Advise the President Essay

Advise the President Essay
Advise the President Essay

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Advise the President

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***Each answer to the question must be at least 200 words with 1 reference.

What would you advise the President of the US to do to help the countries you and your colleagues have discussed? Why?

Is the U.S. really taking on a heavier burden of the world’s needs? What does U.S. foreign aid accomplish and what would happen under the drastic cuts President Trump proposes? In recent work, Brookings experts have dispelled myths about foreign aid and explained why development assistance is important for recipient countries as well as for U.S. security

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Imagine you are an American diplomat in 1970

Imagine you are an American diplomat in 1970
Imagine you are an American diplomat in 1970

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Imagine you are an American diplomat in 1970

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Imagine you are an American diplomat in 1970. You are part of a team sent to a strategic Third World country in hopes of making an alliance. Soviet diplomats have been there before you and have suggested to the leaders of this Third World country that the United States should not be trusted as a partner because of how Americans treat their own minority populations. You have been asked to provide a formal, written rebuttal to the Soviet claims.

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After giving the matter some thought, you have decided to base your rebuttal on key changes in both foreign and domestic policy over the past 50 years to convince this Third World country to join with the Americans as allies in the Cold War. You realize that you cannot simply “sugarcoat” things and be believable, therefore you plan to provide a thoughtful response that does admit inequities in American society in addition to discussing ongoing changes and positive policies.

What are the key three points you want to get across in your rebuttal?

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America as a superpower

America as a superpower
America as a superpower

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America as a superpower

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Choose one of these thesis statements as your position (make it the last sentence of your introductory paragraph):

THESIS STATEMENT 1: By examples from different decades since 1950, it is clear that the international policing role and strategy of the United States was once essential, but should now be discarded as ineffective and counterproductive.

THESIS STATEMENT 2: By examples from different decades since 1950, it is clear that the international policing role and strategy of the United States during the Cold War has become even more necessary in this period of terrorism and instability.

� Whichever thesis statement you choose, plan to make that thesis statement the last sentence in your introductory paragraph. The general subject is America’s international “policing” role as a superpower for the last 70-plus years. You may modify the wording slightly to fit more precisely the position you wish to take. This is NOT a simple statement of a topic; it is a statement of a position you are taking about that topic. p.s. Valid arguments and “A” papers can be made with either thesis. So, you choose the one you think is the stronger position.

America as a superpower

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In your paper, use specific examples’two from the Cold War years (roughly 1950-1990) and two from post Cold War years (the past three decades, roughly 1991-2019). After giving general consideration to your readings and your research, select one of the positions above as your position your thesis. (Sometimes after doing more thorough research, you might choose the reverse position. This happens with critical thinking and inquiry. Your final paper might end up taking a different position than you originally envisioned.) Organize your paper as follows, handling these issues with this FOUR-PART organization (see Template also):

1. Part One-one paragraph. INTRODUCTION AND THESIS STATEMENT. The position you choose will be the thesis statement in your opening paragraph; make it the last sentence of the paragraph.

2. Part Two-two paragraphs normally. FOUR EXAMPLES. To support your thesis, use four specific examples, two from the Cold War years (1950-1990) and two from the post-Cold War period (1991-2019). The examples should be specific and clearly support your thesis. In these paragraphs one generally must have in-text citations to support your specific examples and to show where the information was found. Make the examples SPECIFIC. The FORMAT SAMPLE paper can also help on this part.

America as a superpower

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3. Part Three-one paragraph normally. DEALING WITH THE OPPOSING VIEW. The opposing view is the thesis statement you did NOT choose. Identify that opposing view and explain why the opposing view is weak in comparison to yours. No new research needed; just one paragraph of critical thinking suggesting why your thesis/position is stronger than a different view. Approach it this way: You adopted a thesis statement. The opposing view is the thesis statement you did NOT adopt. You might start this paragraph by saying “Some may disagree with my thesis and argue that ——- . “THEN”you spend 3 to 5 sentences giving a reasoned argument why your thesis is stronger than the opposing view.

4. Part Four-one paragraph: LEGACY TODAY AND CONCLUSION: Consider your life today: In what way does the history you have shown shape or impact issues in your workplace or desired profession? This might be unclear at first since it is foreign policy. (But, super-power status does inevitably provide advantages in a global economy.) This might be easy if you work in cyber security, criminal justice, IT, etc.

You can consider the legal impact of terrorism on the justice system, privacy issues, etc. Even a business must now plan accordingly. Every profession now must have security safeguards, have emergency incident preparations, plan what to do with data, etc. A few comments on these things for your profession-and some comments on how this impacts our lives in general. The FORMAT SAMPLE PAPER also has good suggestions for this part.

America as a superpower

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After the fourth part concluding the paper, be sure you have the numbered list of sources at the end. And be sure each source listed is also used and cited clearly in the body of the paper. The FORMAT SAMPLE paper illustrates this.

Length: The paper should be 500-to-750 words in length. 500 is a minimum. 750 is a guideline as a maximum. This word-count does not include any title page or sources list.

Research and References: You must use a MINIMUM of four quality academic sources; the Schultz textbook must be one of them. The other three may be from the list below or from other quality sources you find in the university’s online library. (Sticking with the list is a safe strategy; using other quality sources from the university’s online library is permitted.) This is guided research, not Googling.

Source list for Assignment 3: Some sources are “primary” sources from the time period being studied. Some sources below can be accessed via direct link. For others, they are accessible through the permalink to the source in our online library: Sources below having as part of the URL have a permalink to that source in our university’s online library. (The link takes you to the library log-in; you then log in, and then the source appears for you right away). Each source below is shown in SWS form, so if you use it, you may easily copy the entire entry onto your paper’s sources list. (On a paper, never list an item as URL only.)

America as a superpower

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SWS Form for the textbook:

Kevin M. Schultz. 2018. HIST: Volume 2: U.S. History since 1865. 5th ed.

Choose sources relevant to the topic and position you are taking:

G. H. W. Bush. March 6, 1991. Address before a Joint Session of the Congress on the Cessation of the Persian Gulf Conflict.

S. Chace. Summer, 2015. The Cuban Missile Crisis: Leadership as Disturbance, Informed by History.

J. F. Dulles. Jan. 2, 1954. Secretary Dulles� Strategy of Massive Retaliation.

M. Klare. July 15, 2002. Endless Military Superiority.

T. McCrisken. April/May, 2013. Obama�s Drone War.

America as a superpower

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C. Paul. 2008. Marines on the Beach: The Politics of U.S. Military Intervention Decision Making. eBook.

C. Powell. Feb. 6, 2003. Transcript of Powell�s UN Presentation.

R. Reagan. March, 1983. Remarks at the Annual Convention of the National Association of Evangelicals.

Kevin M. Schultz. 2018. HIST: Volume 2: U.S. History since 1865. 5th ed.

S. M. Tarzi. Sept. 2014. The Folly of a Grand Strategy of Coercive Global Primacy: A Fresh Perspective on the Post-9/11 Bush Doctrine.

America as a superpower

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Foreign Policy Essay Assignment

Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy

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Foreign Policy

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Identify one public issue of interest and design a policy to address the issue.

Foreign policy is the rational pursuit of a set of national objectives. “Pursuit” suggests action, steps, and roles that will delineate the attitude or behaviour of a state in the external context.

Any written or oral statement made: (i) In connection with an issue under consideration or review by a legislative, executive, or judicial body, or any other official proceeding authorized by law; or (ii) In a place open to the public or a public forum in connection with an issue of public interest; or (B) Any other expression or expressive conduct that involves petitioning the government or communicating views to members of the public in connection with an issue of public interest. (Emphasis added)

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Trump imposing Tariffs: Steel and Aluminum

Trump imposing Tariffs
Trump imposing Tariffs

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Trump imposing Tariffs

What’s your opinion on Trump imposing tariffs on steel and aluminum? Who are the winners and losers of this new policy?

Tariffs are taxes paid on imported goods. In earlier eras tariffs were an important source of government revenue, but in recent decades the U.S. government has used tariffs primarily to shield certain industries from foreign competition. Over the years, Congress has delegated substantial authority to impose tariffs to the executive branch, which means presidents have considerable discretion to increase tariffs on specific products or imports from specific countries.

President Trump used this power to increase tariffs on solar panels, washing machines, steel, and aluminum, as well as on a broad range of products from China. Overall, in 2019, the U.S. government brought in $79 billion in tariffs, twice the value from two years earlier and a sharp break from recent trends.

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Asia-Pacific Multinationals comparison
Asia-Pacific Multinationals comparison

Asia-Pacific Multinationals Comparison


            Organizational success is to a great extent determined by the approach taken in corporate organization, its strategy and corporate capabilities. A company’s strategy determines a company’s direction in achieving its objectives while its core capabilities denote the unique factors that differentiate it from competitors. These two aspects are directly related to the organization’s performance as they determine how well an organization can compete. This paper is a comparison of five Asia-Pacific companies to determine how they differ strategy, capabilities, role of government and organizational structure. These include Mitsubishi Corporation, Hitachi Technologies, Huawei, SECOM and Samsung.


Mitsubishi Corporation

            Mitsubishi’s strategy involves creating corporate value for stakeholders in order to promote societal value and growth potential.

            In terms of capabilities, Mitsubishi outperforms its competitors through its diverse businesses. The company operates in different industries including metals, energy, infrastructure, chemicals, and logistics among others. Diversity is known to promote organizational stability based on distribution of risk (Brady, Doyle Noonan, 2013). Triland Metals contributes greatly to the company’s financial performance.

Mitsubishi is considered as being among the world’s biggest multinational. The company therefore has capabilities related to its popular brand name, which makes its products attractive to customers. Mitsubishi invests heavily on research and development and this has contributed to the development of high quality products. Its financial strength also gives Mitsubishi a competitive edge.

            Like most multinationals in Asia-Pacific, Mitsubishi has received considerable government backing during its rise. Based on the stable relationship between the owner and the government in its days of formation, Mitsubishi benefited from tax subsides, financial support and government contracts (Reference for Business, 2016). Connections with government officials ensured that Mitsubishi enjoyed favors that led to its rapid growth.

            Mitsubishi’s corporate structure is significantly bureaucratic, given that it is a large organization with many businesses. The section heads and group CEOs of the various businesses all report to the chief executive. Each group CEO then has different division heads under his leadership. Mitsubishi’s corporate structure is presented below.

Hitachi Technology

Hitachi has grown considerably over the years, becoming one of the most influential multinationals in Asia-Pacific. This is expected to improve, based on its new strategic approach which involves collaborative creation with customers. The strategy consists of a social innovation business in which the company encourages customers to get involved in the company’s innovation process.

Through the creation of regional ‘fronts’ which promote contact with customers, the company ensures that the needs of customers are met as effectively as possible. To enhance performance of the social innovation model, the company aims at spreading it to all its acquired businesses.

Hitachi’s technological innovation efficiency remains one of its major capabilities. Accordingly, Hitachi can compete well in the market and provide the best quality products for its customers. High level financial performance is a great capability for Hitachi because this means that the company is capable of investing in quality business processes, research and development and the provision of quality products. Financial reports for the company indicate that the company made sales worth 2,000 billion Yen and net income worth 172.1 billion in 2015. The company’s net income is projected to grow to over 400 billion Yen by 2018.

Hitachi’s corporate culture aims at reducing hierarchies and promoting a decentralized system. This is a unique structure compared to other Asia-Pacific organizations which tend to be highly centralized. According to JETRO, increased globalization has led to a move towards decentralization in Asia-Pacific businesses, with the objective of promoting management efficiency and enhancing business outcomes. The corporate structure is illustrated as follows:


            Huawei is recognized for its rapid growth, having created a strong impact within a short period of time. In doing so, Huawei’s strategy involves research and development, which the company invests heavily on to ensure that it offers innovative solutions for its customers in terms of technology and internet solutions. Targeted innovation dominates its strategy, in a bid to satisfy its customers. To achieve this, Huawei maintains a strong research team to ensure that it maintains technological leadership in a globally competitive environment.

            Huawei’s greatest capabilities lie in its innovative products, technology manufactured competence, brand strength and a global customer base. Huawei’s products are popular across the globe, based on their high quality and performance. This has also contributed to the company’s strong brand, thus enhancing its global performance to a great extent. Huawei’s manufacturing efficiency ensures that the company can produce high quality products to meet customer needs. High profitability potential helps the company effectively meet its obligations while its investment in research and development capabilities have ensured that the company produces innovative products that appeal to customers.

            Huawei’s success in the United States has been hampered by its association with the Chinese government, thus raising security issues. It is alleged that the company’s policies on cyber security have been influenced by government involvement. As a result, Huawei has undergone security audits to determine its business suitability in the United States. Its future still remains unclear, given the lack of trust by the US government.

In terms of corporate structure, the company has been divided into group functions including enterprise business group, carrier, consumer, and service business groups. Each of the group leads answer directly to the CEO or rotating CEO. The rotating CEO structure is a structure in which the company has a different CEO every six months. There are three CEO: one is the founder while the other two are rotating CEOs. Depending on the CEO in office, he or she is considered the highest officer within the company. This structure is shown as below.


SECOM’S strategy involves the use of diversity and innovation in providing the most reliable security solutions. The company is known for its high quality security systems and tools that they provide for all sectors, ranging from simple security cameras to high level security infrastructure. High product quality and customer satisfaction drive the company’s strategy.

In terms of capabilities, SECOM PLC prides itself as a strong force in security technology. This signifies strong expertise in developing security solutions, installations and maintenance. Accordingly, SECOM has a large market share and this has a significant role in promoting performance.

SECOM has a team of highly qualified engineers, with the ability to develop, install and maintain security devices and systems. The company’s innovative model of national accounts plays an imperative role in enhancing customer service. Customers are provided with service accounts and provided with support from the company based on where they are located.

SECOM’s organizational structure takes on a centralized strategy in management, where the management regional office functions report directly to the head office. The section heads respond to the managing director and have several levels under them, making the system highly bureaucratic. The corporate structure is provided by SECOM as below.


Samsung follows the vertical integration strategy, which involves owning the production line, from the supply of raw material to final production. Samsung has developed strong capabilities in terms of its supply chain. The company manufactures its own parts including chips, processors and screens using specialized manufacturing innovations that it has mastered over the years.

Samsung owns extensive factories in which it produces mass quantities of phone and TV parts, some of which are sold to competitors in the market. Vertical integration ensures that a company can benefit from low production costs and also enhances efficiency. This strategy gives Samsung a competitive advantage in that by controlling the manufacture of the chips, Samsung is confident that the quality of the parts will be high and consequently the quality of their products.

Samsung has numerous capabilities and core competencies. The first capability is its financial capacity, which has been built over the years to make Samsung a highly profitable company. This ensures that the company has adequate financial resources to manage operations, invest in research and development and to promote business continuity. The second capability is its strong brand which is known across the world. Samsung’s phones and TVs are highly popular, with over one third of Europe owning a Samsung TV (Samsung Profile, 2016).

The third capability is its innovation capacity, fueled by a persistent culture of research and development. Samsung invests heavily in R&D in order to ensure that the quality of its products is maintained at the best possible standards. Another capability is its ability to undertake mass production through its massive plants. Samsung is also well endowed in human resource capabilities, employing approximately 14,000 employees in Europe (Samsung Profile, 2016).

            The influence of the government on Samsung’s growth is evident. South Korea invested highly in Samsung during its initial days of international expansion through providing the company with financial support, waiver of tax rebates and promoting a friendly business environment. As a result, Samsung grew to become one of South Korea’s largest corporations, contributing over 20% of the country’s gross domestic product. Therefore, the influence of Samsung on the government is immense and Samsung is known to receive protection from the government (Harlan, 2012). This may promote its future performance business continuity.

The corporate structure at Samsung is considerably horizontal and subdivided in terms of divisions within the company. Each division head answers direct to the CEO as seen below.


The companies discussed above portray strong dedication to customer satisfaction, mostly achieved through the development of innovative products resulting from research and development investment. Each company maintains a dedicated R&D department aimed at developing quality products and new innovations to promote success. However, the companies differ in terms of how they approach sustainability and thus ensure business survival in the face of increasing competition.

Mitsubishi’s approach involves investing in diversity, which according to Johnson et al (2014), ensures that a company can manage its risks more effectively. When a company uses diversity as a strategy, successful business segments can effectively complement others when they are not performing well due to various factors in the business environment (Grant, 2016).

Hitachi’s approach towards sustainability is exemplified in the company’s quest to identify future needs of customers in order to ensure that they are effectively met. The social innovation model presents a unique strategy towards promoting customer satisfaction and consequently increased profitability (Weber, Weggeman & Van Aken, 2012). SECOM, Samsung and Huawei’s approaches are closely related because they focus on customer satisfaction through innovation.

Notably, customers are drawn to companies that provide them with unique products and constant research and development is needed to ensure that this is achieved (Woojung & Taylor, 2016). These companies invest considerable amounts in research and development in order to develop innovative products for their customers. As far as Samsung is concerned, vertical integration stands out in its strategy, being the only company that has a considerable influence on its supply chain.

By owning and controlling manufacturing bases in which phone and TV components are manufactured, Samsung can quickly develop innovative ideas into new products ahead of its competitors (Kambara, 2013). Furthermore the company saves on costs for buying the components and gains revenue from supplying other companies in the sector.  While each company takes its own approach to strategy, the ultimate goal is to enhance customer satisfaction and hence improve on profitability and market growth (Fitzgerald & Jiangfeng, 2015).

The core capabilities of the organizations differ widely across a myriad of factors as established in the various company profiles. It is notable that all the companies have managed to create a strong brand name internationally, which is critical in promoting their survival in the industry. Secondly, their financial performance is a major strength for all the companies, with each aiming at providing the best quality products to promote profitability.

Manufacturing capabilities are demonstrated in each of the companies and so is the human resource capacity as a core capability in promoting innovation. Unique models applied by each company also stand out in the analysis of capabilities as follows: Diversity for Mitsubishi, innovation efficiency for Hitachi and Huawei, expertise in security solutions for SECOM and a strong brand name and manufacturing efficiency for Samsung. Based on their unique capabilities, these companies have managed to be successful in the market and make considerable profits based on their activities.

The nature of the organization’s corporate structure determines its performance to a great extent as it influences power distribution and organizational efficiency (Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2012). The rise in decentralization as evidenced in the companies discussed is an illustration of what is put forth by Sheldon & Malcom (2011), that Japanese companies are increasingly discovering the impact of decentralization on performance efficiency on international firms.

SECOM PLC however maintains a centralized system unlike other organizations which have separate functions for each regional office. At SECOM, various departments report to the corresponding department at the head office. The sales department for example reports directly to the marketing department at the head office, as opposed to reporting to the regional head. A centralized structure insinuates that the management of the organization is done centrally (Wong, Ormiston & Tetlock, 2011).

This may impact the organization through slow decision making and bureaucracy, thus reducing performance potential (Musibau, 2016).  On the same note, the use of a vertical corporate structure which consists of lengthy reporting lines as evidenced by SECOM, Mitsubishi and Samsung is evident. This raises the question on whether decisions are harder to make in these organizations, compared to horizontal corporate structures where fewer reporting lines exist as in the case of Hitachi and Huawei.

The role of the government in Japanese and Chinese governments in supporting multinational companies to expand internationally is inevitable. Pearce (notes establishes that in the initial years, organizations received support from the government in expanding their operations, in a bid to encourage international expansion. In the case of Hitachi, Samsung and Mitsubishi, the government was particularly influential in their international expansion.

Samsung’s consequent control of the government is an indication that government influence can contribute significantly to organizational performance. The corporation is considered untouchable because its contribution to the country’s income is high enough to render the country disoriented if withdrawn, hence the notable protection. The Korean government has in many instances been accused of favourism towards Samsung, letting the company get away with regulation issues (Marlow, 2015)


            The companies compared in this paper effectively illustrate why an effective strategy is instrumental in an organization’s performance. Based on their innovative and dedicated strategies, each of the five organizations has managed to surpass expectations, by being among Asia-Pacific organizations that are leading in global performance.

Secondly, core capabilities play the role of driving business based on a company’s major competencies. This is evidenced in the discussion, where all the companies compared have a unique set of characteristics that have contributed to their growth internationally.

Thirdly, the corporate structure of an organization to a great extent influences performance and a decentralized structure is considered more desirable in managing modern day organizations compared to centralized structures (Malaurent, Yan & Avison, 2016). It is also notable that government control has been influential in the expansion of a majority of the firms discussed. Accordingly, the government continues to influence these organizations, thus impacting their performance. 

            The discussion brings out unique observations for each company discussed. These can be summarized as follows.

Mitsubishi emerges as an example of global leadership based on diversity. Literature on diversity suggests that diverse companies tend to survive better in the competitive world and are more resilient to harsh economic conditions.

Hitachi establishes that customer centrism is the modern approach to enhancing competitiveness. Through adopting the social innovation model to increasingly focus on involving customers in the innovation process, Hitachi demonstrates that customers are key contributors to strategy.

Huawei demonstrates that targeted innovation could be useful in high technology organizations where new trends keep emerging. Through investing heavily in research and development, Huawei has successfully identified opportunities for growth by providing solutions for contemporary technology users. This has contributed greatly to its rapid growth.

SECOM’s value in expertise emerges as a strong factor in driving success. SECOM is not only innovative but it also strives to promote sustainability through ensuring that the solutions they provide to clients serve them effectively, through setting up a customer support system.

Samsung’s success in the global arena and consequent classification as an ‘untouchable’ is a clear demonstration that government influence can have a significant impact on an organization’s success. Samsung has a form of ‘insurance’ in government backing and its survival is largely assured based on government support. Samsung also provides a valuable lesson on vertical integration and could be an ideal example of how companies could save on costs by managing their supply chains.

Reference list

Brady, G, Doyle, E, & Noonan, L 2013, ‘Trade Sophistication Indicators: Balancing Diversity and Specialization’, International Advances In Economic Research, 19, 4, pp. 425-438, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 December 2016., Retrieved from

Ellman, M, & Pezanis-Christou, P 2010, ‘Organizational Structure, Communication, and Group Ethics’, American Economic Review, 100, 5, pp. 2478-2491

Fitzgerald, R & Jiangfeng L 2015, Strategic capabilities and the emergence of the global factory: Omron in China, Asia Pacific Business Review, 21 (3), 333-363

Fitzgerald, R & Rowley, C 2015, Multinational Companies from Japan : Capabilities, Competitiveness, and Challenges, London, Routledge.

Fitzgerald, R, & Rui, H 2016, ‘Whose fall and whose rise? Lessons of Japanese MNCs for Chinese and emerging economy MNCs’, Asia Pacific Business Review, 22, 4, pp. 534-566, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost.

Grant, R. M 2016, Contemporary Strategy Analysis: text and cases, 9th edn. Chichester, Wiley & Sons.

Harlam, C 2012, In S. Korea, the Republic of Samsung. Retrieved from

Hitachi 2016, Hitachi in Europe, Hitachi Ltd

Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2012, Strategic management process and case, Retrieved from

Ichimura, S 2015, Japan and Asia: Economic Development And Nation Building, Singapore, World Scientific

Johnson et al 2014, Exploring Strategy: text and cases, 10th edn, London, Pearson.

Kambara, H 2013, Production Outsourcing and Firm Performance: An Empirical Analysis of Japanese Manufacturers, Journal of Business Studies Quarterly 1, pp.

Malaurent, J, Yan, L & Avison, D 2012, Reopening the Centralization-Decentralization Debate: A Comparative Case Study Of ERP Implementation In Two Chinese Petroleum Companies, Retrieved from

Marlow, I 2015, South Korea’s chaebol problem, Retrieved from

Musibau, A, et al 2016, ‘How Organizational Structure Aids Business Performance’, Clear international Journal Of Research In Commerce & Management, 7, 8, pp. 64-68, Retrieved from

Pearce, R 2012, China and the Multinationals: International Business and the Entry of China Into the Global Economy, New Horizons in International Business Series, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Reference for Business, Mitsubishi Corporation – Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History, Background Information on Mitsubishi Corporation,, Retrieved from

Samsung Profile 2016, Welcome to Samsung Electronics Europe. Class notes.

SECOM 2016, Prospect Brochure, Retrieved from

Sheldon, SK & Malcom, YL 2011, China’s Changing Workplace: Dynamism, Diversity and Disparity China’s Changing Workplace: Dynamism, Diversity and Disparity, London, Warner Publisher Routledge.

Takahito, K & Kazuyuki, M 2016, Centralization or Decentralization of Decision Rights? Impact on IT Performance of Firms, RIETI Discussion Paper Series 06-E-032, Retrieved from

Weber, M, Weggeman, M, & Van Aken, J 2012, ‘Developing What Customers Really Need: Involving Customers In Innovations’, International Journal Of Innovation & Technology Management, 9, 3, p. -1. Retrieved from

Wong, E, Ormiston, M, & Tetlock, P 2011, ‘The Effects Of Top Management Team Integrative Complexity And Decentralized Decision Making On Corporate Social Performance’, Academy Of Management Journal, 54, 6, pp. 1207-1228. Retrieved from

Woojung, C, & Taylor, S 2016, ‘The Effectiveness of Customer Participation in New Product Development: A Meta-Analysis’, Journal Of Marketing, 80, 1, pp. 47-64, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 8 December 2016.

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Federal Constitution and international treaties or agreements: Case Analysis

Federal Constitution
Federal Constitution

Federal Constitution and international treaties or agreements: Case Analysis

Reid V. Covert

I. Facts of the case

Mrs. Covert was a civilian dependent on her husband, Mr. Covert, a sergeant in the United States air force who was stationed in the United Kingdom. Mrs. Covert murdered her husband in an airbase in the United Kingdom. Pursuant to an agreement between US and UK, which granted permission to martial court to take action against criminals for any offence committed in the United Kingdom by any American armed force serviceman or any of their dependent, Mrs. Covert was convicted by martial court as per article 2(11) of the Uniform State Code of Military Justice   without any protection of indictment by the grand jury or right to jury trial.

Initially, the US court confirmed her conviction. She filed for a writ of habeas corpus and alleged that she was denied her constitutional right to have her charge presented to a grand jury or a right to jury trial as provided under the fifth and sixth amendments. She was sent to the US to await rehearing on her case. On rehearing, her petition was accepted (Haljan, 2013).

II. The issue

The main issue of the case is to solve the conflicting provisions of the Federal Constitution and international treaties or agreements and to know whether an American employed in the armed forces or their dependents living abroad found guilty of capital offence retain their right to jury trial as conferred under the Federal Constitution, thus rendering the trial by martial court as per article 2(11) of Uniform Code of Military Justice unenforceable.

III. Rules

The case involves two decisions so we have different set of rules which are given as below.

(a) Rule applicable during first decision

The first hearing on the case was based on Article 2(11) of Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) provides that all Americans serving with the armed forces or their dependents living in the UK are subject to provisions of this Code. Section 118 of Uniform Code of Military Justice provide for trial by the court martial for any capital case.

(b) Rules applicable during second Decision
  • Civilians found guilty of any crime are entitled to their constitutional right of protection on indictment by the grand jury as provided under the Fifth Amendment and right to jury trial as provided under the Sixth Amendment. The supremacy of the Constitution provides all rights to American citizens even if they are residing abroad.
  • Any legislation, treaty or foreign agreement must comply with provisions of the Constitution. The supremacy clause does not provide that any treaty or foreign agreement or any legislation passed does not have to comply with provisions of the Constitution. If the US government enters into any agreement or treaty with the foreign government and implement any legislation which is in conflict with provisions of the Constitution, then such agreements or legislation will be invalid.
  • The US government can act against its citizens residing abroad only if the specified limitations are imposed under the Constitution including Article III, section 2, 5th and 6th amendments.
IV. Analysis
  • First hearing on case

The Federal Constitution provides the right to jury trial to any American before his conviction. During the hearing of the case for the first time, the interpretation given by the US government was that the Constitutional right to the jury trial is available to Americans residing within the US territorial limits and is not available for American servicemen or their dependents living abroad.

Mrs. Covert, an American citizen, was tried by the martial court for the murder of her husband in the United Kingdom. She was denied to her constitutional right because she was living outside the United States and her conviction was affirmed by the US court. The court also provided for the provision of the jury trial if Congress finds it to be reasonable.

  • Second hearing of case
  • Second time, the decision was based on Article 2(11) which empowers the military courts to act against offences committed by American servicemen or their dependents in the UK territory without any jury trial cannot supersede Article III, Section 2 and the sixth amendment of the Federal Constitution which grant the right to jury trial to civilians abroad. The constitutional rights extend even beyond the boundaries of the US to Americans overseas. When the US government approaches out to punish a criminal, the constitutional rights of American citizens in abroad to protect own life does not go away on the ground of being in another land. So civilians cannot be tried by the court martial.
  • The supremacy clause given in Article VI of the Federal Constitution does not provide about non-compliance of provisions of the Constitution after enactment of any agreement or treaty with the foreign government.
  • There was no such intention of the law makers to set up a rivalry system between civil courts and military courts, where they compete with each other to exercise their jurisdiction over the civil criminals who are dependent on someone employed in the armed force. It seems incredible if the civil criminals are tried by the martial court and denied their right to jury trial.
  • The founders of the law used to accept the trial of soldiers by martial court for any offence during peace time with grudges. It will be again an annoying fact if Mrs. Covert is tried by martial court for the capital case committed during peace time.
  • Moreover, whatever jurisdiction the military court acquires as a result of the application of article 2(11) of UCMJ is lost when the convicted is handed over to the custody of the United States authorities. The article 2(11) of Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) became inoperative when Mrs. Covert was sent to the US and handed over to US authorities. On the basis of above rules, the petition of Mrs. Covert for the writ of habeas corpus was accepted.
V. Conclusion

The decision on this case was given twice in the US Supreme Court. The decision given during the second time was reversed by the court itself which happened for the first time in the US history.

Mrs. Covert who was convicted by martial court for the murder of her husband on the basis of Article 2(11) of Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) and was denied her constitutional right but was ultimately granted this right on the basis of the Supremacy clause of the sixth amendment which provides for compliance of all provisions of the Constitution by all treaties and foreign agreements. The Federal Constitution is a supreme source of law and no other state law, treaties or foreign agreements or legislation can supersede it.


Haljan, D. (2013). Separating Powers : International Law before National Courts. The Hague: T.M.C Asser Press.

Corruption in International Business

Corruption in International Business
Corruption in International Business

Corruption in International Business

1. Introduction

Despite the promulgation of anti-corruption laws, corruption remains a menace in international business. Historically, cases of corruption in the international business arena have dominated news headlines, mostly as international firms seek to enter foreign markets or maintain market share. According to Transparency International, all countries are corrupt, and it is only the degree of corruption that differs.

Corruption in international business can be associated with increasing global competition which encourages unethical practices aimed at gaining market traction and rigidity in international laws that motivate businesses to use short-cuts to navigate the legal systems. This makes it difficult for companies that are attempting to maintain integrity to compete in a fair environment.

Consequently, corruption has created a negative impact on international trade by debasing the relevance of business ethics, which has to a great extent created a culture of corruption in international trade. Corruption costs the economy significantly, and as reported by Transparency International in 2013, approximately $2.6 trillion or 5% of the world’s GNP is lost through corruption (Makhlouf, 2016). Companies also lose significantly through increased project costs. 

Despite the consented efforts to deal with corruption that impacts international business, it is also notable that this remains the most difficult moral issue to fight. This is because as much there are smart anti-corruption strategies put in place across the world, the impact of corruption on international business still prevails. This paper is a discussion of corruption in International trade including the history, forms of corruption, the impact of corruption, anti-corruption strategies and possible solutions to corruption in international business.

2.      History

            Corruption in international business is as old as the business itself. Its origin can be associated with stringent rules placed on foreign entrants by different countries and the difficulties associated with penetrating new markets, such that bribing government officials helps companies in circumventing legal and social huddles (Eicher, 2012).

In the early days of international trade, bribery was not illegal, and it was considered normal for companies that sought to do or retain business in foreign countries to bribe government officials. Indeed, foreign bribes in some European countries were considered a cost of doing business and would be deducted from corporate tax returns.

As globalization continued to rise, the international business also grew at a high rate, and this propagated the growth of corruption. This was further enhanced by free market reforms led by international financial institutions and donor governments. More companies were investing internationally, and the trend of bribing government officials to facilitate entry of businesses or competitive advantage in the host country became a norm. It was so common that bribes were budgeted for as part of a company’s overseas operations.

In December 1975, the earliest international anti-corruption movement began when the U.N Assembly’s resolution titled “Measures against Corrupt Practices of Transnational and Other Corporations, their Intermediaries, and Others Involved” was passed (Ala’I, 2017). This resolution was a means of condemning corrupt practices that violated host country laws and regulations, by transnational corporations and others.

The UN Working Group was formed by the U.N. Economic and Social Council in the quest to provide recommendations for eliminating corruption. The Group called for international action, after discussions between 1976 and 1980.

The United States became the first country to implement anti-bribery law following the passage of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, which explicitly outlawed the practice in 1977 (SEC, 2012). The business community considered the decision by U.S. a wrong move because it would disadvantage the United States regarding competitive advantage, thus leading to major protest. However, the Act was passed, and this marked the beginning of a change in international business practices. Companies and individuals using the U.S financial system, according to the Act, were required to refrain from bribing or offering to bribe foreign officials for purposes of retaining or gaining business.

Interestingly, other countries did not follow suit until over 20 years later, an indication that bribery played a considerable role in international business. In Europe, corruption associated with foreign business was not given much attention as bribery was considered a necessary business expense. The same was applicable in a majority of countries, and it is not until recently when this perception changed globally, giving rise to anti-corruption laws that regarded bribing foreign officials a criminal offense (Hauser & Hogenacker, 2014).

In 1999, the OECD Convention on the Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions came into being, with 29 members and five non-members signing the agreement. The convention provided guidelines for legislation implementation and tasked governments to criminalize active bribery in international business. This convention has led to the implementation of various other conventions across the world in a bid to fight corruption.  Also, this has resulted in increased awareness of the negative impacts of corruption, and global efforts to prevent bribery and corruption have increased as observed today.

3.      Forms of corruption

 Corruption in international business can be classified into two broad categories: corruption associated with foreign market entry and corruption that influences competitive advantage within the market. Foreign market entry mostly involves complex procedures and barriers to entry, perpetrated by the bureaucracy and rigid rules and regulations governing the entry of foreign organizations. Once in the market, firms still face significant challenges in the form of laws governing foreign companies and high levels of competition from local firms. This may trigger corruption because government officials are aware of the frustrations faced by foreign companies and the owners are desperate to gain market traction. In both of the categories described above, corruption may be executed in various forms as follows:

Bribery: Offering money in exchange for a favor

Extortion: Asking for money or other payments in return for services

Kickbacks: Percentage of income given to an individual for facilitating a business process.

Facilitation payments: These are payments made with the aim of achieving faster results.

Grand corruption: Payments to politicians, policy makers, and other high-level officials.

Petty schemes: Payments to lower and middle-class officials with influence and power.

Influence peddling: Obtaining money with the promise of connecting an individual to power influencers.

Nepotism: Requiring that the company hires friends and relatives in return for favors.

4.      Effects of corruption

 Corruption can have grave consequences on international business as established in the discussion below. 

Restricted entry

 The corruption that impedes market entry can be a great deterrence for honest firms. In such situations, entry requirements are normally very complicated or marred by bureaucracy, thus creating room for corruption. This means that corrupt government officials may entice organizations to pay bribes to have the registration processes speeded up or some of the entry requirements overlooked (Eicher, 2016).

Unfair competition

            Corruption affects the competitive environment by altering the competitive conditions. Corruption allows large corporations to control the market because they can bribe their way out of various legal circumstances or bypass certain regulations required in operation of their businesses (Makhlouf, 2016). This disadvantages honest dealers and thus creates an asymmetrical market environment. An example is where a corrupt company pays government officials to overlook the company’s potential environmental pollution and offer a clearance certificate in support of the organization’s activities.

Honest firms, on the other hand, may have to invest heavily in reducing environmental pollution to comply with the government requirements or have to pay fines for any deviation. When the two firms are compared, the corrupt firm has a competitive advantage because it will record higher profitability.

High prices for consumers

 Where corruption is prevalent, it also means that organizations must incur high costs in meeting their objectives. This translates into higher costs of production, which are consequently transferred to the consumer for the company to make desirable profits. This affects not only customers but also the economy at large because of reduced customer purchasing power. 

Poor quality products

 Corruption creates loopholes for the production and import of inferior products. When companies can get away with poor standards and the use of subnormal raw materials through corruption, the customer suffers due to the poor quality of products they receive. Also, corrupt officials allowing cheap goods to be imported into the country could be risking the lives of citizens. 

Corrupt business culture

            Thede & Gustafson (2012) notes that self-sustained unethical behavior is likely to result from corruption in international trade. This is because the more corrupt deals are made, the higher the corruption prevalence becomes. According to Thede & Gustafson (2012), corrupt agents are more likely to interact with corruptible agents for business, and these behavioral patterns end up being sustained as the norm. This further worsens corruption to the disadvantage of honest agents. A corrupt culture tends to raise honest exchange transactions, such that it is more expensive to find an honest business partner due to higher search costs. 

5.      Corruption and economic growth

 Corruption can have deleterious effects on economic growth. A majority of literature studies the negative impact of corruption, mostly as an ethical issue and a factor that impacts equilibrium of the business environment. Corruption is a costly affair, and it could limit economic growth, and as established by OECD (2014), corruption accounts for the loss of approximately 5% of the world’s GDP. This may be evidenced by inefficiencies resulting from corrupt practices. Also, the unequal distribution of income and resources that result from corruption leads to the rise of poverty rates (Makhlouf, 2016).

Corruption limits economic gains from international business. This is because only firms that are financially capable and which are corrupt get access to foreign market entry while the honest and less financially endowed are locked out. Based on this, corruption can be seen as a limiting factor for international business because the country may end up losing on entrants with great potential because the opportunities were given to those who could pay (Eicher, 2016). This further impacts domestic production opportunities due to obstruction of competition (Thede & Gustafson, 2012). 

Corruption impacts governance and control of the business environment. The existence of corruption makes it difficult for authorities to implement regulations and controls, thus making governance difficult. Rotberg (2017) notes that it undermines the efficiency of state institutions and undermines a country’s regulatory environment, thus distorting decision-making processes. This results in a skewed business environment, and it becomes difficult to provide a level playing ground for all firms in the market including incentives.

6.      Legal/political systems

A country’s legal and political systems greatly influence the prevalence of corruption and the extent to which this influences international business. In countries where strict measures are placed to control corruption, the levels of corruption are lower. This is because legal systems discourage such illegal practices. Further, political systems the level of control within government agencies, such that corruption may be lower in countries where the governing political body is committed to fighting corruption (Eicher, 2012).

In the initial periods of international business growth, foreign official bribery for purposes of business was not considered illegal in any country, and it is not until recently that legal and political systems were put in place to manage corruption. As a result, it is possible to state that the legal and political systems at the time perpetrated the occurrence of corruption, given that there were no laws to govern the practice (PBS, 2017).

The discussions above also establish that the main catalyst of corruption is the existence of trade barriers that limit the entry of foreign companies and effective business operations in the host countries, thus encouraging businesses to seek easier alternatives. By maintaining such conditions, governments played a significant role in promoting corruption, thus creating the menace observed today.

Given the high level of corruption emanating from international business, countries have taken different measures aimed at combating corruption. This represents a change in trends that has influenced legal and political systems through the development of laws that prohibit corruption and which promote prosecution of perpetrators. In the United States which was the first country to implement legal systems to deal with corruption, the Security Exchange Commission implements the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act through investigations and audit procedures aimed at discovering any possible bribery of foreign officials (SEC, 2012).

Political systems across the globe have also increasingly relaxed their international trade barriers to promote smoother processes that eliminate the need for corruption and bribery. According to Eicher (2012), reduction in trade barriers has been instrumental in reducing corruption because they eliminate incentives to corruption which were previously brought about by difficult processes, bureaucracy, and strict international business laws. 

Countries are increasingly participating in international conventions that encourage the implementation of legal systems to curb corruption in their countries. Examples of popular conventions against corruption and bribery include the OECD Convention on the Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, United Nations Convention against Corruption, EU Convention on the Fight against Corruption, The Inter-American Convention against Corruption and the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption among others (UK Anticorruption Forum, 2017). 

These conventions have played a significant role in the development of more solid legal systems to deal with corruption and thereby improved international trade.

7.      Anti-corruption strategies

Regulations: These are laws and regulations developed to govern international business and which ban the use of corruption to achieve business objectives in the international markets.

Trade barriers relaxation: This is aimed at promoting international trade by eliminating trade barriers that often limit business between countries. It may involve reducing taxes, registration charges, policies and regulations that limit international business. The result has reduced the incentive to give or receive bribes because the processes are not limiting. 

Anti-corruption Conventions: These convene officials and business people from different countries to discuss and develop an agreement on how corruption can be combated.

Accounting practices and audit: To limit corruption, governments have continuously introduced strict accounting practices to discourage corruption. Public companies are also subjected to auditing to determine the existence of unscrupulous business practices. 

Trade agreements: These are agreements between countries to eliminate barriers to trade and thus ease international business. This may be in the form of mutual agreements to reduce regulations for businesses from the countries involved or tying of conditions to the benefitting country’s contribution to the host country. An example is where developing countries ease trade barriers in exchange for infrastructure loans.

Mobilization of public opinion: This strategy involves civil society engagement, mostly through non-governmental organizations to influence private and public organizations to end corruption by demonstrating its negative impacts.

8.      Cures of corruption

            Corruption has been singled out as one of the moral issues that is difficult to control and which may never be successfully eliminated. However, efforts towards corruption elimination should mostly focus on the cause of corruption.

Internationalization: Internationalization is a possible cure for corruption in international business. This is the process of in which barriers are eliminated or at least reduced to promote trade. This would encourage free investment across the world, and this would reduce the motivation for corruption.

Leadership and political will: Leaders have the ability to influence the end of corruption in their countries through influencing moral behavior, promoting political good will and setting up laws that discourage corruption. Rotberg (2017) notes that leaders have influence over their followers and that they can influence their actions if they are committed to ending appropriate behaviors. When a country’s leadership is committed to ending corruption, they will do anything in their capacity to achieve this objective. 

Anti-corruption commissions: Anti-corruption commissions are formed with the objective of creating an independent body to investigate and prosecute companies and government officials involved in corruption. According to Transparency International (2017), an anti-corruption agency that is independent and well financed can play a vital role in fighting corruption.

Unfortunately, anti-corruption commissions still face the threat of political influence and will only be effective if their permanence is legally guaranteed and independence of the commission is assured through the appointment of leaders who are competent, have an apolitical stance and demonstrate impartiality, independence, neutrality, and integrity (Transparency International, 2017).

Self-regulation: This approach to corruption is informal and mostly aims at promoting self-governance among businesses to end corruption. Such may be achieved through internal policies and codes of conduct. This approach is more about promoting moral duty among organizations by calling on organizations to be more responsible in their business dealings.

9.      Conclusion

Corruption in international business has mostly been associated with barriers to market entry in international markets. As a result, organizations seeking entry into such markets may be forced to bribe foreign officials to facilitate their entry and circumvent the regulations.

Once an entry is achieved, there are market dynamics that often make it difficult for foreign companies to operate including business laws and regulations, foreign business taxation policies, business marketing practices, sales and distribution, and competition dynamics among other factors. These limit foreign business operations and expansion, and consequently influence the perpetration of corruption, to ease business in foreign countries and speed up business growth.

Despite the increasing efforts towards fighting corruption, it remains a great menace that may hinder international business for a long time. In this paper, the history of corruption in international business, economic impact of corruption, legal and political systems and different anti-corruption strategies that have been utilized over the years are discussed. This paper also establishes various solutions that may eventually cure corruption including internationalization, leadership and political will, anti-corruption commissions and self-regulation of international firms.

10.  References

Ala’i, P. (2017). Controlling corruption in international business: the international legal framework. International Sustainable Development Law – Vol. II. Retrieved from

Eicher, S. (2012). Corruption in International Business: The Challenge of Cultural and Legal Diversity. Farnham, UK: Gower Publishing, Ltd.

Hauser, C., & Hogenacker, J. (2014). Do Firms Proactively Take Measures to Prevent

Corruption in Their International Operations?. European Management Review, 11(3/4), 223-237. doi:10.1111/emre.12035. Retrieved from

Makhlouf, H. H. (2016). Corruption in the International Business Environment. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, 12(1), 32-39.

PBS (2017). Spotlight: History of the FCPA How a tough U.S. anti-bribery law came to pass. Retrieved from

Rotberg, R. I. (2017). The Corruption Cure: How Citizens and Leaders Can Combat Graft. Princeton: Princeton University Press

SEC. (2012). A Resource Guide to the FCPA U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Retrieved from

Thede, S. & Gustafson, N. (2012). International trade and the role of corruption. Retrieved from

UK Anticorruption Forum. (2017). Anti-Corruption Conventions & Instruments. Retrieved from

Canadian honey in the Korean market

Canadian honey
Canadian Honey

Question 1

The Korean honey market is having a challenge giving their customers quality honey. The market is flooded with poor quality honey and this does give the Korean Food a chance to penetrate the market if they focus their production on quality honey. The cost of quality honey in the market is also so high reaching a price range of $ US 100. The introduction of cheaper quality honey from the Korean Food company will increase their market share in the industry (Lee et al., 2010, p. 25).

 Moreover, the Korean’s who have visited Canada often send to their families 20 to 30 kilograms of honey when they visit (Tavares, 2014, p. 22). This is an indication of positive reception of the Canadian honey by the people in Korea. It therefore, means that entry into the market will work in favor of the Korean Food as they already have a ready market for their product.

On the unfavorable aspects, the Korean government still has a restriction on open trade policy, especially when it comes to the agricultural sector. This policy does make it hard for the company to venture into the country, despite the optimism that the Korean government is considering withdrawing the restrictions (Hayakawa et al., 2013, p. 499). Moreover, the Korean honey producers have enjoyed a monopoly in the market and may place a lot of hurdles that will make the market unfavorable for Korean foods.

Question 2

The uncertainties in the strategy arise from the fact that the company has limited experience in the export market in Korea. This does pose a huge challenge for the company as they need to conduct an intensive market research before they step into the country. This will cost them a lot of finances, considering that the maximum amount of profit that they are to make from this venture is by a margin of 20%. The Korean market is centered on their culture where most of the consumers consider honey as a medicinal rather than a food product (Sydkorea, 2017). This will pose a challenge for the company when it comes to extending their market share from the hotels to selling the products to the consumers.

Additionally, the Korean market does work on the perspectives that the company will require an intermediary to be able to penetrate the market (Yoon, 2017, p. 387).  The involvement of the middleman does pose an uncertainty on the manner to ensure that the company does achieve the objective of making a profit. The company has been working directly with the suppliers, and the changes of the operations structure to relying on the middlemen to foster their agenda will force affect the management of the company.

Lastly, despite their being hope that the Korean government will open up the agricultural market to allow imports, there is uncertainty on the resistance of the Korean honey producers (Hayakawa et al., 2014, p.499).  The Korean honey producers have a monopoly in the honey market and they, therefore, have the strength to influence the government not to open up the honey market (APHIS’ website, 2017). Moreover, they might consent the opening of the market, but place a lot of hurdles for the new entrants an aspect that will uneven the competition making the market unfavorable.

The uncertainties can be reduced by identifying a company in Korea and entering into a joint merger to enable them to penetrate the market. The merger will be a shield for them as they understand how the market operates and will provide them the needed information to venture into the market (De Mooji, 2013, p. 36).  Additionally, it will enable the company to navigate any hurdles that will be posed by the Korean honey producers in a bid to protect their influence in the market. Furthermore, the merger does reduce the cost of market research that the company will have to incur in their bid to penetrate the market.

I believe that the company has an opportunity to achieve immense success if they apply the suggested solutions in reducing the uncertainties. The company will be able to increase their margin and market share from a maximum of 20% and 60% respectively. This is an opportunity that will be effective for the company.

Question 3

Canadian honey: Marketing

In looking for ways to improve the marketing plan to make it acceptable to all the management team members, the 3 phases that form the foundation of the plan will be evaluated.  In the first phase, the distribution strategy needs to be altered to involve using the networks established by the company they decide to merge with to penetrate the hotels. The local company has been in operation in the country they, therefore, have connections in different sectors of the economy like the hotels. This will make market entry easier for the company instead of having two salespeople positioned in Seoul (Lee et al., 2015, p. 32).

Additionally, the advertising strategy in the first phase will cost the company a lot of finances. To ensure that the company saves money, the use of free samples to the hotels coupled with media advertising is sufficient. The provision of recipe booklets and carrying out person-to-person advertisement will cost the company a lot of money.

In the second phase, the company needs to focus on regulating the prices of the honey with time as they extend their control of the hotel honey market. The penetrating price strategy is used to enter the market but needs to be readjusted to ensure that the company can make more profit from this sector (De Mooji, 2013, p. 12). The minimum price is an introduction to the Korean hotel industry to the purity of the Canadian honey. Increasing the price will not alter the purchase, as they would have managed to create a customer base in the industry that is attracted to the new flavors of the honey.

Additionally, the distribution channel is effective, but the involvement of the company that they will merge with will inject efficiency in the operation. The partner comprehends the Korean honey distribution network this will, therefore, ensure that the products can reach the target customers on time.

Furthermore, the company needs to concentrate more on introducing the Canadian honey as food rather than a medicinal product. This will play a role in increasing their target market more effectively. The Korean’s already have had a negative conception of honey due to the poor quality that is present in the market. Their culture compounded with the bad honey experience has made them consider that the product can be used only as a medicinal product (Lee et al., 2010, p. 18). Emphasizing on the other uses of honey will not only revolutionize this perception but also provide them with mileage in the industry.

In the third phase, introducing different qualities of honey in the market will cast doubt on the type of honey that the customers are purchasing for medicinal purposes. It will cast a shadow on the qualities of the Canadian honey that the company is introducing in the market, hence reducing their penetration. The company needs to concentrate on high-quality honey solely to get the customers goodwill in their product (Tavares, 2014, p. 25). I will recommend the company to use the warehouse of their partner as this will save them the cost of setting up one. They can then capitalize on the sales representative of their partner to increase their market penetration in the country.

Question 4

Kevin Lee at the beginning of the case study identifies pertinent issues that are linked to the difference between their way of operations and the new marketing plan. The company has immense knowledge in importing business and limited knowledge in the exporting business. They have managed to comprehend the needs of the North Americans when it comes to the Asian foods which have enabled them to raise the business to $30 million. The exportation of the Canadian honey to Korea is a new business venture as they do not know how to navigate the Korean industry with its restrictions (Anania, 2013, p. 25).

Additionally, despite the fact that the Canadian honey is loved by Korean visitors who send it to their families, this is not a guarantee that they will penetrate the market with ease (Tavares, 2014, p. 12). On the other hand, the Asian product is loved by North America and the company has managed to create a customer base that loves their products (Shaw, 2017). The company encountered challenges but managed to establish a reputable brand. Contrariwise, the only similarity is that the company has dealt with Korea on an international business level as discussed in the essay.


Anania, G., 2013. Agricultural export restrictions and the WTO: What options do policy-makers have for promoting food security. Draft paper prepared for informal ICTSD policy dialogue on, 25.

APHIS’ website. (2017). Korea Product Brief: Honey. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 Sep. 2017].

De Mooji M., 2013. Global marketing and advertising: Understanding cultural paradoxes. Sage Publications, 2013.

Hayakawa, K., Kim, H., and Lee, H. H., 2014. Determinants on utilization of the Korea-ASEAN free trade agreement: margin effect, scale effect, and ROO effect. World Trade Review, 13 (3), pp.499-515.

Lee, M.Y., Hong, I.P., Choi, Y.S., Kim, N.S., Kim, H.K., Lee, K.G. and Lee, M.L., 2010. Present status of Korean beekeeping industry. Korean Journal of Apiculture.

Lee, Y.K., Kim, S.H., Seo, M.K. and Hight, S.K., 2015. Market orientation and business performance: Evidence from franchising industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 44, pp.28-37.

Shaw, M. (2017). Korea Food Trading | Canadian Business Executive. [online] Canadianbusinessexecutive. Available at: [Accessed 9 Sep. 2017].

Sydkorea. M. (2017). Korean Business Culture. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 Sep. 2017].

Tavares, A., 2014. Statistical overview of the Canadian honey industry 2013. Government of Canada, Canada.

Yoon, S. J., 2017. Cultural Brokerage and Transnational Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurs in Beijing’s Koreatown.”  Korea Observer, 48 (2), p.387

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