has enabled various businesses across the globe to engage in businesses without any physical border obstructions. Information technologies such as email, databases, extranet, internet, mobile phones, and electronic catalogs have been very important if facilitating e-commerce.

It is also very important to understand that e-commerce is classified into two; narrow and broad. Narrow e-commerce involves uses of internet in performing business activities, while on the other hand, broad e-commerce involves adoption of electronic tolls such as computers, and even use of Smartphone to conduct business. Regardless of these divisions, it is important to note that in both, internet is critical for their functionality. Otherwise, it cannot be called for e-commerce; the second it is just a kind of business activities which is finished in the Internet.

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Environment always has effect the organization and the stakeholders of the organization. From microanalysis, internet could offer information to organization. According to Holden et al. (2009), the network is a collection of electronic documents—the inventor calls it a supposed space of information. Every user of network is a part of network; he had unrestricted access to network. At the same time, the network must influence him.

The network could play its role and influence in changing. It is an advantage of network to be updated and change constantly. From macro analysis, network would not impact the profitability of organization in a short term, but it would affect the development of organization in long term. The macro environment including political and legal environment, economy environment, humanities and social environment, levels of education and science and technology, natural environment and population.

Because of the characteristics of network, for twenty-first-century entrepreneurs, online business is the representative of moneymaking opportunities. In their analysis, Holden et al. (2009) recommend that online business could bring much strategic advantage to traditional business, such as low cost. For example,online business need not physical store to start as the traditional business. During operating, organization could communicate with consumers on the network, which would cut the cost of communicating cost in traditional methods.

On the other hand, marketing efficiency of online business is higher than traditional business’s. Compared with traditional methods of marketing, marketing on network has far more wide audience.Also, online business has higher transaction efficiency than traditional business. Network could make commercial messages in trade to become standard, this makes it easier to process messages, and to transmit the same in short span of time across the globe. Network could expand sales of organization with unlimited space and time.

At last, online business has price advantage. Operation of online business reduced intermediate links of sales and changed the structure of the market. So that the price of products must be lower than the price of products of traditional business. E-commerce breaks through the limitations of time and space. Extended trading hours will give more opportunities for traditional enterprises to increase sales to some extent to be listed companies. E-commerce as well impact on business customers.

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E-commerce allows interactions between customers and the sellers. This enhances the relationships between these parties hence it helps in improving the quality of customer services. Customers feel a sense of care and concern if they keep intact with their sellers. Through these platforms, buyers or customers have an opportunity to enquire, ask questions, ask for clarification an even give their feedback. This wholesome situation impacts positively on this relationship. Furthermore, customers have the discretion to purchase products during any time of their convenience.

Companies nowadays provide personalized services to their customers, in accordance to their needs. They achieve this through tracking customers’ tastes and preferences and storing this information in their databases. This information is also important in helping the companies make decisions pertaining the kind of goods they need to stock and the best strategies they employ to meet the needs of the clients.

Customer and business relations improve with adoption of e-commerce. It allows real-time interactive conversations through the internet giving an opportunity to customers to contribute their views. Companies through these evaluations become aware of the market dynamics that allows them to position their products well. Through this interaction as well, it helps to improve their services, level of customer satisfaction creating positive relations that add value to the company as well as to customers.

However, online business is an immature business model with some characteristics which have negative impact to this model to be developed. Network has limitation that consumers cannot see and touch the products, which is great different from traditional shopping habit. Consumer attitudes of customers in developing areas cannot accept virtual transactions. Currently, the revenue of online business in developing countries is less than developed countries (Hoffman, 2000).

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Doing business through the internet also known as virtual transactions requires use of credit money. Customers need to have knowledge and capacity to use this form of money transactions to do business over the internet. The development of e-commerce is much advanced in the western world compared to other countries in Asia and Africa. One of the reasons for this mismatch is the wide acceptance and use of credit money as well as better market environments. The concept of credit money has as well continued to gain approval across the globe with increasing advancement and penetration for technology.

These developments will see the entire world change the way they shop. It is however, important to understand that credit money has also had some security challenges that have seen people hack into other accounts. It is therefore essential that this is looked into to ensure that all users of credit cards are secure and that can have confident in their credit cards. This is a important reason of limitation of e-commerce’s development. On the hand of law, the legal constraints in e-commerce have not yet been standardized. It requires managers to make some changes for them to adhere to the new rules and methods.

These rules are subject to changes because of the continued changes in development of technologies. Therefore, to keep abreast with the changes of this standardization, it is important to keep in mind various management concepts such as technology management, business, and service management aspects. Therefore, achieving a more satisfactory level specification in these areas simultaneously needs a long-term plan.

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Anderson (2004) considered that low demand and low sales volume of products stands a chance of gaining a competitive edge when the distribution is done through online. The level of competition in the market is likely to be mitigated with the virtual world, as this will ensure wider reach in the market place. Long tail theory, is one of the recent theories that have emerged in this modern world connected with internet networks.

Internet has contributed to increase supply and reach of goods. Stores have the capability and the opportunity to offer or sell their products through different channels. The space has been widened with the introduction of e-commerce. This trend has affected the cost of production, which has gone down. These changes have as well affected the prices of these commodities because of the low production costs. Nowadays, there are products that every person can afford.

It has also become easy to determine and reach to niche markets with developments in technology. Businesses have the capacity to provide products or services that target a particular market segment. This has as well helped in provision of high quality services and products that meet the needs of particular category of audience or customers (Kotler & Kevin, 2012). Customers have a variety of choices to make and have many options or channels to choose to shop. These changes have changed the way businesses operate and the shopping trends of customers.

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Compared with the traditional business, e-commerce is more competitive, and inclined to personalized service. Sampson describe that traditional tradesman feel pressure in the competition with online business (Sampson, 2008). In order to survive, intense competition makes ecommerce sites (companies) must be concentrated mostly on the promotion of their sites and products, to seize the market. Variety revenue model which traditional business do not have was formed gradually in the process of the enterprises to adopt various methods to promote their sites and products. Such as the revenue model is to gain membership fees from registered members.

B2B is the real domination of revenue model of e-commerce (Yuan, 2008). Alibaba is currently the world’s most successful B2B e-commerce company with this revenue model. The advantage of this revenue model is that when the organization has fixed member companies in walks of life, they must update and manage members of these companies supply and demand information simply and assist them to carry out the transaction. Organization charges membership fee from those members every year to gain tremendous benefits.

However, the drawbacks of this revenue model are that organization must do a lot of work at the beginning to attract members, and establish a fair, safe image in members’ heart. It would not be only profitable, but also need to continue to invest a lot of money at the beginning, which requires a strong capital supporting. Some companies use the revenue model is that sale their own products or services. Success of this model relies on producing the competitive products or services mainly, and using innovative marketing methods and business model.

The advantage of this model is that consumers will follow the brand and companies can occupy an important position in the market to gain huge profits after they created their own brand image. The cost of marketing would be reduced after the brand image. But the disadvantage is it is difficult in the early promotion. Especially, the companies are in the competition with other similar companies, which required stamina, endurance and lots of capital investment.

In other hand, Amazon is the successful enterprise which uses the revenue model selling others products. Its profit comes from the different price between cost and selling. The advantage of this model is it allow the website operation become simply. It only concentrates on solving the promotion of website and logistics without paying attention to the goods. The disadvantage is companies cannot control the price, quality, after-sale service.

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E-commerce is a business model which use computer networks for business activities, also is a direct product of rapid development of internet technology and WWW. The computer network is the computer technology and communication technology combining discipline is an important infrastructure development in the 21st century information age. Since 1969, the advent of ARPA network, computer network technology has been rapid development (Leiner et al., 2010).

It not only changed the way people live, learn, work and even ways of thinking, and science and technology, politics, economy and society as a whole have had a significant impact. With the development of computer network technology, growth in the economy in 21st century has received contributing from e-commerce. It has become an important indicator to measure the strength, technological level, and social information of the country. In a word, appearance of e-commerce is based on maturity of computing technology and internet. On same note, e-commerce continues to advance and develop unremittingly with development of computing technology and internet.

According to Zhu (2004) empirical analysis, e-commerce capability and Information technology relate. Computer technology has provided the platform of the development of e-commerce transactions. This means that it is impossible to have an e-commerce without computer technology. Therefore, any advancement in e-commerce cannot happen without this computer technology as the basis. Any advancement in computer technology will help improve e-commerce as well. For instance, if the computer security is guaranteed, then e-commerce is as well going to thrive and remain beneficial to the users.

The rapid development of e-commerce to promote the development of computer technology. Problems encountered in the development process of e-commerce are the power of computer technology development, and profit obtained in e-commerce activities to the development of the computer to provide a source of funding. More and more organizations communicate and exchange information between organization members such as customers, suppliers, partners and other third parties (Wilkinson, 2005).

Thereby, organizations must protect their information safety through improving computing technology.Computer technology is a prerequisite for the safe operation of e-commerce. During transaction, how to ensure the secure transmission of transaction information and other data become one of the main factors and the impact of e-commerce development and growth.

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Achieving the cooperation and sharing of information in the environment of e-commerce could make e-commerce reply the demand of market to improve the operation efficiency of supply chain (Enarsson, 2009). E-commerce and supply chain management are in fact from one manufacturer to the end user’s value-added process. E-commerce operates as a virtual supply chain that functions courtesy of the available computer network technology. Therefore, value is gained through its supply chain management concept.

This chain allows or make supply chain operations to maximize and minimize costs, the process from procurement to delivery are efficient operation. E-commerce linked independent business processes on the supply chain to become adhesive of supply chain.The impact of e-commerce on supply chain are impact on supply chain structure. Traditional supply chain is complicated and its value does not match that of the e-commerce.

The traditional chain has various levels or hierarchies that make the process of making decisions tedious. It also contributes to duplication and complexities in the operations. Other disadvantages of this traditional multi level chain are that it   contributed to increased costs, it is also slow, and has no agility compared to e-commerce supply chain.

After the emergence of electronic commerce, the development of a product by the manufacturer, the raw material supplier, retailer, etc., many businesses constitute the supply chain network (supply chain network structure). Secondly, the impact is on supply chain operations. Technology advancement especially with e-commerce and network technology, businesses have managed to connect with their customers easily compared to traditional mode of operations. In the traditional mode, only few key product and serve need to rely on single or few suppliers.

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E-commerce has enabled companies to have the discretion of choosing specific products from different suppliers that provide better selling terms. This has impacted positively on the competitive of this suppliers contributing to increased quality and efficiency. It has also helped to achieve synchronizing of both electrical supply chains with other kinds of supply chain impacting on operations. Clearly, e-commerce compared to traditional commerce has a great advantage.

In traditional commerce, business experience stiff competition at the market level and it is very difficult to plan and to forecast their demands (Misre & Khan, 2010). Enterprises could utilize the system of supply chain management e-commerce built to connect the manufacturers, suppliers, vendors, customers together to enable them get most useful marketing information on the appropriate time. Thus reduces the circulation greatly, reduces costs, and helps to improve management levels, levels of efficiency and effectiveness.  


The history of e-commerce is less than 30 years, which is enough to prove that it is a new business model with a rapid development. According to Al-Qirim & Nabeel, as a phenomenon, e-commerce’sstatus has been prominent in SME (Al-Qirim&Nabeel, 2006). During its growth, there are some problems to be solved. Though the negative effect that network brings is unescapable, organizations could choose appropriate model to exert e-commerce’s advantages.

Developments in technology have contributed to developments of e-commerce implying that e-commerce can only function when the computer technology is available. On contrary, e-commerce has positive effect to supply chain. Those effects made the competitive of supply chain management prominent. In a word, e-commerce caused some shock on traditional business, but enterprises could gain more profit through using the model that online sales and offline sales simultaneously.


Al-Qirim&Nabeel A. Y. (2006). Global electronic business research: Opportunities and directions. Hershey: London doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-642-6

Anderson, C. (2004). The Long Tail. New York: Hyperion.

Enarsson, L. (2009). What do we really mean by supply chain management? Retrieved from   

Hoffman, T. (2000). UN: Global e-Commerce challenges abound. Computerworld, 34(28). 12–14.

Holden, G., Belew, S., Elad, J., Rich, J.R. (2009). E-Business.Chichester, New York: John Wiley.

Holden, G., Belew, S., Elad, J., Rich, J.R. (2009). E-Business.Chichester, New York: John Wiley.

Kotler, P., Kevin Lane, K. (2012). Marketing management. (14th ed.) London:Pearson.

Leiner, B.M., Cerf, V.G., Clark, D.D., Kahn, R.E., Kleinrock, L., Lynch,D.C., Postel, J., Roberts, L.G., Wolff, S. (2010). Brief History of the Internet. Retrieved from

Misre, V., Khan, M.I. (2010). Supply Chain Management Systems: Architecture, Design and Vision. Journal of Strategic Innovation and Sustainability vol. 6(4), 102-108.

Sampson, G. (2008). Electronic business (2nd.). Swindon: British Computer Society.

Shelly, G., & Aileen, C. (2008). Electronic commerce: concepts, methodologies, tools and applications. Retrieved from–Commerce&

Wilkinson,P (2005). Construction collaboration technologies: An extranet evolution. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis.

Yan, T. (2008). History of E-commerce. In Shelly, G., Aileen, C., Electronic commerce: concepts, methodologies, tools and applications. (pp.1-8).

Zhu, K. (2004). Journal of Management Information Systems.: The Complementarity of Information Technology Infrastructure and E-Commerce Capability: A Resource-Based Assessment of Their Business Value. Vol. 21 Issue 1, 167-202.

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New market entry

New market entry
New market entry

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New market entry

Next plc is a leading British manufacturer and seller of products ranging from clothing, footwear, and other home products. Within the past years, it has realized a very big increase in sales. This is as a result of its massive marketing strategies. Despite this increase in profits, Next plc has not achieved an optimum returns scale. It still needs to come up with a strategy of expansion to increase its markets internationally so as to increase its sales. The main foster behind this is the increased competition from other manufacturers in the same line of business.

However, Next’s operations have faced challenges in the recent past, and it has faced criticism over alleges of breaking consumer protection regulations resulting from customer billings even if the products were returned a week earlier. This report seeks to analyze the market potential of Next plc including its adaptation to entry into international markets. It further identifies possible markets for expansion. As a result of the impressive results, Next plc has resorted to increasing its full prices and impress net sales gain compared to other companies embracing discounting. Its online sales have increased due to the brand and thus, trusted in UK fashion brands.

Macro factors affecting retail markets

The business has less impact itself on these factors and thus, a minimal impact when trying to change them. One of a key factor here affecting Next plc is consumer behavior. These include consumer cultures, lifestyles, norms, population changes and other demographic factors. Given that the company deals in the clothing business, it needs the company to create styles that are appealing to all different cultures.

Contrary to this, the manufacturer may ignore creating a fashion that existed let’s say 100 years ago. A growing population may also demand a different fashion compared to a young population (Fall Diallo, et’ al.,2013). Another macro factor is technology. Next anticipates reaching a large target population through online sales. Unavailability of resources and low demand and production is a derailing factor (Lusch et’ al., 2015).

There could be the scarcity of an essential material such as leather while their highs demand from a certain market. A competitor, for example, Primark clothing, can introduce a product thus shifting demand for the product thus reducing sales at Next plc. It is recommended that massive online marketing is carried out targeting customers.

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Legal and political factors can also impact sales in the retail market. These factors include worker’s rights and laws preventing child labor. The union members within the clothing industry may decide to picket their employers as the case of Primark. This may also affect Next plc. This negatively impacts production and thus a decline in sales. This causes negative publicity because employees may also choose to picket suppliers and customers.

Economic factors also affect the retail market (Russo et’ al.,2012).  They both may bring out positive or negative results. An example is during the economic boom where customers have much income at their disposal hence an increase in sales. However, recessions may bring a negative effect due to the low sales. Consumers normally choose to shop on cheap products and as for Next plc, it sales fashion clothes.

Micro factors affecting retail markets

These factors affect the business operations directly. One of a key factor here is the suppliers. Suppliers play a key role in the success of the business. Their supplies are useful in the production of a final product. Thus, they should be accorded the power to be the sole supplier to prevent counter supplies. A new market may lack certain supplies thus making penetration harder.

The resellers also play a key role in the market. Identifying an effective reseller brings a challenge to the new business (Russo et’ al.,2012). These can be intermediaries in the market and resellers who if their reputation is good, and their net sales will increase due to the good public image. Next plc is planning to expand its markets and achieving this can be facilitated by the use of mock-marketing where resellers are identified, and evaluation of net sales carried out.

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The customers determine the market strategies. International customers should not be treated the same way as local customers. Their reasons for buying Next’s products play a major role in marketing the products. The general public must be satisfied by the product. Any action of the company must be analyzed on how it might affect the public. These results from the fact that the public has the power in helping the company reach its goals. A satisfied public will assist in the marketing of a product (Lusch et’ al., 2015).

Because the targeted marketing strategy is online sales through the internet, the followers of the brand will share the strategy. The competitors are an internal factor impacting the retail market too. An example of the competitors is Primark Company. They sell similar products but have many outlet stores across the world. Therefore, the impact of price and product differentiation should be taken into account so as to outplay the competitors.

Effective market potential evaluation

When evaluating an effective market, several factors need to be put into consideration. One of the approaches used is an approach is to estimate demand in the market. This is normally based on the population size. This can be achieved by predicting the market potential by either population or their purchasing power (Hu, et’ al.,2015). However, a developing economy can change rapidly over time.

The understanding of these new markets requires learning the variation in the structure of the economy and its performance in the past. There could also be changes in the business environment. This can be approached comprehensively thus needed in making a meaningful assessment of the potential of a market now and in the future (Goworek, et’ al.,2012).

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It is recommended that various markets which include China, The United States, Italy, South Africa and Switzerland be considered for expansion. However, changes in recent economic structures should not have caused a tremendous impact on their economic performance (Schneider, et’ al.,2014, January). Spectrum approach to the study of policies can be used and the market opportunities available. Also, their market potential was evaluated describing the specific geographic areas to serve in. The market share revenue of these identified markets are seemingly high and thus expected returns are higher with a leading potential market identified.

Recommended markets

The United States market

The US advantage in per capita output, apparently in the recent years, can be attributed to its large domestic market. Despite the decline in mall traffic in the US clothing sector, it sets up a good market potential for entry. The US’s disposable income and consumer sentiment are increasingly on the rise hence driving in an increased for high-end products carried by international companies. The industry’s growth expectation is to increase in the next five years facilitated by the rise in high-income households. The current players in the market give less of discounts and have not invested much in online sales thus giving Next plc a great go-through.

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Furthermore, the cost of capital that is associated with establishing clothing stores is relatively low, and the only barrier that can reduce entry is brand awareness and competition. The challenge in the US market is that existing players have already established their brand names, and thus Next plc might need to invest their money and time to sway consumers into preceding other products and buying their products as per Odell, J. S. (2014).

The US marketing is cost effective because of the improved technology and thus, minimal time is wasted in marketing the new product. Next plc has a unique blend of fashions for children, women and men. This makes it easy to make shopping within one stall. It is proposed that Next plc opens a store in two states of America. These will act as the supply center to other sub stores and online orders.

There are very few legal requirements for the entry into US market and thus making it less costly for Next plc. The US has an extremely large population that creates a very large market for these goods. The unique blend of fashion from Next plc is sure to win the US market over a short period. It is therefore proposed that the US be chosen for expansion.


Despite the harsh climatic conditions of the economy in European countries, the United States, and Africa, China’s economy has been growing over the past few years. By the year 2020, China is expected to be the largest economy in the world. China has a large demography, increased consumer spending and rising incomes. Also, the business environment here is open thus making it attractive for investment. It is proposed that Next plc opens a branch in the main cities of China that are economic blocks.

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With a population that exceeds 1.3 billion people, it presents a good market for cloth, footwear, and household goods. Although China is a leading foreign seller, it mainly deals with machinery products and thus should not be viewed as a hard to enter the market. China’s consumers spend most of their incomes on food and clothing (Hu, et’ al.,2015). This brings in an opportunity to present the fashion by Next plc. China’s regulations do not limit the operation of a clothing business.

It, however, has regulations on industrial and mechanical practices. With the increased Chinese technology, Next’s online sales will be easily accessible. It is proposed that after an entry into the market, a massive online advertisement is carried out. The investment in tier towns of China will facilitate this.

The Chinese government is focused on rapid economic growth, and the presence of a gap in the clothing sector presents an opportunity to Next Plc to carry out business. The huge population will present a good market. It is proposed that a trial store is opened in one of the tier cities of China. The expansion plan will start from one of these cities before expanding the business to other parts of the country.

Justified market entry strategies

When entering the proposed international markets, it is proposed that Next plc uses a variety of entry strategies. Direct entry strategies can be adopted whereby the products are sold directly to the buyers in the target markets. Achievement of this can be through the use of local sales distributors or representatives who may choose to sell the products by not taking the title to the merchandise.

Indirect strategies involve the use of intermediaries such as trading companies or trade agents. They will in turn be paid in commission. This strategy is most applicable where the agent has a clear knowledge of the market due to its complexity (Johnson, et’ al.,2013). The agents will be required to gather market information and provide any promotional advice to Next Plc. This will simplify the entry and the risks associated with exporting.

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An overseas company can also be selected to own permission of sales through licensing. This can be through patents, designs, and brand names. This helps reduce the appearance of Next’s products on the black market. Next plc can also come up with strategic alliances with an international business dealing with the same line of business. It is proposed that the strategic alliance is carried out for a short period until it is fully adapted to the new market. Also, joint ventures can play a key role.

A business with the same objectives is chosen to enhance easy expansion and make it possible to enter a complex market like the Chinese market. A wholly owned subsidiary can be opened in the proposed markets as per Majaro, S. (2013). It will be controlled directly by the mother company through foreign direct investment. A new investment store can be purchased or rented in the new country. However, the cost can be higher because of the substantial costs involved.

Export processing zones can work well in some markets. It is proposed that it will form an investment incentive while creating employment thus, transfers of skills. This provides a base for transfer of skills thus providing a line for transfer of goods in and out of a country as per De Mooij, M. (2013). These market entry strategies need to be weighted so as to come up with alternatives that will best suit Next plc. Every approach should pay attention to marketing, the risks involved and the control and management available. A matrix of the entry strategy can be drawn so as to choose the best approach

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Adaptation of Next’s marketing mixes to the new markets

In the face of the increasing importance of an international market for many businesses to survive and increase profitability, several factors such as economies of scale and competitive strike are key areas of concern. The marketing mix concept is a key area of concern in international marketing and penetration (Cavusgil, et’ al.,2014). This helps the Next plc’s products to adapt and suit the country they are carrying out their business. Having had a thorough understanding of the global markets, the promotion strategies need to be defined and analyzed if a change is needed. Next plc is adapted to the new market in its marketing mix as illustrated below.

Product support: Next plc has a good product support and helpline for assisting its customers. This helps in critical areas like product sourcing. The company’s existing products match the markets due to their new product development. Next plc has a product testing and management department where products are tested to match the international markets. The unique labeling, packaging, and production control put Next plc at a forefront.

Price support: prices from a key factor because most of the competing businesses depend on it to win customers. Next plc has well-established prices to suit all classes of customers. Discounts should be given to loyal customers in the new market. The price lists are nearly constant thus improving customer trust. The customers and agents are provided with training on the use of products thus easy penetration to a new market.

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Promotion/selling support: Next plc has invested on promotional strategies making new market entry easy. Through their sophisticated advertising machinery and sales force, the company can reach out to the targeted customers in the new market over a short period. Product promotion helps the product gain knowledge from the new customers. New markets such as China require massive advertisement.

Inventory support: Next plc has a well-established inventory control system. Inventory management forms the basis for controlling the level of production of the company. The large number of stores and warehouses of Next plc gives it a nice stand. The supply procedure is easy, and one can make online orders.

Distribution support: Next plc provides distribution support to its customers through various ways. There is fund provision to agents and orders are also processed within a short time. This means that order delivery is timely thus winning the customers in the new market. There are a fast export preparation and documentation. It also provides insurance to a product purchased by a customer that is rare among competitors.

Service support: Next plc provides a range of services to its customers. The services that will contribute to easy entry to the market vary depending on customer needs. Next plc processes quote within a short time. After-sales service is offered to customers, which is a rare ingredient between many competitors. There are guarantees and warranties that cover any sales thus improving customer trust. Next plc always publishes sales reports and catalogs to be distributed citing the good performance of the company. This helps in publicity and improving the company image.

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Therefore, before designing any international marketing mix of the business, Next plc should design an analysis of every country they would like to open or start the business. This helps in determining the items that are to be included in the marketing mix. The ones to be standardized and those to be adjusted to suit local needs are analyzed. Every country may need its different marketing mix.

It is, therefore, proposed that Next plc used both online presences for marketing in the new markets and built a store or stores for presence. This helps facilitates the process of supply of goods to the customers. Next plc can achieve its projected anticipated increase in their profits and market if they adopt this report. It is proposed that some parts of this report may need amendments over time.

However, it is upon the management to consider following the guidelines herein. The SWOT analysis of Next plc puts it in a greater position of becoming a leading clothes seller both locally and in the global market. It is proposed that due to Next plc’s market potential, it will easily adapt to the new business and expect less competition. The sales procedure and the marketing plus supply affectivity of Next plc will help in winning large international markets. The customers can make purchase and payments online with instant delivery.


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