Write a Union organizing campaign Memo

Union organizing campaign Memo
Union organizing campaign Memo

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Union organizing campaign Memo

You have been hired by XYZ as a consultant. They are currently facing a union organizing campaign. You have been asked to write a briefing memo for senior management. Your memo must address:
a. What are the basic differences, from the employer’s viewpoint, in operating in a union-free environment vs. a unionized environment?
b. What are management representatives permitted to say and do during the campaign? What, if any, actions or statements are prohibited?
In responding, you must use three references. They should be from a scholarly journal or credible news source from within the past three years.

Union organizing campaign Memo

Criteria 1

Exceeds Expectations 5 points

Meets Expectations 4 points

Meets Some Expectations 3 points

Does Not Meet Expectations 2 points

Not Included 0 points

Organization (maximum of 5 points)

Arranges ideas clearly and logically to support the purpose or argument; ideas flow smoothly and are effectively linked; reader can follow the line of reasoning

Arranges ideas adequately to support the purpose or argument; links between ideas are generally clear; reader can follow the line of reasoning for the most part

Arranges ideas adequately, in general, although ideas sometimes fail to make sense together; reader remains fairly clear about what writer intends

Arranges ideas illogically; ideas frequently fail to make sense together; reader cannot identify a line of reasoning and becomes frustrated or loses interest

Union organizing campaign Memo

Criteria 2

Exceeds Expectations 15 points

Meets Expectations 12 points

Meets Some Expectations9 points

Does Not Meet Expectations4 points

Not Included0 points

Content (maximum of 15 points)

Gives very specific information. Addressed all of the assignment components. Clearly illustrates critical and reflective thinking.Well thought-out response.

Contains specific information. Addressed all of the assignment components. Is relatively detailed. Shows some critical and reflective thinking. Relatively well thought-out response.

Has some specific information. Addressed many of the assignment components. Not detailed.Poorly thought-out response.

Is vague and does not address all assignment components. No evidence of having given the assignment real thought.

Union organizing campaign Memo

Criteria 3
Exceeds Expectations5 points

Meets Expectations 4 points

Meets Some Expectations 3 points

Does Not Meet Expectations 2 points

Not Included 0 points

Mechanics, references and APA

Execution is excellent. No grammar or writing errors. Reads easily. Is well organized. Includes two additional scholarly, relevant sources.

Well executed. Few grammar or writing errors. Reads easily. Is fairly well organized. Sources are either not all scholarly or not all relevant.

Execution is poor. Many grammar or writing errors. Hard to read. Poorly organized.

Falls short of the required length for the assignment. Very poorly written. Very difficult to read. No organization is evident.

Reads like a last minute effort.

Union organizing campaign Memo

Below is a partial answer to the above homework questions by one of our writers. If you are interested in a custom non plagiarized top quality answer, click order now to place your order.

Union organizing campaign Memo

TO: XYZ Ltd Senior Management

FROM: …………………… (name) …..

DATE: January 9, 2018

SUBJECT: Union Organizing Campaign

            Unionization can present a major overhaul in an organization’s human resource management practices; hence the need to effectively delineate the likely impact a unionized environment would have on the XYZ. The Company is currently facing a union organizing campaign and this presents two possibilities: a unionized environment or a non-unionized environment depending on whether the campaign is successful. This calls for an understanding the consequences of each possibility. In this memo, the basic differences between a union-free environment and a unionized environment are discussed. In addition, a union organizing campaign is a highly sensitive undertaking and it is of great importance that XYZ management representatives are aware of what to say or do during the campaign and what actions or statements are prohibited during the period. This memo provides adequate information regarding what is expected of management representatives during the union organizing campaign.

Union organizing campaign Memo

Union-free environment vs. a unionized environment

            The main difference between operating in a union-free environment and a unionized environment is ingrained in the organization’s ability to control its human resources (Ashe-Edmunds, 2018). In a union-free environment, the organization has the freedom to manage its employees using their own terms and conditions because there is no third party involved in making human resource related decisions. In a unionized environment, employees are represented by unions, which influence management decisions regarding human resource issues including salaries, benefits, working conditions, and employee dismissal among others. When workers are represented by a union, it is likely that their wages will rise and there is bound to be greater demands on the management as the union attempts to bargain better terms and conditions for its members (Ashe-Edmunds, 2018). In this case, a non-unionized environment is desired by employers because they can determine their own wages and working conditions without interference.

            The second difference is the ability to maintain a stable working environment. Ashe-Edmunds (2018) notes that unionized members are more likely to go on strike over unmet demands compared to non-unionized members. The law allows union members to strike and this limits employers’ power over their staff. It also brings negative publicity for an organization because it is seen as not meeting employee needs. In a non-unionized environment, such occurrences are limited because the organization is in control of its workers.

            The third difference lies in the costs incurred by the organization in each environment. Maintaining a non-unionized workforce is likely to be cheaper than a unionized workforce not only because the company determines employee salary but also because the organization does not spend its resources on lawsuits and arbitrations. Unions are constantly seeking better terms for their members and have a role to protect their rights and interests (Woodruff, 2018). This means more grievances and possible law suits on different accounts such as termination, discrimination, harassment and demotion among others.

            The fourth difference is predictability in human resource costs. Collective bargaining in a unionized environment could play an imperative role in maintaining stability of the organization through predictable costs (Woodruff, 2018). When organizations and unions negotiate collective terms and wages, it becomes easier to manage costs. Furthermore, the labor contracts often last for several years and this influences accuracy in budgetary predictions and ease in managing compensation and benefits administration (Hart, 2017). In a non-unionized environment, human resource costs are likely to keep changing and are therefore unpredictable.

Finally, a unionized and a non-unionized environment differ in terms of employee contact. Unionized environments create a single point of contact based on collective negotiation while non-unionized environments necessitate that the organization deal with each employee individually (Hart, 2018). This makes a unionized workforce easier to manage through a simplified salary negotiation process, more effective communication through the union and better handling of disciplinary issues…..

Union organizing campaign Memo

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Labor in Major League Baseball

Labor in Major League Baseball
Labor in Major League Baseball

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Labor in Major League Baseball

Read Bargaining Strategy for labor in Major League Baseball case in the learning materials section of the class portal and answer and give specific examples of key negotiation topics to the following questions:

1.What are the major developments in the history of the labor-management relationship within Major League Baseball?

2.What is “free agency?” How did the demise of the reserve clause and the rise of free agency in the 1970s fundamentally change the nature of labor-management relations in baseball? How is this related to the issue of a salary cap? Why were these issues still important to contract negotiations at the time of this case (2005-2006)? More generally, how does the history of a bargaining relationship affect current negotiations?

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3.What is the “luxury tax”? How is it related to the issue of the salary cap? 

4.What is the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890? How is it relevant for companies and labor unions generally, and for MLB, specifically?

5.What “weapons” does the union have at its disposal in the 2006 contract negotiations?

6.Should Donald Fehr take a “hard line” in negotiations? Or should he be conciliatory toward the owners in light of either tough or conciliatory bargaining stances by the owners? How can one apply the findings from “prisoner’s dilemma” research to this case?

7.What issues should the union view as “top priority” issues (worth striking over)?

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The Bargaining Power of Labour Unions

The Bargaining Power of Labour Unions
The Bargaining Power of Labour Unions

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Multinationals Greatly Diminish The Bargaining Power of Labour Unions

It is true that Multinational diminish the bargaining power of labour unions; since, the vertical integration has led to an increased exposure of the multinational towards lowering the bargaining power in most labour unions. Multinational firms have taken the responsibility of weakening the labour union power due to the perception that the more power the labour union has, the larger the incentives that will rise towards outsourcing the capital intensity of the firms (McIlroy, 2000).

The multinational firms have readily available resources, which they can use to absorb any losses in any of their branches located in a country in conflict with a national union. Through doing this, the multinational will be diminishing the power to bargain with most labour unions as the multinational will feel lesser impact due to its continued recording of profits in various worldwide operations. A form of explicit policy can be taken by various multinational firms across the globe towards reducing the company’s vulnerability to any strike that might be initiated by a given national trade.

In such a case, the bargaining power of the labour union will be diminished (Van Offeren, 2011). Multinational firms mostly use the branch closure strategy in diminishing the bargaining power of labour unions whereby; the multinational firms can temporarily move its production through the use of production facilities from other countries and if need be, the firms can cause closure of installation in a given country. Through doing that, the bargaining power of labour unions will be diminished.

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In addition, multinational firms can make decisions from their remote headquarters without involving the labour unions and the inability of the trade unions to influence the decision made their bargaining powers are bound to get diminished. The multinational firms can exert pressure on the government to adopt laws in their favour to imply that they highly voice the government as compared to the labour unions (Van Offeren, 2011).

Decisions made by the government in favour of multinational firms give them enough capability to diminish the bargaining power of labour unions. Multinational firms use many strategies in determining any syndicate to any competitive negotiation to imply that they are above the labour union and can easily diminish its bargaining powers.  


McIlroy, J. 2000. New labour, new unions, new left. Capital & Class, (71), 11-45

Van Offeren, D. 2011. Derivatives reporting practices by multinationals. Journal of International Accounting Research, 10(2), 105-107

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Corporate Culture for Remote Employees

Corporate culture for remote employees
Corporate culture for remote employees

Corporate Culture for Remote Employees


The globe is very competitive with an increase in the level of skills that individuals have gained. Different organizations want to remain competitive when benchmarked with competing organizations so that they win as much business as possible. The corporate culture that an organization adopts is one of the factors that contribute to an organization being competitive when compared to other industry players. The human resources policies that an organization adopts also contribute to its effectiveness and competitiveness in the market. The utilization of remote working is one of the human resources policies that an organization might adopt in promoting productivity and competitiveness in the job market. This dissertation conducted research on how organizations can employ a corporate culture for remote employees. The corporate culture that is adopted by an organization contributes to the portrayal of an image that affects its ability to attract and retain clients and business partners. Therefore, organizations have numerous benefits to derive from incorporating a culture for their remote working employees.                                          


I would like to thank my supervisor for the immeasurable support given to me throughout the completion of my dissertation. Also, to my family members who are all very understanding and supportive in my studies. Without them, I could have a hard time. They are my inspiration and my source of energy.


The global “workplace,” has resulted in a convergence of cultures that are diverse and integrate individuals from diverse backgrounds. However, even with diverse backgrounds, individuals should be able to integrate into teams so that there is a successful achievement of the organization’s objectives.

According to Guiso, Sapienza and Zingales (2015), the leaders of corporate organizations have the responsibility of maintaining governance and a required corporate culture so as to achieve their objectives and profitability. The employees are the representatives of an organization in their daily work and actions outside the organization. The image that the employees portray should be a reflection of the values and objectives of the organization.

Clients and other stakeholders should feel that the employees of the organization are committed to achieving the set goals and intended image that they would inspire them to work with the company. Before an organization establishes a corporate culture, it should ensure that its leaders are ethical and believe in the values of the organization (Giles, 2015: 43).

Leaders that believe in the objectives and mission of the company can easily pass those values to employees. In addition to being motivated to remain ethical in their leadership practices, the senior managers and executives should possess integrity as one of their characters. When the leaders’ possess integrity, employees are likely to be motivated to follow their guidance and vision (Dwivedi, Kaushik and Luxmi, 2014: 82). Leaders with integrity are also likely to earn the required respect of the employees in the organization.

Importance of Corporate Culture

Organizations also have unique personalities that separate them from their competitors and other firms; which were also mentioned in Sun’s (2009) study. Collectively, organization culture interweaves an individual to the organization but distinguishes them separately from the other. For instance, the parameters of procedures, policies, hierarchies, leadership styles, habits and shared values of the employees and stakeholders distinctively from the corporate culture of an organization (Utito, 2004:9).

Underpinning the role of corporate culture, according to Flamholtz and Randle (2012), it acts as a unique strategic asset on the accomplishment of business models. Subsequently, sales levels, financial performance, and planning should be deliberately planned, cultivated, and nurtured to ensure the success of the firm. The corporate culture acts as a factor in attracting clients and business partners for an organization; by which the culture shows that the “outside world” values are more important for the organization Utito (2004:9).

According to Scarlett & Koslow (2009: 32), corporate culture cannot be monetized, but it contributes to the profitability or lack of it, to a company. Therefore, the corporate culture of an organization should be monitored regularly, and changed to fit the dynamics of the industry and technology. Corporate cultures have an impact on the employees that companies attract and retain, as well as the commodities, or services offered, and revenue earned.

Companies that take pride in, and promote their corporate cultures are attractive to their current and potential employees. The clients of such organizations also want to associate with the organizations because they want to find out more information on what makes the organizations tick and pursue their objectives and mission in delivering commodities or services to their clients.


Spiegelman, P. (2016). Forbes Welcome. [online] Forbes.com. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/paulspiegelman/2016/07/18/building-a-great-culture-with-remote-teams/#1d384a276764 [Accessed 23 Feb. 2017].

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Migration: The Impact of Immigrant Workforce

Migration: The Impact of Immigrant Workforce
Migration: The Impact of Immigrant Workforce

Migration: The Impact of Immigrant Workforce


            Migration of people has the benefit of spreading several levels of workforce around the world. Both skilled and semi-skilled workforce is desirable in many parts of the world and may help in distributing some essential work practises that are missing in several parts of the world (Kaplan 2017). Immigration helps in replenishing labour needs in some countries that are experiencing low workforce due to the ageing population or low increase in the population that creates a gap in labour needs (Kochan&Finegold 2012).

The competitive nature of global marketplace requires companies to have highly skilled workforce in order to compete favourably. Some organizations are then forced to offer attractive packages to these workers to move them from their countries of origin, mainly developing countries.

            The migration of people has got many effects on both the home country and the destination country of the labourers. The influx of many labourers into a country may affect the minimum wage as employers will have a large pool of employees to choose from (Siddiqui 2012). The impact on home countries may include brain drain or low skilled workforce, causing slow economic growth due to inadequate expert workforce to accomplish essential jobs (Siddiqui 2012).

There is a multifaceted effect of immigration in terms of its contribution to the workforce. The effect may be positive or negative depending on where the migrants come from or go to and the type of labourers. This study seeks to find whether migrant workers can bring new practises and work performance standards to a country and whether they can be an asset to that country. 

Sources of Migrants

            There are several social, economic, political and environmental factors that may contribute to the migration of individuals. People have been migrating for many centuries from one region to another, and in doing so distributing their culture and practises around the world. There are several reasons why people migrate which may be poverty, political turmoil or socio-economic reasons.

  1. Poverty or poor economy

Poverty is arguably the highest cause of migration in the 21st century due to the huge imbalance between the poor and the rich. There is a great disparity between developed and developing countries, with the five richest countries in the world being 100 times richer than the ten poorest countries in the world (One America 2017).

The quest to run away from poverty and struggles that cloud those living in developing countries is very high. Additionally, skilled workers from developed countries in professions such as engineering, medicine, nursing and finance may want to move to countries where they can earn better wages, improve their skills, increase their knowledge, and experience better working conditions (Dayton-Johnson 2009).

The developed countries are often faced with massive corruption, nepotism, tribalism, unequal distribution of resources and embezzlement of public funds by public officials (Fokkema& De Haas 2015). Unemployed people in these countries may therefore migrate either to urban centres, or to developed countries where there is high wages and good working environments.

For example, in Haiti the average per capita income is around $400 per year, while in the United States an unskilled labourer can easily make that in a week (One America 2017). This forces many to seek out employment in these countries, which also helps them remit money to their families back at home and help them fight poverty. Poverty makes hundreds of Africans brave the dangers of drowning in the Mediterranean Sea, when they board smuggling boats using their hard-earned money to Europe.

In 2015, more than 1600 people drowned in the Mediterranean Sea when their boats capsized as they were being smuggled into Europe from Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria (Saunders 2015). The quest to run away from poverty makes people risk everything for good life abroad.

  • Political instability and armed conflict

In March 2017, the president of the United States Donald Trump banned the citizens of Somalia, Sudan, Libya, Yemen, Syria and Iran from accessing the United States (Whitehouse.gov 2017). These countries constitute the countries with very unstable political environments, as wars and civil wars are continuing in these countries due to various reasons.

The failed Arab Revolution in Syria left the country in political turmoil as the government is battling militias and terrorists from taking control of the country (Gharib 2017). The same is happening in Somalia and Yemen. These countries generate the largest number of refugees as they escape from their war torn countries towards safer environments such as the United States and Europe.

            Out of the 16.5 million refugees present in the world by 2017, 30% come from Syria (Gharib 2017). The bulk of these refugees come from the five mentioned countries, and are mainly hosted in South Sudan, Lebanon, Jordan, Turkey, Uganda, Kenya, Sweden and Chad among other countries (Garib 2017). Among these hundreds of refugees are skilled labourers such as teachers, doctors, nurses, drivers, and government officers such as clerks, accountants and administrators. These refugees will most likely seek for employment in their new countries and will help in the economy of their destination countries.

Socio-economic factors

Apart from poverty and political turmoil, there are many other factors that influence the migration of people to other areas. Saunders (2015) found out that the Mediterranean migration crisis does not only come from poverty or political strife in Africa, but rather from high demand for labourers in Europe. He found that most of those who risked their lives to go to Europe were educated, ambitious, middle class and very far from being peasants.

These individuals would pay up to $2000 for a trip to Europe, showing that they could at least afford the large amount of money for a successful life abroad. Saunders (2015) also found that the illegal migrants from Africa were connected to individuals in Europe working in the same profession, and are not running away from something but rather following a certain opportunity in Europe.

Most people who migrate to successful economies do so to advance their social status, by getting jobs with good earnings, and some to seek for specific opportunities in business and investment opportunities (Awumbila, Owusu&Teye 2014). The oil business in the United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Saudi Arabia has attracted a large number of expatriates into the region. The prospects of employment with better salaries, good lifestyle and better working conditions are the main reasons many expatriates from other countries go to the Middle East (Shaheen 2009).

The ageing Baby Boomers population in the United States and most European countries is creating a massive gap in employment as the group is retiring at an alarming rate and in great numbers (Kochan&Finegold 2012). This creates a wide gap in employment as there is need for skilled labourers in these countries to fill the employment gap.

Additionally, supplementary staff are needed mainly in the health and hospitality sectors to cater for the needs of this population, as their weakening bodies come with more needs (Bartha et al. 2015). The retirement of the Baby Boomers leaves many companies with the need to recruit workers to fill the gaps in middle skill jobs such as high skill manufacturing, nursing, computer technology, and accounting (Kochan&Finegold 2012).

Some people migrate to other countries hoping to improve their education or other statuses in life. For example, Legrain (2007) reports that some of the people living in London were in transition into better jobs, but had to spend some years learning English before venturing into better jobs in the UK, or other English speaking countries like the United States.

Most of the immigrants were from Asia, South America or Africa. Legrain (2007) also shows that many immigrants in the United States and UK end up upgrading themselves and getting into lucrative careers such as accounting, professors in universities, hotel managers and administrative assistants among others. Therefore, migrant workers help their countries of destination in several other ways too despite the setbacks many face.

Importance Migrant Workers

            Migrant workers serve as a ‘reserve army or labourers’ waiting to bridge any employment gap in seasonal peaks of production (Hardy 2009). In the United Kingdom and the whole European Union, many companies require seasonal job needs in various sectors such as agriculture, hospitality and service industries, attracting workers from Africa and Asia (Hardy 2009). According to Saunders (2015), the Mediterranean migration is usually seasonal because of the different job demands in European countries.

In 2008 for example, there was an increased Europe to Africa migration because of the economic recession that many European countries were going through. The migration erupted again in 2011 and 2014/2015 because of stable economic times in the European markets. Most of the people crossing were learned and professionals seeking to establish their lives in Europe.

Effects on Work Practises and Standards

            Migrant workers do not just fill the job deficiency gaps in their destination countries, but provide a quick way of providing professional and high skill workforce required by the destination countries (Foema& Haas 2015). After the great recession of 2008, many employers in the United States struggled to find individuals to fill gaps in the middle skills jobs as the large number of retiring Baby Boomers were creating huge employment demands in the job market and immigration reduced during this period (Kochan&Finegolf 2012). 

The discovery of oil in the United Arab Emirates in the 1960s created a high demand for workers to fill several sectors of the economy such as finance, accounting, hospitality, engineering and media among others (Soto &Haouas 2012). The UAE is the richest country in the world in terms of oil, accounting for 7% and 4% of the world’s reserve of oil and gas respectively as by 2011 (Soto &Haouas 2012). The local population of the Emiratis consist of less than 20% of the total population, which could not provide enough individuals to fill the high skill jobs required in the job sector.

The expatriate population in the UAE come from many countries, mostly from Asia and especially India (De Bel-Air 2015). The good salaries and better lifestyle in UAE attracts talented and highly skilled individuals from different countries in the world to fill job positions in the oil sectors and related industries. The thriving UAE economy has a lot to do with the high number of expatriate population that cover 95% of private sector jobs and 40% of public sector jobs (De Bel-Air 2015). The input of the migrant workers has put UAE to be one of the most vibrant economies in the world.

            Migrants have the ability to change the economies of certain countries to be outstanding in certain areas. The Software Industry of India is one example, where diaspora Indians in the American software companies travelled back home to form software companies in their country (Dayton-Johnson 2009).

Today, India’s software industry is the leading in Asia, and constantly collaborated with other companies in the USA to provide better services. Migrant workers have enabled the UAE to have a vibrant industrial sector, while the exquisite human resource practises in Qatar is mainly attributed to expatriates who run most of the country’s companies including multinationals (Koji 2011).

Bridging local skill gaps

            One characteristics associated with migrant workers is that their approach to work is always different from that of the local population. Koji (2011) notes that many citizens of UAE, Qatar and Saudi Arabia work in the public sector because they detest the working conditions in the private sector. The United Arab Emirates promoted the development of the non-oil sector in the 1980s to reduce the country’s reliance on the oil industry (Koji 2011).

Therefore, expatriates form 99% of the population in non-oil sector mainly manufacturing, construction, transport and low-skilled jobs as they are able to endure extreme working conditions. The need to make money and change their social conditions at home makes these individuals to brave all conditions to be able to succeed (Koji 2011).

            Carvalho (2015) notes that expatriate population helps in the economic development of a country as they contribute to the essentials of economic growth such as population, productivity and  participation. Most migrants are usually of prime working age and are ambitious, hardworking and skilled in one sector or another. As noted by Carvalho (2015), most Australian migrants are below 40 years old and above 20 years old.

They therefore form the best country’s asset in bridging labour needs, by filling gaps in the population. By using them, the country can advance economically as they provide additional labour in the deficiencies created by the local population.

            Another characteristics associated with migrant workers is that they are very hardworking. As opposed to the local population which may be choosy, they are able to adapt to the local working conditions and can endure very harsh working conditions in their host countries (Poulney 2015).

The position of Qatar to hold the FIFA World Cup in 2022 has attracted a hoard of expatiates mostly from Asian countries to work in the construction industry, as the country tries to beat the deadline of constructing world-class stadiums for the event (Poulteney 2015). Though there are instances of human rights violations, the working population in these projects is highly migrants as locals keep off the deplorable working conditions of the huge projects.

            Imai et al. (2011) notes that many migrant workers have a tendency to remit money back home to their families as they work abroad. This money is meant to uplift the living conditions of those left behind. These remittances helps in improving the credit rating of these countries and providing foreign currency that can be used to inhibit investor panic (Imai et al. 2011).  The remittances helps migrant workers to invest in physical assets in their home countries and improving the health and education of the local population.

Challenges Faced By Migrant Workers

            Migrant workers face a myriad of challenges in their journeys to uplift their living standards. They often face very difficult conditions of work and have few rights at their jobs (Siddiqui 2012). Poulteney (2015) notes that migrant workers in Qatar work for almost 16 hours, and their visas are often confiscated by their employers until they finish their contracts. These practises are however changing as the government seeks to impose tough penalties to employers confiscating their employees’ travelling documents (Tuxford 2016). Workers in Middle East though endure long working hours and often suffer from cardiac arrest and heat strokes.

             Some countries such as Saudi Arabia and Qatar deny migrant workers citizenship and are forced to leave the country immediately their contract ends, or when they are unable to get another job (Koji 2011). Some employers in some countries may also exploit migrant workers by offering them very low wages as compared to the locals. They may also deny them training, job related perks or health insurance coverage benefits.


            Migrant workers can be a great asset to a country. They may bring a lot of experience and good work practises that can aid greatly the economy of a country. They often migrate because of poverty, political instability or to improve their social status. This makes them better workers as they are hardworking and visionary, though this comes with challenges.


Awumbila, M., Owusu, G. and Teye, J.K., 2014. Can rural-urban migration into slums reduce poverty? Evidence from Ghana. Migrating Out of Poverty Working Paper13, pp.1-41.

Bartha, A., Fedyuk, O. and Zentai, V., 2015. Low-skilled Migration: Immigrant Workers in European Domestic Care.

Carvalho, P., 2015. Why migrants may be our greatest economic asset. Retrieved from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-04-21/carvalho-why-migrants-may-be-our-greatest-economic-asset/6409042. (Accessed 17 April 2017).

Dayton-Johnson, J., GTZ, A.P., GTZ, K.S. and Schwinn, J., 2009. Migration and employment. Unclassified DCD/DAC (2009) 16/ADD, p.93.

De Bel-Air, F., 2015. Demography, migration, and the labour market in the UAE.

Fokkema, T. and Haas, H., 2015. Pre‐and Post‐Migration Determinants of Socio‐Cultural Integration of African Immigrants in Italy and Spain.International Migration53(6), pp.3-26.

Gharib, M., 2017. CHART: Where The World’s Refugees Are. Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/03/27/518217052/chart-where-the-worlds-refugees-are. (Accessed 17 April 2017).

Hardy, J. Migration, migrant workers and capitalism. Retrieved from: http://isj.org.uk/migration-migrant-workers-and-capitalism/. (Accessed 17 April 2017).

Imai, K.S., Gaiha, R., Ali, A. and Kaicker, N., 2014. Remittances, growth and poverty: New evidence from Asian countries. Journal of Policy Modeling,36(3), pp.524-538.

Kaplan, G. and Schulhofer‐Wohl, S., 2017. Understanding the Long‐Run Decline in Interstate Migration. International Economic Review58(1), pp.57-94.

Kochan, T., Finegold, D. and Osterman, P., 2012. Who can fix the “middle-skills” gap. Harvard Business Review90(12), pp.81-90.

Koji, H., 2011. Controversies over labour naturalization policy and its dilemmas: 40 years of Emiratisation in the United Arab Emirates. Kyoto Bulletin of Islamic Area Studies4(1-2).

Legrain, P., 2014. Immigrants: Your country needs them. Princeton University Press.

One America, 2017. An Age of Migration: Globalization and the Root Causes of Migration. Retrieved from: https://www.weareoneamerica.org/root-causes-migration-fact-sheet. (Accessed 17 April 2017).

Poulteney, C.,m 2016. Immense Wealth, Poor Work Conditions in Qatar. World Policy. Retrieved from: http://www.worldpolicy.org/blog/2016/06/14/immense-wealth-poor-work-conditions-qatar. (Accessed 17 April 2017).

Rabe, B. and Taylor, M.P., 2012. Differences in opportunities? Wage, employment and house‐price effects on migration. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics74(6), pp.831-855.

Saunders, D., 2015. The real reasons why migrants risk everything for a new life elsewhere. (Updated 26 April 2015). Retrieved from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/the-real-reasons-why-migrants-risk-everything-for-a-new-life-elsewhere/article24105000/. (Accessed 17 April 2017).

Shaheen, K., 2009. Money and lifestyle attract expatriates. The National. http://www.thenational.ae/news/uae-news/money-and-lifestyle-attract-expatriates. (Accessed 17 April 2017).

Siddiqui, T., 2012. Impact of migration on poverty and development.Migrating Out of Poverty Research Programme Consortium Working Paper,2.

Soto, R. and Haouas, I., 2012. Has the UAE Escaped the Oil Curse?.

Tuxford, K., 2015. What the new HR law in Qatar means for employees. CIPD. Retrieved from: http://www.cipd.ae/people-management-magazine/hr-news-opinion/new-hr-law-qatar. (Accessed 17 April 2017).

Whitehouse.gov, 2017. EXECUTIVE ORDER: PROTECTING THE NATION FROM FOREIGN TERRORIST ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES. Retrieved from: https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2017/01/27/executive-order-protecting-nation-foreign-terrorist-entry-united-states. (Accessed 17 April 2017).

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