The Consumer Behavior concept Research Article Review and Annotation

The Consumer Behavior concept
The Consumer Behavior concept

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The Consumer Behavior concept

Order Instructions:

The Consumer Behavior concept is “Market Segmentation” The article analysis assignments are used each week to expand and apply Consumer Behavior terms, application, or concepts using peer reviewed research articles from academic journals. These articles must report research the author completed in the subject area and be from the past three (3) years or less. 

This assignment (the article annotation) extracts and summarizes the major points relative to a particular topic area that we have discussed. Use the following as a guide to your assignment completion:

a) Purpose of the study

b) Methodology of the study

c) The results – most important because this is the empirical evidence

d) Conclusions – least important since this is the author’s opinion

e) Recommendation for future research

The article citation must follow the APA 6th edition format using a hanging-indent. The annotation itself should be 250 words double-spaced.

Comments on Annotation: must be 200 words

Post your comment on your submitted article annotation. In your post, evaluate the selection of the article, the research conducted, the empirical findings, and the opinions of the author. Using this post, determine the type of project/research this article might support.

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The Consumer Behavior concept Research Article Review and Annotation


Canhoto, A. I., Clark, M., & Fennemore, P. (2013). Emerging segmentation practices in the age of the social customer. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 21(5), 413-428.

This was an exploratory study that was conducted with the aim of examining the segmentation approaches of firms that use social media. Specifically, it examined whether the traditional approaches were still relevant in the wake of social media and whether there are other emerging practices. Researchers used key informant interviews for data collection. The participants in this study were nineteen senior marketing officials of selected organizations.

Additionally, the researchers selected participating organization using the non-probabilistic sampling method which assisted in identifying firms that use social media for marketing. The interviews, which lasted one hours, were semi-structured and interviewers used open-ended questions. Eighteen of the participants were interviewed face to face while the other one conducted a telephone interview. All interviews were recorded and later coded manually due to massive use of multiple synonyms.

Subsequently, the findings of the research revealed that organizations considered segmentation as a vital aspect of marketing. Further, it was also found that firms used social media in order to identify and categorize the clientele. The profiling was intended to target customers and aloe the companies to position their offers. It was also shown that there were varying levels of investment in market segmentation, and more so, social media by organizations.  

Additionally, the research also showed that culture has a lot of influence on firms when it came to the adoption social media segmentation. It was concluded that social media is used to supplement traditional market segmentation approaches. It was recommended that further research is need for the purpose of studying the prospects of social media market segmentation in the business world.

Comments on Annotation

This article was chosen because it addresses the emerging issues in market segmentation. It is evident that the wave of social media has swept over most aspects of people’s lives. The advancement in technology opens up new opportunities for organizations and as such call for a way to change the way business is done. One important aspect of social media is that it has had a huge impact on marketing.  Currently, firms are finding ways in which they can deal with social customers, most on which share their market experience on social media (Simkin & Dibb, 2013)……

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Listerine Mouth Wash Marketing Strategy

Listerine Mouth Wash Marketing Strategy
Listerine Mouth Wash Marketing Strategy

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Listerine Mouth Wash Marketing Strategy

This project requires you to investigate the marketing strategy of an existing Consumer Product. 

The following parts are required with the points allocated per section.

1. Name of product and description of product Listerine mouth wash

2. Product Category – Size of product category (dollar or unit sales) and the major competitors.  What is the market share of the major competitors and your brand? What other information can you provide which can help to understand what is happening in the market.   20 pts

3.  Target Market – Describe the target market using market dimension variables. These are segmentation variables such as demographic, psychographics, behavioral or geographic. Only two or three sentences to precisely describe the typical user using these variables.  10 pts

4.   Explanation of the need that this product fulfills as it relates to specific target market. Is it a “Me Too” imitator? How is it different from other product brands in the.

This should also include the product positioning.           

10 pts

5.  Marketing Mix

Product Offering –  Things that should be included, name, features/attributes, packaging and any other things that  makes this offering unique and increases its ability to satisfy target market needs. What phase of product life cycle is the brand?  Picture of product should be included.

Distribution – Explanation of distribution system- direct or indirect 

Name the major type of intermediaries if indirect. 

Pricing – Give price per package. Explain pricing strategy.  What is the markup % at the retail level?  (Hint:  ask manager at the store).

Promotion – Explain all the promotion mix elements currently being used to promote the product.  Need to justify the reason different promotion mix elements chosen.  Attached a link to a commercial video would be something good to do for presentation.

Market Opportunity Matrix – Explain the primary growth strategy that has been used to grow and sustain this brand in the past 5- 10 years.  Provide justification.   Read about types of opportunities in Chapter 2

Market Penetration

Market Development

Product development


Listerine Mouth Wash Marketing Strategy

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Listerine Mouth Wash Marketing Strategy

Listerine mouth wash is a globally recognized brand that is used to clean the mouth and eliminate bad breath as well as kill germs. The product has been in the market for a long time and thus it has gained customer loyalty over time. This paper will focus on various marketing concepts regarding the product and thus provide a clear insight of the market performance.

Product Category

The product comes in various sizes and with different flavors. The common size that has gained a large demand in the market is Listerine cool mint antiseptic that is retailed at $39.86 and it is at 1.5 liters. Recently, there is a discount of 5 % so as to promote marketing. The major competitors in the market are Colgate Plax, scope and oral B which perform the same function. In the United States for instance, the product is consumed by over 61 percent of the market. The sales for the year 2016 were $105.3 Million (Statistics portal,  2017).

Target Market

The major target for the product is people with the needs of special hygiene and these are mostly people from well to do families who live in urban as well as semi urban areas. They have high levels of income and they mostly have a unique lifestyle whereby they prefer a differentiated product like Listerine mouth wash which is different from the common brands in the market. Young people mostly make up the target market (MBA School-Study Learn. Share, 2017).

Explanation of the need

Listerine mouth wash is known for its ability to kill germs at a higher percentage compared to the competitor brands. It also eliminates bad breath as well as fighting specific germs that cause gingivitis. The product is long lasting thus giving the customer value for their money. It comes in different flavors and finally it is clinically proven to work in the human mouth without causing harm and providing a long lasting freshness…..

Listerine Mouth Wash Marketing Strategy

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Digital Marketing Management

Digital Marketing Management
Digital Marketing Management

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Digital Marketing Management

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“The essence of a customer driven marketing strategy is based on four major factors,namely market segmentation targeting, product differentiation and positioning.”

Discuss, with the use of relevant examples, how businesses may implement customer driven marketing strategy through managing the above four factors in the digital world. Please justify your answer using valid reasoning underpinned by academic sources and personal/professional experience (if any).
Give real life examples

Digital Marketing Management

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Digital Marketing Management

Digital marketing has become part of the business operation in the current dynamic world. The evolution of technology has made the implementation of marketing strategy easier since the marketers can now focus on four major factors to promote awareness of their products globally especially by focusing on the customer needs. The factors considered in digital marketing management include; market segmentation, targeting, product differentiation and positioning.

This paper will mainly analyse the various ways in which these four critical aspects of marketing can be implemented through an informed customer driven marketing strategy so as to promote the business in the digital world (Royle, 2014).

Understanding the customers and their needs are critical in implementing the digital marketing strategy. This develops the first factor which is market segmentation. This aspect mainly deals with dividing up a broad market into various groups based on various characteristics so as to ensure the customers are able to access what they need. Customers are different and they have different tastes and preferences.

Their locations and age can also be different as well and thus the need to segment the market so as to promote marketing. Market segmentation therefore helps in diving up the market so as to understand the needs of the customer and be in a position to meet their different needs (Rossberger, et al 2017).

Segmenting the market based on the geographical location of the client is important. This is because; the marketers can be able to provide goods and services needed in one location that may have a different demand in the other region. This type of segmentation focuses on nations, cities, provinces or even districts based on the size and market share of the business.

People located in different places may value products differently for instance, a commodity like a car may be considered to be a necessity within the United Kingdom but a luxury in other places such as Africa. Segmenting the market based on the geographical location will enable the marketer understand the specific needs and requirements in a certain location and thus meet the customer expectations. This is very important, especially in this digital era whereby marketing has gone global due to the use of the internet in marketing (Gibler,et al 2014).

The second type of segmentation is known as demographic segmentation. This is one of the most common forms of segmentation that applies to various businesses. Markets are divided into various groups for instance based on age, gender, income levels, religion, level of education and ethnicity among other factors. It is easier to segment markets based on demographics when it comes to digital marketing (Ananda, 2014).

The implementation of the marketing strategy can be done with ease as the demographics, for instance, can be used by the customers to search the products they need on various online platforms used by marketers to advertise. Taking an example of age, the customer can be able to filter out the clothes being advertised online and select those that meet personal tastes and preferences.

Similarly, a customer can be able to filter out the male products with easy and select from a variety. This makes the process of marketing easier for both the customer and the marketer. Other aspects such as religion and income levels can also be used in the same manner and thus contribute to ease implementation of digital marketing (Daniel, et al 2015).

Market segmentation can also be based on the customer behaviour. This is whereby, the market is divided and classified into various segments based on the actual behaviour of a person for instance on the previous buying rates, user status, the brand loyalty portrayed over time, the attitude towards the products, readiness to buy as well as the occasions of buying. Understanding this concept is critical to a marketer when it comes to digital marketing. This is because, the marketer will be in a position to classify the market on similar behaviours of the customers and thus convincing them to buy will be made easier (Tu, et al 2017).

Customers have different, unique behaviours and thus classifying them, for instance based on their previous rates of purchase, the marketer can predict the likely potential of sales that will be made and thus the appropriate advertising strategies can be put in place through the online platforms.

Taking an example of previous customers with a strong brand loyalty towards Samsung phones, for instance, segmentation will help in ensuring that the customers are well informed of the new products in the market and thus less aggressive methods of advertising will be applied in this case compared to the new customers in the market, who may have never bought Samsung products before or those who have low levels of brand loyalty towards Samsung products (Shi,et al 2015).

Psychological segmentation is the last concept under this factor. Customers can be segmented based on their interests and opinions which make up their lifestyle. Marketers need to understand the lifestyle of the customers so as to be aware if their needs and changes in demand from time to time. The clothing industry for instance is one of the best when it comes to using segmentation based on the psychological behaviour of the customers.

Some customers need to buy clothes from particular suppliers and they always look forward to new products in the market for such sellers thus an opportunity for one to utilize the chance, so as to promote the sale of  such products. Understanding the shifts in demand, especially in the fashion industry can help a marketer promote the marketing strategy in place by balancing out the various methods of segmentation (Lanz, 2015)…..

Digital Marketing Management

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Constructing Effective Business

Constructing Effective Business
Constructing Effective Business

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Constructing Effective Business

Order Instructions:

1. Select a product or service for this assignment in which you believe your organization should invest capital resources to develop for sale in a global environment.
2. Review Ch. 4 of Business Communication Essentials.
3. Create a Microsoft® Word analysis of no more than 1000 words that includes the following:
A. Describe the product or service, including its main characteristics.
B. Why do you believe this product is worthwhile?
C. A profile of your audience/s. Why are these audience/s important? How different would you approach each audience?
D. Explain how you would establish credibility.
4. Explain why you selected the channel.
5. Select the appropriate channel for delivering your message based on context, audience, and purpose.

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Constructing Effective Business

For this assignment, the selection of a product that should sell in the global marketplace is critical. The product should be one that the organization is willing to spend capital resources on for it to develop as a global brand. This paper will look into the characteristics of the chosen product and explain why it is worthwhile. In addition, a profile of the various audiences, their importance, and the different approaches are outlined, as well as an explanation on establishing credibility and the rationale behind the selection of a suitable channel for business communications.

A description of the main characteristics of the product

The product of choice that will be developed by the organization is an environmentally friendly bag. The bag is reusable as opposed to the single-use alternatives used in most retail stores and homes today. This eco-friendly bag will be produced in several shapes and sizes and targets to replace the single-use plastic bags. The bag has a special feature where it completely decomposes down in ten days.

Once thrown into a pit, which is the recommended method of disposal, the bag should be watered and covered with earth, and the decay process begins. The bag is made from natural materials that are interwoven to create a strong fabric. This strength enables users to carry heavy loads without the bag ripping apart.

Why the product is worthwhile

The proposed product is important not only to the firm but also to the society. The eco-friendly bag is a worthwhile project for the organization to invest in due to the effect it would have on the environment. The replacement of plastic carrier bags and especially the single-use plastic bags should help reduce the levels of environmental pollution caused by the polythene bags that are currently in use around the world (Bucher, Drake-Brockman, Kasterine, & Sugathan, 2014).

In addition, once the user has the ability to use the bags for multiple tasks over the lifetime of the eco-friendly bag. Once the environmentally friendly bag completes its usefulness, it is buried and becomes beneficial as a form of organic manure. This should lead to a reduction of the over-dependence on various types of fertilizers on enriching the soil.

A profile of the audiences

            The communication messages targeting the proposed environmental friendly bag has a number of audiences. The profile of the product’s audience is composed of governments and government agencies, retail stores, and individual users.

Why the audiences are important

The three identified audiences are important for various reasons. Firstly, the three audiences are direct and indirect users of the plastic bags that the eco-friendly alternative aims to replace. Second, the environmental impact of the garbage caused by the single-use polythene bags affects all three, as do the costs of environmental maintenance. A third reason is that the three groups are important beneficiaries of the better agricultural practices boosted by the use of the bags as manure after they are disposed of. The three groups are the target customers of the proposed product and, therefore, the audiences of the business communication.

Constructing Effective Business

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Product Management and Situation Analysis

Product Management and Situation Analysis
Product Management and Situation Analysis

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Product Management and Situation Analysis

This Case Assignment focuses on Volkswagen’s emissions scandal and related brand management and business ethics issues.

Product Management and Situation Analysis

Case Reading

A mucky business; the volkswagen scandal. (2015, Sep 26). The Economist, 416, 23-25.

Boston, W., & Houston-Waesch, M. (2015, Oct 15). Volkswagen suspends another top engineer; berlin orders recall; transport minister says recall of tainted diesel cars is mandatory. Wall Street Journal (Online).

Cremer, A. (2016, April 20). VW to pay each U.S. customer $5,000 to settle dieselgate: Die Welt. Reuters. Retrieved from

Danny, Hakim, Kessler, A. M., & Ewing, J. (2015, Sep 27). As VW pushed to be no. 1, ambitions fueled a scandal. New York Times. De Cremer, D., & de Bettignies, H. (2013). PRAGMATIC BUSINESS ETHICS. Business Strategy Review, 24(2), 64-67.

Ewing, J. (2016, April 21). Volkswagen Reaches Deal in U.S. Over Emissions Scandal. New York Times. Retrieved from

Lane, C. (2015, Oct. 26). Emissions scandal is hurting VW owners trying to Resell. Retrieved from

La Monica, P.,R. (2015, Sep 23). Volkswagen has plunged 50%. will it ever recover? CNN Wire Service. 

Tabuchi, H., Apuzzo, M., &  Ewing, J. (2017). U.S. Charges 6 Volkswagen Executives in Emissions-Cheating Case. New York Times. Retrieved from

Here are some articles on brand equity and brand management.

Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 1-22. 

Helm, S., & Tolsdorf, J. (2013). How does corporate reputation affect customer loyalty in a corporate crisis? Journal of Contingencies & Crisis Management, 21 (3), p144-152.

Product Management and Situation Analysis


Here is the brief overview of this cumulative Session Long Project (SLP). In this research project, you would work as a marketing consultant to develop a feasible marketing plan for your client. You would conduct both secondary research in SLP1 and SLP2 to glean the necessary information for your marketing plan in SLP3 and SLP4.

It is important to conduct quality market research on your focal product/company in order to develop realistic and workable marketing plans. Generally speaking, there are two types of research. One is secondary research, which refers to data collection using existing sources, and the other is primary research, which is your own data collection for the specific study at hand. The purpose of market research is to collect usable information to make more informed decisions on the business problem, thus increasing the chance of business success in the marketplace.

Please check the outline of the marketing plan, which provides information on:

  1. The final format for this cumulative session long project;
  2. A list of topics for the whole project;
  3. The continuity and connections among SLPs 1-4.

In this module SLP 2, conduct SWOT analysis for your charge based on the situation analysis in SLP1. This is the second step of this cumulative research project. Be sure to revise the sections in SLP1 and include them in this paper following the marketing plan outline provided above.

Product Management and Situation Analysis

SWOT Analysis

A thorough situation analysis in the Module 1 SLP is the foundation for a SWOT analysis. Develop statements of the company’s internal strengths and weaknesses, and external opportunities and threats. If there is any question as to whether a fact or issue is external (these lead to opportunity and threat statements) or internal (these lead to strength and weakness statements), ask this key question, “Would this issue exist if the company did not exist?” If the answer is yes, then the issue should be classified as external.

Note: Remember that alternative marketing strategies and tactics are not opportunities. Opportunities and threats exist independently of the firm. Strategies and tactics are what the firm intends to do about its opportunities and threats relative to its own strengths and weaknesses.

The SWOT will play a critical role (along with an in-depth understanding of target market needs/preferences and competition) in the development of goals, objectives, and marketing strategies and programs. Key strengths need to be matched to opportunities and converted to capabilities that help serve customer needs better and lead to competitive advantage.

Goals, strategies, and program ideas stem from an attempt to convert weaknesses into strengths and threats into opportunities. Some alternatives will also come from thinking about how to minimize the repercussions of weaknesses and threats that cannot be converted, and/or how to avoid them altogether. Follow the instructions below to identify strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats.

Product Management and Situation Analysis

A. Strengths and Weaknesses (Internal)

Think about internal conditions; those things that management has some control over that are relevant to future success and effectiveness. The task is to identify internal strengths, which must be taken into consideration as management plans for the future.

Remember, a strength is any internal characteristic that improves effectiveness. Look for factors that help the company improve positioning in the marketplace, enhance financial performance, and most importantly, fight off threats and take advantage of opportunities in the external environment.

A weakness is any internal characteristic that limits effectiveness, performance, and the ability to accomplish objectives, meet threats, and take advantage of opportunities.

It is also important to point out that a particular fact about the internal environment may have a weakness and a strength dimension. For example, we might say that the company’s technical skills are of the highest quality and this is a strength, but since these skills are possessed by only a few employees, it is also a weakness in that we need more people with such skills and would be hurt if a few key people left the company.

Using the following 16 internal factors to stimulate your thinking, list all of the company strengths you can think of for each category. Then review the same list of 16 internal factors and develop a list of company weaknesses. (You may not have access to all of the information below, but try your best to identify at least five of them for your project).

Product Management and Situation Analysis

Internal Factors

The following categories of internal factors are commonly used to generate a list of specific company strengths and weaknesses. This list is to be used to stimulate your thinking about internal strengths and weaknesses.

  1. Management leadership/capabilities.
  2. Organization structure and management systems.
  3. Facilities, equipment, and materials.
  4. Technical skills and expertise.
  5. Dedication, morale, and motivation of employees.
  6. Capacity to meet demand—production capacity, including excess available for growing demand.
  7. Marketing effectiveness/efficiency—advertising, personal selling, public relations, products/services, prices, distribution, marketing research and planning, customer service, warranties, sales support, sales promotion, etc.
  8. Ability to deliver what the market wants.
  9. Ability to deliver in a timely manner.
  10. Image and reputation as perceived by customers and within the industry.
  11. Customer (and potential customer) perception—likes, dislikes, and perceptions of service, quality, etc.
  12. Financial performance—sales, market share, customer satisfaction/loyalty, and profits.
  13. Financial situation—availability of capital, internal funding, financial stability, etc.
  14. Cost of operations—high cost vs. low cost, rising costs, costs compared to competition (manufacturing, distribution, etc.)
  15. Geographic location(s).
  16. Other relevant competencies/resources that translate into strengths that have not been mentioned. Also, any weaknesses we have missed related to a lack of competencies and/or resources that are needed in the future.

Product Management and Situation Analysis

B. Opportunities and Threats (External)

Think about the most significant trends in the organization’s external environment that will have an impact on future success. The challenge is to identify relevant opportunities and threats outside management’s control that must be taken into consideration during the planning process. You will need to list and describe the factors/issues forming industry trends that may influence future efforts one way or the other, either as a positive force (opportunity) or as a barrier (threat).

An opportunity is the result of some trend or fact in the external environment that represents a marketplace and/or financial performance advantage. It may indicate a new direction, product or service, and/or resource requirement for the company. It represents an attractive arena for marketing action in which the company would enjoy a competitive advantage.

A threat is the result of some trend or fact in the external environment that represents an area of concern for management. It represents a challenge posed by an unfavorable trend or development that would lead, in the absence of effective marketing action, to the erosion of the company’s or industry’s position. A threat may:

  1. Directly or indirectly affect the business.
  2. Indicate an area to be avoided.
  3. Demand a strategic response.
  4. Represent an opportunity if responded to properly.

It should be pointed out that a particular trend in the external environment (for example, mergers/acquisitions, technological advancements, and/or a recent change in the way competitors operate and what they are offering the market) can imply both a threat and an opportunity. Sometimes in strategic planning we say that behind each threat (or problem) lies an opportunity.

Or an optimist in strategic planning will look at threats and try to turn them into opportunities. Thus, it should be remembered that if management can adapt properly to a threat (such as mergers and acquisitions), this trend may be viewed as an opportunity as well as a threat.

Review the following 13 categories of external environmental trend factors and list the trends or issues that are relevant to the company and industry. Then translate each factor identified into a specific opportunity and/or threat statement. That is, what are the implications of each environmental trend or issue outside the company in terms of specific opportunities and/or threats? (You may not have access to all the information below, but try your best to identify at least five of them for your project).

Product Management and Situation Analysis

External Environmental Trend Factors

The following categories of external environmental trend factors are commonly considered in the planning process. They are used to develop a specific list of company opportunities and threats. This list is to be used to stimulate your thinking about opportunities and threats in the external environment.

  1. Mergers and acquisitions—(e.g., among customers, potential customers, suppliers, competitors, and/or within the industry).
  2. Competitive trends—specific competitive strategies and programs, or recent changes such as lower prices or new products.
  3. Economic trends—forces and changes in the economy such as inflation, interest rates, recession.
  4. Technological trends—new technological innovations.
  5. Technical requirements—within the industry.
  6. Market/industry trends—size of firm related to industry, financial performance of the industry compared with the firm, size/growth rate of current and future potential market characteristics and trends in markets and industry.
  7. Customer and potential customer attitudes—preferences, expectations, problems, wants, needs, etc. What changes are anticipated?
  8. Legal trends—government regulations and policies.
  9. Societal/lifestyle trends—changes in people’s values, attitudes, and activities.

10. New products/services—on the market.

11. Supply sources.

12. Declining or increasing productivity—in the industry or economy.

13. Other industry trends not previous mentioned that are relevant to the future.

Product Management and Situation Analysis

Based on the detailed discussion of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, use SWOT tables for the SWOT analysis. In other words, first state the facts based on your research, and then summarize the findings in a SWOT table. Note the examples below and follow the “best statements” to describe the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for your company and charge in SWOT table(s).

 ExamplesNot Useful StatementBetter StatementBest Statement
Internal StrengthsCustomer loyalty/brand imageWe have a strong brand image.We have a 42% market share and our brand is known worldwide.Our global market share has grown from 25% to 42% over the past four years. Independent surveys show our quality and image is rated No. 1 in our industry in the U.S. and Asia and No. 2 in Europe behind XYZ.
 Sales/ DistributionOur distribution is the best in the industry.Our product is available in more locations than our competitors’.Our extensive distribution network provides product within 10 miles of the home or work location of 95% of our target market. Our competitors only achieve this level for 40%-65% of the market.
Internal WeaknessesProduct costOur costs are high.Our major competitors, ABC and XYZ, produce in China for less cost.Our labor costs average $40/unit (in Detroit) vs. $12/unit for our competitors (in China). With product market prices of $120/unit we barely break even.
 Product LifeWe have product problems.Our product life is less than the competition.Typically, our product fails after one year. Our major competitor’s product lasts 2-3 years. Customers are willing to pay 50% more for our competitors’ product.
External OpportunitiesAlternative Distribution College CampusWe can leverage new distribution channels.Internet could be used to increase sales to college students.Direct Sales (via campus Intranet) and on-campus kiosks would more than double our coverage of our targeted Generation Y market.
 Export Growth via Strategic AlliancesExport markets can help us grow.Europe and Asia provide good opportunities to grow by partnering.Strategic alliances with ABC in Europe and XYZ in Asia would allow us to double international sales in two years.
External ThreatsSubstitutesSubstitutes are a threat.ABC’s new sugar-free sweetener may hurt us.In six months, ABC’s sugar-free sweetener has achieved 20% market share. Its share is expected to grow to 40% by next year.
 MergersCompetitor mergers could hurt us.Competitor XYZ is expected to acquire ABC.If XYZ acquires ABC, it will dominate the distribution network and limit our access.

Check the following link for some exercises to better understand SWOT elements.

SWOT Analysis Exercises (2010). Retrieved from

Product Management and Situation Analysis

SLP Assignment Expectations

Use the following outline to organize your paper. Note that the letters “a, b, c…” and the numbers “i, ii, iii, iv…” below are used to show the major issues you need to include in your paper, but should not be used to format your paper.

III. SWOT Analysis (3-6 pages)

  1. Strengths and Weaknesses (Internal)
    1. Strengths
    1. Weaknesses
    1. Opportunities and Threats (External)
      1. Opportunities
      1. Threats
    1. SWOT Table

Note: Use double-spaced, black Verdana or Times Roman font in 12 pt. type size. Include a title page and references. Revise your Module 1 SLP based on the feedback from your professor and your additional research, and include the Module 1 SLP in the Module 2 SLP.

Explain clearly and logically the facts about your company and charge, and use the required reading to support your positions on the issues. Do not repeat or quote definitions. Your use of the required reading to support your opinions (that is, contentions or positions) should demonstrate that you understand the concepts presented.

Paraphrase the facts using your own words and ideas, employing quotes sparingly. Quotes, if absolutely necessary, should rarely exceed five words.

Academic papers at the master’s level should include citations and references. Look at different sources, especially credible and reputable resources such as The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Businessweek, and The Economist, to find the information for your paper. Also use Trident University’s online library databases such as ProQuest and EBSCO to find the information for your project. Your discussion on each topic should be a synthesis of the different sources. Taking shortcuts on the number and quality of your sources will result in a poor-quality marketing plan that will be of no use to your client.

Also, it is important that you reference your sources throughout the text of your marketing plan. Take the following paragraph as an example:

“As a result, telephone interviewers often do not even get a chance to explain that they are conducting a survey (Council for Marketing and Opinion Research, 2003), and response rates have steadily declined (Keeter et al., 2000) to reported lows of 7% (Council for Marketing and Opinion Research, 2003). This decrease presents a problem because not only does it increase the cost of conducting telephone surveys, but it also leads to questions concerning the generalizability of the results (Struebbe, Kernan & Grogan, 1986; Tuckel & O’Neill, 2002).”

There are different citation and reference formats such as APA, MLA, or Chicago. No matter which format you adopt for your marketing plan, make it consistent throughout the plan.

Also note: The marketing plan should use third person business writing. Avoid “we,” “our,” and “you.” Do not use contractions in business writing.

Product Management and Situation Analysis

Here are some guidelines on how to conduct information search and build critical thinking skills.

Emerald Group Publishing. (n.d.). Searching for information. Retrieved from

Emerald Group Publishing. (n.d.). Developing critical thinking. Retrieved from

Guidelines for handling quoted and paraphrased material are found at:

Purdue Online Writing Lab. (n.d.). Academic writing. Retrieved from

Purdue Online Writing Lab. (n.d.). Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. Retrieved from

Purdue Online Writing Lab. (n.d.). Is it plagiarism yet? Retrieved from

Your paper consists of arguments in favor of your opinions or positions on the issues addressed by the guidelines; therefore, avoid the following logical fallacies:

Purdue Online Writing Lab. (n.d.). Logic in argumentative writing. Retrieved from

Your SLP should not simply be a list of facts. Take the facts you find about the company, the charge, and the environments that the company faces, and explain how you think those facts will affect the financial future of the product or brand in your charge. The emphasis in grading your paper will be on the breadth and depth of your discussion of each topic, critical thinking, the clarity of your discussion, and the proper organization of the paper.

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Product Management and Situation Analysis Essay

Promotion Management

Extensive market research is crucial to acquire pertinent information on the client company. Such information is useful in the creation of a situational analysis, which then enables the development of a SWOT analysis for the company. Ultimately, in order to conduct effective promotion management through a feasible marketing plan, there has to be an effective analysis of the internal and external factors affecting the firm. The section below outlines such factors affecting Apple Inc.

SWOT Analysis

Strengths and Weaknesses (Internal)

Strengths. Apple Inc. possesses a number of essential internal factors that fit into the category of strengths. These factors represent things inside the company that management has some level of control over, and which improve the effectiveness of the company.

Impressive brand reputation. The listing of Apple Inc. as the most valuable brand in the world presents an image of the reputation the company enjoys across the globe. Owing to such stellar valuations, as well as the global knowledge about the brand, Apple Inc. is in a strong position to control various aspects that hinge upon such an impressive reputation (Reuters, 2018). For example, the company may launch a new product and it will instantly gain global recognition and attention owing to the relation with the Apple brand. The management may make use of such reputation to develop a far-reaching marketing plan or incorporate cutting edge and risky incentives that other corporates may not attempt.

Strong financial performance. Apple Inc. is currently among the top most profitable firms in the world. The high levels of revenues combined with an increase year on year cash flow and a healthy profit margin provide for a financially strong firm. Apple Inc. has a vast reserve of cash and cash equivalent assets. This provides a key strength for the firm by way of availing extensive financial assets (Jurevicius, 2017; Securities and Exchange Commission, 2017). Such assets prove useful in growing the company through funding of research and development initiatives, acquisition and mergers, and development of impactful advertising and marketing campaigns.

Excellent business and design skills. A key element in Apple Inc.’s management is the stellar ability to design beautiful and usable products and to manage such a business behemoth efficiently. Such skills provide an advantage over their competitors who may not have the capacity to produce great products and at the same time manage the business aspect of the company effectively. These factors provide a competitive advantage over other firms that do not have such human resource assets.

Advertising and marketing abilities. Apple Inc.’s marketing and advertising campaigns are among the most impactful and with a high return on investment. Given the financial and human resources at their disposal, the company is able to budget for high impact campaigns. With the right workforce in place, the company is able to manage the marketing budget efficiently in comparison to competitors such as Samsung who use a larger share of their revenue, with a much lower brand recognition (Jurevicius, 2017).

A Loyal fan base and extensive distribution channels. Another strength for Apple Inc. is the loyal following it enjoys. With such a strong followership, the company is assured of constant growth in the sales of its products. In addition, the extensive direct and indirect distribution networks across the globe serve to ensure the customers are always within reach of the products they require.

Weaknesses. The weaknesses of Apple Inc. refer to the internal factors that limit the effectiveness of the company to perform efficiently, accomplish the various objectives, neutralize threats, and take advantage of the various available opportunities.

High pricing. A key element behind the loss of numerous potential customers for Apple is the high price tag for its products. While the premium pricing attracts customers with the ability to spend high amounts, it locks out millions of customers who could also boost the company’s revenue stream due to the large numbers that could translate to large volumes in terms of sales.

Incompatibility with other devices and operating systems. A major weakness of the products from Apple Inc. is that they are incompatible with third-party accessories, as well as other operating systems. Users and analysts have coined the term “Apple world” to refer to the use of products, software, accessories and services by Apple or its partners. Such a tight control over usage limits the number of people who purchase the products for lack of other required devices or failure to integrate with their existing ones.

Product Management and Situation Analysis

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Burberry’s Mobile Marketing Campaigns

Burberry's Mobile Marketing Campaigns
Burberry’s Mobile Marketing Campaigns

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Burberry’s Mobile Marketing Campaigns

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Case Assignment

Imagine you have been hired as a consultant to the VP of marketing for Burberry. The VP wants to get an objective opinion from someone outside the company who is familiar with current digital marketing basics.Your job is to write a short memo of 750 -1,500 words critically analyzing Burberry’s mobile marketing strategy. Note that the company has decided to use mobile social platforms to reach its target markets.

Read and cite required articles listed above, including additional research you have done, to address the following issues:

• Evaluate the assumptions behind Burberry’s mobile marketing campaigns, with a brief introduction of the company mobile marketing efforts.

• Analyze the effectiveness of Burberry’s mobile marketing campaigns by applying relevant branding and promotion concepts. Also specify the criteria you use to evaluate the effectiveness.

• With the increasing popularity of mobile media and social media, what would you recommend to Burberry regarding its mobile promotion strategy? Explain why.Do not spend a lot of time digging in the company’s website and do not just rehash what the company did; instead, introduce a critical perspective.

Focus on the Case articles as well as relevant background reading. There are no right answers; after all, you do not have inside information. You will be evaluated on your understanding of the background materials and your logic reasoning. In particular, show your understanding of the way a change in target market affects the company’s promotion strategy.

Also, give some thought as to how Burberry’s mobile marketing meshes with other elements of its marketing program, for example, merchandising (product management), channel management, and pricing.

Assignment Expectations Regarding Your References and Defense of Your Positions 

Write clearly, simply, and logically. Your memo should be 750-1,500 words long, excluding title pages and references, but quality of writing is more important than length. Use single space, black Verdana or Times Roman font in 12 pt. type size.

Check the following link for business memo format:

Back up your positions or opinions with references to the required reading found in the Module 1-2 Backgrounds. In using those references, demonstrate your understanding of the concepts presented. Rather than grading on how much information you find, emphasis will be on the defense of the positions you take on the issues.

Also remember that:

• The “why” is more important than the “what.”

• The defense of your positions on the issues is more important than the positions you take.

Do not repeat or quote definitions. Your use of the required reading to support your opinions (that is, contentions or positions) should demonstrate that you understand the concepts presented.

Do not include definitions or summaries of the readings, or simply describe what the company did. Instead, your responses to the questions should be analytical and should demonstrate that (a) you understand the principles from the background reading and (b) you can apply them to this particular case. Vague, general answers will not earn a good grade.

Avoid redundancy and general statements such as “All organizations exist to make a profit.” Make every sentence count.Paraphrase the facts using your own words and ideas, employing quotes sparingly. Quotes, if absolutely necessary, should rarely exceed five words.

When writing an academically oriented paper, you will uncover many facts about the product. If you paraphrase the facts, cite the sources in your text and link those citations to references at the end of the paper.

Here are some guidelines on how to conduct information search and build critical thinking skills. 

Emerald Group Publishing. (n.d.). Searching for information. Retrieved from

Emerald Group Publishing. (n.d.). Developing critical thinking. Retrieved from

Guidelines for handling quoted and paraphrased material are found at:

Purdue Online Writing Lab. (n.d.). Academic writing. Retrieved from

Purdue Online Writing Lab. (n.d.). Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. Retrieved from

Purdue Online Writing Lab. (n.d.). Is it plagiarism yet? Retrieved from

Your paper consists of arguments in favor of your opinions or positions on the issues addressed by the guidelines; therefore, avoid the following logical fallacies:

Purdue Online Writing Lab. (n.d.). Logic in argumentative writing. Retrieved from

Mobile marketing spending is increasing in recent years due to the popularity of smartphone and mobile commerce. Burberry is starting to use the mobile apps to reach the target market. Burberry is the first brand to use a ‘Snapcode’ on Snapchat as it looks to give visitors in its stores access to exclusive content.

Read the following articles related to mobile app marketing campaign by Burberry, mobile app design, and the digital marketing trends. Note that you can find the articles without links in our online library databases using the search box on

TLC Portal.BI Intelligence (2015). Here’s where digital ad spending is going over the next five years. Retrieved from

Burberry launches on kakao (2015). Newton: Questex Media Group LLC. Burberry launches global partnership with line. (2015, Feb 05). M2 Presswire.DeMers, J. (2014, Aug. 15).

10 online marketing metrics you need to be measuring. Retrieved from

Goodfellow, J. (2016). Burberry is printing codes on its products to encourage customers to use Snapchat in-store. Retrieved from

L2 think tank: Burberry runs lunar new year WeChat campaign (2016). Chatham: Newstex. 

Magrath, V., & McCormick, H. (2013). Marketing design elements of mobile fashion retail apps. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 17(1), 115-134.

O’Reilly, L. (2012, Sep 20). Burberry to put mobile first in mix. Marketing Week (Online).

Roderick, L. (2015, Sep 18). Burberry in snapchat first as it premieres new fashion collection online. Marketing Week (Online).

Roderick, L. (2016, Apr 04). Burberry uses first ever snapcode to let in-store customers unlock online snapchat content. Marketing Week (Online).

How to conduct a marketing audit (n.d.). Retrieved from

Introduction to financial statements for marketing (n.d.). Retrieved from

Marks, R. E. (1997). Market structure and competition (October 9). Retrieved from

Marketing Research (n.d.). MarketingTeacher. Retrieved from

These Web pages explain concepts of the Segmenting, Targeting, and Positioning.

Building Customer Relationships. (2014). Pearson Learning Solutions, New York, NY. Retrieved from

Building Customer Relationships (Audio). (2014). Pearson Learning Solutions, New York, NY. Retrieved from

Segmentation (n.d.). MarketingTeacher. Retrieved from

Targeting (n.d.). MarketingTeacher. Retrieved from

Positioning (n.d.). MarketingTeacher. Retrieved from

Perner, L. (n.d.). Segmentation, targeting, and positioning. Consumer Psychologist. Retrieved from

Here are some useful links on market segments:

Nielsen. (n.d.). MyBestSegments ZIP code look-up. Retrieved from

Nielsen. (n.d.). Nielsen PRIZM – Understanding social and lifestage groups. Retrieved from

Nielsen. (n.d.). Segment Details. Retrieved from

TETRAD. (n.d.). Demographics. Retrieved from

This article explains considerations internal to the firm that affect its financial health:

Porter, M. (1980). Generic strategies. Retrieved from

These Web pages explain the forces external to the firm that affect the financial health of a product or company:

PEST Analysis (n.d.). MarketingTeacher. Retrieved from

Managing External Forces (n.d.). Marketing Tutorials. KnowThis. Retrieved from

The following readings relate to product management strategy:

Products and Services. (2014). Pearson Learning Solutions, New York, NY. Retrieved from

Products and Services (Audio). (2014). Pearson Learning Solutions, New York, NY. Retrieved from

Product decisions (n.d.). KnowThis. Retrieved from

This series of Web pages explains that product decisions over which firms have control are forces that determine the financial health of a product or company:

Product strategies (n.d.). LearnMarketing. Retrieved from

The following articles explain and illustrate branding:

Aisner, J. E. (1999) More than a name: The role of brands in people’s lives. Working Knowledge for Business Leaders Series. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School. Retrieved from

Beyersdorfer, D., et al. (2011 January/February). Preserve the luxury or extend the brand? Harvard Business Review. 89:1/2(January/February):173-7.

Christ, P. (2009). Understanding the importance of branding (October 28). Retrieved from

Clark, D. (2011 March) Reinventing your personal brand. Harvard Business Review. 89:5 (March):78-81.

Edelman, D. C. (2010). Branding in the digital age. Harvard Business Review. 88:12 (December):62-69.Introduction to brands (n.d.). Marketing Teacher. Retrieved from

Klein, K. E. (2008). A practical guide to branding. Bloomberg Businessweek (June 9).

Tauber, E. W. (1981). Four branding alternatives: A branding strategy based upon brand extension. Marketing Teacher. Retrieved from 

Zax, D. (2010). For Millennials, brands may be as important as religion, ethnicity. Co-Create(November 17). Retrieved from

The following article explains brand personality:

Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: Developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research. 24:4(March):343-372.

These articles address the question of celebrity endorsements:

A Teakettle with Star Power? The Upsides and Pitfalls of Celebrity Brands (2011).Knowledge@Wharton (April 27). Retrieved from

Star Blight: The Perils of Celebrity Endorsements (2006). Knowledge@Wharton (September 6).Retrieved from

Stone, M. (2012). How Retailers’ Love Affair With Celebrities Will Blossom In 2012. Forbes (January 4).

Check the professional market research reports from IBISWorld database to find the industry analysis for your cumulative Session Long Project.

IBISWorld Overview (n.d.). IBISWorld, Inc., New York, NY.IBISWorld Forecast (n.d.). IBISWorld, Inc., New York, NY.IBISWorld Data and Sources (n.d.). IBISWorld, Inc., New York, NY.IBISWorld Navigation Tips (n.d.). IBISWorld, Inc., New York, NY.

Check the following links for proper APA citation and reference format:

Purdue University Online Writing Lab. (n.d.). In-text citations: The basics. Retrieved from

Cornell University Library. (n.d.). APA citation style. Retrieved from

Golden Gate University. (n.d.). University library: Research help. Retrieved from

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. (n.d.). The center for writing studies. Retrieved from

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Burberry’s Mobile Marketing Campaigns

Internal Memorandum

January 15, 2018

To:       VP of marketing, Burberry


From:   Your Name, Marketing Consultant

Re:       Opinion on the digital marketing efforts by Burberry

Mobile marketing efforts

Burberry, a luxury clothing and apparel design, production and sales company, is among the top businesses in its industry. The firm, whose headquarters are in London, England and with operations around the globe, uses a variety of operational and marketing models to ensure they remain a top brand. With competitors such as Chanel, Gucci, Dior, and Louis Vuitton, Burberry has to employ innovative solutions to engage consumers and push for purchases. In the recent past, Burberry has adapted to the use of mobile technology in a bid to push for the increase in market share and sales for the brand.

A unique approach by Burberry to the marketing of their brand and merchandise has been the use of mobile marketing. The use of mobile marketing refers to various approaches used by companies to lure and inform their customers about their products and services. In using this method, the targeted customer is one who uses a mobile device for communications, media usage, learning, and entertainment. The methods used in mobile marketing are designed for the mobile device with a smaller screen size. Given the increasing size of the mobile phone market, as well as the constant rise in the number of mobile users, such targeted mobile marketing efforts by corporates are expected to have a large impact.

Assumptions behind Burberry’s mobile marketing campaigns

A first assumption is the continued growth of the mobile market. By investing heavily in mobile marketing Burberry assumes and heavily believes in the growth of the number of users of mobile devices. With this assumption, the company relies on the increasing numbers to upsurge the sales. In addition, the company assumes that their consumers are among the growing number of people who prefer having a mobile device such as a tablet, iPad, or smartphone in addition to a computer or laptop. This is in addition to those who are assumed to use mobile devices as their primary means of accessing information (Nagao, 2015).

Despite these assumptions having research data to back them up, they still are assumptions since there are a number of Burberry customers who prefer to visit the traditional brick and mortar shop as opposed to using the various e-commerce alternatives (Nagao, 2015). The assumption that the use of mobile devices will continue to rise may also be halted with the introduction of an alternative form of technological communication that may render devices such as the smartphone obsolete.

Another assumption by the company is that their online presence mirrors the sales. While the various online digital campaigns have been relatively successful, the use of online metrics and numbers may not accurately reflect the expected sales figures. Such figures as the number of daily or monthly visitors to a given webpage, or the number of clicks on an online advertisement, the number of likes on social media postings, or the number of followers may not necessarily translate to sales. However, as per Burberry’s reports, the firm’s sales have increased since the launch of the mobile marketing campaigns (Burberry PLC, 2017)….

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Cost Summary and Related Journal Entries: Business

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Cost summary
Cost summary

Cost Summary and Related Journal Entries: Business

Prepare a standard cost summary using a provided template, and then write a 1–2-page analysis of variances in a standard cost summary and how the variances could be corrected.

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:

  • Competency 1: Operate product-based cost accounting systems.
    • Apply procedures for recording standard costs to account for departmental factory costs.
    • Prepare journal entries related to standard costs.
  • Competency 4: Apply cost analysis to assist management decision making.
    • Analyze favorable and unfavorable variances for management decision making.
    • Analyze how variances can be corrected.

Cost Summary


All production costs, other than direct materials and direct labor, are lumped together into one category, termed overhead. In a manufacturing company, overhead is also known as factory burden, or manufacturing overhead. This cost category contains a wide variety of cost items. Many inputs, other than direct materials and direct labor, are needed to produce a finished product. Examples include:

  • Depreciation on buildings and equipment.
  • Maintenance.
  • Supplies.
  • Supervision.
  • Materials handling.
  • Power.
  • Landscaping of factory grounds.
  • Property taxes.
  • Plant security.

There are a number of procedures associated with the handling of overhead costs. They include:

  • Identification of each overhead cost’s behavior.
  • Determination of the budget for overhead costs.
  • Recording and tracking actual overhead costs.
  • Application of overhead estimates to actual production levels.
  • Analyzing budgeted and actual overhead costs for cost control.

Cost Summary

Questions to Consider

To deepen your understanding, you are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of the business community.

  • What is the difference between the standard cost and the actual cost of production?
  • Is it possible that a variance of one type might be partly or fully offset by another variance? Explain.


The following resources are required to complete the assessment.

  • Wild, J. J., Shaw, K. W., & Chiappetta, B. (2011). Financial and managerial accounting: Information for decisions (4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Assessment Instructions

For this assessment, complete the following two parts:

Part 1: Use the Assessment 4 Template (linked in the Resources) to prepare a standard cost summary and related journal entries, based on a scenario provided in the template.

Part 2: Read each statement below (a through h). Then, write a 1–2-page analysis identifying what might cause these variances in a standard cost summary for materials, labor, and factory overhead. In addition, analyze, from a manager’s perspective, how each variance could be corrected and explain why.

Cost Summary

  1. An unfavorable materials price variance.
  2. A favorable materials price variance.
  3. An unfavorable materials quantity variance.
  4. A favorable materials quantity variance.
  5. An unfavorable labor rate variance.
  6. A favorable labor rate variance.
  7. An unfavorable labor efficiency variance.
  8. A favorable labor efficiency variance.

Write your analysis in Microsoft Word. Use 12-point font, and double space. Follow APA style for citations and references.

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Goal Setting Help with Search forums

Goal Setting Help with Search forums
Goal Setting Help with Search forums

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Goal Setting Help with Search forums

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The sales goals for one of the territories you manage have been set at $1.7 million for the upcoming year. There are three sales people in this territory: Adler, who is four weeks out of training; Ella, who has six years of experience and is considered a fair (but not great) performer; and Emma, who has 11 years of experience and is a lead performer.
Set three goal levels for each representative and explain your rationale for each.

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International Marketing Environments

International Marketing Environments
International Marketing Environments

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International Marketing Environments

Learning Outcomes Covered by this assessment.  

Analyse critically, the differences between international marketing environments, in particular the importance of cultural differences and consumer behaviour

Assessment task

Choose a topic from the wide area of cross-cultural marketing. Find and critically evaluate an article on cross-cultural marketing; please ensure that this is from a peer-reviewed journal.

The topic could either be from an area that is of personal interest to you (e. g. something regarding your own company or your home country) or it could be some contemporary issue. Find at least one business example for this topic. For example, you could choose an article proposing a model to analyse a possible target market. Your business example would then be a company which entered a new market. The critical evaluation would then consist of a well-researched discussion of how this model would have helped that company to enter the targeted market.

The rationale behind this task is that you will always be confronted with unfamiliar problems. Reading scientific literature is one way of getting to grips with a problem. It is also a good preparation for assignment 2.

International Marketing Environments

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Specific Criteria / Guidance

  • Introduction – outlining the selected article and company (10%)
  • The theoretical aspects of the article are well understood. Connections to other relevant theories are established. (35%)
  • Application of theoretical understanding to the business problem. Quality of analysis generated. The relationship between the company problems and scientific literature review is clear. (35%)  
  • Relevant conclusions: Clarity and consistency of the conclusions with the analysis and original research question (10%)
  • Use of APA referencing. Coherence of the structure, writing and presentation. 
  • Referencing/bibliography. The extent to which the assignment logically and coherently examines the subject with sufficient breadth and depth. (10%)

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Doole, I., & Lowe, R. (2012). International marketing strategy: analysis, development and implementation. Cengage Learning EMEA.

Kotabe, M., & Helsen, K. (2014). Global marketing management. New York.

Cateora, P. R., Gilly, M. C., & Graham, J. L. (2011). International marketing. McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Useful Journal Articles (your articles for the assignment have to be different from these):

Samaha, S. A., Beck, J. T., & Palmatier, R. W. (2014). The role of culture in international relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 78(5), 78-98.

Samiee, S., Chabowski, B. R., & Hult, G. T. M. (2015). International relationship marketing: Intellectual foundations and avenues for further research. Journal of International Marketing, 23(4), 1-21.

Talay, M. B., Townsend, J. D., & Yeniyurt, S. (2015). Global brand architecture position and market-based performance: the moderating role of culture. Journal of International Marketing, 23(2), 55-72.

Venaik, S., & Brewer, P. (2013). Critical issues in the Hofstede and GLOBE national culture models. International Marketing Review, 30(5), 469-482.

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