Sustainable food and agriculture: Is it Possible?

Sustainable food and agriculture
Sustainable food and agriculture

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Sustainable food and agriculture: Is it Possible?

Sustainable food and agriculture: Is it Possible?

To be sustainable, agriculture must meet the needs of present and future generations, while ensuring profitability, environmental health, and social and economic equity. Sustainable food & agriculture (SFA) contributes to all four pillars of food security – availability, access, utilization and stability – and the dimensions of sustainability (environmental, social and economic).

Food and agriculture production systems worldwide are facing unprecedented challenges from an increasing demand for food for a growing population, rising hunger and malnutrition, adverse climate change effects, overexploitation of natural resources, loss of biodiversity, and food loss and waste.

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Food Diary Project

Food Diary
Food Diary

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Food Diary.

Please answer the following questions. (10 points – 5 questions – each is worth 2 points).
There should be a minimum of five sentences for each response.

1. Were you surprised at how much sodium you consumed with each meal or was it just what you expected? What foods contributed the most sodium to your meals? Does the amount of sodium affect your choice of foods?

When I first input my food and numbers I was very surprised at how much sodium I take in, but when you first sign up it gives you estimates of how much each nutrient you are supposed to take in so even at the sight of my intake value I was surprised. My protein shake, cereal and even water surprised seeing that they were high in sodium. I currently take the Herbalife Protein Shake and eat Post Cereal Honey Bunches of Oats and they both are extremely high in Sodium.

I was trying to implement low sodium intake but it seems I failed at that. Seeing I did this assignment as soon as I got it, I can see a big difference in how I eat now, and understand more about Nutrition. Yes now the amount of sodium is taken in account for a numbers of foods that I consume. I have cut back on a lot but since I work out I still need quite a bit of sodium in my diet.

Food Diary

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2. Identify the nutrients that you exceeded MyFitnessPal’s suggested daily values. Identify the nutrients

: In my numbers chart I’ve colored coded everything. All the green numbers symbolize I was right on track, red numbers mean I was at least ten over from my goal of that day, and light blue means I need more of it. I exceeded the following nutrients: Calories, Carbs, Vitamin C and Sodium. Of course the worse out of the group was sodium then the second was calories. My intake for Calories was set at 2,100 a day, day 3 I exceeded that by 400.

That was what I call a cheat day. Sodium of course as I stated before but the one that amazed me was Vitamin C. My daily limit for Vitamin C was 100, in which my lowest intake was 145 and highest was 307; I couldn’t believe that was a big negative as I thought you couldn’t get more than enough Vitamins in your body. MyFitnessPal proved that to not be true.  The nutrients I needed more of would be Protein, Calcium and Fiber.

The on that shocked me on this was the Protein seeing that MyFitnessPal allotted me 105 of Protein for my daily goal and I did not reach it on either day. The closet I got for my goal was 92 that was on the second day and did not get any closer. I see that I eat more Carbs than anything, I guess that balances out with my work out routine.

Food Diary

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3. Do you think a Food Diary is a useful tool for helping a person meet their personal dietary goals?

I would say yes this is a useful but yet not convenient tool see to the fact that most foods listed are not verified, it can help in a way of keeping a log but it would be more up to you to keep the exact amount of the item and verify the contents with the nutrition label. They have some verified items but I feel the system could be fine-tuned. Other than that I think this application would be a great tool to use and keep track of your eating habits along with your workout plans. This tool to me is like motivational technology but encouraged and produced by you.

This app can give insight in to what you need more and or less of at the same time calculate your workouts into your eating habits. Also this app helps you set realistic goals in timeframes. I kept my time frame at five weeks and for the three days every time I completed an entry it would keep me updated on my weight progress. If you are serious about maintaining a healthy lifestyle and eating right I say yes this app will help you achieve those goals.

Food Diary

4. What did you like and dislike about MyFitnessPal

MyFitnessPal is a very easy accessible tool that you can have on any device. It is good at good track of the food you eat and it even saves it once you put it in for the first time making it so much easier the next time you eat the same thing to just select from your previous items. I also grew interested in how it keeps track of your weight lost and if you gained any while using the app, the only reason I know that because my wife fell in love with the app when I showed her what I was doing for class. She uses it to keep track with her current workout and eating plan, the famous 21 Day Fix.

I also like how it shows you what nutrients you eat too much of and which one you need more of. I don’t like the fact that it doesn’t have enough space to list all the nutrients at once or even an easier way to changeover to see the other nutrients. That is the only thing I dislike about the program, other than that once you learn your way through to operate it, it is self-explanatory and is good for given a breakdown of what is in store for you.

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5. Describe your experience with use a Food Diary for three days (Did you record what you ate or drank immediately using a pen and paper, Smart Phone, iPad, or a laptop? Do you think you could maintain an accurate food diary for a week, a month, three months? Explain your answer.

The Food Diary was awesome, I kept track mostly on my smartphone seeing that I am always on the go. Anytime I ate or drank something I recorded on my phone. It was easy to keep track of everything that way, once I got home I would log into MyFitnessPal on my laptop just to see if everything was correct and it was exactly what I typed. I could keep track for a month probably because after that I will probably be eating the same or at least have a better hold over what I eat and drink.

I would also like the fact that it would help with my workout plan. I haven’t keep track but only for a week dealing with this project but my wife has been tracking everything with this app for over a month now and she loves it. I see that after a while you could lose interest in plugging everything into this program because it becomes repetitive, but if I needed it I know it is a good tool to get me back on track.

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Food Intake Analysis Project

Food Intake Analysis
Food Intake Analysis

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Food Intake Analysis

This week you will complete your second food diary project. Keep a 3 day food diary, input your foods into “SuperTracker” on the website.
This food diary will look at vitamins and minerals in your diet. Have FUN with this assignment! It is a lot of work, but you will learn a lot about what you eat. Early in my career, we had to do our calculations by hand, it is much easier now! This project is similar to your Food Diary #1, but instead of calories, fiber and macronutrients, we will analyze the micronutrients: vitamins and minerals.

Food Intake Analysis


1. Keep a DETAILED food record for 3 full days, you will write down everything and how much you eat and drink.2. Please save and submit in .doc, .docx or .xl format3. Input and analyze your food diary with the ChooseMyPlate website (SuperTracker), you may use another website for food analysis if you prefer, if so you must use citations.4. Submit in your assignment folder: your food diary for each day plus your daily totals and 3 day average (total the 3 days, divide by 3).

Mandatory nutrients are vitamins A & C and minerals calcium & potassium. To personalize this, you get to choose 4 other nutrients (2 vitamins, 2 minerals) to analyze in your diet, explain WHY you chose these nutrients. Please use a spreadsheet or table format, there is an example attached.5. Write a summary: based on your daily averages, please summarize your 3 day average for vitamins A & C, calcium, potassium plus the 4 other nutrients that you chose (2 vitamins, 2 minerals) a total of 8 micronutrients. How does this compare to recommendations?

This assignment must include all components for full credit: detailed food diary in a word .doc table or .xl spreadsheet ; analysis and summary for 4 mandatory vitamins/minerals plus 4 of your choice (8 total). Each day’s recording/analysis 25 points each, summary 25 points. (3 x 25 points = 75 points; summary 25 points; total 100 points).

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Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

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Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

What is GMOs and its purpose?

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are organisms whose genes have been modified through addition of a gene that enables the genetically engineered crops express the specific desirable trait. The main aim of genetic engineering of organisms is to improve the nutritional qualities of an organism (Bratspies, n.d.).

For instance, several crops have been engineered to make them resistant to herbicides, become tolerant to extreme environments such as droughts, or add the nutritional value of an organism. The general goal or objective is to make the yield of the plant or animal increase; and to make the products desirable to producers as well as the consumers (World Health Organization, 2013).

How Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are created?

 The key steps in creating GMOs include the identification of key steps, specific trait isolation, insertion of the isolated trait into the organism, and organism propagation. Research continues to identify new methods to manipulate the organism’s genes; the most common method that has been used is using bacterial phage’s to insert new genome into the host genome where it is expressed. This has been done successfully for example, in maize using Baccillus thuringiensis. The current genetic engineering methods involve editing of the genome directly (Perry, n.d.)

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Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) foods in the supermarket

The USA is the leader of producing GMOs, which accounts for at least 66% of the GMOs globally. According to Centre for Food Safety, approximately70% of the foods reaches the supermarkets. These include soybean, corn, canola, sugar beet, alfalfa, aspartame, dairy products, papaya, and squash. Approximately, 70% of products made from these substances are GMOs derivatives.

Importantly, the livestock reared for their by-products such as cattle, sheep, poultry and swine have not been genetically engineered, nor are they going to be any time soon. However, GMOs play a huge role in the animal feeds as well as during the processing of these animals by products. The animals that have been genetically engineered for pharmaceutical by products (insulin in sheep) are not approved to be used as food (World Health Organization, 2013).

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Safety issues for Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) food

The issue of GMOs safety is highly controversial. Some people perceive GMOs as health threats whereas some food regulatory bodies (U.S. Department of Agriculture) deem GMOs food as safe. There are few studies that have highlighted potential risks of GMOs to human health, farmers, and the environment as a whole. This includes allergic response to some proteins in GMOs food.

Other risks that have been reported by other research include risks of outcrossing for plants (environmental issue), modification of major organs, infertility, immunological response and faulty regulation of insulin. However, most of these studies have been inconclusive- an area in research that needs more exploration (Centre for Food Safety, 2015).

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  Altogether, it is vital to note that there are national and international authorities established whose role is to solely assess the GMOs food rigorously before they are approved for commercialization.  These agencies focuses on the safety of GM foods by conducting toxicity tests to identify a) immediate, b) allergenicity, c) stability of the modified genome and the gene inserted, d) nutritional changes and effects associated with the modification, and e) any other unprecedented effects. The GMOs food in our supermarket shelf has met the standard criteria of the tests; thus, are less likely to cause harm (World Health Organization, 2013).

 Additionally, the benefits of GMOs outweigh the risks. The benefits includes increased savings through reduction of costs involved during planting and harvesting of the food; reduced cost of production results to low retail of the product. The benefits of nutrition improvement are evidenced in crops such as the golden rice which contains the iron and beta-carotene and insulin producing potatoes. These plants species have not been approved yet, but the research is still underway to increase the productivity as well as the efficiencies of the crop. If biotechnology is embraced, one can only imagine the potential health improvements that will be attained (Centre for Food Safety, 2015).  

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Regulation of Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

In the USA, GMOs laws involve three regulatory agencies including, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)).  The USDA responsibility is to ensure that the GMOs pose no threats to the health of the plants and the animals.  Therefore, the GMOs researchers and developers are expected to apply for permit to address these potential risks. The EPA has a major role in the regulation of GMOs, especially those that have pesticide genomes (Centre for Food Safety, 2015).

The agencies set regulations such as the acceptable levels of the pesticide. The developers are expected to describe the short term and long term pesticide consequences on the livestock, human, and the environment. In human health, FDA carries the largest role as it is mandated to regulate the safety of the GMOs consumed by the people. FDA ensures that the GMOs foods are not toxic or allergenic (Centre for Food Safety, 2015).

The main issue that needs to be regulated includes the labelling of the GMOs food or products derived from these food products.  This will ensure that only safe GMOs is allowed to be commercialized, and must be clearly labelled to ensure that consumers ethical right of autonomy is sustained (World Health Organization, 2013).

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Bratspies, R. The Illusion of Care: Regulation, Uncertainty, and Genetically Modified Food Crops. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Centre for Food Safety. (2015). About genetically engineered foods. Retrieved from

Perry, M. Genetically Modified Organisms: Why We Need a Transparent System of Regulation. SSRN Electronic Journal.

World Health Organization. (2013). Frequently asked questions on genetically modified food. Retrieved from

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Calorie Information: Business and Government Regulations

Calorie Information
Calorie Information

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Calorie Information

Are restaurants where you live required to provide visible calorie information under current regulations? Should restaurants provide calorie and nutrition information before they are required to do so by law? Do you think calorie information will change people’s health practices?

Under the current law, restaurants in my neighborhoods are required to provide clear calorie information. This is because the new regulations are applicable not only to restaurants but also casual dining entities. In addition, the regulations apply to non-conventional establishments including bakeries, convenience stores, malls, and groceries that specialize in selling food.

The current law also applies to goods sold in vending machines as such require clear calorie information. In fact, restaurants where I live are required to clearly and display nutrition details on their menus including drive-through areas and individual food items. While these restaurants are required to maintain a 2,000 calorie as a platform for health advice, each person calorie requirements may differ (Rosenbloom, 2010). 

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In restaurants, detailed calorie information should be made available to all patrons. They also have the right to access calorie information whenever they deem fit. Owing to the fact that US citizens consume approximately one third of calories daily from foods prepared in other places, restaurants should also provide nutritional as well as calorie information firsthand as requested by the law.

For that reason, making such information available on restaurants’ menus will enable people to choose health diets. Food and drug authority (FDA) final regulation on nutrition labeling in restaurants will change people health practices, since they will get consistent and clear nutritional details of food prepared away from home (, 2015).

Providing calorie on menus will fill important gap while assisting people to make suitable and healthy nutritional practices. Research demonstrates that people tend to consume less calories when information is provided on menus. With this, consumers stand to benefit from essential nutrition content hence making healthier food alternatives that may reverse the trend of increasing obesity in US.

References (2015). Overview of FDA Labeling Requirements for Restaurants, Similar Retail Food Establishments and Vending Machines. Accessed on 3rd March. 2016 at

Rosenbloom S. (2010). Calorie Data to Be Posted at Most Chains. Accessed on 3rd March. 2016 at

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Nutrition Assessment of Geriatric Patients


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Careful assessment of the patient is essential for the development and the successful diagnosis of the comprehensive treatment plans for the many nutrition issues. The geriatric patient’s assessment will be carried out using the Lawton instrument activities of daily living (IADL scale).The 75-year-old female patient presents some problems. The following activities preparation of food, handling medications, handling of cooking items such as gas and stove.

Using transportation and movement ability is also assessed using the IADL scale (Nykanen et al, 2012). The scores for the patient read lowest values as been 3 and highest to be six which implies poor physical and cognitive functioning (Naseer et al, 2015).

The patient is malnutrition thus has lost a lot of weight. The patient is independent in her activities of daily living, and the poor functioning has impacted the nutrition and hydration of the patient causing malnutrition (Nykanen et al, 2012). The patient experiences the low oral intake due to mild cognitive impairment to prepare meals and carry out other functions as assessed using the IADL scale (Graf, 2013).

The patient suffers from the coronary artery disease thus is at risk of also having the stroke medical condition. The patient has some dietary needs that have contributed to the malnourishment and also the high risk of developing the coronary artery medical condition.

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Vitamin deficiencies such as folate, vitamin B6 and B12 lacks in her diet (Graf, 2013). These deficiencies are associated with the cognitive inability of the patient. The vascular functioning of the patient is affected by the lack of these vitamins, thus causing malnutrition (Naseer et al, 2015).The patient is currently not attempting for any of the medical issues since the ability to handling medication has also been a major problem for the independent geriatric patient (Naseer et al, 2015).

The nutrition problem presented during the assessment of the patient can be solved through the supplementation using the B12 and B6 vitamins for the patient. Provision of a care giver for the patient will also reduce the high rate of independence. The elderly patient’s oral intake improves when there is the person to help in preparation of the meals and also carrying out other activities(Nykanen et al,2012).A diet with low fats contributes to eliminating the vascular risk factors. Nutrition intervention after the assessment of the patient improves the quality of life.


Graf, C. (2013). The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Scale. Try this: Best Practices in Nursing Care to Older Adults.

Naseer, M., Forssell, H., & Fagerström, C. (2015). Malnutrition, functional ability and mortality among older people aged ⩾ 60 years: a 7-year longitudinal study. European journal of clinical nutrition.

Nykänen, I., Lönnroos, E., Kautiainen, H., Sulkava, R., & Hartikainen, S. (2012). Nutritional screening in a population-based cohort of community-dwelling older people. The European Journal of Public Health, cks026.

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OBESITY: Community Health and Population focused Nursing


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OBESITY: Community Health and Population focused Nursing

Identify a community for which there is data available that will support the diagnosis

  The county is located in Pennsyltucky-in the northern region of the State. The region is mountainous and is characterized by stone mining industry. The region experiences warm and humid summer and heavy instant snow falls during winter. The region lies in York County. The region has diverse ethnic community owing to the large immigration of people from Gotham city.  The community assessed was my county state which was among was one of the hardest hit by the 1919 influenza pandemic.  Since then, the State has established adequate measures to ensure that such incidences do not occur again.

 The main non-communicable health problem identified in this region is obesity.  Obesity has serious consequences on the residents of this county’s health as well as the economy. This is because obesity is associated with a number of chronic health complications such as stroke, diabetes, cancer, and coronary heart disease. In the USA, obesity accounts for 147 billion dollars of the total health cost. Most people in this county are have adopted unhealthy lifestyles such as poor diet and physical inactiveness (CDC, 2016).

B. Health needs assessments

Population Economic Status

 The demographic data released by the Census Bureau in, York County has a population of 438,052.  The county reports 0.7% of the population change.  The population density is estimated to be 484 per square meter. The median age is reported to be 40.6. Approximately, 70% of the populations are in the family. The unemployed in this region is about 4.7%. The employment growth rate is less than 1%.  The income per capita in this community is estimated to be $ 27,996 (York County PA, 2016). 

Disaster Assessment and Planning

 The County is prepared for management of disasters. The York County office of Emergency Management (EOM) is responsible for the Emergency management program. The mission of the office is to protect the community by integrating necessary activities that sustain and improve their ability to mitigate, prepare and respond to the threatened natural disasters they ensure that the community are notified of emergency situation (York County PA, 2016). 

Neighborhood/Community Safety Inventory

 The main risk of concern of the County is caves and sinkholes and the severe winters which make it not favorable for the outdoor activities (York County PA, 2016). 

Cultural Assessment

 The culture and history of this county is unmatched in the country. The area is neighbored by super historic sites with an impressive ethnic population.  The big cities in the county comprises of Italian, Irish, Chines among other immigrant communities. This is complemented by the rural lifestyles where most of the people in the mix of Amish which adds wild austerity to the culture (York County PA, 2016). 

Windshield Survey

 The homes are mainly detached and well maintained. The in-town homes yards are smaller as compared to township hopes. The roads are generally is in good condition to serve the business in the region.  The main health concerns are that some roads are busier which an issue for physical activities such as cycling and walking along the path. This is due to the inadequate maintenance of the pedestrian paths, which can be used by the community to walk or cycle to their work places.

There are also high reports of injuries associated with car accidents.  The parks are poorly maintained and I noticed several sink holes that have not been covered. This is makes it difficult for the residents to engage in outdoor activities.  In addition, there are fewer green grocery shops. Therefore, most of the residents rely on fast foods because they are cheap and easily available. There is a big contrast of York County, Pa when compared with the neighboring counties as they have a nice climate and environment place to work and live.


 The following six facilities were explored, Health department, YMCA,  Fire department,  American Red Cross, National Alliance on Mental illness, and community Center.  The public health departments include Health department. This organizations target the residents of York County Community. The facilities advertise themselves through public facilities such as health centers and educational facilities. The main barriers observed are inadequate medical cover and Language barriers.

There is no service fee as these services are funded by the Local government. The staffs in these facilities are welcoming and very respectful. They are always ready to help. The main issue I observed is language barrier. Only few of the staff could speak other languages fluently, which makes it difficult for them to communicate with Non- English speaking residents. The organizations operate in both referrals and self-referrals process. The organization has details in internet and any person can access information from any location (Health York County, 2015).

  American Red Cross this organizations target the residents of Central Pennsylvania. It serves 22 counties including the York County Community. The facilities advertise themselves through public facilities and the internet.   It offers relief during pandemic and also facilitates blood donation processes. There are no barriers I observed in this organization as it helps every person of the society.

This organization obtains its funds from the Federal government.  It is actively involved during natural disasters of disease pandemic. In fact, the organization responded to 520 disasters in the Central Pennsylvania region, where it helped 803 local families who had been affected by disaster.  There is no service fee required for one to obtain help from this organization as it is funded by government and international bodies.  Most of the staff I interacted with were respectful and had positive attitude.

In addition, the organization has five staff members who could speak other languages fluently, which makes it easy for them to communicate with Non- English speaking residents during disaster. The organizations operate in both referrals and self-referrals process. The organization has all contact details in internet (its website) and any person can access information from any location (Health York County, 2015).

NAMI York County branch offers support to people with mental illness in York County.  The group offers support connection group that meets weekly and monthly. They also offer peer to peer and family to family education program that focusses on wellness, recovery and mental health. The facilities advertise themselves through public facilities such as health centers and educational facilities. The main barriers observed low awareness of the program in the community.

According to the director, most people in this community will not bring their loved ones to the organization because they fear discrimination. There is no service fee as these services are funded by the Local government, yet only a small fraction of the community enjoys the services. The staffs in these facilities are understanding, respectful and are always willing to help. Only few of the staff could speak other languages fluently, which makes it difficult for them to communicate with Non- English speaking residents or the deaf and dump. The organizations operate in both referrals and self-referrals process (Health York County, 2015).

 The YMCA organizations target the residents of York County Community.  This program offers health and fitness knowledge. The organizations operate in both referrals and self-referrals process. The organization works with people of all interests, abilities and ages.  The organization tailors the programs content to suit the client needs. The facilities advertise themselves through its website.

The main barriers observed are that the organization charges $30-$49 for membership. This implies that large fractions of the population are locked out from experiencing these services. Language barriers are also an issue. Only few of the staff could speak other languages fluently, which makes it difficult for them to communicate with Non- English speaking residents. The staffs in these facilities are respectful, but tend to favor members from high income household.

Fire department provides professional, effective and courteous emergency response in order to protect the lives of York County residents as well as their visitors. The organization takes every effort to reduce the risk of the people residing in the community by preventing fire incidences through education and risk assessment of fire investigation. The department comprises of 56 personnel, one civilian employee and over 45 volunteers. There is no membership fee as it is funded by the federal government. The organization works mainly through referrals and self-referrals (Health York County, 2015).

 Community center main role is health promotion of the York county residents. They do so by promoting various activities that people learn more about physical activity and good nutrition. They organize school based tournament and cultural weeks from which the community actively participate. However, only few community centers are operational so far. For this reason, most people in the rural areas rely on alternative medicines, and pregnant mothers deliver with the assistance of the house wives (Health York County, 2015).

Provide a logical interpretation of the collected data using concepts of epidemiology

 York County is one of the most obese counties in the UDA. The current obesity rates in this county are approximately 31%. This indicates that approximately a quarter of the residents are obese. According to the distributed sources, the normal aggregate costs identified with the visits particularly to the obesity related outpatient and inpatient visits are estimated to be US$ 156 and US$ 1,512 respectively. Direct medicinal costs are estimated to be 45%-70% of the aggregate expenses linked to the obesity outpatient and inpatient visits.  There are minimal reports with regards to the mortality and morbidity rates among the population in relation to obesity and its associated health complication (Health York County, 2015).

Identify any problems based on the Healthy People 2020 goals for the selected community.

In view of Healthy individuals 2020, there are problems affecting the selected community. These problems include lack of physical and social environments that facilitates promotion of good health, lack of adequate frameworks that will promote the development of healthy behaviors which aims at improving the residents quality of life and there lacks strategies that adequately help achieve health equity in this community implying that no measures have been successful in eliminating health disparities (Health York County, 2015).

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Provide a logical discussion of the problems in relation to the Healthy People 2020 goals

Arguably, York County is one of the weak links of global preparedness with regards to the management of obesity and associated chronic health complication. To begin with, there is no transparency in acknowledging the burden of obesity in the community. In addition, the public healthcare system has failed to establish systems that will ensure elimination of health disparities in the region. York County is one of the Counties in which obesity rates among the low income household is continuing to rise. The behavioral risk indicator indicates that the residents in this community hardly exercise. Only a third of the populations eat three servings of vegetables each day.  The data also indicates that one in five people in the community are smoke (Healthy People 2020, n.d.).

Research findings indicate that two in every three people are obese. The rates of other chronic condition are such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes also comparatively high. In addition, one in every five people in this community is diagnosed with depressive disorder and anxiety. Consequently, this has a negative impact on the Healthy People 2020 strategies whose main aim is to realize longer lives that are free from preventable diseases, elimination of health disparities, and creation of safe social and physical environments that promote good health and behavior of the healthy people (Healthy People 2020, n.d.).

Provide a logical discussion of community resources that are available to address the selected problem


         Community resources such as CDC ACHIEVE Program give valuable information effective strategies to manage obesity and its associated disorders.  As mentioned therein above, people who are at risk of being  obese infants, elderly, people suffering from chronic diseases, and pregnant women due to aggravating factors such as poverty and lack of physical activeness. This institution helps to increase awareness of the role of proper nutrition and physical activeness in eradicating obesity and its associated complication.  

The strategies include funding the local governments to give them support to improve amenities including Heritage Rail Trail County Park, walking paths and bike routes. This aims at giving the pedestrians access to activities that will improve their health. The program also works with the other stakeholders including schools facility which plays a critical role in school food based programs. Other stakeholders involved includes fitness based programs and organization such as YMCA and YWCA.  This helps the community to understand their perceived threats as well as the preventive measures that must be undertaken (Payne et al. 2013).

CDC ACHIEVE Program also helps the National Societies to play a leading role in managing the effects of the pandemic. This is facilitated through the close connection to communities and their auxiliary role to the governments through a measure commonly referred to as “Eat Play Breathe York”. This improves delivery of preventive services such as personal protective clothing during the outbreak, procurements and dispatchment of disinfectants, creating awareness sessions at school level (CDC, 2015).

Provide a logical primary prevention topic based on the problem identified in part C2.

            Effective treatment of obesity begins with change in a person’s lifestyle.  The obese person is expected to self-monitor the calorie intake and physical activities. This is achieved through effective goal setting and ensuring that they avoid factors that would lead to relapse of the old unhealthy habits.  Effective management requires highly motivated patient and committed healthcare professionals including dieticians, physical therapists, psychologists and other subspecialists (Payne et al. 2013).

            Behavior modification that targets diet and exercise must be included in all obesity management strategies for individuals whose BMI is above 25 kg/m2. Pharmacotherapy strategies are recommended for people whose BMI is above 27 kg/m2. Bariatric surgery is recommended for individuals who have BMI between 30 kg/m2 and 35 kg/m2. In dietary behavioral changes, people are advised to eat low calorie diets and practice portion control of the diets. Most of the diets underlie the weight programs guidelines such as those advocated by Jenny Craig and Weight watchers. The basic premise involves ensuring that the person obtain detailed dietary inventory which is normally used to estimate their caloric intake (CDC, 2015).

It has also been hypothesized that taking water before each meal facilitates weigh loss in obese middle aged people. This is associated to increase in resting energy due to water induced.

Physical activeness is recommended as it is effective for patients with cardiovascular disorder and respiratory health issues. Exercises are important because they help burn the excess body fat. For effective observation, people are encouraged to have moderate exercises continuously in order to achieve the effective weight loss. Research indicates that shorter bouts of physical activeness have better outcomes (Health York County, 2015).


CDC. (2015). Overweight and obesity trends. Retrieved from

Health York County (2015). Health York County Coalition-community Health Assessment. Retrieved from

Healthy People 2020 (n.d.). Goals and objectives. Retrieved from

Payne, W., Hahn, D., & Mauer, E. (2013). Understanding your health. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

York County PA (2016).  2016 York County and Surrounding Areas Resource Guide. Retrieved from

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Low calorie Products: Investment Decision Case Study

low calorie
Low calorie Products

Low Calorie Products

Investment Decision Case Study

A low calorie or healthy option microwavable food is a fresh concept which has gained a lot of interest among consumers. A majority of consumers are evaluating the food products provided in the market and consideration is given to the healthiest diet. Thus, introduction of microwavable products made up of low calorie has gain a high market due to consumer’s health concerns. To cater for the needs of the market, managers must formulate methods that will increase the product’s market share and profitability while increasing value to consumers.

As such, the intention of this paper is to outline a plan for managers in anticipation of rising prices, examine the major effects the government have on production and employment, determine whether government regulations are fair in the food industry, examine the major complexities under expansion via capital projects, and lastly suggest how a company could create convergence between the interests of stock holders and managers. The Company aims to keep the prices of its products as inelastic as possible.

Low calorie dietary is the new form of healthy foods and it has gained a lot of popularity among the consumers. In schools, homes, and restaurants, the concept of healthy feeding is not new. With the emergence of many chronic diseases, people desire to live healthy lives and lifestyles, thus the need for low calorie diets as will be produced and sold by Lean.

The purpose of this paper is to assess the main impacts the government has on production and employment, if government policies and laws facilitate fairness, determine the complications of expansion, and finally, offer recommendation on the merger of a company’s stakeholders and the management. For sustainable growth and profitability, the firm seeks to have the prices of its products as inelastic as it possibly can (Sullivan and Sheffiran 2013).  

It therefore means that the strategy used for pricing should have no effect on the way consumers recognize and purchase the commodities. In general, the type of demand occurs only for products that are essential for the normal living of consumers. However, the situation is not the same for food products that are microwavable. Elasticity of demand for low calorie products highly depends on the offered price, availability of substitutes, expenditure on promotions, income level of consumers, and prevailing economic conditions.

Considering the demand function and elasticity, low calorie products are favorable in a monopolistically dominated market. In a monopolistic competitive market, buyers and sellers are usually few. Therefore, if one company raises its prices, consumers shifts to another brand. As thus, firms in this market increase demand for their products through differentiation.

ThProfit (NP) = Total revenue (TR) Total Cost (TC)

According to the FOC of profit maximization,

=Marginal Revenue  =Marginal Cost = 0      

So Marginal Revenue = Marginal Cost

By applying the elasticity of 1.9, it was stipulated that demand for low calorie microwavable processed products is low. Since the company purposes to keep the prices of the products inelastic, it will strategize on differentiation to obtain a competitive advantage in the market. Differentiation is important since consumers will be able to pick the product from other substitutes hence increasing the sales. More so, it is proved that when product differentiation is noticeable to competitors, a firm’s market power and leadership increases. As such, it is advisable for the firm to strategize on product differentiation to increase the rate of returns.

Globally, the government usually has the mandate of regulating the market to protect consumers and the firms. However, whether markets are regulated or unregulated they are always influenced by the forces of demand and supply. As such, government regulation is critical for stability. For instance, the government handles externalities through provision of public utilities such as roads, contracts enforcements, and supply of currency (Wall and Griffin 2013). All theses aspects are better done by the government compared to private firms whose main aim is profit making.

A lot of discussion has been made on determination of the activities that the government is limited. Though regulations are important, extreme policies and laws are adverse to the growth of an economy. An ideal economic climate is only possible when government regulations are in accordance with the prevailing market conditions. The main reasons that the government involves itself in a market are enactment of policies and rules to facilitate exchange between buyers and sellers, and enforcement of the policies.

In the area of employment government sets rules for employers to follow when selecting, recruiting, and compensation. No employee should be paid below the set minimum wage rate, they are to be treated humanely and allowed to interact and work freely without fear of intimidation. Labor unions and other industrial agencies set regulations for firms follow failure to which employees have the right of suing the firm.

The government also limits production through the taxation rates, production costs, and prices for raw materials (Frank 2013). When terms are favorable, firms are able to produce to full capacity but when there is over production, the government sets higher terms to stabilize the market. As such, the effects the government will have on the company are limitation of production capacity and selling prices, employment, and eventually profitability since regulations are costly to the firm.

It is the mandate of the government to ensure the market is stable and at equilibrium for benefit of all stakeholders (MIT 2012). For instance, without intervention, big mergers and monopolistic conditions would be possible leading to excessive exploitation of the consumers. Thus, the government gets involved by limiting mergers and monopoly situations. It is fair for the government to get involved in the low calorie microwavable commodities to control prices, limit entrants and exit for fair market competition, and avoid emergence of monopolistic powers that would made the firm irrelevant.

When many unregulated firms are in the market, price wars would lead to consistent low prices causing the prices to be unstable. More so, unregulated market causes poor quality goods to be introduced as firms seek to minimize production costs for profits.

Thus, the major reasons for government involved are to control prices, ensure that the market is stable for protection of local firms, and protect consumers from exploitation. For microwavable foods, firms have to correctly label the contents of the products and they should be processed in certain measures to avoid provision of unhealthy contents.  Moreover, regulations also assist in protection of the environment where firms are supposed to observe efficient waste management practices, as well as reduce usage of production methods that release poisonous gasses in the environment.

An example of government involvement is the control of industries in China which have the tendency of producing smog that forcing people to wear masks to avoid getting contaminated. These goods are exported to US and other countries and the government has set measures to control the packaging of the products, their distribution and usage. Additionally, the government enforces policies to regulate the banking and finance industry by setting minimum interest rates so that consumers are not exploited and for banks to remain in business.

Some capital projects that the firm could undertake are mergers or acquisitions for expansion purposes. The reason for the projects is to increase market share, share operational risks, and increase market leadership and profitability (Harris et al. 2014). However, these projects bring complexities such as collusion between the shareholders and management. Managers tend to get additional capital from the reserves or by requesting shareholders to top up using their savings.

Shareholders may not be willing to use their reserves or contribute extra capital due to uncertainty of the venture. To avoid the complexity, managers should undertake projects that have high chances of generating returns in the short run by carrying out comprehensive evaluation of the project. For instance, managers should acquire a brand that is already dominating in the market to avoid experiencing losses.

Convergence between managers and shareholders is created through a firm’s strategic decision making process and through the use of financial statements. Whereas the shareholders own the company, they have limited control over the decision making process and the actions of management. On the other hand, managers are responsible for controlling the affairs of the firm.

Managers seek for higher income and allowances irrespective of a firm’s performance while shareholders are usually interested in higher profits for increased dividends. As such, shareholders seek for firm’s growth through mergers. However, mergers may compromise manager’s job security and control leading to divergence between the interests of shareholders and managers.

Therefore, strategic decision making should be done such that managers get allowances and salaries depending on the generate profits. If profits are high, their salaries are high and vice versa. As a result, managers will become productive so as to get high profits and allowances and in the process, the interests of shareholders will be met and both parties will be satisfied. Therefore, convergence of shareholders and managers lead to higher profits since managers become preoccupied in generating high revenues so that they pay is high and when the revenues are high, dividends are also high.  

Instances that bring convergence of the interests of managers and shareholders include: managers being employed on contractual terms such that their contracts are renewable if they perform as required, and application of commission terms whereby managers are paid depending on the income generated at a certain period.

It therefore shows that the government should get involved in microwavable food market to ensure products are of high quality, control monopoly activities, and stabilize the market. For better returns, managers and shareholders should have a common vision and the needs of each party considered. The firm is likely to excel and attain market leadership through product differentiation since demand is inelastic, ensure all the needs of stakeholders are met, and follow government conditions as they relate to production and employment.


Frank, R. (2013). Microeconomics and Behavior, (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

McGuigan, B. P., Moyer, R. C., &Harris, F. H. (2014).Managerial economics: Applications, strategies and tactics, (13th ed.). Stamford, CT: CengageLearning.

Mit. (2012). Government Regulations in the Market. University of Cambridge.

Sullivan, A. &Sheffrin, S. M. (2013). Economics: Principles in Action. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Wall, S. & Griffiths, A. (2012).Economics for Business and Management.New York, NY: Financial Times Prentice Hall. 

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Media: Marketing in the food industry

Media: Marketing in the food industry
Media: Marketing in the food industry

Background Analysis and insights into media consumption

Fast food industry is one of the most competitive markets as there are several of them across the UK and the world respectively. Every year there are new firms entering the market however the ones that sustain the customers interest are the old ones such as KFC, MacDonald’s, pizza hut among others. Most of the companies are creating marketing campaigns in order to attract new customers, create brand awareness and sustain the interest of the consumer.

Harland Sanders is the founder of Kentucky Fried Chicken; he started this business sixty-five years back. It started as fried chicken restaurant but later started offering other products like grilled and roasted chicken, sandwiches and desserts. The company has opened its branches in other parts of the world where they sell the same products and use the same brand name. The spices used and methods of preparing the chicken is the same all over the world.

KFC is getting competition from all areas; some of the common competitors include, Popeyes Louisiana Kitchen, CHICK-FILA, INC and CAJUN OPERATING COMPANY. Popeyes delicacies comprise of fried chicken and biscuits. They also sell Cajun –style fried chicken and seafood. The company has several branches in twenty-five countries across the globe. They are the biggest competitors of KFC since they offer the same products as the company but what keeps the KFC at the top of the competition is their secret recipe combined with their marketing strategies.

Marketing campaigns mostly include media such as Television, radio and social media. Social media are broken down into various different platforms such as Facebook, instagram, Twitter, Linked in and YouTube which are the most successful ones in our days, with billions of monthly users (Kallas, 2017). KFC’s YouTube channel has more than 270 thousands of subscribers and views of their videos are reaching over million viewers per video on average. YouTube is a source of media that has high reputation over all generations therefore KFC couldn’t be a step back.

Additionally KFC uses platforms that are friendly to young professionals such as deliveroo. Facebook is the biggest social network on the web, both in terms of recognition and total number of users. With nearly 1.8 billion users, Facebook is a great media for connecting people from all over the world and can positively or negatively affect companies (Guide, 2017). Further on another social media that KFC uses is twitter. With twitter short texts can be shared of 140 characters or less with the combination of videos, images, links polls and some other options.

KFC can easily interact with users by mentioning usernames and re-twitting posts. Therefore, twitter is a great way to interact and quickly state your point all around the world (Kallas, 2017). Instagram is another platform that more artistic niches take place and may not be the best fit for every business however KFC advertisements have artistic background therefore instagram is a very good method of promotion. In addition to social media another key media is TV however it is an expensive method of advertisement therefore due to the fact that it attracts different age groups it has an effect on consumers.

KFC can use TV advertisements through Netflix as it is going to interact with the target audience which is young professionals and teenagers. In addition to these, the company also uses print media to market their products, they use the newspapers or magazines to advertise what they offer and their services. The print media is appropriate for those who cannot have time to watch the online adverts and those who cannot access the electronic media.

Media objectives:

Over 40% of the chicken products sales come from the students. The goal of this campaign is to increase the chicken sales by 30 % among the students. The company will reach over 10 million in 200 markets using social media and print media.

The company will launch the campaigns in September with the television at a level of 400 GRPS which is the best level for launching new campaigns. The media campaigns include social media, magazines and newspapers. The company will launch these promotional campaigns in the month of November in all the leading markets.

The use of Facebook as a campaign media helped in gaining more audience since facebook users always use it every day thus increasing the frequency of how much the product is viewed. The company can reach several people with one advert on Facebook thus it lowers the frequency with the audience.

To increase the market share by 10%

In terms of market share, McDonald’s is ahead of KFC in the globe market. A survey on which fast food chain provides the best burger and fries concluded that 34% of the respondents noted that they prefer McDonald’s and 10% choose KFC (Lang, & Heasman 2015). On burgers, KFC was the most preferred choice with 15% followed by McDonald’s at 10%.  When it comes to globe market share of the MacDonald’s takes the lead with a market share of 17% followed by KFC with 10.8% (Lang, & Heasman, 2015).

KFC should focus on increasing market share to become a leader in the global market share. The company intends to attract teenagers and young adults who are the main fast food consumers.  The marketing campaign should increase market share by 10% to put KFC ahead of McDonald’s and make it the leading fast food company in the globe.

To increase awareness about KFC products on burgers, and fried chicken

KFC must create awareness about products it is offering. Market analysis indicates that Starbucks and McDonalds have managed to make products known around the globe. KFC must generate interest in their products mainly the teenagers and adults.  The marketing campaign will focus on creating awareness and improving KFC brand awareness in the globe.

Increasing awareness means that more people will get to know the brand or never forget about it thus customers will be kept informed about new products that are arising the market and products that are already in the menu. This can also help the company through the word of mouth. By keeping the customers informed, this might lead to people talking about the brand and this can positively affect the company.

To create brand loyalty

KFC campaign aims at retaining 80% of the target market. In the past, KFC has employed various media marketing strategies that have increased the market share, but this time the company will also be looking for a way to retain market share. They will heavily rely on using various forms of media to reach this objective. The marketing campaign will focus on showing the customer experience and explaining to customers why they should continue visiting KFC. The marketing campaign will introduce KFC loyalty cards which will be used to reward customers who visit KFC many times.

Target Audience specification:

Target audience are young teens and adults at the age of 16-28. Those people are the ones that grew up in an electronics-filled and increasingly online and socially-networked world. They are the generation that has received the most marketing attack/attention from huge firms, medium and small ones (Anon, 2017). In addition to that young adults-professionals and teenagers spend a lot of time during the day on social media and online platforms such as Netflix and thus KFC would have the ability to sustain the interest and attract the attention of them.

Further to that young generation depend on social media because it’s their communication method, and also it’s the place where they share their opinions, posts and pictures about everyday life. However, young generation receives every day huge amount of advertisement on social media therefore KFCs advertisement has to be considered as friendly and enjoyable by the young generation in order to take it into consideration.

The target audience are mostly female non- vegetarian who have money to spend on our delicacies. Most of these people are working and may not have time to prepare meals at home. They are people who mostly dwell in the urban centres and families who may sometimes decide to go out for a treat. Another target group is that f students who mostly buy lunch from restaurants since they are not in a position to make their lunch due to little time or lack of interest.

Media mix and supporting rationale:

Media mix uses various communication channels to achieve the marketing objectives. Using a combination of media channels enables accompany to effectively communicate products. An effective media mix ensures that the right message gets to the right audience (Babin, & Zikmund, 2015). In marketing, a company identifies the target market. For instance, the main strategy audience for KFC is the young adults and teenagers. It is important to use media mix to ensure that the company reaches a maximum number of the target market.

An effective marketing mix aligns with buying stage of the consumers. Once a company creates rawness of products it must convince consumers to make the buying decision.  For instance, KFC can create awareness by placing an advert on movies but can further influence the buying decision by providing detailed information about products in the fast food magazines.

The main media channel that KFC will use is placing advertisements on various Netflix movies. The channels will be used to reach global consumer since Netflix is online television that is watched by consumers around the globe. KFC will use social media to market products. The company will establish interactive shows on YouTube to provide young people with an opportunity to ask questions about the products. The company will increase presence on social media platforms such as Facebook, and Twitter. It will use fun video and photos to attract young people to read posts about the company and attract many people to like the pages as well. The social media will be an effective way of reaching out to young adults and teenagers. Research indicates that young adults and teenagers are likely to access the social media at least once per day (Babin, & Zikmund, 2015).

.           The company can further use mobile phones to text young people and communicate with them directly on announcement and offers. Research indicates that the young people like texting hence the company can use texts to further influence the purchasing decisions of the young adults and teenager (Pelsmacker, & Kitchen, 2014). The use of print media like the magazines and the newspapers will also attract the customers to the restaurant.

These types of media were selected since they were the best that could fit the company’s requirement. Television is effective since many people can access it and it can also make also help in creating awareness among the target group and lure them into buying the products. The print media like the magazines are appealing to the eye and thus can attract people to read it hence make the target group learn more about KFC and visit the restaurant.

The magazines also give reasons why the people should try the products and this arouses their interest in buying the products. Social media is a platform used by many people therefore the company will be in a position to reach several people at the same time. Through likes from the available customers and their positive comments, the target group will have the urge to have a taste of what the others are praising thus increasing the customers hence increase in revenue.

Media schedule:

Scheduling is used to show the patterns of time in which advertisements will run. Scheduling is used to allocate time slots to ensure that an advertisement reaches the target audience. There are three main models of scheduling that are used in advertising continuity, flighting and pulsing. Continuity model is used for advertisements that run throughout the year (Licciardello, 2013). The flighting model advertises products in intervals. For instance, advertisements activities are increased during the season that the demand for the products is increasing.

The pulsing model employs the continuity and flighting schedule aspects. KFC will make use of the pulsing model. It will use heavy advertisement during the peak period.  KFC will make use of heavy advertisements such as placing adverts on movies during peak periods such as festive period but also use social media and high school media to advertise products through the year.

In Addition to that the advertisement on Netflix will also be played at the KFCs website after a few weeks’ time. It has been decided to exclude August from the time table as it is a holiday period for most of the people plus students therefore the respond during that period would have been low. The adverts will be launched in September when the students resume school since they comprise of the largest population among the target groups.


Activity                                               Time                                          Frequency

Launching of television campaigns   September-December 2017        Weekly

Launching of internet ads                   January- February      2018         Daily

Launching of newspaper ads               March                        2018         Weekly

Magazine Launching                           April                          2018         Monthly

Adverting on NetflixSummer Period (June and September). Fast food thrive during summer periodThe advertisement will run for one minutesThe advertisements should run in all popular shows.
 Festive period (December) Festive periods cause a decline in fast food sales hence it is important to advertise to attract more customers during festive periods.One minute advertisementsThe advertisements should appear on every commercial break.
High School AdvertisementsMay-June during football seasonWhole  DayKFC will interact with students and hand them flyers throughout the day.
High School and College publicationsJanuary-DecemberOne pageOnce per month.
Social MediaJanuary-December Update social media pages everyday.
Social Media (Youtube)October Once a post and keep uploading youtube video to social media such us Facebook.
KFC websiteAfter the end of the Netflix TV ad.Main page of the website.Free- and can be used to remind the customers about the advertisement.

Media Schedule Time Table

High School Advertisements            
High School and College publications            
Social Media( YouTube ad)            
Video of the ad on KFC website            
Social Media            

Budget allocation:

The company will mainly use three channels of advertising the social media, supporting high school football and advertising on Netflix. The estimated average cost of advertising using the Twitter is 2325 British Pound per month, and Facebook is 1940. British Pound per month (Percy, 2015). The average price of advertising on Netflix is 270 pounds per advertisement. However, the costs of advertising on Netflix will vary depending on the duration of time the advertisements will take place and on the shows that the company chooses. The budget allocations are indicated in the table below

MediaEstimated Costs
Advertising on Netflix ( placing advertisements in popular shows and advertisements run for 1 minute)  £90,000,000
Social media£51180
Supporting High school football£450,000
Other advertisements such as putting flyers in high school and colleges and advertising on high school and college publications£61,200

The company estimates that the average cost of advertising on Netflix is 270 pounds per advertisement. The company plans to introduce advertisement that will run for one minute and the advertisement will be played on the most popular shows such as The House of Cards. The company has budgeted 9million pounds to run advertisements. The estimated cost of advertising on Facebook and Twitter per month is 4255 pounds. Since it will run for 10 weeks and the total cost is 51180 pounds. The company intends to contribute 450thousand pounds to support high school football.

Media Evaluation:

Media evaluation determines the effectiveness of the media tools that are used by a company. Media evaluation determines if the media that was used to communicate the message was effective in getting the message to the target audience. KFC will make use qualitative and quantitative media evaluation to measures the effectiveness of campaign (Christensen, 2015).

KFC is the biggest chicken company in the whole world; this is as a result of the consumers’ satisfaction and hence came back for more goods from the restaurant. The employees are also satisfied with their jobs because they get good salaries. The employees should be made happy since it results in better performance and productivity among them. The company also considers corporate social responsibility to the community; this has also resulted to the company’s success.


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